HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter 10

CONCERNING THE MOST ANCIENT CHURCH, WHICH WAS CALLED MAN, OR ADAM

AC 1114. Angels and spirits, or men after death, when permitted by the Lord, can meet all whom they have known in this world, or whom they have heard of--whomsoever they desire--can see them as present, and can converse with them. Wonderful to say, they are at hand in a moment and are most intimately present; so that it is possible to converse not only with friends, who usually find one another, but also with others that have been respected and esteemed. By the Divine mercy of the Lord it has been granted me to converse not only with those whom I had known when they lived in the body, but also with those of especial note in the Word; also with those who were of the Most Ancient Church, which was that called "Man," or "Adam," and with some who were of the subsequent churches, in order that I might know that by the names in the first chapters of Genesis churches are meant; and also that I might know what was the character of the men of the churches of that time. The accounts therefore that follow are what it has been given me to know about the Most Ancient Churches.

AC 1115. They who were of the Most Ancient Church, which was called Man, or Adam, and were celestial men, are very high above the head, and dwell together there in the greatest happiness. They said that others rarely come to them, except some at times, as they expressed it "from the universe;" and that they were on high above the head not because they were of a lofty spirit, but in order that they might govern those who are there.

AC 1116. Dwellings were shown me of those who were of the second and third posterities of this Most Ancient Church. They are magnificent, extending to a great length, and diversified with beautiful colors of bright crimson and azure blue. For the angels have most magnificent dwellings, such as cannot be described, as I have often seen. To their eyes so real is their appearance that nothing can be more real. But whence such real appearances come, will be shown of the Lord‘s Divine mercy hereafter. They live in an aura, so to speak, of resplendent pearly and sometimes of diamond-like light. For there are wonderful auras in the other life, of inexpressible variety. They greatly err who do not believe that such things exist there, and indefinitely more than any one ever could or can conceive. They are indeed representative, like the things sometimes seen by the prophets but yet are so real that they who are in the other life hold them to be real, and the things which are in the world to be relatively unreal.

AC 1117. They live in the most intense light. The light of this world can scarcely be compared to that in which they live. That light was shown me by a light as of same that as it were streamed down before my eyes; and they who were of the Most Ancient Church said that the light is such with them, but still more intense.

AC 1118. There was shown me by a certain influx which I cannot describe, what the nature of their speech was when they lived in this world-that it was not articulate, like the vocal speech of our time, but tacit; and was produced not by external but by internal respiration. It was also granted me to perceive the nature of their internal respiration-that it advanced from the navel toward the heart, and so through the lips, without sound; and that it did not enter into the ear of another and strike upon what is called the drum of the ear by an external way, but by a certain way within the mouth, in fact by a passage there which is now called the Eustachian tube. And it was shown me that by such speech they could much more fully express the sentiments of the mind and the ideas of thought than can possibly be done by articulate sounds, vocal words, which likewise are directed by the respiration, but external. For there is nothing in any word that is not directed by applications of the respiration. But with them this was done much more perfectly, because by the internal respiration; which, from the fact that it is interior, is at once far more perfect, and more applicable and conformable to the very ideas of thought. Besides, they also conversed by slight movements of the lips, and correspondent changes of the face; for being celestial men, whatever they thought shone forth from their faces and eyes, which were varied conformably. They could by no means put on an expression of countenance different from that which was in agreement with their thoughts. Simulation, and still more deceit, was to them a monstrous iniquity.

AC 1119. It has been shown me to the life how the internal respiration of the most ancient people silently flowed into a kind of external and thus tacit speech, perceived by another in his interior man. They said that this respiration varied with them, according to the state of their love and faith in the Lord. They gave also as a reason that it could not be otherwise, be. cause they had communication with heaven; for they respired with the angels in whose company they were. Angels have a respiration to which internal respiration corresponds; and it likewise varies with them. For when anything befalls them which is contrary to love and faith in the Lord, their respiration is restrained; but when they are in the happiness of love and faith, their respiration is free and full. There is something like this also with every man, but in accordance with his corporeal and worldly loves and also with his principles. When anything opposes these, there is a restriction of the respiration; and when they are favored, the respiration is free and full. These, however, are variations of external respiration. But concerning the respiration of the angels, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 1120. It has also been shown that the internal respiration of the men of the Most Ancient Church, which was from the navel toward the interior region of the breast, in the course of time, or in their posterity, was changed, and receded more toward the back region, and toward the abdomen, thus more outward and downward; and that at length, in the last posterity of that church, which existed immediately before the flood, scarcely anything of internal respiration remained; and when at last there remained none of this in the breast, they were suffocated of their own accord; but that in some, external respiration then began, and with it articulate sound, or the language of spoken words. Thus with the men before the flood the respiration was in accordance with the state of their love and faith; and at last, when there was no love and no faith, but a persuasion of falsity, internal respiration ceased; and with this, the immediate communication with angels, and perception.

AC 1121. I have been informed by sons of the Most Ancient Church concerning the state of their perception, that they had perception of all things that belong to faith, almost as have the angels with whom they had communication; for the reason that their interior man, or spirit, by means also of the internal respiration, was joined to heaven; and that love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor are attended with this; for man is thus conjoined with angels through their veriest life, which consists in such love. They said that they had the law written upon them, because they were in love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor; and such being the case, whatever the laws prescribe was in agreement with their perception, and whatever the laws forbid was contrary to it. Nor did they doubt that all laws, human as well as Divine, are founded in love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, and regard these as their fundamental. Wherefore, as they had this fundamental in them, from the Lord, they could not but know all things that were from it. They believe too that those who live in the world at this day, who love the Lord and the neighbor, have also the law written upon them, and are acceptable citizens everywhere on earth, as the same are in the other life.

AC 1122. I have been further informed that the men of the Most Ancient Church had most delightful dreams, and also visions, and that it was insinuated into them at the same time what they signified. Hence their paradisal representations, and many other things. The objects of the external senses therefore, which are earthly and worldly, were nothing to them; nor had they any perception of delight in them, but only in what they signified and represented; and therefore when they looked at earthly objects they did not think about them at all, but only about the things which they signified and represented, which were most delightful to them; for they were such things as are in heaven, from which they see the Lord Himself.

AC 1123. I have conversed with the third generation of the Most Ancient Church, who said that in their time, when they lived in the world, they expected the Lord, who would save the whole human race; and that it was then a common saying among them that the seed of the woman would tread down the serpent‘s head. They said that from that time the greatest delight of their life was to procreate offspring; so that their sweetest deliciousnesses were to love their consort for the sake of offspring, which they called most delightful deliciousnesses and most delicious delights, adding that the perception of these delights and deliciousnesses was from influx out of heaven, because the Lord was to be born.

AC 1124. There were near me some of the posterity that lived before the flood-not of those who perished, but of those who were somewhat better than they. At first they flowed in gently and imperceptibly enough; but it was given me to perceive that inwardly they were evil, and that they inwardly acted contrary to love. There exhaled from them a sphere of the odor of a dead body, so that the spirits who were around me fled away. They imagined themselves to be so subtle that no one would perceive what they thought. I spoke with them about the Lord, as to whether or not they had expected Him, as their fathers did. They said that they had represented the Lord to themselves as an old man, holy, with a gray beard; and also that they became holy from Him, and in like manner bearded; whence arose such veneration for beards among their posterity. They added that now also they are able to adore Him, but from themselves. But then an angel came, whose presence they could not endure.

AC 1125. It has also been granted me to converse with those who were of the church called "Enosh," concerning which in (Genesis 4:26). Their influx was gentle, and their conversation unassuming. They said that they live in charity with one another, and perform offices of friendship to others who come among them But it was evident that their charity was the charity of friendship. They live quietly, as good citizens, and do no injury to any one.

AC 1126. There appeared to me a narrow room; and the door being opened a tall man came into view, clothed in white, the whiteness being intense. I wondered who he was, and was told that a man clothed in white signified those who were called "Noah," who were the first of all of the Ancient Church, which was the church after the flood; and that they were thus represented because they were few.

AC 1127. It has been granted me to converse with those of the Ancient Church, or of the church after the flood, who were called "Shem." They inflowed gently through the region of the head into the region of the breast, toward the heart, but not to the heart. The quality of spirits can be known from their influx.

AC 1128. There appeared one veiled over as with a cloud., about whose face were many wandering stars, which signify falsities. I was told that such were the posterity of the Ancient Church when it began to perish, especially among those who instituted worship by sacrifices, and by images.

AC 1129. Some account of the antediluvians who perished follows at the end of this chapter.

GENESIS 10:1-32

1. And these are the nativities of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood.

2. The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

3. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

4. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

5. From these were spread abroad the isles of the nations in their lands, every one according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations.

6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan.

7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca. And the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan.

8. And Cush begat Nimrod. He began to be a mighty one in the earth.

9. He was mighty in hunting before Jehovah; wherefore it was said, As Nimrod, mighty in hunting before Jehovah.

10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

11. Out of that land went forth Asshur, and built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah.

12. And Resen, between Nineveh and Calah; this is that great city.

13. And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim.

14. And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, from whom went forth the Philistines, and Caphtorim.

15. And Canaan begat Zidon, his firstborn, and Heth.

16. And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite.

17. And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite.

18. And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. And afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

19. And the border of the Canaanites was from Zidon, in coming to Gerar, even unto Gaza; in coming to Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboiim, even unto Lasha.

20. These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations.

21. And there was born to Shem also; he is the father of all the sons of Eber; the elder brother of Japheth.

22. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram.

23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash.

24. And Arpachshad begat Shelah; and Shelah begat Eber.

25. And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother’s name was Joktan.

26. And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah.

27. And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah.

28. And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba.

29. And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.

30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, in coming to Sephar, the mountain of the east.

31. These are the sons of Shem, according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nations.

32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their nativities, in their nations; and from these were spread abroad the nations in the earth after the flood.

THE CONTENTS

AC 1130. The subject treated of throughout this whole chapter is the Ancient Church, and its propagation (verse 1).

AC 1131. They who had external worship corresponding to internal are the "sons of Japheth" (verse 2). They who had worship more remote from internal are the "sons of Gomer and Javan" (verses 3, 4). And they who had worship still more remote are the "isles of the nations" (verse 5).

AC 1132. They who cultivated knowledges, memory-knowledges, and rituals, and separated them from things internal, are the "sons of Ham" (verse 6). They who cultivated the knowledges of spiritual things are the "sons of Cush;" and they who cultivated the knowledges of celestial things are the "sons of Raamah" (verse 7).

AC 1133. Those treated of who have external worship in which are interior evils and falsities, "Nimrod" being such worship (verses 8, 9). The evils in such worship (verse 10). The falsities in such worship (verses 11, 12).

AC 1134. Concerning those who form for themselves new kinds of worship out of memory-knowledges by means of reasonings (verses 13, 14); and concerning those who make mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith (verse 14).

AC 1135. Concerning external worship without internal, which is "Canaan," and the derivations of this worship (verses 15 to 18); and its extension (verses 19, 20).

AC 1136. Concerning internal worship, which is "Shem," and its extension even to the second Ancient Church (verse 21). Concerning internal worship and its derivations, which being from charity, are derivations of wisdom, of intelligence, of memory-knowledge, and of knowledges, which are signified by the "nations" (verses 22 to 24).

AC 1137. Concerning a certain church which arose in Syria, instituted by Eber, which is to be called the second Ancient Church, the internal worship of which is "Peleg," the external "Joktan" (verse 25). Its rituals are the nations named in verses 26 to 29. The extension of this church (verse 30).

AC 1138. That there were different kinds of worship in the Ancient Church, in accordance with the genius of each nation (verses 31, 32).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 1139. It has been stated already that there are four different styles in the Word. The first, which was that of the Most Ancient Church, is such as is that from the first chapter of Genesis to this chapter. The second is the historical style, as in the following books of Moses, and in the rest of the historical books. The third is the prophetic style. The fourth is intermediate between the prophetic style and that of common speech. Concerning these styles seen.

AC 1140. In this chapter, and in the following one as far as Eber, the most ancient style is continued; but here it is intermediate between the style of made-up history, and that of true history. For by Noah, and his sons, Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan, nothing else was meant, nor is anything else meant, than the Ancient Church regarded abstractedly as to its worship-namely, by "Shem" internal worship, by "Japheth" corresponding external worship, by "Ham" internal worship corrupted, by "Canaan" external worship separated from internal. Such persons never existed; but the kinds of worship were so named because all other different kinds, or all specific differences, could be reduced to these as fundamental ones. By "Noah" therefore was meant merely the Ancient Church in general, as a parent comprehending all. And yet by the names in this chapter, except those of Eber and his posterity, are meant so many nations; and so many nations there were that constituted the Ancient Church; which church was widely spread around the land of Canaan.

AC 1141. They who are here named "sons of Japheth" were all such as had external worship corresponding to internal; that is, who lived in simplicity, in friendship, and in mutual charity. Nor did they know any other doctrinal teachings than external rites. They who are named "`sons of Japheth" were those who had internal worship corrupted. They who are called "sons of Canaan" were those who had external worship separate from internal. They who are called "sons of Shem" were internal men, and worshiped the Lord and loved the neighbor; whose church was nearly like our true Christian Church.

AC 1142. What manner of men they were specifically is not related in this chapter, for they are only recounted as to their names. But this appears from the writings of the prophets, where the names of these nations occur in different places, and everywhere with no other signification though sometimes in the genuine, and sometimes in the opposite sense.

AC 1143. Although these were the names of the nations that constituted the Ancient Church, yet in the internal sense they mean actual things (res), namely, the worships themselves. In heaven nothing at all is known about the names, countries, nations, and the like; the angels have no idea of such things, but of the actual things signified by them. The Word of the Lord is living by virtue of the internal sense. This is as the soul, of which the external sense is as the body. And just as with man when his body dies the soul lives, and when the soul lives he no longer knows the things that pertain to the body, so when he comes among angels he does not know what the Word is in the sense of the letter, but only what it is in its soul. Such was the man of the Most Ancient Church; who, if he were living and read the Word at the present day, would not cleave at all to the sense of the letter; but would be as if he did not see it, but only the internal sense abstractedly from the letter; and indeed as if the letter had no existence. Thus he would be in the life or soul of the Word. It is the same everywhere in the Word, even in its historical parts, which were just such as are narrated, and yet there is not so much as one little word therein that does not, in the internal sense, enfold within it deep secrets which never appear to those who hold the mind in the historical connection. Thus in this chapter by the names, in the literal or historical sense, are meant the peoples that constituted the Ancient Church, but in the internal sense their doctrinals are signified.

AC 1144. Verse 1. And these are the nativities of the sons of Noah: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; and unto them were sons born after the flood. "These are the nativities of the sons of Noah," signifies derivations of the doctrinals and worships of the Ancient Church, which in general is "Noah;" "Shem, Ham, and Japheth" signify here as before-"Shem" true internal worship, "Ham" internal worship corrupted, and "Japheth" external worship corresponding to internal; "and unto them were sons born, "signifies doctrinals derived therefrom; "after the flood, "signifies from the time when this new church arose.

AC 1145. These are the nativities of the sons of Noah. That these signify derivations of the doctrinals and worships of the Ancient Church, which in general is " Noah," is evident from the signification of "nativities" (of which above). In the external or literal sense, "nativities" or "births," as is known, are generations of one from another; but in the internal sense all things have regard to what is celestial and spiritual, that is, to the things of charity and of faith. Thus here the "nativities" are those of the church, consequently are doctrinal matters, as will be made more clear in what follows.

AC 1146. Shem, Ham, and Japheth. That these signify here as before-" Shem" true internal worship, "Ham" internal worship corrupted, and "Japheth" external worship corresponding to internal, is evident from what has been previously stated concerning them; where it was shown, not only that Shem, Ham, and Japheth signify those kinds of worship, but also what is meant by true internal worship, or Shem; what by internal worship corrupted, or Ham; and what by external worship corresponding to internal, or Japheth. They need not therefore be further dwelt upon.

AC 1147. And unto them were sons born. That these signify the doctrinals thence derived, is evident from the signification of "sons" in the internal sense, as being the truths of faith, and also the falsities, consequently doctrinal matters; by which both true and false are meant, for such are the doctrinals of churches. That " sons" have such a signification see above, (n. 264, 489, 491, 535).

AC 1148. After the flood. That this signifies from the time when this new church arose, is evident likewise from what has been said in the preceding chapters; for the end of the Most Ancient Church is described by the flood, and also the beginning of the Ancient Church. It must be observed that the church before the flood is called the Most Ancient Church, and the church after the flood, the Ancient Church.

AC 1149. Verse 2. The sons of Japheth: Comer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. "The sons of Japheth" signify those who had external worship corresponding to internal. "Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras" were so many nations, with whom such worship existed, by which in the internal sense are signified so many different doctrinals that were the same as rituals, which they devoutly observed.

AC 1150. The sons of Japheth. That these signify those who had external worship corresponding to internal, has been explained before. External worship is said to correspond to internal when that which is the essential is in the worship. This essential is the adoration of the Lord from the heart; which is by no means possible unless there is charity, or love to the neighbor. In charity or love toward the neighbor the Lord is present, and then He can be adored from the heart Thus the adoration is from the Lord, for the Lord gives all the ability and all the being in the adoration. Hence it follows that such as is the charity in a man, such is his adoration or worship. All worship is adoration, because the adoration of the Lord must be in it for it to be worship. The sons of Japheth, or the nations and peoples called "sons of Japheth," lived in mutual charity with each other, in friendship, in courtesy, and in simplicity; and therefore the Lord was present in their worship. For when the Lord is present in the external worship, there is internal worship in the external, that is, there is external worship corresponding to internal. There were formerly very many such nations. And there are also at this day those who make worship consist in externals and do not know what internal worship is, or if they know, do not think about such things. If these persons acknowledge the Lord and love the neighbor, the Lord is in their worship, and they are sons of Japheth; but if they deny the Lord, and love only themselves, and do not care for the neighbor, especially if they bear hatred toward him, their worship is external separate from internal, and they are sons of Canaan, or Canaanites.

AC 1151. Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras. That these were so many nations among whom such worship existed, and that in the internal sense they signify so many doctrinals, which were the same as rituals, which they devoutly observed, is very evident from the Word, where these nations are frequently mentioned; for they everywhere signify external worship - sometimes external worship corresponding to internal, sometimes the opposite. The reason why they signify the opposite is that all churches, wherever they were, in process of time have been changed, even to their opposites. That the nations here named signify nothing but external worship, consequently their doctrinals which were rituals, can be established, as was said, from the Word in other places, especially in the Prophets.

[2] Thus, of Magog, Meshech, Tubal, and Gomer, it is written in Ezekiel:--

Son of man, set thy face toward Gog, the land of Magog, the prince, head of Meshech and Tubal; and prophesy against him and say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Behold I am against the, O Gog, prince, head of Meshech and Tubal, and I will turn thee about, and put hooks, into thy jaws, and I will bring thee forth, and all thine army, horses and horsemen, all of them clothed in full, a great company with buckler and shield, all of them handling swords; Persia, Cush, and Put with them; with them Gomer and all his hordes; the house of Togarmah in the sides of the north, and all his hordes. In the latter years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, that is gathered out of many peoples, upon the mountains of Israel, which have been made a waste (Ezekiel 38:2-6, 8).

This whole chapter treats of the church, which became perverted, and at length made all worship consist in externals, or rituals; charity, which is signified by "the mountains of Israel," being extinguished. Here "Gog, and the land of Magog the prince and head of Meshech and Tubal," is worship in externals. Any one may see that it is not Gog and Magog that are treated of, for the Word of the Lord does not treat of worldly things, but enfolds within it Divine things.

[3] In the same:--

Prophesy upon Gog, and say, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Behold I am against thee, O Gog, prince, head of Meshech and Tubal; and I will turn thee about, and take a sixth part of thee, I will cause thee to come up from the sides of the north, and will bring thee upon the mountains of Israel upon the mountains of Israel thou shalt fall, thou and all thy hordes, and the people that are with thee (Ezek. 39:1, 2, 4).

The whole of this chapter, likewise, treats of external worship separated from internal, and become idolatrous, which is here signified by Gog, Meshech, and Tubal, by whom also are meant the doctrinals which they receive and afterwards confirm by the literal sense of the Word, and thus falsify truths and destroy internal worship. For, as was said, the opposite also are signified by the same nations.

[4] In John:--

When the thousand years are finished, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, and shall go forth to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to war. They went up over the plain of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city (Rev. 20:7-9)

where "Gog and Magog" have a similar signification External worship separate from internal, that is, separate from love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor, is nothing else than idolatrous, which encompasses the camp of the saints, and the beloved city.

[5] Of Meshech and Tubal it is said in Ezekiel:--

There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude her graves are round about her; all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword; for they caused their terror in the land of the living (Ezekiel 32:26).

The subject here is Egypt, or the memory-knowledges where with men desire to explore spiritual things. "Meshech and Tubal" denote doctrinals which are rituals, and which, when there is no love, are called "uncircumcised." Hence they are slain with the sword, and a terror in the land of the living.

[6] Of Javan it is said in Joel:--

The sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem ye have sold Unto the sons of the Javanites that ye might remove them far from their border (Joel 3:6).

"The sons of Judah" denote celestial things of faith; "the sons of Jerusalem," spiritual things of faith - thus things internal; and "the sons of the Javanites," worship in externals separate from what is internal. Because this worship is so widely remote from what is internal, it is said that they have "removed them far from their border."

[7] Javan and Tubal denote true external worship itself in Isaiah:--

It shall come that I will gather all nations and tongues, and they shall I come, and shall see My glow. And I will set a sign among them, and I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the Isles afar off, that have not heard My fame, neither have seen My glory; and they shall declare My glory among the nations (Isaiah 66:18, 19).

The subject here is the kingdom of the Lord and His coming. " Tubal and Javan" denote those who are in external worship corresponding to internal, who are to be instructed concerning internal things.

AC 1152. Verses 3, 4. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. By the "sons of Gomer" also are signified those who had external worship, but derived from that which existed in the nation Comer. "Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah" were so many nations, among whom there was such worship, by whom also are signified so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Gomer; by the "sons of Javan" are signified still others with whom external worship existed, derived from the worship which was in the nation Javan; "Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim" were so many nations among whom such worship existed, by whom also are signified so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Javan.

AC 1153. And the sons of Gomer. That by these also are signified those who had external worship, but derived from that which existed in the nation Gomer, follows from what has been said and shown before concerning the signification of "sons;" and also from the fact that Gomer was one of those nations that had external worship corresponding to internal. There were seven nations named in the foregoing verse which were in such worship. Here again are seven nations, which are called "sons of Gomer" and "of Javan;" but what were the specific differences between them cannot be told, because here they are merely mentioned. But in the Prophets, where this and that worship of the church is treated of specifically, the differences can be distinguished. In general, all the diversities of external, as also of internal worship, are according to the adoration of the Lord in the worship; and the adoration is according to the love to the Lord and the love toward the neighbor. For the Lord is present in love, and thereby in worship; the differences of worship therefore among the nations here mentioned were of this nature.

[2] That it may be still more clearly explained how the case is in respect to diversities of worship, and how it was with the various nations in the Ancient Church, let it be known that all true worship consists in adoration of the Lord, adoration of the Lord in humiliation, and humiliation in one‘s acknowledgment that in himself there is nothing living, and nothing good, but that all within him is dead, yea, cadaverous; and in the acknowledgment that everything living and everything good is from the Lord. The more a man acknowledges these things, not with the mouth, but with the heart, the more he is in humiliation; and consequently the more he is in adoration, that is, in true worship, and the more he is in love and charity, and the more in happiness. The one is in the other, so conjoined as to be inseparable. From this it is evident what and of what nature are these differences of worship.

[3] Those here spoken of, and are called "sons of Gomer and Javan," are those who also had external worship corresponding to internal, but somewhat more remote than those who were named in the preceding verse. For this reason they are called "sons." The generations successively descending, or the derivations, here proceed from the interior toward the exterior. The more sensuous a man becomes, the more exterior his worship becomes, and consequently the more remote from the true worship of the Lord; for it partakes more of the world, of the body, and of the earth, and less of the spirit; and therefore it is more remote. These, who are called "sons of Gomer and Javan," being more sensuous, made worship still more to consist in externals than did their socalled parents and kindred. They therefore here constitute a second class.

AC 1154. Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. That these were so many nations among whom there was such worship, and that they signify so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Gomer, is evident from the Prophets, where the same nations are also mentioned, and by them are everywhere signified doctrinals or rituals-as usual, in each sense, sometimes in the genuine sense, sometimes in the opposite one. "Ashkenaz," in Jeremiah:--

Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, consecrate the nations against her, make to hearken against her the kingdoms of Ararath, Minni, and Ashkenaz (Jeremiah 51:27).

The subject here is the destruction of Babel, where "Ashkenaz" denotes its idolatrous worship, or external worship separate from internal, which destroys Babel. Specifically, it denotes false doctrinals, and therefore is mentioned in the opposite sense. "Togarmah," in Ezekiel:--

Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders in the soul of man, and furnished vessels of brass in thy commerce. They of the house of Togarmah furnished for thine aids, horses, and horsemen, and mules (Ezekiel 27:13, 14).

This is said concerning Tyre, by which they were represented who possessed the knowledges of celestial and spiritual things. "Javan, Tubal, and Meshech," denote, as before, various representative or correspondent rites; "the house of Togarmah" likewise. The external rites of the former have reference to celestial things; and those of the latter, or "the house of Togarmah," to spiritual things, as is evident from the signification of the things in which they traded. Here they are in the genuine sense. In the same:--

Gomer and all his hordes, the house of Togarmah the sides of the north, and with all his hordes (Ezek. 38:6)

denoting perverted doctrinals, which are meant also by "the sides of the north." Here the names of these nations are used in the opposite sense.

AC 1155. And the sons of Javan. That by these are signified still others with whom there was external worship, derived from the worship which prevailed in the nation Javan, can in the same way be seen in the Prophets, where they are named in connection with the actual things (res) themselves, and therein signify nothing different from them. The reason why the sons of Gomer and the sons of Javan only are mentioned, and not the sons of the others mentioned in the second verse - where there are seven - is that the sons of the one relate to the class of spiritual things, and the sons of the other to the class of celestial things. It is evident that the sons of Gomer relate to the class of spiritual things, from the passages in the Prophets cited just above; and that the sons of Javan relate to the class of celestial things, will appear from what follows. The class of spiritual things is distinguished from the class of celestial things by this, that the former relate to truths of faith, and the latter to goods of faith, which are those of charity. Although these distinctions are entirely unknown in the world, yet they are most perfectly known in heaven, not merely as to the generic differences, but as to the specific differences also; for in heaven there is not the least difference that is not distinguished according to the most perfect order. In the world no more is known than that there are varieties of worship, and that in externals - for nothing beyond these is known - they differ from each other. But in heaven the differences, which are innumerable, themselves appear to the life, and indeed such as thee are in internals.

AC 1156. Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. That these were so many nations, with whom there was such worship, and that they signify so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Javan, may be seen from the following passages in the Prophets. Of "Elishah" it is written in Ezekiel:--

Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thy spreading forth, that it might be to thee for an ensign; blue and crimson from the Isles of Elishah were thy covering (Ezekiel 27:7).

The subject here treated of is Tyre, by which they are signified who possess celestial and spiritual riches, or knowledges; "embroidered work from Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges, and thus rituals representative of spiritual things; "blue and crimson from the isles of Elishah," rituals corresponding to internal worship, thus representatives of celestial things. The words are here used in the genuine sense. Of "Tarshish" in Isaiah:--

I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the Isles afar off (Isaiah 66:19).

In the same:--

Howl, ye ships of Tarshish, for Tyre is laid waste, so that there is no house for entering in; from the land of Kittim it is revealed to them (Isaiah 23:1, 14).

And further concerning Tarshish in (Isa. 60:9; Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:12; Ps. 48:7) - where it denotes rituals, that is, doctrinals. Of "Kittim" in Jeremiah:--

Pass over to the isles of Kittim and see; and to Arabia, and consider diligently, whether there hath been such a thing (Jer. 2:10).

And in Isaiah:--

Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin daughter of Zidon arise, pass over to Kittim even there shalt thou have no rest (Isaiah 33:12),

where "Kittim" denotes rituals. In Ezekiel:--

Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars they have made thy planks of ivory, the daughter of steps, from the isles of Kittim (Ezekiel 27:6).

This is said of Tyre; "the planks of a ship from the isles of Kittim" denotes externals of worship--thus rituals--which have reference to the class of celestial things. In Moses:--

Ships shall come from the coast of Kittim, and they shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber (Num. 24:24),

where also "Kittim" denotes external worship, or rituals. Hence it is evident that in the internal sense by all these names are signified actual things (res), which actual things stand in their own regular order and connection.

AC 1157. Verse 5. From these were dispersed the isles of the nations in their lands, every one according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations. " From these were dispersed the isles of the nations in their lands," signifies that the worships of many nations sprang from these; "isles" are particular regions and thus particular worships which were still more remote from internal worship; "lands" are their generals; "every one according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations," signifies that these were according to the genius of each; "according to his tongue," is according to the opinion of each; "according to their families," is according to their uprightness "as to their nations," is with respect to both in general.

AC 1158. From these were dispersed the isles of the nations in their lands. That this signifies that the worships of many nations originated from these, that "isles" are particular regions and thus particular worships which were still more remote, and that "lands" are their generals, is evident from the signification of " isles" in the Word. Thus far they have been treated of who had external worship corresponding to internal. By the seven sons of Japheth were signified those who approached nearer to true internal worship by the seven sons of Gomer and at the same time of Javan, those who were more remote from true internal worship. By " the isles of the nations" are signified those who are still more remote, and properly those who lived in mutual charity with one another, but yet in ignorance, knowing nothing about the Lord, about the doctrinals of faith of the church, and about internal worship; but who yet had a certain external worship which they religiously observed. Such are called " isles" in the Word, and therefore by " isles," in the internal sense, there is signified worship which is more remote from internal worship.

[2] They who are in the internal sense of the Word, as the angels are, have no knowledge of isles, for they no longer have any idea of such things; but instead of them they perceive a remoter worship, such as is that of the nations out of the church. And in like manner by "isles" they perceive those things within the church itself which are somewhat remote from charity, as are friendships and civilities. Friendship is not charity, and still less is politeness charity these are degrees below charity; and the more they derive from charity the more sincere they are.

[3] That such things are signified by "islands" may be seen from the following passages from the Word. In Isaiah:--

Keep silence before Me, O Islands; and let the peoples renew their strength, let them come near. The isles saw, and feared; the ends of the earth trembled they drew near, and came (Isaiah 41:1, 5).

Here "islands" denote upright nations out of the church who have religiously observed their external worship. The furthest limits of the region where the church is are called "the ends of the earth." In the same:--

He shall not be dark, and shall not break in pieces till He has set judgment in the earth, and the isles shall wait for His law. Sing unto Jehovah a new song, His praise from the end of the earth, ye that go down to the sea, and the fullness thereof, the isles and the inhabitants thereof. Let them give glory to Jehovah, and declare His praise in the islands (Isa. 42:4, 10, 12).

Here also "islands" denote nations out of the church, who have lived in ignorance, simplicity, and uprightness.

[4] In the same:--

Listen, O Isles, unto Me, and hearken, ye peoples from far (Isa. 49:1),

likewise denoting those nations which are more remote from the worship of the Lord, and from the knowledges of faith wherefore it is said "from far." Again:--

The Isles shall hope in Me, and on Mine arm shall they wait (Isa. 51:6),

denoting the same. Because they are such as live in uprightness, it is said, "they shall hope in Me, and on Mine arm shall they wait." In Jeremiah:--

Hear the word of Jehovah, O ye nations, and declare it in the Isles afar off (Jeremiah 31:10),

denoting the same. In Zephaniah:--

Jehovah will be terrible unto them, for with leanness He will consume all the gods of the earth and they shall bow themselves down to Him, every one from his place, even all the isles of the nations (Zephaniah 2:11).

"The isles of the nations" denote nations more remote from the knowledges of faith.

[5] In David:--

Jehovah reigneth; let the earth rejoice let the multitude of isles be glad. Clouds and darkness are round about Him (Psalms 97:1, 2)

denoting the same. Their ignorance is here representatively expressed by "clouds and darkness;" but because they are in simplicity and uprightness it is said "round about Him." Because by "islands" are signified those things which are more remote, Tarshish, Pul, Lud, Tubal, and Javan also - by whom were signified external worships - are called "islands" (Isa. 66:19). So also Kittim (Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6). When contrasted with "lands," or with "mountains," "islands" signify also the truths of faith, from being in the sea; thus they signify doctrinals which are rituals.

AC 1159. Every one according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations. That this signifies that these were according to the genius of each; "according to their tongue," according to the opinion of each; "according to their families," according to their uprightness; and "as to their nations," as regards both in general, may be seen from the signification of "tongue," of "families," and of "nations," in the Word; concerning which of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. That "tongue," or "language," in the internal sense, signifies opinion, thus principles and persuasions, is because there is a correspondence of the tongue with the intellectual part of man, or with his thought, like that of an effect with its cause. Such also is not only the influx of a man‘s thoughts into the movements of the tongue in speaking, but also the influx of heaven, concerning which some things from experience, by the Divine mercy of the Lord, will be told elsewhere.

[2] That "families" in the internal sense signify uprightness, and also charity and love, comes from the fact that in the heavens all things which are of mutual love are circumstanced as are relationships by blood and by marriage, thus as families (n. 685). In the Word therefore the things which pertain to love or charity are expressed by "houses," and also by "families," which it is unnecessary here to stop to confirm. (That such is the signification of a "house" see (n. 710).

[3] That "nations" here signify both, in general, is evident from the signification of a nation, or nations, in the Word. In a good sense "nations" signify things of the new will and understanding, consequently the goods of love and truths of faith; but in the opposite sense they signify evils and falsities; and in like manner so also do "houses," " families," and "tongues," as may be confirmed by very many passages from the Word. The reason is that the Most Ancient Church was distinguished into houses, families, and nations. A married pair with their children, and their menservants and maidservants, constituted a house; a number of houses that were not far distant from one another constituted a family; and a number of families, a nation. Hence "nations" signified all the families taken together in the aggregate. It is much the same in heaven; but the relation of all there is according to love and faith toward the Lord (n. 685).

[4] From this then comes the signification of "nations" in the internal sense, as a general term comprising things of both the will and the understanding, or what is the same of both love and faith; but relatively to the families and houses of which they are composed. (n. 470, 471, 483). It is evident from these considerations that "nations" signify both (opinion and uprightness] in general; and that, "every one according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations, "signifies according to the genius of each man, family, and nation, to whom worship was derived from the Ancient Church.

AC 1160. Verse 6. And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Put, and Canaan. By "Ham" is signified, here as before, faith separated from charity; by "the sons of Ham," the things that belong to this separated faith; "Gush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan" were so many nations, by which are signified, in the internal sense, the knowledges, the memory-knowledges, and the worships that are of faith separated from charity.

AC 1161. That by "Ham" is signified faith separated from charity, is evident from what was said and shown concerning Ham in the preceding chapter.

AC 1162. That by "the sons of Ham" are signified the things that belong to this separated faith, follows from this. In order that it may be known what is meant by "Ham," and therefore by "the Sons of Ham," it must first be known what faith separated from charity is. Faith separated from charity is no faith. Where there is no faith, there is no worship, neither internal nor external. If there be any worship at all, it is corrupt worship, and therefore by "Ham" is likewise signified internal worship corrupted. They hold a false opinion who call the mere memory-knowledge of things celestial and spiritual, separated from charity, faith. For sometimes the worst of men have this knowledge more than others-as those who live in continual hatred and vindictiveness, and in adultery, and are therefore infernal, and after the life of the body become devils. It may be seen from this that memory-knowledge is not faith. But faith is the acknowledgment of the things which are of faith; and this acknowledgment is by no means external, but internal, and is the working of the Lord alone through the charity in a man. And this acknowledgment is by no means a thing of the mouth, but of the life. From the life of everyone it may be known what his acknowledgment is. All they are called "sons of Ham" who have a memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith, and have not charity, whether it be a memory-knowledge of the interior knowledges of the Word, and of its veriest mysteries, or a memory-knowledge of all things in the literal sense of the Word, or a memory-knowledge of other truths, whatever their name, from which these may be regarded, or a knowledge of all the rituals of external worship - if they have not charity, they are "sons of Ham." That they who are called" sons of Ham" are of this character, is evident from the nations now treated of.

AC 1163. That "Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan," were so many nations, by which in the internal sense are signified knowledges, memory-knowledges, and rituals that are of faith separated from charity, may be seen from the Word, where these nations are frequently mentioned; for such things are there signified by them; that is to say, by "Cush," or "Ethiopia," are signified the interior knowledges of the Word, whereby such men confirm false principles; by "Mizraim," or "Egypt," memory-knowledges or various matters of memory, whereby men desire to explore the mysteries of faith, and from them confirm principles of falsity; by "Put," or "Lybia," knowledges from the literal sense of the Word, by which in like manner they confirm false principles; and by "Canaan," or "the Canaanites," rituals, or the things of external worship separated from internal. All these, when separated from charity, are called "sons of Ham." By the same nations are also signified simply knowledges and memory-knowledges; by Cush," the interior knowledges of the Word; by "Egypt," memory-knowledges; by "Put," knowledges from the literal sense of the Word. This is the reason why they are taken- as may be seen from the following passages-in both a bad and a good sense.

AC 1164. That by "Cush" or "Ethiopia" are signified the interior knowledges of the Word, by which such men confirm false principles, may be seen in Jeremiah:--

Egypt riseth up like a stream, whose waters toss themselves like the rivers, and he hath said, I will go up, I will cover the earth, I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof. Go up ye horses, and rage ye chariots; and let the mighty men go forth, Cush and Put that handle the shield (Jeremiah 46:8, 9).

"Egypt" here denotes those who believe nothing unless they apprehend it from memory-knowledges, whereby everything becomes involved in doubt, denial, and falsity, which is to "go up, cover the earth, and destroy the city." "Cush" here denotes more universal and more interior knowledges of the Word, whereby men confirm received principles of falsity. "Put" denotes knowledges from the literal sense of the Word which are according to the appearances of the senses.

[2] In Ezekiel:--

A sword shall come upon Egypt, and there shall be grief in Cush, when the slain shall fall in Egypt; and they shall take her multitude, and her foundations shall be destroyed. Cush, and Put, and Lud, and all Ereb and Cub, and the sons of the land of the covenant shall fall with them by the sword (Ezekiel 30:4, 5).

No one could at all know what these things mean except from the internal sense; and if the names did not signify actual things (res), there would be scarcely any sense. But here by "Egypt" are signified memory-knowledges, whereby men desire to enter into the mysteries of faith. " Cush and Put" are called "the foundations thereof" because they signify knowledges from the Word.

[3] In the same:--

In that day shall messengers go forth from before Me in ships, to make confident Cush afraid; and there shall be grief upon them, as in the day of Egypt (Ezek. 30:9).

"Cush" denotes those knowledges from the Word that confirm falsities which are hatched from memory-knowledges. In the same:--

I will make the land of Egypt into wastes, a waste of desolation, from the tower of Seveneh, even unto the border of Cush (Ezek. 29:10).

Here "Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges; and "Cush" the knowledges of the interior things of the Word, which are the boundaries as far as memory-knowledges go.

[4] In Isaiah:--

The king of Assyria shall lead the captivity of Egypt and the captivity of Cush, boys and old men, naked and barefoot, and with buttocks uncovered, the nakedness of Egypt; and they shall be dismayed and ashamed because of Cush their hope, and of Egypt their glory (Isaiah 20:4, 5).

"Cush" here denotes knowledges from the Word, whereby falsities acquired through memory-knowledges are confirmed; "Asshur" is reasoning which leads men "captive." In Nahum:--

Cush and Egypt were her strength, and there was no end; Put and Lubim were thy helpers (Nahum 3:9).

This is said of the church vastated, and here in like manner "Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges, and "Cush" knowledges.

[5] "Cush and Egypt" here denote simply knowledges and memory-knowledges, which are truths, useful to those who are in the faith of charity; thus they are here used in a good sense. In Isaiah:--

Thus said Jehovah, The labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush, and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall pass over unto thee, and they shall be thine they shall go after thee in fetters, they shall pass over and shall bow down unto thee; they shall pray unto thee; God is in thee only, and there Is no other God besides (Isaiah 14:14).

"The labor of Egypt" denotes memory-knowledge; and "the merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans," knowledges of spiritual things which are serviceable to those who acknowledge the Lord; for all memory-knowledge and knowledge are for them.

[6] In Daniel:--

The king of the north shall have dominion over the hidden stores of gold and silver, and over all the desirable things of Egypt; and the Lubim (Put) and Cushim shall be at thy steps (Daniel 11:43).

"Put and Cush" here denote knowledges from the Word; and "Egypt," memory-knowledges. In Zephaniah:--

From the crossing of the rivers of Gush, My worshipers (Zephaniah 3:10),

denoting those who are without knowledges, that is, the Gentiles. In David:--

Great ones shall come out of Egypt; Cush shall hasten his hands unto God (Ps. 68:31).

"Egypt" here denotes memory-knowledges, and "Cush," knowledges.

[7] In the same:--

I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon as among them that know Me behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Cush; this one was born there (in the city of God) (Ps. 87:4).

"Cush" denotes knowledges from the Word; and therefore it is said that he "was born in the city of God." It is because "Cush" signifies the interior knowledges of the Word and the intelligence thence derived, that it is said that the second river that went forth from the garden of Eden "encompassed the whole land of Cush" (n. 117).

AC 1165. That by "Mizraim," or "Egypt," in the Word, are signified the memory-knowledges (that is, the various matters of memory) wherewith men desire to explore the secrets of faith, and to confirm the principles of falsity thereby conceived; and that it also signifies simply memory-knowledges, thus such as are useful, is evident not only from the passages already adduced, but from very many others also, which, if all cited, would fill pages. (Isa. 19:1-25; 30:1-3; 31:1-3; Jer. 2:18, 36; 42:14-22; 46:1-28; Ezek. 16:26; 23:3, 8; 29:1-21; 30:1-26; Hos. 7:11; 9:3, 6; 11:1, 5, 11; Micah 7:5; Zech. 10:10, 11; Ps. 80:8-19).

AC 1166. That by "Put," or "Lybia," in the Word, are signified the knowledges from the literal sense by which in like manner false principles are confirmed, and also simply such knowledges, is evident from the passages cited above where "Cush" is spoken of. Because by him there are in like manner signified those knowledges which are more interior, "Put" and "Cush" are mentioned together in the Word, as may be seen in the passages above cited (Jer. 46:8, 9; Ezek. 30:4, 5; Nahum 3:9; Dan. 11:43).

AC 1167. That by "Canaan," or "the Canaanite," when mentioned in the Word, are signified rituals, that is, the things of external worship separated from internal, is evident from very many passages, especially in the historicals. Because the Canaanites were of this character at the time when the sons of Jacob were introduced into their land, it was permitted that they should be exterminated. But in the internal sense of the Word, all those are meant by "Canaanites" who have external worship separated from internal. And as the Jews and Israelites more than others were of this nature, they specifically are signified by "Canaanites" in the prophetical Word, as may be seen from these two passages only:--

They have shed innocent blood, even the blood of their sons and of their daughters, whom they sacrificed unto the idols of Canaan; and the land was profaned with bloods, and they were defiled with their works, and went a whoring in the doings. (Ps. 106:38, 39).

"To shed the blood of sons and daughters," here signifies in the internal sense that they extinguished all truths of faith and goods of charity; "to sacrifice sons and daughters to the idols of Canaan" signifies to profane the things which are of faith and charity by external worship separate from internal, which is nothing else than idolatrous. Thus were they defiled with their works, and went a whoring in their doings. In Ezekiel:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovah unto Jerusalem, Thy tradings and thy nativity is of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite (Ezekiel 16:3).

Here they are plainly said to be of the land of Canaan. (That "Canaan" signifies external worship separated from internal see above, (n. 1078, 1094)

AC 1168. Verse 7. And the sons of Cush: Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca. And the sons of Raamah: Sheba, and Dedan. By "the sons of Cush" are signified those who had not internal worship, but who had the knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist. "Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca" are so many nations with whom there were such knowledges. By the same in the internal sense the knowledges themselves are signified. By "the sons of Raamah," likewise, are signified those who had not internal worship, but had knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist. " Sheba and Dedan" are nations who had such knowledges. By the same in the internal sense are signified the knowledges themselves; but with the difference that by "the sons of Cush" are signified knowledges of spiritual things, and by "the sons of Raamah," knowledges of celestial things.

AC 1169. That by "the sons of Cush" are signified those who had no internal worship, but had knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist, is evident from "Cush," whose sons they were, and by whom are signified interior knowledges of spiritual things, as shown above, as well as from the Word where these nations are mentioned.

AC 1170. That "Seba, and Havilah, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabteca" are so many nations with whom there were such knowledges, and that in the internal sense the knowledges themselves are signified by the same, may be seen from passages from the Word which will be adduced below.

AC 1171. That by "the sons of Raamah" are in like manner signified those who had no internal worship, but knowledges of faith, in the possession of which they made religion to consist; and that "Sheba and Dedan" are nations who had such knowledges; and that in the internal sense they signify the knowledges themselves, is evident from the following passages in the Prophets. Concerning Seba, Sheba, and Raamah, from these passages - in David:--

The kings of Tarshish and of the isles shall bring gifts the kings of Sheba and Seba shall offer a present; yea, all kings shall bow themselves down unto Him (Ps. 72:10, 11).

This is said concerning the Lord, His kingdom, and the celestial church. Any one may see that here by "gifts" and "a present" are signified worships; but what these worships were, and of what quality, cannot be known unless it be understood what is meant by "Tarshish and the isles," and by "Sheba and Seba." It has been shown already that by "Tarshish and the isles" are meant external worships that correspond to internal. From this it follows that by" Sheba and Seba" are meant internal worships, namely, by " Sheba" celestial things of worship, and by " Seba" spiritual things of worship.

[2] In Isaiah:--

I have given Egypt for thy ransom, Cush and Seba for thee (Isaiah 43:3).

"Cush and Seba" denote here the spiritual things of faith. In the same:--

The labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush, and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall come over unto thee (Isaiah 45:14).

"The labor of Egypt" denotes the memory-knowledge, and "the merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans," the knowledges of spiritual things, which are of service to those who believe in the Lord.

[3] In the same:--

The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah all they from Sheba shall come they shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall proclaim the praises of Jehovah. All the flocks of Arabia shall be gathered together unto thee (Isa. 60:6, 7).

By " Sheba" are here meant celestial things and the derivative spiritual ones, which are "gold and frankincense;" and it is explained that these are "the praises of Jehovah," that is, they are internal worship.

[4] In Ezekiel:--

The traders of Sheba and Raamah, these were thy traders in the chief of every spice, and in every precious stone, and they gave gold for thine aids (Ezekiel 27:22, 23)

This is said of Tyre. What is signified here by "Sheba and Raamah" is evident from their merchandise, which is said to be spice, the precious stone, and gold. " Spice" in the internal sense is charity; "the precious stone" is faith from charity; and "gold" is love to the Lord, all which are celestial things signified by "Sheba." Properly the knowledges of such things are "Sheba" (and therefore they are here called "merchandise"), wherewith all who are becoming men of the church are imbued; for no one can become a man of the church without knowledges.

[5] Similar things were represented by the queen of Sheba, who came to Solomon and brought him spices, gold, and precious stones (1 Kings 10:1-3); and also by the wise men from the east who came to Jesus when He was born, and fell down and worshiped Him, and opening their treasures, they offered Him gifts, gold and frankincense and myrrh (Matt. 2:1, 11), by which was signified good, celestial, spiritual, and natural. In Jeremiah:--

To what purpose cometh there to Me frankincense from Sheba, and the sweet calamus from a far country? your offerings are not acceptable (Jeremiah 6:20).

Here too it is evident that by " Sheba" are signified knowledges and adorations, which are "incense" and "calamus;" but in this instance such as are devoid of charity, which are not grateful.

AC 1172. That by "Dedan" are signified the knowledges of the lower celestial things that are in rituals, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Ezekiel:--

The sons of Dedan were thy traders; many isles were the mart of thy hand; they brought thee for a present horns of ivory, and ebony (Ezekiel 27:15).

"Horns of ivory, and ebony" are in the internal sense exterior goods, which are of worship, or of rituals. In the same:--

Dedan was thy trader in garments of freedom for the chariot; Arabia and all the princes of Kedar (Ezekiel 27:20, 21).

Here in like manner "garments of freedom for the chariot" are exterior goods, or goods of rituals. In Jeremiah:--

Their wisdom is become stinking; flee ye, they have turned themselves away, they have let themselves down to dwell in the deep, O inhabitants of Dedan (Jeremiah 49:7, 8).

Here "Dedan" in the proper sense denotes rituals in which there is no internal worship or adoration of the Lord from the heart, of which it is said that they "turn themselves away and let themselves down to dwell in the deep." From these passages it is now evident that knowledges of spiritual things are signified by "the sons of Cush;" and knowledges of celestial things by "the sons of Raamah."

AC 1173. Verses 8, 9. And Cush begat Nimrod; he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was mighty in hunting before Jehovah; wherefore it was said, As Nimrod mighty in hunting before Jehovah. By "Cush" are signified here as before, interior knowledges of things spiritual and celestial; by "Nimrod" are signified those who made internal worship external; thus by "Nimrod" is signified such external worship. "Cush begat Nimrod," means that they who had knowledges of interior things instituted such worship. He was "a mighty one in the earth," signifies that such a religion prevailed in the church, "the earth" being the church, as before. "He was mighty in hunting before Jehovah," signifies that he persuaded many; "wherefore it was said, As Nimrod mighty in hunting before Jehovah," signifies that because so many were persuaded, such a form of speech became proverbial; and further, it signifies that such a religion easily captivates the minds of men.

AC 1174. That by "Cush" are signified interior knowledges of spiritual and celestial things, is evident from what has been said and shown before concerning Cush.

AC 1175. That by "Nimrod" are signified those who made internal worship external, and that "Nimrod" thus signifies such external worship, may be seen from what follows. It must be here stated, beforehand, what is meant by making internal worship external. It was said and shown above that internal worship, which is from love and charity, is worship itself; and that external worship without this internal worship is no worship. To make internal worship external is to make external worship essential, rather than internal, which is the reverse of the former, being as if it was said that internal worship without external is no worship, while the truth is that external worship without internal is no worship. Such is the religion of those who separate faith from charity, in that they set the things which are of faith before those which are of charity, or the things which are of the knowledges of faith before those which are of the life, thus formal things before essential ones. All external worship is a formality of internal worship, for internal worship is the very essential; and to make worship consist of that which is formal, without that which is essential, is to make internal worship external. As for example, to hold that if one should live where there is no church, no preaching, no sacraments, no priesthood, he could not be saved, or could have no worship; when yet he can worship the Lord from what is internal. But it does not follow from this that there ought not to be external worship.

[2] To make the matter yet more clear, take as a further example the setting up as the essential itself of worship the frequenting of churches, going to the sacraments, hearing sermons, praying, observing feasts, and many other things which are external and ceremonial, while, talking about faith, men persuade themselves that these are sufficient - all of which are formal things of worship. It is quite true that those who make worship from love and charity the essential, act in the same way, that is, they frequent churches, go to the sacraments, hear sermons, pray, observe feasts, and the like, and this very earnestly and diligently; but they do not make the essential of worship consist in these things. In the external worship of these men there is what is holy and living, because there is internal worship in it; but in the external worship of those referred to before there is not what is holy and not what is living. For the very essential itself is what sanctifies and vivifies the formal or ceremonial; but faith separated from charity cannot sanctify and vivify worship, because the essence and life are absent. Such worship is called "Nimrod;" and it is born of the knowledges which are "Cush," as these are born from faith separated from charity, which faith is "Ham." From "Ham," or faith separated, through the knowledges which belong to faith separated, no other worship can possibly be born. These are the things that are signified by "Nimrod."

AC 1176. Cush begat Nimrod. That this signifies that they who had knowledges of interior things instituted such worship, is evident from what has just been said. Knowledges of interior things are what they call doctrinals, which they also distinguish from rituals. For example, their chief doctrinal is that faith alone saves; but they do not know that love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor are faith itself; and that the knowledges which they call faith exist for no other end than that by means of them men may receive from the Lord love to Him and love toward the neighbor; and that this is the faith which saves. It is those who make faith consist in knowledges alone, who beget and institute such worship as is spoken of above.

AC 1177. He was a mighty one in the earth. That this signifies that such a religion prevailed in the church, may be seen from what presently follows. That the " earth" is the church has been shown before (n. 620, 636, 662).

AC 1178. He was mighty in hunting before Jehovah. That this signifies that he persuaded many, is evident from its being so with faith separated from charity; and also from the signification of "hunting" in the Word. Faith separated from charity is of such a nature that men are easily persuaded. The greater part of mankind do not know what internal things are, but only external things; and most men abide in things of sense, in pleasures and in cupidities, and have in view themselves and the world; and therefore they are easily captivated by such a religion. From the signification of "hunting:" in the Word "hunting" signifies in general persuading; specifically, captivating the minds of men by favoring their sensuous inclinations, pleasures, and cupidities, by using doctrinals which they explain at their own pleasure in accordance with their temper and that of the other, and with a view to their own self-exaltation and enrichment, - thus by persuading.

[2] As is made evident in Ezekiel:--

Woe to them that sew cushions upon all the joints of My hands, and that make veils upon the head, of every stature, to hunt souls. Do ye hunt souls for My people, and make souls alive for yourselves? And ye have profaned Me among My people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, to slay the souls that should not die, and to make the souls alive that should not live, by your lying to My people that listen unto a lie. behold, I am against your cushions wherewith ye there hunt souls to make them By, and I will tear them from your arms, and I will let the souls go, the souls that ye hunt to make them fly, and your veils also will I tear, and deliver My people out of your hand, and they shall be no more in your land, to be hunted (Ezekiel 13:18-21).

What is meant by "hunting" is here explained, that it is captivating by persuasions, and by knowledges which they pervert, and interpret in favor of themselves, and in accommodation to the temper of another.

[3] In Micah:--

The merciful man is perished out of the earth, and there is none up right among man; they all lie in wait for bloods they hunt every man his brother with a net, when they do evil with the hands instead of doing good, the prince asketh and judgeth for the sake of reward, and the great man, he uttereth the perversity of his soul, and they wrest it (Micah 7:2, 3).

Here likewise what is meant by "hunting" is explained, that it is to lie in wait for the sake of self, or to call the false true, and utter perversity, and distort, and thereby to persuade. In David:--

A man of tongue shall not be established in the earth; evil shall hunt the violent man to overthrow him (Ps. 140:11).

This is said of the wicked who persuade by means of falsities, think evilly and talk blandly for the purpose of deceiving; "tongue" here denotes falsehood.

AC 1179. Wherefore it was said, As Nimrod mighty in hunting before Jehovah. That this signifies that, because so many were persuaded, such a form of speech became proverbial and that it further signifies that such a religion easily captivates the minds of men, may be seen from all that has been said, and from the very sense of the letter. Moreover, as in ancient times they gave names to actual things, they gave this name to this worship, saying that "Nimrod" - that is, this worship "was mighty in hunting," that is, was one that captivates the minds of men. It is said "before Jehovah," because they who were in such worship called faith separated "Jehovah," or "the man Jehovah," as is evident from what has been said before (n. 340) concerning Cain, by whom in like manner there is signified faith separated from charity. But the difference between "Cain" and "Ham" is that the former was in the celestial church which had perception, and the latter in the spiritual church which had no perception; and therefore the former was more heinous than the latter. In ancient times such were called "mighty," as in Isaiah:--

All the glory of Kedar shall be consumed, and the residue of the number, the bows of the mighty men of the sons of Kedar shall be diminished (Isaiah 21:16, 17).

And in Hosea:--

Ye have plowed wickedness, ye have reaped iniquity, ye have eaten the fruit of a lie, for thou didst trust in thy way, in the multitude of thy mighty men (Hosea 10:13)

and in other places. They called themselves "men (viri)," and " mighty," from faith; for there is a term in the original language which expresses the idea of might and at the same time of a man (vir), which term in the Word is predicated of faith, and that in both senses.

AC 1180. Verse 10. And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. "The beginning of his kingdom," signifies that thus such worship began; "Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar," signify that there were such worships in that region; and at the same time they signify the worships themselves, the externals of which appear holy, but the interiors are profane.

AC 1181. The beginning of his kingdom. That this signifies that thus such worship began, is evident from the signification of "Babel in the land of Shinar," of which hereafter.

AC 1182. Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. That these signify that such worships were in that region, and that at the same time they signify the worships themselves, the externals of which appear holy while the interiors are profane, is evident from the signification of "Babel," and of "the land of Shinar." Babel is much treated of in the Word, and everywhere such worship is signified by it, that is to say that the externals appear holy while the interiors are profane. But as the following chapter treats of Babel, it will be shown there that such things are signified by Babel; and that in the beginning such worship was not so profane as it became afterwards. For the quality of external worship is precisely in accordance with the interiors; the more innocent the interiors are, the more innocent is the external worship; but the more foul the interiors are, the more foul is the external worship; and the more profane the interiors are, the more profane is the external worship. In a word, the more of the love of the world and of self there is in a man who is in this external worship, the less there is that is living and holy in his worship; the more hatred toward the neighbor there is in his love of himself and of the world, the more profanity there is in his worship; the more malice in his hatred, the more still of profanity there is in his worship; and the more deceit in his malice, the more profanity yet is there in his worship. Those loves and these evils are the interiors of the external worship which is signified by "Babel," concerning which in the following chapter.

AC 1183. What is signified in particular by "Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar," cannot so well be seen, because they are not mentioned in other parts of the Word, except Calneh in (Amos 6:2) but they are varieties of such worship. But as regards the land of Shinar in which these worships were, that external worship wherein is what is profane is signified by it in the Word is evident from its signification in the following chapter (Apoc. 11:2; Zechariah 5:11), and especially in Daniel, where these words occur:--

The Lord gave Jehoiakim, king of Judah, into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babel, with part of the vessels of the house of God, and he carried them into the land of Shinar, into the house of his god and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god (Daniel 1:2),

by which is signified that holy things were profaned: "the vessels of the house of God," are holy things; "the house of the god of Babel, in the land of Shinar," is profane things, into which the holy things were brought. Although these incidents are historical, yet they involve these arcana, as do all the historical facts of the Word. The same is further evident from the profanation of the same vessels (Dan. 5:3-5). If sacred things had not been represented by them, no such events would have taken place.

AC 1184. Verses 11, 12. Out of that land went forth Asshur, and built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen, between Nineveh and Calah; this is that great city. "Out of that land went forth Asshur," signifies that they who were in such external worship began to reason about the internals of worship; "Asshur" denotes reasoning; "and built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah," signifies that thereby they formed doctrinals of faith for themselves; by "Nineveh" are signified the falsities of these doctrinals; by " Rehoboth and Calah," the same from another origin; "Resen, between Nineveh and Calah," signifies that they also formed for themselves doctrinals of life. By " Resen" are signified falsities of doctrinals thence derived; "Nineveh" is falsity from reasonings " Calah" is falsity from cupidities; "between Nineveh and Calah," is falsity from both; "this is that great city," signifies doctrinals, that these increased and prevailed.

AC 1185. Out of that land went forth Asshur. That this signifies that they who were in such external worship began to reason about the internals of worship, may be seen from the signification of "Asshur" in the Word, as being reason and reasoning, concerning which in what presently follows. There is a twofold meaning in these words, namely, that Asshur went forth out of that land, and that Nimrod went forth from that land into Asshur, or Assyria. It is so expressed because both are signified, namely, that reasoning concerning spiritual and celestial things arises from such worship - which is that Asshur went forth out of the land of Shinar - and that such worship reasons about spiritual and celestial things - which is that Nimrod went forth from that land into Asshur, or Assyria.

AC 1186. That "Asshur" is reasoning, is evident from the signification of Asshur or Assyria in the Word, where it is constantly taken for the things which pertain to reason, in both senses; namely, for what is of reason, and for reasonings. By reason and rational things are properly meant things that are true; and by reasoning and reasonings, those which are false. Because "Asshur" signifies reason and reasoning, it is very frequently connected with "Egypt," which signifies memory-knowledges; for reason and reasoning are from such knowledges. That "Asshur" signifies reasoning is evident in Isaiah:--

Woe unto Asshur, the rod of Mine anger, he thinketh not right, neither doth his heart meditate right, he hath said, By the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom, because I am intelligent (Isaiah 10:6, 7, 13),

where "Asshur" denotes reasoning, of whom it is therefore predicated that he neither thinketh nor doth meditate right; and it is said, "by his own wisdom, because he is intelligent."

[2] In Ezekiel:--

Two women, the daughters of one mother, committed whoredom In Egypt; they committed whoredom in their youth. The one committed whoredom, and doted on her lovers, on Asshur (the Assyrians) her neighbors, who were clothed in blue, captains and rulers, all of them desirable young men, horsemen riding upon horses. The sons of Babel came to her, and they defiled her with their whoredom (Ezekiel 23:2, 3, 5, 6, 17).

Here "Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges; "Asshur," reasoning; and "the sons of Babel," falsities from cupidities.

[3] In the same:--

O Jerusalem, thou hast also committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt, thou hast committed whoredom also with the sons of Asshur, and thou hast multiplied thy whoredom even into the land of Canaan unto Chaldea (Ezek. 16:26, 28, 29),

where "Egypt" in like manner denotes memory-knowledges;"Asshur," reasoning. Reasoning from memory-knowledges concerning spiritual and celestial things is called "whoredom," both here and elsewhere in the Word. That whoredom with the Egyptians and the Assyrians is not meant, any one can see.

[4] In Jeremiah:--

Israel, what hast thou to do with the way of Egypt, to drink the waters of Shihor? and what hast thou to do with the way of Asshur, to drink the waters of the river (Euphrates)? (Jer. 2:18, 36).

Here likewise " Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges; and "Asshur," reasoning. In the same:--

Israel is a scattered sheep, the lions have driven him away, first the king of Asshur hath devoured him, and after that this king of Babel hath broken his bones (Jer. 50:17, 18).

"Asshur" here is reasoning concerning spiritual things.

[5] In Micah:--

This shall be the peace, when Asshur shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, we will even set over him seven shepherds, and eight princes of men, and they shall feed down the land of Asshur with the sword, and the land of Nimrod, In the gates thereof, and he shall deliver from Asshur, when he shall come into our land, and when he shall tread upon our border (Micah 5:6, 6).

The subject here is Israel, or the spiritual church, of which it is said that "Asshur shall not enter in," that is, that reasoning shall not; "the land of Nimrod" denotes such worship as is signified by Nimrod, in which the interiors are evil and false.

[6] That " Asshur" in the Word is also reason, which is in the man of the church, whereby he discerns truth and good, is evident in Hosea:--

They shall tremble as a bird out of Egypt, and as a dove out of the land of Asshur (Hosea 11:11).

"Egypt" here denotes the memory-knowledge of the man of the church; and "Asshur," his reason. That a "bird" is the intellectual of the memory (scientificum intellectuale), and "a dove" rational good, has been shown before.

[7] In Isaiah:--

In that day shall there be a path from Egypt to Asshur, and Asshur shall come into Egypt, and Egypt into Asshur, and the Egyptians shall serve Asshur. In that day shall Israel he the third with Egypt and with Asshur, a blessing in the midst of the land, which Jehovah Zebaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt My people, and Asshur the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance (Isaiah 19:23-25).

The subject here is the spiritual church, which is "Israel," whose reason is "Asshur," and memory-knowledge "Egypt." These three constitute the intellectual things of the man of the spiritual church, which follow one another in this order. In other places also where Asshur is named, it signifies the rational, either true or false, as in (Isaiah 20:1-6; 23:13; 27:13; 30:31; 31:8; 36:1-22; 37:1-38; 52:4; Ezek. 27:23, 24; 31:3-18; 32:22; Micah 7:12; Zeph. 2:13; Zech. 10:11; Ps. 83:8). "Asshur" denotes reasoning in (Hosea 5:13; 7:11; 10:6; 11:5; 12:1; 14:3; Zechariah 10:10), where Ephraim is spoken of, by whom is signified the intellectual, but here, perverted.

AC 1187. He built Nineveh, and the city of Rehoboth, and Calah. That this signifies that they thus formed doctrinals of faith for themselves, is evident from the signification of Nineveh, and Rehoboth, and Calah (concerning which in what immediately follows), and from the signification of a "city," in the Word, as being doctrine, either true or heretical (n. 402).

AC 1188. That falsities of doctrine are signified by "Nineveh," and such things also from another origin by "Rehoboth and Calah," is evident from the signification of Nineveh in the Word, concerning which presently. Falsities of this kind are from three origins. The first is from the fallacies of the senses in the obscurity of an unenlightened understanding, and from ignorance; hence comes the falsity which is "Nineveh." The second origin is from the same cause, but with a predominant cupidity, such as that for innovation, or for pre-eminence: the falsities from this origin are "Rehoboth." The third origin is from the will and thus from cupidities, in that men are unwilling to acknowledge anything as truth that does not favor their cupidities; hence come the falsities which are called "Calah." All these falsities arise through Asshur, or reasonings concerning the truths and goods of faith.

[2] That "Nineveh" signifies falsities from the fallacies of the senses in the obscurity of an unenlightened understanding, and from ignorance, is evident in Jonah, who was sent to Nineveh, which city was pardoned because they were such, and from the particulars in Jonah concerning Nineveh, of which by the Divine mercy of the Lord in another place. The particulars there are historical, and yet prophetical, involving and representing such arcana, as do all the other historicals of the Word.

[3] Likewise in Isaiah, where it is said of the king of Asshur that he remained in Nineveh, and that when he bowed himself in the house of Nisroch his god, his sons slew him with the sword (Isaiah 37:37, 38). Although these things are historical, yet they are prophetical, involving and representing similar arcana; and here by "Nineveh" is signified external worship in which there are falsities and because this was idolatrous he was slain by his sons with the sword. " Sons" are falsities, as has been shown before; "the sword" is the punishment of falsity, as everywhere in the Word.

[4] In Zephaniah also:--

Jehovah will stretch forth His hand upon the north, and will destroy Asshur, and will make Nineveh a desolation, a dryness like the wilderness. And flocks shall lie down in the midst of her, every wild beast of his kind, the cormorant and the bittern also shall pass the night in the pomegranates thereof, a voice shall sing in the windows, wasteness upon the threshold, for he hath laid bare its cedar (Zephaniah 2:13, 14).

Nineveh is here described, but in the prophetic style, and the falsity itself which is signified by Nineveh. This falsity, because it is worshiped, is called "the north, the wild beast of his kind, the cormorant and the bittern in the pomegranates," and is described by "a voice singing in the windows," and by "laying bare the cedar," which is intellectual truth. All these expressions are significative of such falsity.

AC 1189. That falsities originating from cupidities are signified by "Calah," cannot be confirmed from the prophetical, but only from the historical parts of the Word, in that the king of Asshur carried the sons of Israel into Asshur, or Assyria, and made them dwell in Calah, and in Habor, by the river Gozan, and in the cities of Media (2 Kings 17:6; 18:11). The historical facts here involve nothing else, for, as was said before, all the historicals of the Word are significative and representative. Thus "Israel" here is the perverted spiritual church; "Asshur" is reasoning; and "Calah" is such falsity.

AC 1190. And Resen, between Nineveh and Calah. That this signifies that they also formed for themselves doctrinals of life; and that the false doctrinals thence derived are signified by "Resen," may be seen from what has just been shown respecting Nineveh and Calah; and also from the connection, in that in the preceding verse falsities of doctrine, and here falsities of life are treated of. For such is the style of the Word, especially the prophetical style, that when it treats of things of the understanding it treats also of those of the will. In the preceding verse things of the understanding, or falsities of doctrine, are treated of; but here falsities of life, which are signified by "Resen." As no further mention is made of Resen in the Word, this cannot so well be confirmed, except from the fact of Resen’s being built between Nineveh and Calah, that is, between falsity from reasonings and falsity from cupidities, which produces falsity of life; and from its being called the "great city," because it is from falsities both of the understanding and of the will.

AC 1191. This is that great city. That this signifies doctrinals, and that these increased and prevailed, is evident from the signification of a "city," as being a true doctrinal, or a false doctrinal (n. 402). And it is called the "great city" because all falsity of doctrine, and of the worship therefrom, is derived into falsity of life.

AC 1192. In (verse 10), just above, the evils in worship, signified by "Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar," were treated of; in these two verses the falsities in worship, signified by "Nineveh, Rehoboth, Calah, and Resen," are treated of. Falsities belong to principles from reasonings; evils to cupidities from the love of the world and of self.

AC 1193. Verses 13, 14. And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim, and Casluhim, from whom went forth the Philistines, and Caphtorim. "Mizraim begat Ludim, and Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim," signifies so many nations, by which so many kinds of rituals are signified; "Mizraim" is memory-knowledge; "Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, and Naphtuhim" are so many rituals which are mere matters of memory-knowledge (scientifica); "Pathrusim and Casluhim" are nations so called, by which are signified the doctrinals of rituals from a similar origin, which were only matters of memory-knowledge; "from whom went forth the Philistines," signifies a nation thence derived, by which is signified the mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith and charity. Its being said that they "went forth" signifies that with them knowledges are mere memory-knowledges.

AC 1194. Mizraim begat Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, and Naphtuhim. That these signify so many nations, by which so many rituals are signified, may be seen from what was shown above respecting Mizraim or Egypt (verse 6), namely, that "Egypt" signifies memory-knowledge or matters of memory (scientiam seu scientifica). They who are said to be begotten thereof could be no other or nothing else than rituals, and in fact rituals of external worship. For the Word of the Lord in its bosom and recess, that is, in its internal sense, never treats of other things than those which belong to His kingdom, and thus to the church; so that here the things that were born from memory-knowledges by reasonings are nothing else than rituals.

AC 1195. That "Mizraim" or "Egypt" is memory-knowledge, was shown at verse 6 of this chapter. That "Ludim, Anamim, Lehabim, and Naphtuhim" are so many rituals which are merely memory-knowledges, is evident from what has just been stated. Those are said to have rituals which are merely memory-knowledges, who explore spiritual and celestial things by means of reasonings, and thereby devise a worship for themselves. The rituals of this worship, being from reasonings and memory-knowledges, are called rituals of memory-knowledge (ritualia scientifica), wherein there was nothing spiritual and celestial, because they were from themselves. Hence came the idols of Egypt, and its magic. And because their rituals were from this origin, they totally rejected, nay, loathed and hated, the rites of the Ancient Church, as is evident from what is said in (Gen. 43:32; 46:34; Exod. 8:22). Because these things are signified, they are said to be begotten of Mizraim, or of Egypt, that is, of memory-knowledges; and as their memory-knowledges were diverse, the derivative rituals also became different. These diversities, in general, are signified by so many nations. That such things are meant by the Ludim, or Lydians, appears in Jeremiah:--

Egypt riseth up like the river, and like the rivers the waters are troubled; and he saith, I will rise up, I will cover the earth, I will destroy the city and the inhabitants thereof. Come up, ye horses, and rage, ye chariot, and let the mighty come forth, Cush and Put, that handle the shield, and the Lydians, that handle and bend the bow (Jeremiah 46:8, 9).

The "rivers of Egypt" here are diverse memory-knowledges which are false; "to go up and cover the earth" is to enter into the things that pertain to the church or to faith by means of memory-knowledges; "to destroy the city" is to destroy truths; "Cush and Put" are knowledges; "the Lydians" are the rituals of memory-knowledge spoken of above; "to handle and bend the bow" is to reason.

AC 1196. That "the Pathrusim and Casluhim" are nations so called, and that they signify doctrinals of rituals from a similar origin, which were only matters of memory-knowledge, is evident from what has been stated; and from their following in this manner in the series. Concerning the Pathrusim see in (Isa. 11:11, 12; Ezek. 29:13-15; 30:13, 14; Jer. 44:1, 15).

AC 1197. From whom went forth the Pelistim (Philistines). That this signifies a nation thence derived, and that by this nation is signified a mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith and charity, is evident from the Word, where the Philistines are frequently mentioned. In the Ancient Church all those were called Philistines who talked much about faith, and declared that salvation is in faith, and yet had no life of faith. Therefore they pre-eminently were called "the uncircumcised," which means those who are devoid of charity. That they were called "the uncircumcised" may be seen in (1 Sam. 14:6; 17:26, 36; 31:4; 2 Sam. 1:20). Because they were such, they could not but make the knowledges of faith matters of memory; for the knowledges of spiritual and celestial things and the very mysteries of faith themselves become nothing but matters of memory, when the man who is skilled in them is devoid of charity. The things of the memory are like things dead unless the man is such that from conscience he lives according to them. When he does this, then at the same time as they are things of memory they are also things of life; and only then do they remain with him for his use and salvation after the life of the body. Knowledges (scientiae et cognitiones) are nothing to a man in the other life, even though he may have known all the arcana that have ever been revealed, unless they have affected his life.

[2] Such are everywhere signified by "Philistines" in the prophetical parts of the Word, and also in the historical, as for example, when Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines, and made a covenant with Abimelech, the king of the Philistines (Gen. 20:1-18; 21:22-34; 26:1-34). As the knowledges of faith are here signified by the Philistines, Abraham, because he represented the celestial things of faith, sojourned there, and entered into a covenant with them; and likewise Isaac, by whom were represented the spiritual things of faith; but not jacob, because by him the externals of the church were represented.

[3] That the "Philistines" signify in general a mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith, and specifically those who make faith and salvation consist in knowledges alone, which they make matters of memory, may be seen in Isaiah:--

Rejoice not thou whole Philistia, because the rod that smote thee is broken; for out of the serpent‘s root shall come forth a basilisk, and his fruit shall be like a fiery flying serpent (Isaiah 14:29).

Here "the root of the serpent" denotes memory-knowledges; "the basilisk," evil from the derivative falsity; and "the fruit a fiery flying serpent," is their works, which are called "a fiery flying serpent" because they come of cupidities.

[4] In Joel:--

What are ye to Me, O Tyre, and Zidon, and all the borders of Philistia? Will ye render a recompense upon Me? very speedily will I return your recompense upon your own head. Inasmuch as ye have taken My silver and My gold, and have carried into your temples My desirable good things; the sons also of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem have ye sold unto the sons of the Javanites, that ye might cause them to remove far from their border (Joel 3:4-6).

Here it is evident what is meant by the Philistines, and by "all Philistia," or all "the borders" of it. "Silver and gold" here are the spiritual and celestial things of faith; "desirable good things" are the knowledges of them. That they "carried them into their temples," is that they possessed and proclaimed them; and that they "sold the sons of Judah and the sons of Jerusalem," signifies that they had no love and no faith; "Judah" in the Word is the celestial of faith, and "Jerusalem" is the spiritual of faith thence derived, which were "removed far from their borders." So also in other places in the Prophets, as in (Jer. 25:20, 47:1-7; Ezek. 16:27, 57; 25:15, 16; Amos 1:8; Obad. 1:19; Zeph. 2:5; Ps. 83:7; 87:4). And concerning the Caphtorim in (Deut. 2:23; Jer. 47:4; Amos 9:7).

AC 1198. That they "went forth" signifies that with them knowledges are mere memory-knowledges, is evident from what has been stated. They are not said to have been "begotten" by those who were of Egypt, but to have "gone forth" from them, because they are not such as reason from natural memory-knowledges concerning spiritual and celestial things, and thereby frame doctrinals for themselves-like those treated of before-but they are such as learn the knowledges of faith from others, and know and retain them in the memory, with no other end in view than such as they have in learning other things which they care nothing about except merely to know them, and except for the reason that they may thereby be advanced to honors, or some other such reason. So distinct is this mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith from the memory-knowledge of natural things, that they have scarcely anything in common; and therefore it is said, not that they were "born," but that they "went forth" from them. Such being the character of the "Philistines," they cannot but pervert even the knowledges of faith by reasonings from them, and thence form for themselves false doctrinals and therefore they are among those who can with difficulty be regenerated and receive charity, both because they are uncircumcised in heart, and because principles of falsity, and consequently the life of their understanding, prevent and oppose.

AC 1199. Verse 15. And Canaan begat Zidon, his firstborn, and Heth. "Canaan," here as before, signifies external worship in which there is nothing internal. "Zidon" signifies the exterior knowledges of spiritual things; and because they are the first things of such external worship, it is said that Zidon was "the firstborn of Canaan;" "Heth" signifies the exterior knowledges of celestial things.

AC 1200. That "Canaan" signifies external worship in which there is nothing internal, was shown before where Canaan was treated of. The external worship which is called "Canaan" is such as was that of the Jews, both before and after the coming of the Lord. They had an external worship which they strictly observed, but yet were so ignorant of what is internal that they supposed that they lived only with the body. Of the nature of the soul, of faith, of the Lord, of spiritual and celestial life, of the life after death, they were entirely ignorant. And therefore in the time of the Lord very many of them denied the resurrection-as is evident in (Matthew 22:22-33; Mark 12:18-28; Luke 20:27-41). When a man is such that he does not believe that he will live after death, he also disbelieves that there is anything internal which is spiritual and celestial; and such are they who live in mere cupidities, because they live a mere life of the body and of the world; especially those who are immersed in loathsome avarice. They nevertheless have worship, attend their synagogues, or their churches, and observe the ceremonies, some very strictly; but as they do not believe that there is a life after death, their worship cannot be other than external worship wherein is nothing internal-like a shell without a kernel, or a tree whereon is no fruit, and not even leaves. It is such external worship that is signified by "Canaan." The other kinds of external worship, treated of above, were worships that had internal things within.

AC 1201. That "Zidon" signifies exterior knowledges of spiritual things, is evident from the fact that it is called the "firstborn of Canaan;" for the firstborn of every church, in the internal sense, is faith (n. 352, 367). But here, where there is no faith, because no internal things, there are nothing but exterior knowledges of spiritual things which are in the place of faith; thus knowledges such as existed among the Jews, which are knowledges not only of the rites of external worship, but also of many things, such as doctrinals, which belong to that worship. That this is the signification of "Zidon" is also evident from the fact that Tyre and Zidon were extreme borders of Philistia, and were moreover by the sea; and therefore by "Tyre" interior knowledges are signified, and by "Zidon" exterior knowledges, that is, of spiritual things-which is also evident from the Word. In Jeremiah:--

On the day that cometh to lay waste all the Philistines, to cut off from Tyre and Zidon every helper that remaineth; for Jehovah will lay waste the Philistines, the remnant of the isle of Caphtor (Jer. 47:4).

Here "the Philistines" denote the mere memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith and charity; "Tyre" denotes the interior knowledges, and "Zidon" the exterior knowledges, of spiritual things.

[2] In Joel:--

What are ye to Me, O Tyre and Zidon, and all the borders of Philistia? Forasmuch as ye have taken My silver and gold, and have carried into your temples My desirable good things (Jer. 3:4, 5).

Here "Tyre and Zidon" evidently denote knowledges, and are called "the borders of Philistia;" "silver and gold," and "desirable good things," are knowledges. In Ezekiel:--

The princes of the north, all of them, and every Zidonian who has gone down with the slain into the pit. When he has been made to lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are slain with the sword; Pharaoh and all his crowd (Ezekiel 32:30, 32).

"The Zidonians" here denote exterior knowledges, which without internal things are nothing but memory-knowledges and therefore they are named in connection with Pharaoh, or Egypt, by whom memory-knowledges are signified. In Zechariah:--

Hamath also shall be bordered thereon; Tyre and Zidon, because she was very wise (Zechariah 9:2).

The subject here is Damascus; "Tyre and Zidon" denote knowledges.

[3] In Ezekiel:--

The inhabitants of Zidon and of Arvad were thy rowers; thy wise men, O Tyre, were in thee, they were thy pilots (Ezekiel 27:8).

Here "Tyre" denotes interior knowledges; wherefore her wise men are called "pilots;" and "Zidon" denotes exterior knowledges, and therefore her inhabitants are called " rowers;" for such is the relation of interior knowledges to exterior. In Isaiah:--

Let the inhabitants of the isle be silent, the merchant of Zidon, that passes over the sea, they have replenished thee. And in great waters the seed of Sihor, the harvest of the river was her revenue, and she was the mart of nations. Be ashamed, O Zidon for the sea hath spoken, the stronghold of the sea, saying, I have not travailed, nor brought forth, nor have I brought up young men, nor caused virgins to grow up (Isaiah 23:2-4)

"Zidon" here denotes exterior knowledges, which, because there is nothing internal in them, are called "the seed of Sihor, the harvest of the river her revenue, the mart of the nations," and also "the sea," and "the stronghold of the sea;" and it is said that she doth not "travail and bring forth"-which could not be comprehended in the literal sense, but is all perfectly clear in the internal sense; as is the case with other passages in the Prophets. Because "Zidon" signifies exterior knowledges, it is said to be "a circuit about Israel," that is, around the spiritual church (Ezek. 28:24, 26); for exterior knowledges are like a circuit round about.

AC 1202. That Zidon is called "the firstborn of Canaan" because these knowledges are the foremost things of such external worship, wherein is no internal worship, has just been explained, in the preceding paragraph.

AC 1203. That "Heth" signifies exterior knowledges of celestial things is consequently evident. It is customary in the Prophets for spiritual and celestial things to be joined together, that is, where spiritual things are treated of, celestial things are also treated of; for the reason that the one is from the other, and there is a certain want of perfection if they are not conjoined; so that there is an image of the heavenly marriage in each and all things of the Word. It is also evident from this, as well as from the Word in other places, that by "Zidon" are signified exterior knowledges of spiritual things, and by "Heth" exterior knowledges of celestial things, in both senses-that is to say, without internal things, and with internal things-and also simply exterior knowledges. Spiritual things, as has often been said before, are those which are of faith; and celestial things are those which are of love; and again, spiritual things are those which are of the understanding, and celestial things are those which are of the will. That "Heth" signifies exterior knowledges without internal, is evident in Ezekiel:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih unto Jerusalem, Thy tradings and thy nativity are of the land of Canaan; thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite. Thou art thy mother’s daughter, that loatheth her man (vir) and her sons; and the sister of thy sisters, that loathed their husbands and their sons. Your mother was a Hittite, and your father an Amorite (Ezekiel 16:3, 45).

Here external worship without internal is "Canaan;" to "loathe husbands and sons," is to reject goods and truths. Hence her mother is called "a Hittite." But "Heth" is also taken in the Word for exterior knowledges of celestial things in a good sense, as are nearly all names of countries, cities, nations, and persons, for a reason already explained. Concerning this signification of "Heth," by the Divine mercy of the Lord hereafter. Knowledges of spiritual things are those which have regard to faith, consequently to doctrine; and knowledges of celestial things are those which have regard to love, and thus to life.

AC 1204. Verses 16-18. And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite. And afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. "The Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite, and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite, and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite" were so many nations, by which are signified also so many different idolatries. "And afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad," signifies that all other forms of idolatrous worship are derived from these.

AC 1205. The Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, and Hamathite, were so many nations, and they also signify so many different idolatries. That idolatries were signified by these nations, is evident from many places in the Word, for they were the inhabitants of the land of Canaan who on account of their idolatries were cast out, and in part extirpated. But in the internal sense of the Word these nations are not signified, but the idolatries themselves in general, with whomsoever and wheresoever they are; specifically, among the Jews. For they who make worship consist merely in externals, and are entirely unwilling to know internal things, and when instructed reject them, are very prone to all these idolatries, as is clearly manifest from the Jews. In internal worship alone is there a bond that withholds man from idolatry; and when this ceases, there is nothing that restrains. There are however interior idolatries, as well as external ones. They who have external worship without internal rush into external idolatries; they who have external worship whose interiors are unclean rush into interior idolatries and both these kinds of idolatries are signified by these nations. Interior idolatries are so many falsities and cupidities which men love and adore, and which are thus in place of the gods and idols that existed among the Gentiles. But what particular kinds of falsities and cupidities are those which are adored, and which are signified by these nations,-the Jebusite, Amorite, Girgashite, Hivite, Arkite, Sinite, Arvadite, Zemarite, and Hamathite,-it would take too long to explain here; but of the Lord‘s Divine mercy it will be told in the places where their names occur.

AC 1206. Afterwards were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad. That this signifies that all other forms of idolatrous worship are derived from these, is evident without explication.

AC 1207. Verse 19. And the border of the Canaanite was from Zidon, in coming to Gerar, even unto Gaza, in coming to Sodom, and Gomorrah, and Admah, and Zeboiim even unto Lasha. By "Zidon," here as before, exterior knowledges are signified; by "Gerar" are signified the things that are revealed concerning faith; by "Gaza" the things that are revealed concerning charity; "the border of the Canaanites was from Zidon, in coming to Gerar, even unto Gaza," signifies the extension of knowledges to truth and good, with those who have external worship without internal; "in coming to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, even unto Lasha," signifies the falsities and evils in which they terminate.

AC 1208. That by "Zidon" are signified exterior knowledges, is evident from what was shown above, at (verse 15).

AC 1209. That by "Gerar" are signified the things that have been revealed concerning faith, and thus in general faith itself, is evident from the passages where Gerar is mentioned (Gen. 20:1; 26:1, 17), concerning which signification of " Gerar," of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 1210. That by "Gaza" are signified the things that have been revealed concerning charity, is evident from the fact that where spiritual things are treated of in the Word, celestial things also are treated of, conjointly (that is to say, when things of faith are treated of, so also are those of charity) and the same is also evident from the Word where "Gaza" is mentioned; and still further from the consideration that knowledges extend to faith, and even to charity, which is their furthest limit.

AC 1211. The border of the Canaanites was from Zidon, in coming to Gerar, even unto Gaza. That this signifies the extension of knowledges with those who have external worship without internal, is evident from the signification of "Gerar" and of "Gaza." Thus far do the boundaries of all knowledges that relate to worship extend, whether that worship be external or internal; for all worship is from faith and charity. What is not from these is not worship, but is idolatry. As Canaan, that is, external worship and its derivations, is the subject here treated of, the boundaries and extensions meant are those not of worship, but of knowledges.

AC 1212. In coming to Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, even unto Lasha. That these signify the falsities and evils in which they terminate, can be seen from the signification of the same in the historical and prophetical parts of the Word. There are, in general, two origins of falsities; one is the cupidities that belong to the love of self and of the world; the other is knowledges (cognitiones et scientifica), through reasonings; and the falsities which thus originate, when they would domineer over truths, are signified by "Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim." That falsities and evils from them are the boundaries of external worship which is without internal, any one may see. In such worship there is nothing but what is dead; and therefore whichever way the man who is in such worship turns, he sinks into falsities. There is nothing internal that leads and keeps him in the way of truth, but only what is external, which carries him whithersoever cupidity and phantasy lead. As Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim are mentioned in both the historical and prophetical parts of the Word, what each specifically signifies, will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be there explained.

AC 1213. Verse 20. These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations. "The sons of Ham" signify derivations of doctrinals and of worships from the corrupt internal worship which is "Ham;" "according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations," signifies according to the genius of each, in particular and in general; "according to their families," is according to their morals; "according to their tongues," is according to their opinions; "in their lands," is in general relatively to their opinions; "in their nations," is in general relatively to their morals.

AC 1214. That "the sons of Ham" signify derivations of doctrinals and of worships from the corrupt internal worship which is "Ram," is evident from the signification of "sons," as being doctrinals; and from the signification of "Ham," as being corrupt internal worship; concerning which before.

AC 1215. According to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations. That this signifies according to the genius of each, in particular and in general, was explained above (verse 5), where the same words occur, but in another order. The subject there was the sons of Japheth, that "From these were dispersed the isles of the nations, in their lands, every one according to his tongue, according to their families, as to their nations," signified external worships in which there was internal. In that passage therefore the things that belong to doctrine take precedence; but here those which belong to morals, or to life.

AC 1216. That "according to their families" is according to their morals; that "according to their tongues" is according to their opinions; that "in their lands" is in general relatively to their opinions; and that "in their nations" is in general relatively to their morals, can be seen from the signification of each term in the Word-that is, of "family," "tongue," "land," and "nation"- concerning which see what was said above, at (verse 5).

AC 1217. Verse 21. And there was born to Shem also; he is the father of all the sons of Eber; the elder brother of Japheth. By "Shem" is here signified the Ancient Church in general; "there was born to Shem," signifies that a new church sprang from the Ancient Church; by "Eber" is signified this new church, which is to be called the Second Ancient Church; "he is the father of all the sons of Eber," signifies that this second Ancient Church, and what belonged to this church, sprang from the prior Ancient Church as from its father; "the elder brother of Japheth," signifies that its worship was external.

AC 1218. That by "Shem" is here signified the Ancient Church in general, is evident from the fact that the subject here treated of is Eber, whom Shem now bears reference to; and from his being called in this verse " the elder brother of Japheth."

AC 1219. That "there was born to Shem" here signifies that a new church sprang from the Ancient Church, is evident from the contents of this verse, which treat of Eber, by whom that new church is meant, of which hereafter.

AC 1220. That by "Eber" a new church is signified, which is to be called the Second Ancient Church, is evident from what follows, where Eber is specifically treated of. Eber is mentioned here because that new church was from him. How the case was with Eber and with this second church, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told hereafter.

AC 1221. He is the father of all the sons of Eber. That this signifies that this second Ancient Church, and what belonged to this church, sprang from the prior Ancient Church, as from its father, will likewise be seen from what follows concerning Eber, and concerning this church; for Eber is treated of from (verses 24-30) of this chapter, and from (verse 11-32) of the following chapter.

AC 1222. The elder brother of Japheth. That this signifies that its worship was external, is evident from the signification of "Japheth," as being the external church, concerning which in the preceding chapter, in the 18th and following verses; and above, in this chapter, (verses 1-5). Here " Shem, the elder brother of Japheth," signifies, specifically, that the internal church and the external church are brothers; for such is the relation of internal worship to external worship in which there is internal. It is a blood-relationship, for in each the principal is charity. But the internal church is the elder brother, because it is prior and interior. "The elder brother of Japheth" here involves also that the second Ancient Church, called "Eber," was as a brother to the first Ancient Church. For by "Japheth," in the internal sense, nothing else is signified than external worship in which there is internal, in whatever church; thus also the worship of this new Ancient Church, which was chiefly external. Such is the internal sense of the Word that the historicals of the literal sense are not attended to when universals, which are abstract from the literal sense, are regarded; for they look toward one another in a contrary manner. Hence "the elder brother of Japheth" here signifies, in the internal sense, the worship of the new Ancient Church, that it was external. Unless this were signified, it would be needless to say here that he was the elder brother of Japheth.

AC 1223. Verse 22. The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram. By " Shem" is signified here as before, an internal church; by "the sons of Shem," the things that are of wisdom; "Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram" were so many nations, by which are signified things that are of wisdom,-by "Elam" faith from charity, by "Asshur" the derivative reason, by "Arpachshad" the derivative memory-knowledge, by "Lud" the knowledges of truth, by "Aram" the knowledges of good.

AC 1224. From all this it is evident what these names signify in the internal sense, namely, that the Ancient Church, which was internal, was endowed with wisdom, intelligence, memory-knowledge, and the knowledges of truth and of good. Such things are contained in the internal sense, although here are only names from which nothing else appears in the literal sense than that there were so many origins or fathers of nations, thus nothing doctrinal, much less anything spiritual and celestial. Such is the case also in the Prophets, where, whenever a series of names occurs, which in the internal sense signify actual things, they follow one another in a beautiful order.

AC 1225. That by " Shem" is signified an internal church, has been stated and shown in the preceding chapter, at the 18th and following verses.

AC 1226. That by "the sons of Shem" are signified the things that are of wisdom, is evident merely from Shem‘s being an internal church, the sons of which are none other than things of wisdom. Everything is called wisdom that is begotten of charity, because it comes by means of charity from the Lord, from whom is all wisdom, for He is wisdom itself. Hence comes true intelligence, and hence comes true memory-know, edge, and hence comes true knowledge, which are all sons of charity, that is, sons of the Lord through charity. And because they are sons of the Lord through charity, wisdom is predicated of each of them, for wisdom is in each of them, and they draw their life from it, and this in such a manner that neither intelligence, nor memory-knowledge, nor knowledge, has life except from the wisdom which is of charity, which is of the Lord.

AC 1227. That "Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram" were so many nations, is evident from the historical and prophetical parts of the Word where they are mentioned. And that they signify things that are of wisdom, is evident from what has been said just above, and from what follows. Among these nations there was an internal church; with others, who were called sons of Japheth, there was an external church; with those who were called sons of Ham there was a corrupted internal church; and with those who were sons of Canaan there was a corrupted external church. Whether it be said internal and external worship, or an internal and an external church, it is quite the same.

AC 1228. That by "Elam" is signified faith from charity, is evident from the essence of an internal church. A church is internal when charity is the principal of it, from which it thinks and acts. The first offspring of charity is none other than faith; for faith is from it, and from no other source. That "Elam" is faith from charity, or the faith itself which constitutes an internal church, is evident also in Jeremiah:--

The Word of Jehovah that came to Jeremiah the prophet concerning Elam: Behold, I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of their might. And upon Elam will I bring the four winds from the four ends of the heavens, and will scatter them toward all those winds; and there shall be no nation whither the outcasts of Elam shall not come. And I will cause Elam to be dismayed before their enemies, and before them that seek their soul; and I will bring evil upon them, My fierce anger, and I will send the sword after them till I have consumed them. And I will set My throne in Elam, and will destroy from thence the king and the princes. But it shall come to pass in the latter days that I will bring back the captivity of Elam (Jeremiah 49:34-39).

[2] In this passage "Elam" denotes faith, or what is the same thing, an internal church, become perverted and corrupt; and then the same restored. Just as in the Word, Judah, Israel, and Jacob, are frequently spoken of-by whom churches are signified-by "Judah" a celestial church, by "Israel" a spiritual church, by "Jacob" an external church; of which become perverted it is said in like manner that they should be scattered, and then, being scattered by their enemies, they should be gathered again and brought back from their captivity, by which is meant the creation of a new church. So here it is said of Elam, or the internal church perverted and corrupt, that it should be scattered, and afterwards that it should be brought back; and then that Jehovah should set His throne in Elam, that is in the internal church, or in the internals of the church, which are nothing else than the things of faith from charity.

[3] In Isaiah:--

The burden of the desert of the sea. It cometh from the desert, from a terrible land. A grievous vision is declared unto Me; the treacherous one dealeth treacherously: and the waster layeth waste. Go up, O Elam, besiege, O Madai; all the sighing thereof I will make to cease (Isaiah 21:1, 2).

Here the laying waste of the church by Babel is spoken of; "Elam" is the internal church; "Madai" is the external church, or external worship in which is internal. That Madai is such a church, or such worship, is shown at (verse 2) of this chapter, where Madai is said to be a son of Japheth.

AC 1229. That by "Asshur" is signified reason, is evident from what was shown above, at (verse 11) of this chapter.

AC 1230. That by "Arpachshad" is signified memory-knowledge, cannot be so well confirmed from the Word, but is evident from the series of things that precede and that follow.

AC 1231. That by "Lud" are signified the knowledges of truth, is evident from the fact that the knowledges of truth are from that source, that is, from the Lord through charity, and thus through faith, by means of reason and of memory-knowledge. So also in Ezekiel:--

Persia and Lud and Put were in thine army, thy men of war; they hanged the shield and helmet in thee; they set forth thine honor (Ezekiel 27:10).

This is said of Tyre. "Lud and Put" denote knowledges, which are said to be in her army and to be her men of war, because they serve in defending truths with the aid of reason. This also is to "hang the shield and helmet." That "Put" signifies the exterior knowledges of the Word, may be seen above, at (verse 6) of this chapter.

AC 1232. That by "Aram," or Syria, are signified the knowledges of good, follows; and is seen also from the Word, as in Ezekiel:--

Aram was thy trader, in the multitude of thy works; in chrysoprase, crimson, and broidered work, and fine linen, and coral, and carbuncle; they gave them in thy tradings (Ezekiel 27:16),

where Tyre is treated of, or the possession of knowledges; and "works, chrysoprase, crimson, broidered work, fine linen, coral, and carbuncle," here signify nothing else than the knowledges of good. In Hosea:--

Jacob fled into the field of Aram, and Israel served for a wife, and for a wife he kept guard; and by a prophet Jehovah brought Israel up out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he kept. Ephraim hath provoked to anger with bitternesses (Hosea 12:12-14).

"Jacob" here denotes the external church, and "Israel," the internal spiritual church; "Aram," the knowledges of good; "Egypt," memory-knowledge that perverts; "Ephraim," intelligence perverted. What these signify in series cannot be seen from the literal sense, but only from the internal sense, where names signify actual things of the church, as has been said. In Isaiah:--

Behold Damascus is rejected from being a city, and is become a ruinous heap. The fortress also shall cease from Ephraim, and the kingdom from Damascus, and the remnant of Aram shall be as the glory of the sons of Israel (Isaiah 17:1, 3).

"The remnant of Aram" here denotes the knowledges of good, which are called "the glory of Israel." "Aram," or Syria, in the opposite sense, denotes the knowledges of good perverted; for it is a usual thing in the Word that the expressions are used in both senses (Isa. 7:4-6; 9:11, 12; Deut. 26:5).

AC 1233. Verse 23. And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. "Aram" here, as before, signifies the knowledges of good; "the sons of Aram" are the derivative knowledges, and that which comes of these knowledges; "Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash," signify so many kinds of these knowledges.

AC 1234. That "Aram" signifies the knowledges of good, has been shown just above. That "the sons of Aram" are the derivative knowledges, and the things which are of knowledges, follows. These derivative knowledges are natural truths; and the things which are of knowledges are the things done according to them. That these things are signified cannot be so well confirmed from the Word, because these are not among the names that are frequently mentioned. Only Uz is mentioned, in (Jeremiah 25:20; Lam. 4:21). It follows then that "Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash" signify so many kinds of these knowledges, and of deeds according thereto.

AC 1235. Verse 24. And Arpachshad begat Shelah; and Shelah begat Eber. "Arpachshad" was a nation so called, by which is signified memory-knowledge; " Shelah" likewise was a nation so called, by which is signified that which is derived from this memory-knowledge; by "Eber" also a nation is signified, the father of which was Eber, one who was called by this name, by whom there is signified a second Ancient Church, which was separate from the former one.

AC 1236. That "Arpachshad" was a nation so called, and that by it is signified memory-knowledge, is evident from what was said of it just above, at (verse 22).

AC 1237. That "Shelah" likewise was a nation, and that by it is signified that which is derived from this memory-knowledge, follows, because it is said that "Arpachshad begat Shelah."

AC 1238. That by "Eber" is signified a nation also, whose father was Eber, one who was called by this name, is to be understood in this way. Those mentioned hitherto were the nations among whom the Ancient Church existed, and were all called sons of Shem, of Ham, of Japheth, and of Canaan, because by Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan are signified the various worships of the church. Noah, Shem, Ham, Japheth, and Canaan never existed as men; but because the Ancient Church specifically, and in general every church, is such that it is true internal, corrupt internal, true external, and corrupt external, therefore the above-mentioned names were given in order that all the differences in general might be referred to them and their sons, as to their heads. Moreover the nations here named originally had such worship; and therefore are called the sons of one of the sons of Noah. And for the same reason also, such worships themselves are signified by the names of these nations in the Word.

[2] This first Ancient Church, signified by Noah and his sons, was not confined to a few, but extended over many kingdoms, as is evident from the nations mentioned, namely, Assyria, Mesopotamia, Syria, Ethiopia, Arabia, Lybia, Egypt, Philistia as far as Tyre and Sidon, and the whole land of Canaan, on this side and beyond Jordan. But afterwards in Syria a kind of external worship began, which from thence spread itself widely around, over many countries, especially over Canaan, and which was different from the worship of the Ancient Church. And as something of a church thus arose that was separate from the Ancient Church, there sprang up thence as it were a new church, which may therefore be called the Second Ancient Church. The first institutor of this was Eber, and therefore this church is called after Eber. At that time, as has been said before, all were distinguished into households, families, and nations. Each nation acknowledged one father, from whom also it was named, as is seen in various places in the Word. Thus the nation which acknowledged Eber as its father was called the Hebrew nation.

AC 1239. That by "Eber" is signified a second Ancient Church that was separate from the former, is evident from what has just been said.

AC 1240. Verse 25. And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg, for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother’s name was Joktan. Eber was the first institutor of the second Ancient Church, and by him this church is signified; unto him "were born two sons," by whom are signified the two kinds of worship, namely, internal and external. His two sons were called "Peleg" and "Joktan;" by "Peleg" is signified the internal worship of that church, and by "Joktan" its external worship; "for in his days was the earth divided," signifies that a new church then arose, "the earth" here as before signifying the church; "his brother‘s name Was Joktan," signifies the external worship of that church.

AC 1241. As to Eber being the first institutor of the second Ancient Church, by whom this church is signified, the case is this. The first Ancient Church, so widely spread as has been stated, especially through the Asiatic world, in process of time degenerated-as is usual with all churches everywhere-and was adulterated by innovators, as to both its external and its internal worship, and this in various places and especially by the fact that all things significative and representative which the Ancient Church had from the mouth of the Most Ancient Church- which all bore reference to the Lord and His Kingdom-were turned into things idolatrous, and by some of the nations into things magical. That the whole church might not go to ruin, it was permitted by the Lord that significative and representative worship should be somewhere reestablished, which was done by Eber. This worship consisted chiefly in externals. The externals of worship, in addition to the priestly offices and what pertained to them, were high places, groves, statues, anointings, and many other things called statutes. The internals of worship were doctrinal things handed down from the time before the flood, especially from those who were called "Enoch," who collected the perceptive findings of the Most Ancient Church, and made doctrinal things therefrom. These were their Word; and from these internals and those externals came the worship of this church, a worship set up anew by Eber, but added to, and also changed. Especially did they begin to exalt sacrifices above other rites. In the true Ancient Church sacrifices had been unknown, except among some of the descendants of Ham and Canaan, who were idolaters, and with whom they were permitted to prevent them from sacrificing their sons and daughters. From all this the quality of this second Ancient Church, instituted by Eber and continued among his posterity who were called the Hebrew nation, is manifest.

AC 1242. That by the two sons of Eber, who were named Peleg and Joktan, the two kinds of worship of that church, internal and external, are signified-by Peleg the internal worship and by Joktan the external worship-is evident especially from this, that in the internal sense this second Ancient Church is signified by Eber and the Hebrew nation, and that in every church there is an internal and an external. For without the internal it is not and cannot be called a church, but an idolatry. Therefore, "sons" being here predicated of the church, it is evident that by one son the internal of the church is signified, and by the other the external; as in various other places in the Word; and as is signified by Adah and Zillah, the two wives of Lamech (n. 409); by Leah and Rachel; by Jacob and Israel, of whom hereafter; and by others. The posterity of Joktan is treated of in this chapter; that of Peleg in the following chapter.

AC 1243. For in his days was the earth divided. That this signifies that a new church then arose, is now consequently evident; for by "the earth" nothing else than the church is signified, which has been clearly shown above (n. 662, 1066).

AC 1244. And his brother’s name was Joktan. That this signifies the external worship of that church, has been shown just above. That external worship is called a "brother" may be seen above, at (verse 21) of this chapter, where it is said of Shem that he was the elder brother of Japheth. This is why the name "brother" is here added.

AC 1245. Verses 26-29. And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah. And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah. And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba. And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan. These were so many nations of the family of Eber, by which are signified so many rituals.

AC 1246. That these were so many nations, of the families of Eber, may be seen from the state in which they lived at that period. In the most ancient time, as has been said before, nations were distinguished into families, and these into house-holds. Each nation acknowledged one father, from whom it was named. As they were multiplied, the sons of the one father in like manner constituted households, families, and nations; and so on. So it was with these sons of Joktan, as we may see it was with the sons of Jacob, who afterwards when multiplied constituted tribes, each one of which acknowledged one of the sons of Jacob, from whom it was named, as its father; and yet all taken together were from Jacob, and were called Jacob. Just so these nations were from Eber, and were called Hebrews.

AC 1247. That by these nations are signified so many rituals, is evident from the fact that in the Word names never signify anything else than actual things; for in its internal sense the Word relates only to the Lord, to His Kingdom in the heavens and on earth, and consequently to the church and the things of the church. Such is the case with these names. And as Joktan, a son of Eber, signifies the external worship of this new church, as was said before, so his sons can signify nothing else than things of external worship, which are rituals, and in fact so many kinds of rituals. But what these kinds of rituals are, it is impossible to say, because they are determined by their relation to the worship itself, and until this is known nothing can be said about its rituals; nor would it be of any use to know them. Neither do the names recur in the Word, except Sheba, Ophir, and Havilah; and they are not of this stock; for the Sheba and Havilah elsewhere spoken of in the Word were of those who are called sons of Ham, as is evident at (verse 7) of this chapter; and the case is the same with Ophir.

AC 1248. Verse 30. And their dwelling was from Mesha, in coming unto Sephar, a mountain of the east. By these words is signified the extension of the worship, even from the truths of faith to the good of charity. "Mesha" signifies truth; "Sephar," good; "a mountain of the east," charity.

AC 1249. That by these words is signified the extension of the worship, even from the truths of faith to the good of charity; and that "Mesha" signifies truth, and "Sephar" good, cannot indeed be confirmed from the Word, because no mention is made of Mesha and Sephar in the Prophets. Still, this may be seen from its being the conclusion from what goes before, and especially from the fact that "a mountain of the east" is the final thing to which the words that go before bear reference, and in the Word by "a mountain of the east" is signified charity from the Lord-as will be shown in what follows and the same may be seen from the fact that all things of the church have charity in view, as their finality or end. From all which it follows that "Mesha" signifies truth, or the terminus from which the progression commences (terminus a quo); and that " Sephar" signifies good, and thereby charity, which is "a mountain of the east," or the terminus to which the progression tends (terminus ad quem).

AC 1250. That "a mountain of the east" signifies charity, and in fact charity from the Lord, is evident from the signification of a "mountain" in the Word, as being love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, as has been shown before (n. 795). And that "the east" signified the Lord, and things celestial from Him, which are of love and charity, may be seen above (n. 101), as well as from the following passages. In Ezekiel:--

The cherubim lifted up their wings, and the glory of Jehovah went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east of the city (Ezekiel 11:22, 23).

Here "the mountain which is on the east" signifies nothing else than what is celestial, which is of love and charity, and which is of the Lord, for it is said that "the glory of Jehovah stood" thereon. Again:--

He brought me to the gate, even the gate that looketh to the way of the east; and behold the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east (Ezek. 43:1, 2),

where "the east" has a like signification.

[2] Again:--

He brought me back by the way of the outer gate of the sanctuary which looketh toward the east, and it was shut. And Jehovah said unto me, This gate shall be shut, it shall not be opened, neither shall any man enter in by it, but Jehovah the God of Israel shall enter in by it (Ezek. 44:1, 2).

Here likewise "the east" denotes what is celestial, which is of love, which is of the Lord alone. And again: When the prince shall make a freewill offering, a burnt-offering, and peace-offerings, a freewill offering unto Jehovah, one shall open for Him the gate that looketh toward the east, and he shall make his burnt-offering and his peace-offerings, as he shall do on the Sabbath day (Ezek. 46:12), in like manner denoting what is celestial, which is of love to the Lord.

[3] And in another place:--

He brought me back unto the door of the house, and behold waters issued out from under the threshold of the house eastward, for the face of the house was toward the east (Ezek. 47:1, 8),

speaking of the New Jerusalem "the east" denotes the Lord, and thus the celestial, which is of love; " waters" are things spiritual. The same is signified in the passage before us by "a mountain of the east." moreover they who dwelt in Syria were called " sons of the east," concerning which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 1251. Verse 31. These are the sons of Shem, according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, according to their nation. "These are the sons of Shem," signifies derivations from internal worship, which is " Shem;" "according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands, in their nations," signifies according to the genius of each in particular and in general "according to their families," is according to their differences in respect to charity; "according to their tongues," is according to the differences in respect to faith; "in their lands," is in general relatively to the things that are of faith; "in their nations," is in general relatively to the things that are of charity.

AC 1252. That these things are signified, needs no further confirmation; for they are the same words as occur above (verse 20); see what is said there. The significations of the terms, as here of the "families, tongues, lands, and nations," are determined by the relation of the terms to the things of which they are predicated. There they are predicated of Ham, or of corrupt internal worship; but here of Shem, or of true internal worship; and therefore the "families and nations" there relate to the morals, and the "tongues and lands" to the opinions, of a corrupt internal church; while here the "families and nations" relate to the charity, and the "tongues and lands" to the faith, of a true internal church. Concerning the signification of "nations and families," see what follows in this chapter.

AC 1253. Verse 32. These are the families of the sons of Noah, according to their nativities, in their nations. "These are the families of the sons of Noah," signifies the worships of the Ancient Church in particular; "according to their nativities," signifies in proportion as they could be reformed; "in their nations," signifies the worships of that church in general.

AC 1254. These are the families of the sons of Noah. That this signifies the worships of the Ancient Church in particular, is evident from the signification of a "family," and of "the families of the sons," as being worships, and in fact the species of the worships. The nations named in the preceding verses of this chapter signify nothing else than various worships of the Ancient Church, and therefore the families of which the nations consisted must signify the same. In the internal sense no other families can be meant than those of things spiritual and celestial.

AC 1255. According to their nativities. That this signifies in proportion as they could be reformed, is evident from the signification of a "nativity," as being reformation. While a man is being born again, or regenerated, by the Lord, each and all things that he receives anew are nativities or births. So here, as the subject is the Ancient Church, the nativities signify in proportion as they could be reformed. As regards the reformations of the nations, they were not all in the same worship, nor in the same doctrine, for the reason that they were not all of the same genius, and were not all similarly educated and instructed from infancy. The principles which a man imbibes from infancy the Lord never breaks, but bends. If they are things that the man esteems holy, and are such as are not contrary to Divine and natural order, but are in themselves matters of indifference, the Lord lets them alone, and suffers the man to remain in them. So it was with many things in the second Ancient Church, concerning which of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 1256. In their nations. That these nations signify the various worships of that church in general, is evident from what has been said before about nations, and from what follows.

AC 1257. And from these were spread abroad the nations in the earth after the flood. "From these were spread abroad the nations in the earth," signifies that from them came all the worships of the church in respect to goods and evils, which are signified by "the nations;" "the earth" is the church; "after the flood," signifies from the beginning of the Ancient Church.

AC 1258. And from these were spread abroad the nations in the earth. That this signifies that from them came all the worships of the church in respect to goods and evils, and that these are meant by the nations," is evident from the signification of "nations." By a nation, as has been explained before, are meant many families together. In the Most Ancient and in the Ancient Church, the many families which acknowledged one father constituted one nation. But as to "nations" signifying in the internal sense the worships of the church, and this in respect to the goods or evils in the worship, the case is this When families and nations are viewed by the angels, they have no idea of a nation, but only of the worship in it; for they regard all from the quality itself, that is, from what they are. The quality or character of a man, from which he is regarded in heaven, is his charity and faith. This any one may clearly apprehend if he considers that when he looks at any man, or any family, or nation, he thinks for the most part of what quality they are, every one from that which is dominant in himself at the time. The idea of their quality comes instantly to mind, and in himself he estimates them from that. Still more is this the case with the Lord; and, from Him, with the angels, who cannot but regard a man, a family, and a nation, from their quality in respect to charity and faith. And hence it is that in the internal sense by "nations" nothing else is signified than the worship of the church, and this in respect to its quality, which is the good of charity and the derivative truth of faith. When the term "nations" occurs in the Word, the angels do not abide at all in the idea of a nation, in accordance with the historical sense of the letter, but in the idea of the good and truth in the nation that is named.

AC 1259. Further, as regards nations signifying the goods and evils in worship, the case is this. In the most ancient times, as has been stated before, men lived distinguished into nations, families, and households, in order that the church on earth might represent the Lord‘s kingdom, wherein all are distinguished into societies, and these societies into greater ones, and these again into still greater societies, and this according to the differences of love and of faith, in general and in particular, (n. 684, 685). Thus these in like manner are distinguished as it were into households, families, and nations. And hence it is that in the Word "houses, families, and nations" signify the goods of love and of the derivative faith; and an accurate distinction is there made between "nations" and "people." A "nation" signifies good or evil, and a "people" truth or falsity, and this so constantly as never to vary, as may be seen from the following passages.

[2] In Isaiah:--

In that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which standeth for an ensign of the peoples, unto it shall the nations seek, and His rest shall be a glory. In that day the Lord shall set His hand again the second time to acquire the remnant of His people, which shall be left from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from Cush, and from Elam, and from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And He shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah (Isaiah 11:10-12).

Here "peoples" denote the truths, and "nations" the goods, of the church; and there is a manifest distinction made between them. The subject treated of is the Lord’s kingdom and the church, and in a universal sense every regenerate man. The signification of the names is as stated above; and by "Israel" is signified the spiritual things of the church, and by "Judah" its celestial things. Again:--

The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; Thou hast multiplied the nation, Thou hast magnified gladness for it (Isa. 9:2, 3).

The "people" here denote truths, and therefore are said to "walk in darkness," and to "see light;" the "nation" denotes goods.

[3] And again:--

What answer shall be made to the messengers of the nation? That Jehovah hath founded Zion, and in her shall the wretched ones of His people confide (Isa. 14:32).

Here likewise the "nation" denotes good, and "people" truth. And again:--

Jehovah Zebaoth will swallow up in this mountain the faces of the covering, of the covering over all peoples, and the veil that is spread over all nations (Isa. 25:7).

Here a new church is spoken of, or the church of the nations; "peoples" denote its truths, and "nations" its goods. Again:--

Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation that keepeth faithfulnesses may enter in (Isa. 26:2),

where "nation" manifestly denotes goods. Again:--

All the nations shall be gathered together, and the peoples shall be assembled (Isa. 43:9).

This also is said of the church of the nations; "nations" denoting its goods, and "peoples" its truths. And because they are distinct from each other, both are treated of; otherwise there would be a vain repetition. Again:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold I will lift up Mine hand to the nations, and will exalt My ensign to the peoples; and they shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and shall carry thy daughters upon their shoulder (Isa. 49:22).

This is said of the Lord‘s kingdom; and the "nations" in like manner denote goods, and the "peoples" truths.

[4] Again:--

Thou shalt break forth on the right hand and on the left, and thy seed shall inherit the nations, and they shall inhabit the desolate cities (Isa. 54:3);

treating of the Lord’s kingdom, and of the church which is called the church of the nations. That the "nations" denote the goods of charity, or, what is the same, those in whom there are goods of charity, is evident from its being said that the "seed"- or faith-" shall inherit" them; "cities" denote truths. Again:

Behold I have given Him for a witness to the peoples, a prince and lawgiver to the peoples. Behold, thou shalt call a nation that thou knewest not, and a nation that knew not thee shall run unto thee (Isa. 55:4, 5).

This is said of the Lord‘s kingdom; " peoples" denote truths; "nations" goods. Those in the church who are endowed with the good of charity are "nations," and those who are endowed with the truths of faith are "peoples;" for goods and truths are predicated according to the subjects in whom they are. Again:--

Nations shall walk to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. Then thou shalt see and flow together, and thine heart shall be amazed and be enlarged; because the multitude of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the army of the nations shall come unto thee (Isa. 60:3, 5)

treating of the Lord’s kingdom, and of the church of the nations. "Nations" here denote goods; "kings," who belong to peoples, truths.

[5] In Zephaniah:--

The remains of My people shall spoil them, and the residue of My nation shall inherit them (Zephaniah 2:9).

In Zechariah:--

Many peoples and numerous nations shall come to seek Jehovah of Armies in Jerusalem (Zechariah 8:22).

"Jerusalem" denotes the Lord‘s kingdom, and the church; "peoples" those who are in the truths of faith; "nations" those who are in the good of charity; and therefore they are mentioned distinctively. In David:--

Thou wilt deliver Me from the contentions of the people; Thou wilt set Me for the head of the nations; a people whom I have not known shall serve Me (Ps. 18:43).

Here likewise the "people" denote those who are in truths; and the "nations" those who are in good; and they are both mentioned because they constitute the man of the church. Again:--

The peoples shall confess Thee, O God, all the peoples shall confess Thee, the nations shall be glad and shall exult, because Thou shalt judge the peoples in uprightness, and shalt lead the nations into the land (Ps. 67:4, 5).

Here "peoples" manifestly denote those who are in the truths of faith; and "nations" those who are in the good of charity.

[6] In Moses:--

Remember the days of eternity, understand the years of generation and generation; ask thy father, and he will show thee thine elders, and they will tell thee. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, and separated the sons of man, He set the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel (Deut. 32:7, 8).

This is said of the Most Ancient Church, and of the Ancient Churches, which are "the days of eternity, and the years of generation and generation;" and in which they who were in the good of charity were called "nations," to whom an inheritance was given; and they who were in the derivative truths of faith were called "sons of man," and afterwards "peoples." It was because the goods of the church are signified by "nations," and its truths by "peoples," that it was said concerning Esau and Jacob, while they were yet in the womb, Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels (Gen. 25:23). From these passages it may now be seen what the church of the nations is, in its genuine sense. The Most Ancient Church was a true church of the nations, and so afterwards was the Ancient Church.

[7] Because those who are in charity are called "nations," and those who are in faith "peoples," the priesthood of the Lord is predicated of nations-because of things celestial, which are goods-and His royalty of peoples because of spiritual things, which are truths. This was also represented in the Jewish Church, where before they had kings they were a nation, but after they received kings they became a people.

AC 1260. Because in the Most Ancient and in the Ancient Church, nations signified goods, or good men, therefore in the opposite sense they signify evils, or evil men. In like manner peoples, because they signified truths, in the opposite sense signify falsities. For in a depraved church good is turned into evil, and truth into falsity. Hence comes the signification of "nations" and of "peoples" in this opposite sense in many places in the Word, as in (Isaiah 13:4; 14:6; 18:2, 7; 30:28; 34:1, 2; Ezek. 20:32).

AC 1261. As nations signified goods, so also did families, for each nation consisted of families; and so in like manner did households, for each family consisted of a number of households. Concerning a "household" or "house," (n. 710). "Families," however, signify goods when predicated of nations, and truths when predicated of peoples, as in David:--

All the families of the nations shall bow themselves before Thee for the kingdom is Jehovah’s, and He is the ruler over the nations (Ps. 22:27, 28).

Again:--

Give unto Jehovah, ye families of the peoples, give unto Jehovah glory and strength (Ps. 96:7).

In the verse now before us, and also in the preceding verse of this tenth chapter of Genesis, "families" are predicated of goods, because they were families of the nations.

AC 1262. From what has been said it may now be seen that by "the earth" is here signified the church; for when "earth" (or "land") is mentioned, there cannot but be a perception of the nation or people there; and when a nation or people is perceived, there must be a perception of their quality. Hence by "the earth" nothing else is signified than the church, as has been shown before (n. 662, 1066).

AC 1263. That "after the flood" signifies from the beginning of the Ancient Church, is evident from the fact that the flood was the end of the Most Ancient Church and the beginning of the Ancient Church, as was shown before (n. 705, 739, 790).

AC 1264. From all this it may now be seen that although in this chapter mere names of nations and families occur, yet it contains, in general, not only all the differences of worship as regards the goods of charity and truths of faith that were in the Ancient Church, but also all that are in any church; in fact it contains more than any man could ever believe. Such is the Word of the Lord.

CONCERNING THE ANTEDILUVIANS WHO PERISHED

AC 1265. At some height above the head there were a number of spirits who inflowed into my thoughts and kept them as it were bound, so that I was in very much obscurity. They pressed heavily upon me. The spirits about me were likewise held as it were bound by them, so that they could scarcely think, except that which inflowed from those spirits, and this to such a degree as to excite their indignation. It was said that the spirits in question were of those who had lived before the flood; but not of those called Nephilim, and who perished, for they were not so strongly persuasive.

AC 1266. The antediluvians who perished are in a certain hell beneath the heel of the left foot. There is a kind of misty rock with which they are covered, that is projected from their direful phantasies and persuasions, and by which they are separated from the other hells, and are kept away from the world of spirits. They are in the continual effort to rise out of it, but cannot get beyond the effort; for they are of such a nature that if they should come into the world of spirits, they, by their direful phantasies and the exhalations and venom of their persuasions, would take away the faculty of thinking from all the spirits they met, except the good. And unless the Lord, by His coming into the flesh, had liberated the world of spirits from this nefarious crew, the human race would have perished; for no spirit could have been with man, and yet if spirits and angels are not with man, he cannot live a moment.

AC 1267. Those of them who obstinately try to emerge from that hell are cruelly treated by their companions; for they are possessed with deadly hatred against all, even against their companions. Their greatest delight consists in holding each other in subjection, and as it were in butchering each other. Those who more resolutely persist in the endeavor to force their way out, are sent down still deeper under the misty rock; for it is their innate crazy ardor to destroy all, that leads them on; hence their efforts to emerge. They wrap all they meet in a cloth, in order to take them captive, and cast them into a certain sea, as it appears to them, or otherwise treat them savagely.

AC 1268. I was led, guarded, toward that misty rock. (To be led to such spirits is not to be led from place to place, but it is effected by means of intermediate societies of spirits and angels, the man remaining in the same place; and yet it appears to him as a letting down). As I came near the rock I was met with a coldness which gripped the lower region of my back. From there I spoke with them about their persuasions, and about what they had believed in the life of the body as regards the Lord. They answered that they had thought much about God, but had persuaded themselves that there is no God, but that men are gods, and thus they themselves were gods; and that they had confirmed themselves in these persuasions by their dreams. Their phantasies against the Lord will be spoken of below.

AC 1269. That I might know still better what kind of men they were, it was permitted by the Lord that some of them should come up into the world of spirits. Before this took place a beautiful child appeared, clothed in shining white raiment; afterwards, in an open doorway, there appeared another child in a green garment; and then two maidservants with white headdresses. But what these things signified was not disclosed to me.

AC 1270. Presently some were let out of that hell; but the Lord made such a disposition by means of intermediate spirits and angels that they could do me no harm. Out of that deep they came in front, and appeared to themselves to be working their way toward the front, as it were through caverns in the rock, and so upward. At last they appeared from above to the left, in order that from there, and thus from a distance, they might inflow into me. I was told that they were permitted to inflow into the right side of the head, but not into the left side; and from the right side of the head into the left side of the chest; but by no means into the left of the head, for if this occurred I should be destroyed, because they would then flow in with their persuasions, which are direful and deadly; whereas if they flowed into the right of the head, and thence into the left of the chest, it would be by means of cupidities. Such is the case with influx.

[2] Their persuasions are of such a nature that they extinguish all truth and good, so that those into whom they flow can perceive nothing whatever, and after that cannot think; and therefore the other spirits were removed. When they began to flow in I fell asleep. Then while I slept they flowed in by means of cupidities, and this with such violence that if awake I could not have resisted them. In my sleep I was sensible of the vehemence of it, which I cannot describe, save that I afterwards remembered that they tried to kill me by a suffocating afflatus, which was like a terrible nightmare. Then, waking, I observed that they were near me; and when they perceived that I was awake, they fled away to their own place above, and flowed in from thence.

[3] When they were there they appeared to me as if they were being wrapped up in a cloth, such as was spoken of before (n. 964). I thought they were being thus wrapped up, but it was others whom they were wrapping up. This is effected by means of phantasies; but yet the spirits against whom they thus work by phantasies know not but that they are really being wrapped up. It appeared as if those whom they thus wrapped up rolled down a certain rocky declivity. But those who were thus wrapped up were released and set at liberty. They were spirits who were unwilling to withdraw, and who were thus preserved by the Lord, for otherwise they would have been suffocated-although they would have revived again, but after great suffering. The spirits from that hell then went back by the rocky declivity; and there was heard from thence a sound of boring, as if many great boring instruments were at work; and it was perceived that it was from their intensely cruel phantasies against the Lord that such a sound came. They were afterwards cast down through dark caverns into their hell beneath the misty rock. While they were in the world of spirits, the constitution or order of the sphere there was changed.

AC 1271. After this, there were certain deceitful spirits who desired that these might emerge, and inspired them to say that they were nothing, so that they might steal out. Then a tumult was heard in that hell, as of a great turbulent uprising, which was a commotion among those who desired to force their way out, and therefore it was again permitted that some of them should rise up, and be seen in the same place as the former were. From there, aided by those deceitful genii, they attempted to pour into me their deadly persuasive influence; but in vain, because I was protected by the Lord. Yet I plainly perceived that their persuasive influence was suffocating. They believed themselves to be all-powerful, and able to take away life from every one. And because they believed themselves to be all-powerful, they were thrust down by a little child, at whose presence they tottered and faltered, so that they cried out that they were in anguish, and this so sorely that they betook themselves to supplications. The deceitful spirits were also punished, first being almost suffocated by the antediluvians, and then being glued together, to make them desist from such doings; but after a time they were set free.

AC 1272. It was afterwards shown me how their women were dressed. They wore upon the head a round black hat, projecting turret-like in front, and had a small face, whereas the men were shaggy and hairy. It was shown me also how they gloried in the great number of their children; and that they had their children with them wherever they went, who walked before them in a curved line. But they were told that the brutes also, even the worst, all have a love for their young; and that this is no evidence that there is anything good in them; but that if they had loved children, not from their love of themselves and their own glory, but that human society might be augmented, for the common good; and especially if they had loved them in order that heaven might thereby be multiplied, thus for the sake of the Lord‘s kingdom, then their love for children would have been genuine.


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