HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter 11

CONCERNING THE SITUATION OF THE GRAND MAN; AND ALSO CONCERNING PLACE AND DISTANCE IN THE OTHER LIFE

AC 1273. Souls newly arrived from the world, when about to leave the company of the spiritual angels to go among spirits, and so at length to come into the society in which they had been while they lived in the body, are led about by angels to many mansions or abodes, that is, to societies which are distinct and yet conjoined with others; in some of which they are received, while in other cases they are led to still other societies, and this for an indefinite time, until they come to the society in which they had been while they lived in the body; and there they remain. From this moment they experience a new beginning of life. If the man is a dissembler, a hypocrite, or deceitful, who can assume a fictitious state, and a seemingly angelic disposition, he is sometimes received by good spirits but after a short time he is dissociated, and then wanders about, without the angels, and begs to be received, but is rejected, and sometimes punished, and at last he is carried down among the infernals. Those who are taken up among angels after being vastated, also change their societies and when they pass from one society to another they are dismissed with courtesy and charity, and this until they come into the angelic society which accords with the distinctive quality or genius of their charity, piety, probity, or sincere courtesy. I in like manner have been led through such "mansions," and those who dwelt there conversed with me, that I might know how the case was in regard to this matter. It was given me at the time to reflect on the changes of place, and to see that they were nothing else than changes of state, my body remaining in the same place.

AC 1274. Among the marvelous things in the other life are, - First, the fact that societies of spirits and angels appear distinct from one another as to situation, although places and distances in that life are nothing else than varieties of state. Second that the situations and distances are determined by their relation to the human body, so that those who are on the right appear on the right whichever way the body is turned; and the case is the same with those who are on the left and in all other directions. Third, that no spirits or angels are at so great a distance away that they cannot be seen; and yet no more come into view than so many as the Lord permits. Fourth, that spirits of whom others are thinking-for example, such as had been in some manner known to them in the life of the body-when the Lord permits it, are present in a moment, and so closely that they are at the ear, in touch, or else at some distance, greater or less, no matter should they be thousands of miles away, or even among the stars. The reason is that distance of place has no effect in the other life. Fifth, that with the angels there is no idea of time. These things are so in the world of spirits, and are still more completely so in heaven. How much more then must this be the case before the Lord, to whom all both generally and individually cannot but be most present, and under His view and providence. These things seem incredible, but yet they are true.

AC 1275. I was in a society where there was tranquillity, that is, a society of those whose state was tranquil, approximating in a measure to a state of peace, but it was not peace. I spoke there of the state of infants; and also of place, saying that change of place and distance is only an appearance, according to the state of each one, and according to his change of state. When I was translated thither, the spirits around me appeared to be removed, and to be seen below me; and yet I could hear them speaking.

AC 1276. As regards the situation in which spirits are in the world of spirits, and angels in heaven, the case is this. The angels are at the Lord‘s right hand on His left are evil spirits; in front are those of a middle kind; at the back are the malignant; above the head are those of a self-exalted spirit who aspire to high things; under the feet are the hells which correspond to those who are on high. Thus all have their situation determined relatively to the Lord; in all directions and at all altitudes, in a horizontal plane and in a vertical one, and in every oblique direction. Their situation is constant, and does not vary to eternity. The heavens there constitute as it were one man, which is therefore called the Grand Man; to which all things that are in man correspond; concerning which correspondence, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. It is from this that there is a like situation of all things around each angel; and with each man to whom heaven is opened by the Lord; for the Lord‘s presence is attended with this. It would not be so unless the Lord were omnipresent in heaven.

AC 1277. The case is the very same with men, as to their souls, which are constantly bound to some society of spirits and of angels. They too have a situation in the kingdom of the Lord according to the nature of their life, and according to their state. It matters not that they are distant from each other on earth even though it were many thousands of miles-still they can be together in the same society-those who live in charity in an angelic society, and those who live in hatred and such evils in an infernal society. In like manner it matters not that there be many together on earth in one place, for still they are all distinct in accordance with the nature of their life and of their state, and each one may be in a different society. Men who are distant from each other some hundreds or thousands of miles, when they appear to the internal sense may be so near each other that some of them may touch, according to their situation. Thus if there were a number of persons on earth whose spiritual sight was opened, they might be together and converse together, though one was in India and another in Europe, which also has been shown me. Thus are all men on earth, both generally and individually, most closely present to the Lord, and under His view and providence.

AC 1278. A continuation of the subject of situation, place, distance, and time, in the other life, will be found at the end of this chapter.

GENESIS 11:1-32

1. And the whole earth was of one lip, and their words were one.

2. And it came to pass when they journeyed from the east, that they found a valley in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there.

3. And they said a man to his fellow, Come, let us make bricks, and let us burn them to a burning. And they had brick for stone, and bitumen had they for mortar.

4. And they said, Come, let us build us a city and a tower, and its head in heaven; and let us make us a name, lest peradventure we be scattered upon the faces of the whole earth.

5. And Jehovah came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of man were building.

6. And Jehovah said, Behold, the people are one, and they all have one lip, and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them of all which they have thought to do.

7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their lip, that they hear not a man the lip of his fellow.

8. And Jehovah scattered them from thence upon the faces of all the earth; and they left off to build the city.

9. Therefore He called the name of it Babel, because there did Jehovah confound the lip of all the earth; and from thence did Jehovah scatter them upon the faces of all the earth.

10. These are the births of Shem: Shem was a son of a hundred years, and begat Arpachshad, two years after the flood.

11. And Shem lived after he begat Arpachshad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters.

12. And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, and begat Shelah.

13. And Arpachshad lived after he begat Shelah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters.

14. And Shelah lived thirty years, and begat Eber.

15. And Shelah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters.

16. And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg.

17. And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters.

18. And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu.

19. And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters.

20. And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug. 21. And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters.

22. And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor.

23. And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters.

24. And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah.

25. And Nahor lived after he begat Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters.

26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

27. And these are the births of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot.

28. And Haran died upon the faces of Terah his father, in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees.

29. And Abram and Nahor took them wives; the name of Abram’s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor‘s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah.

30. And Sarai was barren, she had no offspring.

31. And Terah took Abram his son; and Lot the son of Haran, his son’s son; and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram‘s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came even unto Haran, and stayed there.

32. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran.

THE CONTENTS

AC 1279. The subject treated of is the first Ancient Church, which was after the flood (verses 1 to 9).

AC 1280. Concerning its first state, that all had one doctrine (verse 1); its second state, that it began to decline (verse 2); its third, that the falsities of cupidities began to reign (verse 3); its fourth, that men began to exercise dominion by means of Divine worship (verse 4) and therefore the state of the church was changed (verses 5 and 6); so that none had the good of faith (verses 7 to 9).

AC 1281. The second Ancient Church is then treated of which was named from Eber--and its derivation and state, which finally ended in idolatry (verses 10 to 26).

AC 1282. The origin of a third Ancient Church is treated of, which from being idolatrous became representative (verses 27 to 32).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 1283. The Ancient Church in general is now treated of, and it is shown that in course of time its internal worship was falsified and adulterated; and consequently its external worship also, for the quality of the external worship is determined by that of the internal worship. The falsification and adulteration of internal worship here is "Babel." That thus far--except what is said about Eber--the historical incidents were not true, but were made up, may be further seen from what is here said about the Babylonish tower--that men undertook to build a tower whose top should be in heaven, that their lips were confounded so that one should not hear the lip of another, and that Jehovah thus confounded them; and also from its being said that this was the origin of Babel, whereas in the preceding chapter (verse 10) it is said that Babel was built by Nimrod. It is also evident from all this that Babel does not signify a city, but a certain actual thing; and here a worship whose interiors are profane, while its externals appear holy.

AC 1284. Verse 1. And the whole earth was of one lip, and their words were one. "And the whole earth was of one lip," signifies that everywhere there was one doctrine in general; a "lip" is doctrine; "the earth" is the church; "and their words were one," signifies that there was one doctrine in particular.

AC 1285. The whole earth was of one lip. That this signifies that everywhere there was one doctrine in general, is evident from the signification of "lip," in the Word, concerning which presently. In this verse, and these few words, is described the state of the Ancient Church as it had been, that it had one doctrine in general; but in the following verse it is described how it began to be falsified and adulterated; and from that to the ninth verse, how it became altogether perverted, so that it no longer had any internal worship. Then, a little further on, the subject treated of is the second Ancient Church, that was begun by Eber; and, finally, the third Ancient Church, which was the beginning of the Jewish Church. For after the flood there were three churches in succession.

[2] As regards the first Ancient Church, in that although it was so widely spread over the earth it was still one in lip and one in words, that is, one in doctrine in general and in particular, when yet its worship both internal and external was everywhere different--as shown in the preceding chapter, where by each nation there named a different doctrinal and ritual were signified--the case is this. In heaven there are innumerable societies, and different, and yet they are a one, for they are all led as a one by the Lord, concerning which see what has been said before (n. 457, 551, 684, 685, 690). In this respect the case is the same as it is with man, in whom, although there are so many viscera, and so many little viscera within the viscera, organs, and members, each one of which acts in a different way, yet all and each are governed as a one, by the one soul; or as it is with the body, wherein the activities of the powers and motions are different, yet all are governed by one motion of the heart and one motion of the lungs, and make a one. That these can thus act as a one, comes from the fact that in heaven there is one single influx, which is received by every individual in accordance with his own genius; and which influx is an influx of affections from the Lord, from His mercy, and from His life; and notwithstanding that there is only one single influx, yet all things obey and follow as a one. This is the result of the mutual love in which are they who are in heaven.

[3] The case was the same in the first Ancient Church; for although there were as many kinds of worship--some being internal and some external--as in general there were nations, and as many specifically as there were families in the nations, and as many in particular as there were men of the church, yet they all had one lip and were one in words; that is, they all had one doctrine, both in general and in particular. The doctrine is one when all are in mutual love, or in charity. Mutual love and charity cause them all to be a one, although they are diverse, for they make a one out of the varieties. All men how many soever they may be, even myriads of myriads, if they are in charity or mutual love, have one end, namely, the common good, the Lord’s kingdom, and the Lord Himself. Varieties in matters of doctrine and of worship are like the varieties of the senses and of the viscera in man, as has been said, which contribute to the perfection of the whole. For then, through charity, the Lord inflows and works in diverse ways, in accordance with the genius of each one; and thus, both in general and in particular, disposes all into order, on earth as in heaven. And then the will of the Lord is done, as He Himself teaches, as in the heavens, so also upon the earth.

AC 1286. That a "lip" signifies doctrine, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:--

The seraphim cried and said, Holy, holy, holy, Jehovah of Armies. And the prophet said, Woe is me! for I am cut off, because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; for mine eyes have seen the King, Jehovah of Armies. Then flew one of the seraphim unto me, and be touched my mouth, and said, Lo, this hath touched thy lips; and thine iniquity is taken away, and thy sin is expiated (Isaiah 6:3, 5-7).

"Lips" here denote the interior things of man, thus internal worship, from which is adoration, as is here represented with the prophet. That his lips were touched, and that thus his iniquity was taken away and his sin expiated, any one may see was a representative of interior things that are signified by the "lips," which are things of charity and its doctrine.

[2] Again:--

Jehovah shall smite the earth with the rod of His mouth, and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the wicked (Isa. 11:4).

In the internal sense this does not mean that Jehovah smites with the rod of His mouth, and slays the wicked with the breath of His lips, but that a wicked man does this to himself; "the breath of the lips" is doctrine, which with the wicked is false. Again:--

I create the increase of the lips, peace, peace, to him that is far off, and to him that is near, saith Jehovah; and I heal him (Isa. 57:19).

"The increase of the lips" denotes doctrine.

[3] In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, go, get thee unto the house of Israel, and speak My words unto them. For thou art not sent to a people deep of lip, and heavy of tongue, but to the house of Israel; not to many peoples deep of lip and heavy of tongue, whose words thou canst not understand. If I had sent thee to them, would they not have hearkened unto thee? But the house of Israel will not hearken unto thee, for they will not hearken unto Me, for all the house of Israel are of a hardened forehead, and hard of heart (Ezekiel 3:4-7).

"Deep of lip" is predicated of the nations which although in falsity of doctrine were yet in charity, and are therefore said to "hearken;" but they who are not in charity are said to be of "a hardened forehead, and a hard heart."

[4] In Zephaniah:--

Then will I turn to the people with a clear lip, that they may all call upon the name of Jehovah, to serve Him with one shoulder (Zephaniah 3:9).

"A clear lip" manifestly denotes doctrine. In Malachi:--

The law of truth was in his mouth, and perversity was not found in his lips. For the priest‘s lips should keep knowledge, and they should seek the law at his mouth; for he is the angel of Jehovah of Armies (Malachi 2:6, 7).

This is said of Levi, by whom the Lord is represented; "lips" denote doctrine from charity. In David:--

Who say, With our tongue will we prevail; our lips are with us (Ps. 12:4).

Here "lips" denote falsities. Again:--

My soul shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness; and my mouth shall praise Thee with lips of songs (Ps. 63:5).

In Isaiah:--

In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt speaking with the lip of Caanan, and swearing to Jehovah of Armies (Isaiah 19:18)

"lip" denotes doctrine.

AC 1287. That "the earth" signifies the church, has been shown before (n. 662, 1066).

AC 1288. Their words were one. That this signifies that there was one doctrine in particular, is evident from what has been said before for "a lip" signifies doctrine in general, as was shown; and "words" signify doctrine in particular, or the particulars of doctrine. For the particulars cause no disagreement, provided they look to one end, which is to love the Lord above all things and the neighbor as one’s self; for then they are particulars of these generals.

[2] That a "word" signifies all doctrine concerning charity and the derivative faith, and that "words" signify the things which are of doctrine, is evident in David:--

I will confess unto Thee with uprightness of heart, when I shall learn the judgments of Thy righteousness; I will keep Thy statutes. Wherewithal shall a child make pure his path? By taking heed according to Thy word. With my whole heart have I sought Thee; make me not to wander from Thy precepts. Thy word have I hidden in my heart, that I might not sin against Thee. Blessed art Thou, O Jehovah; teach me Thy statutes. With my lips have I rehearsed all the judgments of Thy mouth. I have rejoiced in the way of Thy testimonies. I meditate in Thy commandments, and look unto Thy ways. I delight in Thy statutes; I do not forget Thy word (Ps. 119:7-16).

"Word" here denotes doctrine in general. It is evident that a distinction is here made between "precepts," "judgments," "testimonies," "commandments," "statutes," "way," and "lips;" and that all these belong to the Word, or to doctrine. And everywhere else in the Word they signify the same distinct things.

[3] Again:--

A song of love. My heart hath willed a good word; my tongue is the pen of a rapid writer. Thou art beauteous above the sons of man; grace is poured upon thy lips. Ride upon the word of truth; and of the gentleness of righteousness; thy right hand shall teach thee wonderful things (Ps. 45:1, 2, 4).

"To ride upon the word of truth and of the gentleness of righteousness," is to teach the doctrine of truth and of good. Here, as elsewhere in the Word, the terms "word," "lip," and "tongue" signify distinct things; that they are things of doctrine concerning charity is evident, because it is called "a song of loves." Of this doctrine is predicated beauty above the sons of man, grace of lips, and a right hand that teacheth wonderful things.

[4] In Isaiah:--

Jehovah sent a word into Jacob, and it hath lighted upon Israel (Isa. 9:8).

"A word" denotes the doctrine of internal and of external worship; "Jacob" here denotes external worship, and "Israel" internal. In Matthew:--

Jesus said, Man doth not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God (Matthew 4:4).

Again:--

When any one heareth the word of the Kingdom and heedeth it not, then cometh the evil one and snatcheth away that which hath been sown in his heart (Matthew 13:19)

see also concerning "the word" in the same chapter, (Matt. 13:20-23). Again:--

Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away (Matthew 24:35).

In these passages, "the word" denotes the Lord‘s doctrine; and "words" the things that belong to His doctrine.

[5] Because the expression "words" denotes all things of doctrine, the commandments of the decalogue were called "words," in Moses:--

Jehovah wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten words (Exod. 34:28).

Again:--

He hath declared unto you His covenant, which He commanded you to perform, the ten words; and He wrote them upon two tables of stone (Deut. 4:13; 10:4).

Again:--

Take heed to thyself, and keep thy soul diligently, lest thou forget the words that thine eyes have seen (Deut. 4:9)

besides other places.

AC 1289. Verse 2. And it came to pass when they journeyed from the east, that they found a valley in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. "When they journeyed from the east," signifies when they went back from charity; "the east," is charity from the Lord; "that they found a valley in the land of Shinar," signifies that their worship became more unclean and profane "and they dwelt there," signifies their life.

AC 1290. When they journeyed from the east. That this signifies when they went back from charity, is evident from the signification in the Word of "journeying," and of "the east." That "journeying" here signifies to go back, is evident from its being said concerning charity which is "the east" whence they journeyed.

AC 1291. That "the east" is charity from the Lord, is evident from what has been shown before (n. 101, 1250).

AC 1292. That they found a valley in the land of Shinar. That this signifies that their worship became more unclean and profane, is evident from the signification of "a valley," and of "the land of Shinar." In the Word, "mountains" signify love or charity, because these are the highest, or, what is the same, the inmost things in worship, as before shown (n. 795). Hence "a valley" signifies what is beneath the mountains, that is, what is lower in worship, which is the same as what is exterior therein; and "the land of Shinar," signifies external worship wherein is what is profane, as before shown (n. 1183). And so in this passage, their having found a valley in the land of Shinar signifies that their worship became more unclean and profane.

[2] In the first verse it is said of the church that it was of one lip and that its words were one, which means that it had one doctrine in general and in particular. But in this verse the decline of the church is treated of, in that it is said that they journeyed from the east, that is, they began to go back from charity; for in so far as the church, or a man of the church, goes back from charity, so far his worship goes back from what is holy, or in other words, so far his worship approaches what is unclean and profane. That their having found a valley in the land of Shinar signifies the decline of the church, or of worship, to what is profane, is because a valley is a low place between mountains, by which are signified the holy things of love or of charity in worship, as before said. This may also be seen from the signification of "a valley" in the Word, where valleys are designated, in the original language, by certain terms which signify, when used in that sense, what is more or less profane in worship.

[3] That "valleys" have such a signification is evident in Isaiah:--

The burden of the valley of vision. For it is a day of tumult, and of treading down, and of perplexity, to the Lord Jehovih of Armies, in the valley of vision (Isa. 22:1, 5).

"The valley of vision" denotes phantasies and reasonings, whereby worship is falsified and at last profaned. In Jeremiah:--

How sayest thou I am not defiled, I have not walked after the Baalim? see thy way in the valley (Jeremiah 2:23).

"The valley" denotes unclean worship. Again:--

They have built the high places of Tophet, which is in the valley of the son of Hinnom; wherefore behold the days come, saith Jehovah, that it shall no more be called Tophet, nor the valley of the son of Hinnom, but the valley of slaughter (Jeremiah 7:31, 32; 19:6).

"The valley of Hinnom" denotes hell, and also the profanation of truth and good.

[4] In Ezekiel:--

Thus hath said the Lord Jehovih to the mountains and to the hills, to the watercourses and to the valleys, Behold Me, I bring a sword upon you, and I will destroy your high places (Ezekiel 6:3).

Again:--

I will give unto Gog a place there for burial in Israel, the valley of them that pass through toward the east of the sea, and they shall call it the valley of the multitude of Gog (Ezekiel 39:11, 15).

This is said of worship in externals "a valley" denotes such worship. But when the worship has not yet become so profane, this is expressed by the Hebrew word for valley that is used in the verse before us (Gen. 11:2); and also in Isaiah:--

I will open rivers upon the slopes, and I will make fountains in the midst of the valleys, the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs of waters (Isaiah 41:18).

This is said of those who are in ignorance, or who are beyond the knowledges of faith and of charity, and yet are in charity. "Valley" as used here denotes these. In like manner does "valley" in (Ezekiel 37:1).

AC 1293. And they dwelt there. That this signifies the derivative life, may be seen from the signification in the Word of "dwelling," which is living. The word "dwell" frequently occurs in both the prophetic and the historic parts of the Word, and in the internal sense it usually signifies to live. The reason is that the most ancient people dwelt in tents, and held their most holy worship there; and therefore in the Word "tents" signify what is holy in worship, as before shown (n. 414). And as tents signified the holy in worship, "to dwell," also, in a good sense, signifies to live, or life. In like manner, because the most ancient people journeyed with their tents, in the internal sense of the Word "to journey" signifies the modes and order of life.

AC 1294. Verse 3. And they said a man to his fellow, Come, let us make bricks, and let us burn them to a burning. And they had brick for stone, and bitumen had they for mortar. "And they said a man to his fellow," signifies that it was begun; "Come, let us make bricks," signifies falsities which they fashioned for themselves; "and let us burn them to a burning," signifies evils from the love of self. "And they had brick for stone," signifies that they had falsity instead of truth; "and bitumen had they for mortar," signifies that they had the evil of cupidity instead of good.

AC 1295. And they said a man to his fellow. That this signifies that it was begun, or that they had begun, follows from the connection. In this verse the third state of the church is treated of, when falsities had begun to reign; and in fact from cupidities. There are two beginnings of falsities, one from ignorance of truth, the other from cupidities. Falsity from ignorance of truth is not so pernicious as falsity from cupidities. For the falsity of ignorance arises either from one’s having been so instructed from childhood, or from having been diverted by various occupations so that one has not examined whether what professes to be true is really so, or from not having had much faculty of judging concerning what is true and what is false. The falsities from these sources do not inflict much harm, provided the man has not much confirmed and thus persuaded himself, being incited thereto by some cupidity so as to defend the falsities for by doing this he would make the cloud of ignorance dense, and turn it into darkness so that he could not see the truth.

[2] But the falsity of cupidities exists when the origin of the falsity is the cupidity or love of self and of the world; as when one seizes upon some point of doctrine and professes it in order to captivate minds and lead them, and explains or perverts the doctrine in favor of self, and confirms it both by reasonings from memory-knowledges, and by the literal sense of the Word. The worship derived from this is profane, however holy it may outwardly appear; for inwardly it is not the worship of the Lord, but the worship of self. Nor does such a man acknowledge anything as true except in so far as he can explain it so as to favor himself. Such worship is that which is signified by "Babel." But the case is different with those who have been born and brought up in such worship, and who do not know that it is false, and who live in charity. In their ignorance there is innocence, and in their worship there is good from charity. The profanity in worship is not predicated so much from the worship itself, as from the quality of the man who is in the worship.

AC 1296. Come, let us make bricks. That this signifies falsities which they fashioned for themselves, is evident from the signification of "brick." In the Word, "stone" signifies truth, and therefore "brick," because it is made by man, signifies falsity; for brick is stone artificially made. That "brick" has this signification may be further seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

I have spread out My hands all the day unto a refractory people, that walk in a way that is not good, after their own thoughts, sacrificing in gardens, and burning incense upon bricks (Isaiah 65:2, 3).

"Burning incense upon bricks" denotes worship from things fabricated and false; and therefore they are said to walk after their own thoughts. Again:--

For the elation and pride of heart of Ephraim and of the inhabitant of Samaria, that say, the bricks have fallen down, but we will build with hewn stone (Isaiah 60:9, 10).

"Ephraim" denotes an intelligent person who falls into perversities, and calls or makes to be true things that are false, or "bricks;" "hewn stone" denotes what is fabricated. In Nahum:--

Draw thee water for the siege, strengthen thy fortresses, go into the mud and tread the clay, repair the brickkiln. There shall the fire devour thee, and the sword shall cut thee off (Nahum 3:14, 15).

Here "to tread the clay" denotes falsities "to repair the brickkiln denotes the derivative worship; "the fire" is the punishment of cupidities; "the sword" is the punishment of falsities. In Ezekiel:--

Take thee a brick, and set it before thee, and grave upon it a city, even Jerusalem (Ezekiel 4:1)

and he was commanded to besiege it, in which prophetic matter there is involved that the worship was falsified. That "brick" signifies falsity, may be still further seen from the signification of "stone," which is truth, concerning which presently.

AC 1297. And let us burn them to a burning. That this signifies evils from the love of self, is evident from the signification in the Word of "to burn," of "a burning," of "fire," of "sulphur," and of "bitumen," which are predicated of cupidities, especially of those which belong to the love of self. As in Isaiah:--

Our house of holiness, and our beauty (decus), where our fathers praised Thee, hath been made a burning of fire; and all our desirable things have been made a waste (Isaiah 64:11).

Again:--

Conceive chaff, bring forth stubble; your wind is a fire that shall devour you; thus will the peoples be burnings of lime; thorns lopped off they will be kindled with fire (Isaiah 33:11, 12).

Not to mention many other similar expressions. "To be burned" and "fire" are predicated of cupidities, because the case as regards them both is much the same.

AC 1298. And they had brick for stone. That this signifies that they had falsity for truth, is evident from the signification of "brick," just now shown to be falsity; and from the signification of "stone," which in a wide sense is truth, concerning which above (n. 643). Stones have signified truth for the reason that the boundaries of the most ancient people were marked off by stones, and that they set up stones as witnesses that the case was so and so, or that it was true; as is evident from the stone that Jacob set up for a pillar (Gen. 28:22; 35:14), and from the pillar of stones between Laban and Jacob (Gen. 31:46, 47, 52), and from the altar built by the sons of Reuben, Gad, and Manasseh, near the Jordan, as a witness (Josh. 22:10, 28, 34). Therefore in the Word truths are signified by "stones;" insomuch that not only by the stones of the altar, but also by the precious stones upon the shoulders of Aaron‘s ephod and upon the breastplate of judgment, there were signified holy truths which are of love.

[2] As regards the altar,--when the worship of sacrifices upon altars began, the altar signified the representative worship of the Lord in general; but the stones themselves represented the holy truths of that worship; and therefore it was commanded that the altar should be built of whole stones, not hewn, and it was forbidden that any iron should be moved upon them (Deut. 27:5-7; Josh. 8:31); for the reason that hewn stones, and stones on which iron has been used, signified what is artificial, and thus what is fictitious in worship; that is, what is of man’s own or of the figment of his thought and heart. This was to profane worship, as is plainly said in (Exodus 20:25). For the same reason iron was not used upon the stones of the temple (1 Kings 6:7).

[3] That the precious stones upon the shoulders of Aaron‘s ephod, and in the breastplate of judgment, signified holy truths, has been shown before (n. 114). The same is evident in Isaiah:--

Behold I will make thy stones to lie in carbuncle, and I will lay thy foundation in sapphires, and will put rubies for thy suns (windows), and thy gates in gem-stones, and all thy border in stones of desire; and all thy sons shall be taught of Jehovah, and great shall be the peace of thy sons (Isaiah 54:11-13).

The stones here named denote holy truths, and therefore it is said "all thy sons shall be taught of Jehovah." Hence it is said in John that the foundations of the wall of the city, the holy Jerusalem, were adorned with every precious stone, and the stones are named (Rev. 21:19, 20). The "holy Jerusalem" denotes the kingdom of the Lord in heaven and on earth, the foundations of which are holy truths. In like manner the tables of stone, on which the commands of the Law, or the Ten Words, were written, signified holy truths; and therefore they were of stone, or their foundation (fundus) was stone, concerning which see (Exodus 24:12; 31:18; 34:1; Deut. 5:22; 10:1), for the commands themselves are nothing else than truths of faith.

[4] As then in ancient times truths were signified by stones, and afterwards, when worship began upon pillars and altars, and in a temple, holy truths were signified by the pillars, altars, and temple, therefore the Lord also was called "a Stone;" as in Moses:--

The Mighty One of Jacob, from thence is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel (Gen. 49:24).

In Isaiah:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Behold, I lay in Zion for a foundation a Stone, a tried Stone of the corner, of price, of a sure foundation (Isaiah 28:16).

In David:--

The Stone which the builders rejected is become the head of the corner (Psalms 118:22).

The like is signified in Daniel by "the stone cut out of the rock," which brake in pieces the statue of Nebuchadnezzar (Daniel 2:34, 35, 45).

[5] That "stones" signify truths, is evident also in Isaiah:--

By this shall the iniquity of Jacob be expiated, and this shall be all the fruit, to take away his sin; when he shall put all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are scattered (Isaiah 27:9)

"the stones of the altar" denote truths in worship, which are dispersed. Again:--

Make ye level the way of the people; flatten out, flatten ye out the path; gather out the stones (Isaiah 62:10);

"Way" and "stone" denote truths. In Jeremiah:--

I am against thee, O destroying mountain; I will roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee into a mountain of burning; and they shall not take of thee a stone for a corner, nor a stone of foundation (Jeremiah 51:25, 26).

This is said of Babel; "a mountain of burning," is the love of self. That "a stone should not be taken from it," means that there is no truth.

AC 1299. And bitumen had they for mortar. That this signifies that they had the evil of cupidity instead of good, is evident from the signification in the Word of "bitumen" and of "mortar." As the subject here treated of is the building of the Babylonish tower, such things are set forth as are used in building; here, bitumen, because it is sulphureous and inflammable, and in the Word by such things there are signified cupidities, especially those which belong to the love of self. Here, "bitumen" signifies both the evils of cupidities and the derivative falsities; which also are the evils wherewith the tower was built; concerning which hereafter. That such things are signified, is evident in Isaiah:--

The day of vengeance of Jehovah; the torrents shall be turned into pitch, and the dust thereof into sulphur, and the land thereof shalt be burning pitch (Isaiah 34:8, 9).

"Pitch" and "sulphur" denote the falsities and evils of cupidities. And so in other places.

AC 1300. That "mortar" (or "clay") signifies the good whereof the mind or the man of the church is formed, is also evident from the Word. Thus in Isaiah:--

Now, O Jehovah, Thou art our Father; we are the clay and Thou our potter, and we all are the work of Thy hand (Isaiah 64:8)

"clay" denotes the man himself of the church who is being formed, and thus the good of charity, by means of which comes all the formation of man, that is, his reformation and regeneration. In Jeremiah:--

As the clay in the potter’s hand, so are we in Thy hand, the house of Israel (Jeremiah 18:6);

the meaning being similar. It is all the same whether building by means of clay, or formation, is spoken of.

AC 1301. That these things are signified may now be seen by any one, both from the signification of all the things mentioned in this verse, and from such things being here mentioned as the kind of stones and of mortar that they used; things by no means worthy to be mentioned in the Word of the Lord, unless these arcana were contained within them.

AC 1302. Verse 4. And they said, Come, let us build us a city and a tower, and its head in heaven; and let us make us a name, lest peradventure we be scattered upon the faces of the whole earth. "And they said," signifies that it came to pass; "let us build us a city and a tower," signifies that they framed a doctrine and a worship; "a city" is a doctrine, "a tower" is the worship of self; "and its head in heaven," signifies even to their having dominion over the things that are in heaven; "and let us make us a name," signifies that thereby they might have a reputation for power; "lest peradventure we be scattered upon the faces of the whole earth," signifies that otherwise they would not be acknowledged.

AC 1303. And they said. That this signifies that it came to pass, follows from the connection, just as the preceding words, "they said a man to his fellow," signified that it was begun; for Babel is here described, and what its quality is, by the "tower."

AC 1304. Let us build us a city and a tower. That this signifies that they framed a doctrine and a worship, may be seen from the signification of "a city," and from that of "a tower," concerning which presently. The church is of such a nature that when charity toward the neighbor departs, and the love of self succeeds in its place, the doctrine of faith is of no account except in so far as it can be turned into the worship of self; and nothing whatever is accounted holy in worship unless it is for the sake of self, and thus unless it is self-worship. All love of self is attended with this; for he who loves himself more than others, not only hates all who are not subservient to him, and shows them no favor except when they have become subservient, but also, in so far as he is not under restraint, he rushes on even until he exalts himself above God. That this is the nature of the love of self when the reins are given to it, has been shown me to the life. This is what is signified by "a city and a tower." The love of self and every derivative cupidity is of all things the most filthy and the most profane, and is the veriest infernalism; and from this any one may conclude what the quality of that worship must be which contains within it an infernalism so absolute.

AC 1305. That "a city" signifies doctrine, or that which is doctrinal, whether genuine or heretical, has been shown before (n. 402).

AC 1306. That "a tower" is the worship of self, is evident from the signification of "a tower." The worship of self exists when a man exalts himself above others even to the point of being worshiped. And therefore the love of self, which is arrogance and pride, is called "height," "loftiness," and "being lifted up;" and is described by all things that are high. As in Isaiah:--

The eyes of man‘s pride shall be humbled, and the loftiness of men shall be brought low, and Jehovah Himself alone shall be exalted in that day. For the day of Jehovah of Armies is upon every one proud and high and upon every one that is lifted up, and he shall be humbled; and upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up, and upon all the oaks of Bashan; and upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up, and upon every lofty tower, and upon every fenced wall (Isaiah 2:11-18);

concerning the love of self, which is described by the "cedars," "oaks," "mountains," "hills," and "tower" that are "high" and "lifted up."

[2] Again:--

There shall be rivers, streams of waters, in the day of the great slaughter, when the towers shall fall (Isa. 30:25)

in like manner denoting the love of self, and the exalting of self in worship. And again:--

Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people was not; Asshur hath founded it in tziim; they will set up their watch-towers, they will raise up their palaces, he will make it a ruin (Isa. 23:13);

said of Tyre and its vastation; "watch-towers," expressed by another word, denote the phantasies therefrom. In Ezekiel:--

I will cause many nations to come up against thee, O Tyre, and they shall ruin the walls of Tyre, and destroy her towers; I will also scrape her dust from her, and will make her the dryness of a rock (Ezekiel 26:3, 4);

the signification being similar.

[3] The love of self in worship, or the worship of self, is called a "tower," for the reason that a "city" signifies a doctrine (n. 402) and cities were formerly fortified with towers, in which there were watchmen; and there were also towers on the borders, which for this reason were called "towers of watchmen" (2 Kings 9:17; 17:9; 18:8), and "watch-towers" (Isa. 23:13). And besides, when the church of the Lord is compared to a "vineyard," those things which belong to worship and to its conservation are compared to a "winepress" and to "a tower in the vineyard," as is evident in (Isaiah 5:1, 2; Matt. 21:33; Mark 12:1).

AC 1307. And its head in heaven. That this signifies even to their having dominion over the things that are in heaven, follows from what has been said. For "to have the head in heaven" is to exalt self even that far, as is evident from the description of Babel in other places in the Word; and from what has already been said about "lifting up the head" (n. 257). The love of self is that which is least of all in accord with the heavenly life; for all evils come from it, not only hatreds, but also revenges, cruelties, and adulteries; and still less does it accord when it enters into worship, and profanes it. And therefore the hells consist of such persons, who the more they would lift up their heads into heaven, the deeper they press themselves down, and the more frightful are the penalties into which they precipitate themselves.

AC 1308. And let us make us a name. That this signifies that thereby they might have a reputation for power, may be seen from the signification of "making ones self a name." For they knew that every one desires to be in some worship; for this is common to all, and exists among all nations. For every one who beholds the universe, and still more who considers the order of the universe, acknowledges some supreme being or entity (summum ens), and as he desires his own prosperity, he pays adoration to that entity. Moreover there is something within, which dictates this, for such a dictate flows in from the Lord through the angels who are with every man. The man who is not like this, and who does not acknowledge a God, is under the dominion of infernal spirits. Knowing this, they who build Babylonish towers make themselves a name by means of doctrinal and holy things, for otherwise they could not be worshiped, which is signified in what next follows by their otherwise being scattered over the faces of the whole earth, that is, they would not be acknowledged. And from this it follows that the higher such men can lift up the head to heaven, the more they make themselves a name. Their dominion is greatest over those who have some conscience; for these they lead whithersoever they will; but as to those who have not conscience, they rule all such by means of various external bonds.

AC 1309. Lest we be scattered upon the faces of the whole earth. That this signifies that otherwise they would not be acknowledged, follows from what has just been said; for to be "scattered abroad upon the faces of the whole earth," is to be lost to their view, and thus not to be received and acknowledged.

AC 1310. Verse 5. And Jehovah came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of man were building. "Jehovah came down," signifies judgment upon them; "to see the city and the tower," signifies because they had perverted doctrine and profaned worship; "which the sons of man were building," signifies which they had devised for themselves.

AC 1311. And Jehovah came down. That this signifies judgment upon them, is evident from what has gone before and from what follows, and also from the signification of "coming down," when predicated of Jehovah; from what has gone before, in that the subject has been the building of the city and tower of Babel; from what follows, in that the subject is the confusion of lips and of dispersion; from the signification of "coming down," when predicated of Jehovah, in that this is said when judgment takes place. Jehovah or the Lord is everywhere present and knows all things from eternity; and therefore it cannot be said of Him that He came down to see, except in the literal sense, where it is so said according to the appearances with man. But in the internal sense it is not so, for in this sense the subject is presented as it is in itself, and not according to the appearances; so that in the passage before us "to come down to see" signifies judgment.

[2] Judgment is predicated of a state when evil has reached its highest, or, as it is termed in the Word, when it is "consummated," or when "iniquity is consummated." For the case herein is that all evil has its limits as far as which it is permitted to go; but when it goes beyond these limits, it incurs the penalty of the evil. This is so both in particular and in general. The punishment of evil is what is then called a judgment. And because it appears at first as if the Lord did not see or observe that the evil exists,--for when a man does evil without punishment, he supposes that the Lord troubles not Himself about the matter, but when he undergoes the penalty he begins to think that the Lord sees, and even that the Lord inflicts the punishment,--it is therefore said, in accordance with these appearances, that Jehovah came down to see.

[3] To "come down" is predicated of Jehovah, because "the highest" is predicated of Him, that is, He is said to be in the highest, and this too according to the appearance, for He is not in things highest but in things inmost, and this is the reason why in the Word what is highest and what is inmost have the same signification. On the other hand, judgment or the penalty of evil takes place in lower and lowest things. This explains why He is said to "come down;" as also in David:--

O Jehovah, bow Thy heavens and come down; touch the mountains and they shall smoke; cast forth lightning and scatter them (Ps. 144:5, 6),

where the punishment of evil, or judgment, is signified. In Isaiah:--

Jehovah of Armies shall come down to fight upon Mount Zion, and upon the hill thereof (Isaiah 31:4).

And again:--

O that Thou wouldest come down, that the mountains might flow down at Thy presence (Isaiah 64:1).

Here in like manner to "come down" denotes the penalty, or judgment, inflicted upon evil. In Micah:--

Jehovah cometh forth out of His place, and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth, and the mountains shall be molten under Him (Micah 1:3, 4).

AC 1312. To see the city and the tower. That these words signify because they had perverted doctrine and profaned worship, is evident from the signification of a "city" and of a "tower," concerning which before.

AC 1313. Which the sons of man were building. That this signifies which they had devised for themselves, is clear without explication. "The sons of man" here are the sons of the church; for they who are not of the church, and have not the knowledges of faith, cannot devise such things. That such as these cannot profane holy things, has been shown before (n. 301-303, 593).

AC 1314. Verse 6. And Jehovah said, Behold, the people are one, and they all have one lip, and this is what they begin to do; and now nothing will be withholden from them of all which they have thought to do. "And Jehovah said," signifies that it was so; "Behold, the people are one, and they all have one lip," signifies that they all had one truth of faith and doctrine; "and this is what they begin to do," signifies that they now begin to become different; "and now nothing will be withholden from them of all which they have thought to do," signifies unless their state is now changed.

AC 1315. And Jehovah said. That this signifies that it was so, is evident from the fact, that here, as has been shown before, we have not true history, but made-up history; and therefore when it is said that "Jehovah said," it can signify nothing else than that it was so, as has also been shown before.

AC 1316. Behold, the people are one, and they all have one lip. That this signifies that they all had one truth of faith and doctrine, is evident from the signification of "people," as being the truth of faith, and from the signification of "lip," as being doctrine. It has been shown before (n. 1259), that "people" signifies the truth of faith, that is, those who are in the truth of faith; and that "lip" signifies the doctrine of faith, was shown just above at (verse 1). The people is said to be "one," and their "lip one," when all have as their end the common good of society, the common good of the church, and the kingdom of the Lord; for when this is the case the Lord is in the end, and all are a one from Him. But the Lord cannot possibly be present with a man whose end is his own good; the Own itself of man estranges the Lord, because thereby the man twists and turns the common good of society, and that of the church itself, and even the kingdom of the Lord, to himself, insomuch that it is as if it existed for him. He thus takes away from the Lord what is His, and puts himself in His place. When this condition reigns in a man, there is the like of it in every single thought he has, and even in the least particulars of his thoughts for such is the case with whatever is regnant in any man.

[2] This does not appear so manifestly in the life of the body as it does in the other life, for there whatever is regnant in any one manifests itself by a certain sphere which is perceived by all around him, and which is of this character because it exhales from every single thing in him. The sphere of him who has regard to himself in everything, appropriates to itself, and, as is said there, absorbs everything that is favorable to itself, and therefore it absorbs all the delight of the surrounding spirits, and destroys all their freedom, so that such a person has to be banished from society. But when the people is one, and the lip one, that is, when the common good of all is regarded, one person never appropriates to himself another’s delight, or destroys another‘s freedom, but in so far as he can he promotes and increases it. This is the reason why the heavenly societies are as a one, and this solely through mutual love from the Lord; and the case is the same in the church.

AC 1317. And this is what they begin to do. That this signifies that now they began to become different, is evident from the connection. To "begin to do," here signifies their thought or intention, and consequently their end, as also is evident from the words that next follow, "and now nothing will be withholden from them of all which they have thought to do." That in the internal sense their end is signified, is because nothing else than the end in a man is regarded by the Lord. Whatever may be his thoughts and deeds--which vary in ways innumerable-- provided the end is made good, they are all good; whereas if the end is evil, they are all evil. It is the end that reigns in everything a man thinks and does. The angels with a man, being the Lord’s angels, rule nothing in the man but his ends; for when they rule these, they rule also his thoughts and actions, seeing that all these are of the end. The end with a man is his very life; and all things that he thinks and does have life from the end, for, as was said, they are of the end; and therefore such as is the end, such is the man‘s life. The end is nothing else than the love; for a man cannot have anything as an end except that which he loves. He who thinks one thing and does another, still has as the end that which he loves in the dissimulation itself, or in the deceit, there is the end, which is the love of self or the love of the world, and the derivative delight of his life. From these considerations any one may conclude that such as is a man’s love, such is his life. These therefore are the things signified by "beginning to do."

AC 1318. And now nothing will be withholden from them of all which they have thought to do. That this signifies unless their state is now changed, may be seen from what follows. The internal sense of the Word is of such a nature that it keeps constantly in view the things that follow, and also the conclusion, although this does not appear to be so in the literal sense. As regards those who are of the character described above, unless their state were changed, they could not be withheld from doing all they thought of doing. But that their state was changed, is evident from what follows. The thought of doing is nothing else than the intention, that is, the end. The end with a man can never be withheld, that is, changed, unless his state is changed; for the end is the very life of a man, as was said. When the state is changed, the end also is changed; and with the end the thought. The nature of the change of state that took place with the man of this church, will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be shown in what follows.

AC 1319. Verse 7. Come, let us go down, and there confound their lip, that they hear not a man the lip of his fellow. "Come, let us go down," signifies that a judgment was thus effected; "and there confound their lip," signifies that not any one has the truth of doctrine; "that they hear not a man the lip of his fellow," signifies that all are at variance with one another.

AC 1320. Come, let us go down. That this signifies that a judgment was thus effected, is evident from what was said above (verse 5) about the signification of "going down.’ The reason why it is here said, in the plural, "let us go down and confound their lip," is that it is the execution of a judgment, which is effected by means of spirits, and indeed by means of evil spirits.

AC 1321. And there confound their lip. That this signifies that not any one has the truth of doctrine, may be seen from the signification of "lip," as being doctrine, concerning which see above (verse 1). Hence it follows that to "confound the lips" is to confound the things that are of doctrine, that is, the truths of doctrine. In the internal sense, "to confound" signifies not only to darken, but also to blot out and dissipate, so that there is not any truth. When the worship of self succeeds in the place of the worship of the Lord, then all truth is not only perverted, but is even abolished, and at last falsity is acknowledged in the place of truth, and evil in the place of good. For all the light of truth is from the Lord, and all darkness is from man; and when man takes the place of the Lord in worship, the light of truth becomes thick darkness; and then the light is seen by men as thick darkness, and thick darkness is seen as the light.

[2] Such moreover is precisely the life of such persons after death; the life of falsity is to them as if it were light, but the life of truth is to them as thick darkness. But when they approach toward heaven, the light of such a life is changed into total darkness. So long as they are in the world, they can indeed speak truth, even with eloquence and apparent zeal; and as there is with all such persons a constant reflection upon self, they seem to themselves to think as they speak; but as their very end is the worship of self, their thoughts derive from the end that they do not acknowledge truth except in so far as self is in the truth. When a man in whose mouth is the truth is of such a character, it is evident that he does not possess the truth; and in the other life this is plainly evident, for there such men not only do not acknowledge the truth which they had professed in the life of the body, but hold it in hatred, and persecute it; and this just in proportion as their arrogance or their worship of self is not taken away.

AC 1322. That they hear not a man the lip of his fellow. That this signifies that all are at variance, or that the one is against the other, is evident from the words themselves. "Not to hear one another‘s lip," is not to acknowledge what another says, and in the internal sense not to acknowledge what another teaches, that is, his doctrine, for "lip" is doctrine, as has been shown above (verse 1). They acknowledge it indeed with the mouth, but not with the heart; but agreement with the mouth is nothing when there is disagreement of the heart. The case in this respect is the same as it is with evil spirits in the other life, who, in like manner as the good, are distinguished into societies, but are kept conjoined together by being attached by the like phantasies and cupidities, so that they act as a one in persecuting truths and goods. Thus there is a certain common interest by which they are held together; but as soon as this common bond is dissolved, they rush one upon another, and then their delight consists in tormenting their associate or associates. The case is similar with such doctrine and worship in this world those in it acknowledge what pertains to doctrine and ritual harmoniously enough; but the common interest that holds them together is the worship of self; and so far as they can share in this common interest, they acknowledge; but so far as they cannot share or hope to share in it, they are disunited; for the reason given just above, that no one of this character possesses any truth, but every one has falsity in the place of truth, and evil in the place of good. This therefore is what is signified by their "not hearing a man the lip of his fellow."

AC 1323. Verse 8. And Jehovah scattered them from thence upon the faces of all the earth; and they left off to build the city. "And Jehovah scattered them from thence upon the faces of all the earth," signifies here, as before, that they were not acknowledged; "and they left off to build the city," signifies that such doctrine was not received.

AC 1324. And Jehovah scattered them upon the faces of all the earth. That this signifies that they were not acknowledged, is evident from what was said before (verse 4), where the same words occur. "And they left off to build the city."--that this signifies that such doctrine was not received, is evident from the signification of a "city," as being doctrine (n. 402); and from what was said at (verses 4 and 5) concerning the building of a city and a tower. From all this it is evident that such doctrine, or such worship, wherein interiorly there is the love of self, or the worship of self, was not permitted to this Ancient Church, and this for the reason explained in the verse that next follows.

AC 1325. Verse 9. Therefore He called the name of it Babel, because there did Jehovah confound the lip of all the earth; and from thence did Jehovah scatter them upon the faces of all the earth. "Therefore He called the name of it Babel," signifies such worship; "because there did Jehovah confound the lip of all the earth," signifies the state of this Ancient Church, that internal worship began to perish; "the earth" is the church; "and from thence did Jehovah scatter them upon the faces of all the earth," signifies that internal worship was annihilated.

AC 1326. Therefore He called the name of it Babel. That this signifies such worship, that is, the kind of worship signified by "Babel," is evident from what has been said hitherto; that is to say, worship in which interiorly there is the love of self, and therefore all that is filthy and profane. The love of self is nothing else than man’s Own; and how filthy and profane this is may be seen from what has been shown before concerning man‘s Own (n. 210, 215). From self-love (philautia), that is, the love of self, or man’s Own, all evils flow, such as hatreds, revenges, cruelties, adulteries, deceits, hypocrisies, impiety; and therefore when the love of self, or man‘s Own, is in the worship, such evils are in it, according to the difference and degree of quantity and quality that are from that love. Hence comes all the profanation of worship. In point of fact, in proportion as anything from the love of self, or from man’s Own, is introduced into worship, in the same proportion internal worship departs, that is, it comes to pass that there is no internal worship. Internal worship consists in the affection of good and the acknowledgment of truth, and in proportion as the love of self, that is, in proportion as man‘s Own, makes its approach, or enters in, the affection of good and the acknowledgment of truth depart, or go out. The holy can never be with the profane, just as heaven cannot be with hell, but the one must take its departure from the other. Such is the state and order in the Lord’s kingdom. This is the reason why there is no internal worship among such men as those whose worship is called "Babel," but only a kind of dead thing, and in fact one inwardly cadaverous, that is worshiped. From this it is evident what must be the quality of the external worship that contains such an internal within it.

[2] That such worship is "Babel," is evident from the Word in various places where Babel is described, as in Daniel, where the image that Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon saw in a dream--the head of which was of gold, the breast and arms of silver, the belly and thighs of brass, the legs of iron, and the feet part of iron and part of clay-- signifies that from true worship there finally comes such worship as is called "Babel;" and therefore a stone cut out of the rock brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold (Dan. 2:31-33, 44, 45). The image of gold that Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon set up, and which they worshiped, was nothing else (Dan. 3:1-30). The like is signified by the king of Babylon with his lords drinking wine out of the vessels of gold that had been brought from the temple at Jerusalem, and praising the gods of gold, of silver, of brass, of iron, and of stone, on which account there appeared the writing upon the wall (Dan. 5:1-31). The like is signified also by Darius the Mede commanding that he should be adored as a god (Dan. 6:7-28); and likewise by the beasts seen by Daniel in a dream (Dan. 7:1-28) and the beasts and the Babylon described by John in the Revelation.

[3] That such worship was signified and represented is very evident, not only in Daniel and John, but also in the Prophets. As in Isaiah:--Their faces are faces of flames. The stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shine not with their light; the sun is darkened in his going forth, and the moon doth not cause her light to shine. There do the Ziim couch, and their houses are filled with the Ochim; and the daughters of the night-owl dwell there, and satyrs dance there, and Iim answer in her palaces, and dragons in the buildings of pleasure (Isaiah 13:8, 10, 21, 22). This is said of Babylon, and the internal of such worship is described by "faces of flames," which are cupidities by "the stars," which are truths of faith, "not giving their light;" by "the sun," which is holy love, being "darkened;" by "the moon," which is the truth of faith, "not shining;" by "the Ziim," " Ochim," "daughters of the owl," " satyrs," "Iim," and "dragons," as being the interiors of their worship; for such things are of the love of self, that is, of man‘s Own. And therefore also Babylon is called in John "the mother of whoredoms and abominations" (Rev. 17:5); and also "a habitation of dragons, and a hold of every unclean spirit, and a hold of every unclean and hateful bird" (Rev. 18:2); from all which it is evident that with such things within, there cannot be anything of good, or of the truth of faith; and that in so far as the goods of affection and the truths of faith depart, such things enter in. The same are called also "the graven images of the gods of Babylon" (Isa. 21:9).

[4] That it is the love of self, or the Own of man, that is in such worship, or that it is the worship of self, is very evident in Isaiah:--

Prophesy this parable upon the king of Babylon: Thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; and I will sit on the mount of assembly, in the sides of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the cloud, I will become like the Most High. Yet thou shalt be cast down to hell (Isaiah 14:4, 13-15).

Here it is manifest that "Babylon" denotes one who desires to be worshiped as a god; that is, that it is the worship of self.

[5] Again:--

Come down, and sit on the dust, O virgin daughter of Babylon; sit in the earth, without a throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans; thou hath trusted in thy wickedness; thou hast said, None seeth me; thy wisdom and thy knowledge, it hath averted thee; thou hast said in thine heart, I, and there is none else besides like me (Isaiah 47:1, 10).

In Jeremiah:--

Behold, I am against thee, O destroying mountain, that destroyeth all the earth; and I will stretch out My hand upon thee, and will roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee into a mountain of burning. Though Babylon should mount up to the heavens, and though she should fortify the height of her strength, yet from Me shall they that lay waste come to her (Jeremiah 51:25, 53).

From this passage also it is evident that "Babylon" is the worship of self.

[6] That such persons have no light of truth, but total darkness; that is, that they have no truth of faith, is described in Jeremiah:--

The word that Jehovah spake against Babylon, against the land of the Chaldeans. Out of the north there shall ascend upon her a nation that shall make her land a desolation, and none shall dwell therein; from man even to beast they shall move asunder, they shall be gone (Jeremiah 50:1, 3)

"the north" denotes thick darkness, or no truth; "no man and no beast," no good. See further concerning Babel below, (verse 28), where Chaldea is treated of.

AC 1327. There did Jehovah confound the lip of all the earth. That this signifies the state of this Ancient Church, that internal worship began to perish, is evident from its being said, "the lip of all the earth," and not, as before, at (verse 7), "the lip of those who began to build a city and a tower." By "the face of all the earth," is signified the state of the church, for "the earth" is the church (n. 662, 1066). As regards the churches after the flood, the case stood thus There were three of these churches that are specifically mentioned in the Word; namely, the First Ancient Church, which was named from Noah; the Second Ancient Church, named from Eber; and the Third Ancient Church, named from Jacob, and afterwards from Judah and Israel.

[2] As regards the first of these churches, which was named from Noah, that church was as the parent of those which succeeded it; and, as is wont to be the case with churches in their beginnings, it was more unimpaired and guiltless than its successors, as is evident also from the first verse of this chapter, in that it had "one lip," that is, one doctrine, in consequence of all its members holding charity to be the essential thing. But in process of time, like other churches, this First Ancient Church began to fall, and this chiefly from the fact that many of them began to aspire after the worship of self, so that they might take precedence of others as is evident from (verse 4), for they said "Let us build us a city and a tower, and its head in heaven; and let us make us a name." Such men in the church could not but be as a kind of ferment, or as a fire-brand causing a conflagration. As the peril of the profanation of what is holy thence impended (n. 571, 582), of the Lord’s Providence the state of this church was changed, so that its internal worship perished, while its external worship remained, which is here signified by the statement that Jehovah confounded the lip of all the earth. It is also evident from this that such worship as is called "Babel" did not prevail in the First Ancient Church, but in those which followed, when men began to be worshiped as gods, especially after their death, whence arose the many gods of the Gentiles.

[3] The reason why it was permitted that internal worship should perish and external remain, was that what is holy might not be profaned; for the profanation of what is holy is attended with eternal damnation. No one can profane what is holy except one who is in possession of the knowledges of faith, and who acknowledges the truth of them. A person who does not possess them cannot acknowledge, and still less profane them. It is the internal things that can be profaned; for what is holy abides in internal, and not in external, things. The case in this respect is the same as it is with a man who does what is evil, but does not purpose what is evil. To him the evil that he does cannot be imputed, just as it cannot be imputed to one who does not do it of deliberate intention, or to one who is destitute of reason. Thus a man who does not believe that there is a life after death, and yet performs external worship, cannot profane the things that belong to eternal life, because he does not believe that there is any such life; but the case is quite different with those who know and who acknowledge these things.

[4] And this is the reason why it is permitted a man rather to live in pleasures and in cupidities, and by them to remove himself from internal things, than to come into the knowledge and acknowledgment of internal things, and profane them. For this reason the Jews are at this day permitted to immerse themselves in avarice, that in this way they may be further removed from the acknowledgment of internal things; for they are of such a character that if they were to acknowledge them, they could not but profane them. Nothing removes men further from internal things than avarice, because it is the lowest earthly cupidity. And the case is the same with many within the church; and it is the same with the Gentiles outside the church. These latter, to wit, the Gentiles, are least of all capable of profanation. This then is the reason why it is here said that Jehovah confounded the lip of all the earth, and why these words signify that the state of the church was changed, so that its worship became external, and devoid of all internal worship.

[5] The like was represented and signified by the Babylonish captivity into which the Israelites, and afterwards the Jews, were carried away, concerning which it is thus written in Jeremiah:--

And it shall come to pass, that the nation and the kingdom which will not serve the king of Babylon, and whoso will not put his neck under the yoke of the king of Babylon, upon that nation will I visit with the sword, with the famine, and with the pestilence, until I have consumed them by his hand (Jeremiah 27:8).

"To serve the king of Babylon and to put the neck under his yoke," is to be utterly deprived of the knowledge and acknowledgment of the good and of the truth of faith, and thereby of internal worship.

[6] This is still more plainly evident in the same Prophet:--

Thus hath said Jehovah to all the people in this city, Your brethren who have not gone forth with you into captivity, thus hath said Jehovah Zebaoth, Behold, I send upon them the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, and I will make them like horrible figs (Jeremiah 29:16, 17).

"To abide in the city and not go forth to the king of Babylon," represented and signified those who were in the knowledges of internal things, or of the truths of faith, and who profaned them, upon whom it is said there would be sent the sword, the famine, and the pestilence, which are the penalties of profanation; and that they should become like horrible figs.

[7] That by "Babel" are signified those who deprive others of all the knowledge and acknowledgment of truth, was also represented and signified by these things in the same Prophet:--

I will give all Judah into the hand of the King of Babylon, and he shall carry them into Babylon, and shall smite them with the sword. Moreover I will give all the riches of this city, and all the toil thereof, and all the precious thing thereof, and all the treasures of the kings of Judah, will I give into the hand of their enemies, and they shall spoil them, and take them (Jer. 20:4, 5).

Here by "all the riches, all the toil, all the precious thing, and all the treasures of the kings of Judah," are signified the knowledges of faith.

[8] Again:--

With the families of the north I will bring up the king of Babylon upon this land, and upon the inhabitants thereof, and upon all these nations round about, and I will give them to the curse, and will make them a desolation, and a hissing, and everlasting wastes; and this whole land shall be a waste (Jer. 25:9, 11).

Here the devastation of the interior things of faith, or of internal worship, is described by "Babylon." For the man who worships self possesses no truth of faith, as has been shown before. Everything that is true he destroys and lays waste, and carries away into captivity. And therefore Babylon is called "a destroying mountain" (Jer. 51:25). (n. 1182).

AC 1328. And from thence did Jehovah scatter them upon the faces of all the earth. That this signifies that internal worship was annihilated, may be seen from the signification of "scattering," as being to dissipate. In the proximate sense, the scattering over the faces of all the earth, means the dispersion of those who desire to build the city of Babel; but as these are they who deprive others of all the knowledge of truth, as before said, the words signify, at the same time, the deprivation of internal worship; for the one is a consequence of the other; and here we have the consequence, for it is stated for the third time. That the First Ancient Church was deprived of the knowledges of truth and good, is evident from the fact that the nations which constituted that Ancient Church became for the most part idolaters, and yet had a certain external worship. The lot of those idolaters who are outside the church is much better than that of those idolaters who are within the church; for the former are external idolaters, whereas the latter are internal idolaters. That the lot of the former is better, is evident from the words the Lord spake in (Luke 13:23, 28-30; Matthew 8:11, 12). This therefore is the reason why the state of this Ancient Church was changed.

AC 1329. Verse 10. These are the births of Shem: Shem was a son of a hundred years, and begat Arpachshad two years after the flood. " These are the births of Shem," signifies the derivations of the Second Ancient Church; " Shem" is internal worship in general; "a hundred years," signifies the state of that church at the beginning; "Arpachshad" was a nation so named, by which is signified memory-knowledge (scientia); "two years after the flood," signifies the second post-diluvian church.

AC 1330. These are the births of Shem. That this signifies the derivations of the Second Ancient Church, is evident from the signification of "births," as being the origin and derivation of doctrinal things and of worships (n. 1145). Here, and elsewhere in the Word, the "births" are no other than those of the church, that is, of doctrinal things and of worships. The internal sense of the Word enfolds nothing else; and therefore when any church is born, it is said that "these are its births," as for instance when the Most Ancient Church was born: "These are the births of the heavens and of the earth" (Gen. 2:4); and in like manner with the other churches which followed, before the flood: "This is the book of the births" (Gen. 5:1). In like manner with the churches after the flood, which were three,--the First called Noah, the Second named from Eber, the Third from Jacob, and afterwards from Judah and Israel. When the First of these churches is described, the record begins in a similar manner: "These are the births of the sons of Noah" (Gen. 10:1). So with this Second church, named from Eber, in this verse: "These are the births of Shem." And with the Third also, in (verse 27) of this chapter: "These are the births of Terah." So that "births" signify nothing else than the origins and derivations of the doctrinal things and of the worships of the church that is being described. The reason why the births of this Second church are derived from Shem, or why its beginning is described by "Shem," is that " Shem" signifies internal worship, here, the internal worship of this church. Not that the internal worship of this church was such internal worship as that which was signified by "Shem" in the preceding chapter; but merely that it is the internal worship of the church.

AC 1331. From what has been said it is now evident that "Shem" denotes internal worship in general. The quality of the internal worship of this church is evident from those who are named in succession after Shem, namely, that it was characterized by memory-knowledge (fuerit scientificum), as is confirmed by the numbers of the years, when they are examined and unfolded.

AC 1332. That "a hundred years" signifies the state of that church in general, is evident from what has been stated and shown before concerning numbers and years (n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 893), namely, that they signify times and states. But what and of what quality the states were that are signified by the number "a hundred" years, and by the numbers of years in the following verses of this chapter, it would he tedious to explain; moreover the subject is intricate.

AC 1333.

AC 1334. That Arpachshad was a nation so named, and that thereby is signified memory-knowledge, was stated at (verse 24) of the preceding chapter (n. 1236).

AC 1335. Two years after the flood. That this signifies the Second post-diluvian church, may be seen from the fact that by a "year," in the Word, as also by a "day" and by a "week," is signified an entire period, greater or less, of fewer or of more years; in fact a period in the abstract, as may be seen from the paragraphs referred to above (n. 488, 493). So here with the "two years after the flood," by which is signified the second period of the church, which was when this second church began.

AC 1336. Verse 11. And Shem lived after he begat Arpachshad five hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Shem lived after he begat Arpachshad five hundred years," signifies the duration and state; " Shem" signifies here, as before, internal worship in general; "Arpachshad" signifies memory-knowledge; "and begat sons and daughters," signifies the doctrinal things.

AC 1337. That these things are signified, calls for no confirmation, being evident from the signification of the same words as given above. I shall merely state that the internal worship of this church was no other than a kind of memory-knowledge (scientificum), thus a kind of love which may be called a love of truth. For when this church began, there was scarcely any charity left, and therefore scarcely any faith, which comes solely from charity; as also is evident from what was said just before concerning the city and the tower of Babel, in that Jehovah did confound the lip of all the earth (verse 9).

AC 1338. And begat sons and daughters. That this signifies doctrinal things, is evident from the signification of "sons," as before given (n. 264, 489-491, 533).

AC 1339. Verse 12. And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years and begat Shelah. "And Arpachshad lived five and thirty years," signifies the beginning of the second state of this church, as well as that second state itself; " Arpachshad" signifies here, as before, memory-knowledge; "and begat Shelah," signifies the derivation therefrom. Shelah was a nation so called, whereby is signified that which pertains to memory-knowledge.

AC 1340. That these things are signified calls for no confirmation. That " Shelah" was a nation so called, whereby is signified that which pertains to memory-knowledge, has been stated before, at (Gen. 10:24).

AC 1341. Verse 13. And Arpachshad lived after he begat Shelah four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Arpachshad lived after he begat Shelah four hundred and three years," signifies the duration and state; "Arpachshad" here, as before, signifies memory-knowledge; and "Shelah" is that which pertains to memory-knowledge; "and begat sons and daughters," signifies the doctrinal things.

AC 1342. Verse 14. And Shelah lived thirty years and begat Eber. "And Shelah lived thirty years," signifies the beginning of a third state; "Shelah" here, as before, signifies that which pertains to memory-knowledge; "and begat Eber," signifies a derivation therefrom; "Eber" was a nation called, from Eber as its father, the Hebrew nation, whereby is signified the worship in general of the Second Ancient Church.

AC 1343. That "Eber" was a nation called, from Eber as its father, the Hebrew nation, and that thereby is signified the worship in general of the Second Ancient Church, is evident from those historical parts of the Word wherein it is spoken of. From that nation, because the new worship commenced there, all were called Hebrews who had a similar worship. Their worship was of the kind that was afterwards restored among the descendants of Jacob; and its chief characteristic consisted in their calling their God "Jehovah," and in their having sacrifices. The Most Ancient Church with unanimity acknowledged the Lord, and called Him Jehovah, as is evident from the first chapters of Genesis, and elsewhere in the Word. The Ancient Church, that is, the church after the flood, also acknowledged the Lord, and called Him Jehovah, especially those who had internal worship, and were called "sons of Shem." The others, who were in external worship, also acknowledged Jehovah, and worshiped Him. But when internal worship became external, and still more when it became idolatrous, and when each nation began to have its own god whom it worshiped, the Hebrew nation retained the name Jehovah, and called their God Jehovah; and hereby were distinguished from the other nations.

[2] Together with their external worship, the descendants of Jacob in Egypt lost this also--that they called their God Jehovah; nay, Moses himself did so; and therefore they were instructed first of all that Jehovah was the God of the Hebrews, and the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob; as may be seen from these words in Moses:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, Thou shalt come in, thou and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him, Jehovah the God of the Hebrews hath met with us; and now let us go, we pray thee, a three days‘ journey into the wilderness, and we will sacrifice to Jehovah our God (Exod. 3:18).

Again:--

Pharaoh said, Who is Jehovah, that I should hearken unto His voice to let Israel go? I know not Jehovah, and moreover I will not let Israel go. And they said, The God of the Hebrews hath met with us; let us go, we pray thee, a three days’ journey into the wilderness, and we will sacrifice to Jehovah our God (Exod. 5:2, 3).

[3] That together with the worship the descendants of Jacob in Egypt lost also the name of Jehovah, may be seen from these words in Moses:--

Moses said unto God, Behold, when I come unto the sons of Israel, and shall say unto them, The God of your fathers hath sent me unto you, and they shall say to me, What is His name? what shall I say unto them? And God said unto Moses, I AM WHO I AM. And He said, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you. And God said moreover unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, Jehovah the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you this is My name to eternity (Exod. 3:13-15).

[4] From these words it is evident that even Moses did not know Jehovah; and that they were distinguished from others by the name of Jehovah the God of the Hebrews. Hence in other places also Jehovah is called the God of the Hebrews:--

Thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Jehovah the God of the Hebrews hath sent me unto thee (Exod. 7:16).

Go in unto Pharaoh, and tell him, Thus saith Jehovah the God of the Hebrews (Exod. 9:1, 13).

And Moses and Aaron went in unto Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith Jehovah the God of the Hebrews (Exod. 10:3).

And in Jonah:--

I am a Hebrew; and I fear Jehovah the God of the heavens (Jonah 1:9).

And also in Samuel:--

The Philistines heard the voice of the shouting, and said, What meaneth the voice of this great shouting in the camp of the Hebrew? And they knew that the ark of Jehovah was come into the camp. And the Philistines said, Woe unto us! Who shall deliver us out of the hand of these august gods? These are the gods that smote the Egyptians with all manner of plagues in the wilderness. Be like men, O ye Philistines, that ye be not servants unto the Hebrews (1 Sam. 4:6, 8, 9).

Here also it is evident that the nations were distinguished by the gods on whose name they called, and the Hebrew nation by Jehovah.

[5] That the second essential of the worship of the Hebrew nation consisted in sacrifices, is also evident from passages cited above (Exod. 3:18; 5:2, 3); as well as from the fact that the Egyptians abominated the Hebrew nation on account of this worship, as is evident from these words in Moses:--

Moses said, It is not right so to do, for we shall sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians to Jehovah our God; lo, shall we sacrifice the abomination of the Egyptians before their eyes, and will they not stone us? (Exod. 8:26).

For this reason the Egyptians so abominated the Hebrew nation that they would not eat bread with them (Gen. 43:32). It is also evident from all this that the posterity of Jacob was not the only Hebrew nation, but all who had such worship; and therefore in Joseph‘s time the land of Canaan was called the land of the Hebrews:--

Joseph said, I was stolen away out of the land of the Hebrews (Gen. 40:15)

[6] That there were sacrifices among the idolaters in the land of Canaan, may be seen from many passages, for they sacrificed to their gods--to the Baals and others; and moreover Balaam; who was from Syria where Eber dwelt and whence the Hebrew nation came, not only offered sacrifices before the descendants of Jacob came into the land of Canaan, but also called Jehovah his God. That Balaam was from Syria, whence came the Hebrew nation, see (Numbers 23:7); that he offered sacrifices, (Numbers 22:39, 40; 23:1-3, 14, 29); that he called Jehovah his God, (Numbers 22:18), and throughout the chapter. What is said of Noah (Gen. 8:20), that he offered burnt-offerings to Jehovah, is not true history, but is history so made up, because by burnt-offerings there is signified the holy of worship, as may there be seen. From all this it is now evident what is signified by "Heber," or by the Hebrew nation.

AC 1344. Verse 15. And Shelah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Shelah lived after he begat Eber four hundred and three years," signifies the duration and state; " Shelah" here, as before, signifies that which pertains to memory-knowledge "Eber" here, as before, signifies the worship of this church in general; "and begat sons and daughters," signifies the doctrinal things.

AC 1345. Verse 16. And Eber lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg. "And Eber lived four and thirty years," signifies the beginning of the fourth state of this church; "Eber" here, as before, signifies the worship of this church in general; "and begat Peleg," signifies a derivation from it. " Peleg" was a nation so called from him as its father, whereby there is signified external worship. That "Peleg" here signifies external worship, follows from the series of the derivations of worship, and thus from his derivation. In the preceding chapter, (Gen. 10:25), there is another meaning from the signification of this name, that "in his days the earth was divided," and because there he together with his brother Joktan represented that Second Ancient Church.

AC 1346. Verse 17. And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Eber lived after he begat Peleg four hundred and thirty years," signifies the duration and state; "Eber" and " Peleg" signify the same here as before; "and begat sons and daughters," signifies doctrinal things which are rituals.

AC 1347. Verse 18. And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat Reu. "And Peleg lived thirty years," signifies the beginning of the fifth state; "Peleg" signifies the same here as before; "and begat Reu," signifies a derivation therefrom. Reu was a nation so named from him as its father, whereby there is signified a worship still more external.

AC 1348. Verse 19. And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Peleg lived after he begat Reu two hundred and nine years," signifies the duration and state; "Peleg" and " Reu" signify the same here as before; "and begat sons and daughters," signifies rituals.

AC 1349. Verse 20. And Reu lived two and thirty years, and begat Serug. "And Reu lived two and thirty years," signifies the beginning of the sixth state; "Reu" signifies the same here as before; "and begat Serug," signifies a derivation therefrom. Serug was a nation so named from him as its father, by which is signified worship in externals.

AC 1350. Verse 21. And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Reu lived after he begat Serug two hundred and seven years," signifies the duration and state; "Reu" and "Serug" signify the same here as before; "and begat sons and daughters," signifies the rituals of such worship.

AC 1351. Verse 22. And Serug lived thirty years, and begat Nahor. "And Serug lived thirty years," signifies the beginning of the seventh state of this church; " Serug" signifies the same here as before "and begat Nahor," signifies a derivation therefrom. Nahor was a nation so named from him as its father whereby is signified worship verging to what is idolatrous.

AC 1352. Verse 23. And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Serug lived after he begat Nahor two hundred years," signifies the duration and state; "Serug" and "Nahor" signify the same here as before; "and begat sons and daughters" signifies the rituals of that worship.

AC 1353. Verse 24. And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah. "And Nahor lived nine and twenty years," signifies the beginning of the eighth state of this church; "Nahor" signifies here, as before, worship verging to what is idolatrous; "and begat Terah," signifies a derivation therefrom. Terah was a nation so named from him as its father whereby idolatrous worship is signified.

AC 1354. Verse 25. And Nahor lived after he begat Terah a hundred and nineteen years, and begat sons and daughters. "And Nahor lived after he begat Terah a hundred and nineteen years," signifies the duration and state; "Nahor" signifies here, as before, worship verging to what is idolatrous; "Terah" signifies idolatrous worship; "and begat sons and daughters," signifies idolatrous rituals.

AC 1355. Verse 26. And Terah lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran. "And Terah lived seventy years," signifies the beginning of the ninth state, which was the last; "Terah" signifies here, as before, idolatrous worship; "and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran," signifies the derivations therefrom. Abram, Nahor, and Haran were persons, from whom also nations were named that were idolaters.

AC 1356. That by "Terah" is signified idolatrous worship, may be seen from the derivations spoken of from (verse 20) to this place. This Second Ancient Church degenerated from a kind of internal worship, and was so adulterated that at last it became idolatrous; as churches are wont to do, in that from internal things they go to external, and finally terminate in mere external things, internal things being blotted out. That such was the case with this church, insomuch that a great part of them did not acknowledge Jehovah as God, but worshiped other gods, is evident in Joshua:--

Joshua said unto all the people, Thus hath said Jehovah the God of Israel, Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the river, even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nahor; and they served other gods. Now therefore fear Jehovah, and serve Him in integrity and in truth; and put away the gods that your fathers served beyond the river, and in Egypt, and serve ye Jehovah. And if it be evil in your eyes to serve Jehovah, choose ye this day whom ye will serve; whether the gods that your fathers served, that were beyond the river, or the gods of the Amorites (Joshua 24:2, 14, 15).

Here it is very plain that Terah, Abram, and Nahor were idolaters.

[2] That Nahor was a nation in which there was idolatrous worship, is also evident from Laban the Syrian, who dwelt in the city of Nahor, and worshiped the images or teraphim which Rachel carried away (Gen. 24:10; 31:19, 26, 32, 34). And that there was one god of Abraham, another god of Nahor, and another of their father, that is, of Terah, is evident from (Genesis 31:53). It is also plainly stated by Moses concerning Abram, that Jehovah was not known to him:--

I Jehovah appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, in God Shaddai, but by My name Jehovah I was not known to them (Exod. 6:3).

From all this it is evident how much this church fell away among this nation into the idolatrous worship which is here signified by Terah; and because it is signified by Terah, it is also signified by Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

AC 1357. There are three universal kinds of idolatry. The first comes of the love of self; the second, of the love of the world; the third, of the love of pleasures. All idolatrous worship has one or other of these for its end. The worship of idolaters can have no other ends; for they know not and care not for eternal life; they even deny it. These three kinds of idolatry are signified by the three sons of Terah.

AC 1358. That Abram, Nahor, and Haran were persons, from whom also nations were named that were idolaters, is evident from the historical parts of the Word. As regards Nahor this has been already shown; for the city was called the city of Nahor (Gen. 24:10). At that time cities were nothing else than families that dwelt together; and a number of families constituted a nation. That a number of nations were born of Abraham, is evident not only from the posterity of Ishmael, or the Ishmaelites, but also from that of his several sons by his wife Keturah, who are named in (Genesis 25:1-4).

AC 1359. Verse 27. And these are the births of Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran; and Haran begat Lot. "And these are the births of Terah," signifies the origins and derivations of the idolatry from which came the representative church. Terah was the son of Nahor, and was also a nation named from him as its father. By him there is signified idolatrous worship. Abram, Nahor, and Haran were sons of Terah, and also nations named from them as their fathers. By them are here signified the idolatrous worships derived from that one. From Lot also there came two nations that were idolaters.

AC 1360. And these are the births of Terah. This signifies the origins and derivations of the idolatry from which came the representative church. It has been shown above (verse 10) that "births" signify origins and derivations. Here now the Third Church after the flood is treated of, which succeeded when the second--treated of from (verse 10) to this-- became idolatrous in Terah. It has been shown that Terah, Abram, Nahor, and Haran were idolaters, as well as the nations derived from them, as the Ishmaelites and Midianites, and others who were descendants of Abram; besides others in Syria that were derived from Nahor; and also the Moabites and Ammonites, who were descendants of Lot.

AC 1361. That from being idolatrous the church became representative, no one can know unless he knows what a representative is. The things that were represented in the Jewish Church, and in the Word, are the Lord and His kingdom, consequently the celestial things of love, and the spiritual things of faith: these are what were represented, besides many things that pertain to these, such as all things that belong to the church. The representing objects are either persons or things that are in the world or upon the earth; in a word, all things that are objects of the senses, insomuch that there is scarcely any object that cannot be a representative. But it is a general law of representation that there is no reflection upon the person or upon the thing which represents, but only upon that thing itself which is represented.

[2] For example, every king, whoever he was, in Judah and Israel, and even in Egypt and elsewhere, could represent the Lord. Their royalty itself is what is representative. So that the worst of all kings could represent, such as the Pharaoh who set Joseph over the land of Egypt, Nebuchadnezzar in Babylon (Dan. 2:37, 38), Saul, and the other kings of Judah and of Israel, of whatever character they were. The anointing itself--from which they were called Jehovah’s anointed--involved this. In like manner all priests, how many soever they were, represented the Lord; the priestly function itself being what is representative; and so in like manner the priests who were evil and impure; because in representatives there is no reflection upon the person, in regard to what his quality is. And not only did men represent, but also beasts, such as all that were offered in sacrifice; the lambs and sheep representing celestial things; the doves and turtledoves, spiritual things; and in like manner the rams, goats, bullocks, and oxen represented lower celestial and spiritual things.

[3] And not only were animate things used as representatives, but also inanimate things, such as the altar and even the stones of the altar, the ark and the tabernacle with all that was in them, and, as every one may know, the temple with all that was therein, such as the lamps, the breads, and the garments of Aaron. Nor these things only, but also all the rites in the Jewish Church were representative. In the Ancient Churches, representatives extended to all the objects of the senses, to mountains and hills, to valleys, plains, rivers, brooks, fountains, and pools, to groves and trees in general, and to every tree in particular, insomuch that each tree had some definite signification; all which, afterwards, when the significative church had ceased, were made representatives. From all this it may be seen what is meant by representatives. And as things celestial and spiritual that is the things of the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens, and of the Lord’s kingdom on earth could be represented not only by men, whosoever and of what quality soever they were, but also by beasts, and even by inanimate things, it may now be seen what a representative church is.

[4] The representatives were of such an efficacy that all things that were done according to the rites commanded appeared holy before the spirits and angels, as for instance when the high priest washed himself with water, when he ministered clothed in his pontifical garments, when he stood before the burning lights, no matter what kind of man he was, even if most impure, and in his heart an idolater. The case was the same with all the other priests. For, as before said, in representatives the person was not reflected upon, but only the thing itself that was represented, quite abstractedly from the person, as it was abstractedly from the oxen, the bullocks and the lambs that were sacrificed, or from the blood that was poured round about the altar, and also abstractedly from the altar itself; and so on.

[5] This representative church was instituted-after all internal worship was lost, and when worship had become not only merely external, but also idolatrous-in order that there might be some conjunction of heaven with earth, that is, of the Lord through heaven with man, even after the conjunction by the internal things of worship had perished. But what kind of conjunction this is by representatives alone, shall of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be told in what follows. Representatives do not begin until the following chapter; in which, and in those that follow, all things in general and in particular are purely representative. Here, the subject treated of is the state of those who were the fathers, before certain of them and their descendants became representative; and it has been shown above that they were in idolatrous worship.

AC 1362. That Terah was the son of Nahor, and also a nation named from him as its father, and that by him is signified idolatrous worship, has been shown before. That Terah was a nation, may be seen from the fact that the nations which originated from his sons acknowledged him as their father, just as the sons of Jacob, or the Jews and Israelites, and also the Ishmaelites, Midianites, and others, acknowledged Abraham; and the Moabites and Ammonites acknowledged Lot. Although these nations were not named from them, but from their sons, yet when all acknowledge a common father and call themselves his sons-as the sons of Terah, the sons of Abraham, or the sons of Lot-in a general sense a nation is signified by each one of these, as here by Terah, by Abram, by Nahor, and by Lot; for they are the stocks or roots of the nations. So with the descendants of Jacob, who were all named from his twelve sons, and yet were called Jacob and Israel, as also the seed and the sons of Abraham (John 8:33, 39).

AC 1363. That Abram, Nahor, and Haran were sons of Terah, and that they were also nations named from them as their fathers, and that by them idolatrous worships are here signified, is evident from the explanations given above; and also from the fact that idolatry is signified by Terah, whose sons they were. But what idolatrous worships are here signified by the three sons of Terah, and afterwards by Lot the son of Haran, may be seen if idolatrous worships are examined according to their kinds. There are in general four idolatrous worships, one more interior than another. The three more interior ones are as the sons of one parent; the fourth is as the son of the third. Idolatrous worships are internal and external the internal are those which condemn man; the external not so much. The more interior the idolatrous worship is, the more it condemns; but the more exterior, the less. Internal idolaters do not acknowledge God, but adore themselves and the world, and make idols of all their cupidities whereas external idolaters are able to acknowledge God, although they do not know who is the God of the universe. Internal idolaters are known from the life they have acquired; and in proportion as this life departs from the life of charity, in the same proportion are they more interior idolaters. External idolaters are known solely from their worship; and, although idolaters they can still have the life of charity. Internal idolaters can profane holy things, but external idolaters cannot; and therefore external idolatry is tolerated, in order to prevent the profanation of holy things; as may be seen from what has been said before (n. 571, 582); and at (verse 9), (n. 1327).

AC 1364. That from Lot there sprang two nations that were idolaters, is evident from his two sons, Moab and Ben-Ammi, by his daughters (Gen. 19:37, 38), from whom descended the Moabites and the Ammonites, who, as is evident from the Word, were idolaters. Lot is mentioned here as the father of the idolatrous worships signified by Moab and Ben-Ammi.

AC 1365. Verse 28. And Haran died upon the faces of Terah his father, in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees. "And Haran died upon the faces of Terah his father, in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees," signifies that interior worship was blotted out and became merely idolatrous; by "Haran" is signified interior idolatrous worship; by "Terah his father," as before, idolatrous worship in general; by "the land of his nativity," the origin whence it was derived; by Car of the Chaldees," external worship in which there are falsities.

AC 1366. And Haran died upon the faces of Terah his father, in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the Chaldees. That this signifies that interior worship was blotted out and became merely idolatrous, is evident from the signification of "Haran," of "Terah," of "nativity," and of "Ur of the Chaldees;" and also from its being said that he " died upon the faces of Terah his father." As regards the fact that interior worship was blotted out, or that there came to be none, the case is this. The church cannot come forth anew among any nation until it has been so vastated that nothing of evil and falsity remains in its internal worship. So long as there is evil in its internal worship, the things that are good and true, which constitute its internal worship, are impeded; for so long as evils and falsities are present, goods and truths cannot be received. This may be seen from the fact that they who have been born in any heresy, and have so confirmed themselves in its falsities that they are entirely persuaded, can with difficulty, if ever, be brought to receive the truths which are contrary to their falsities. But with Gentiles who do not know what is the truth of faith, and yet live in charity, the case is different. This was the reason why the Lord’s church could not be restored among the Jews, but among Gentiles who had no knowledges of faith. The former, by their falsities, entirely darken and thus extinguish the light of truth; but the Gentiles not so much, for they do not know what is the truth of faith; and what they do not know they cannot darken and extinguish.

[2] As a new church was now to be restored, those were taken to form it with whom goods and truths could be implanted, being those with whom all knowledge of the good and of the truth of faith had been blotted out, and who, like the Gentiles, had become external idolaters. As regards Terah and Abram, it has been shown above that they were of this character, that is to say, they worshiped other gods, and had no knowledge of Jehovah, nor consequently of what is the good and the truth of faith. They had thus become better fitted to receive the seed of truth than others in Syria among whom knowledges as yet remained. That they did remain with some is evident from Balaam, who was from Syria, and who not only worshiped Jehovah, but also offered sacrifice, and was at the same time a prophet. These therefore are the things contained in this verse, namely, that interior worship had been blotted out and had become merely idolatrous.

AC 1367. That by "Haran" is signified interior idolatrous worship, and by "Terah" idolatrous worship in general, has been stated and shown before. That the origin is signified by "the land of his nativity " and that their idolatrous worship was thence derived, is evident from the signification of nativity," as being origin and derivation, concerning which see under (verses 10 and 27).

AC 1368. That by "Ur of the Chaldees" is signified external worship in which there are falsities, is evident from the signification in the Word of "the Chaldeans." It has been shown above, at (verse 9), that by "Babel" is signified worship in which interiorly there are evils; but by "Chaldea" is signified worship in which interiorly there are falsities. Consequently by "Babel" is signified worship in which there in inwardly nothing of good; and by "Chaldea," worship in which there is inwardly nothing of truth. Worship in which there is inwardly nothing good and nothing true, is a worship wherein there is interiorly what is profane and idolatrous. That such worship is signified in the Word by "Chaldea," may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:

Behold the land of the Chaldeans; this people is no more; Asshur founded it in Ziim; they shall set up the watch-towers thereof, they shall raise up her palaces he shall make it a ruin (Isa. 23:13).

"The land of the Chaldeans which is not a people," denotes falsities; "Asshur founded it," denotes reasonings; "the watch-towers," phantasies. Again:--

Thus hath said Jehovah, your Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have thrown down the bars, all of the", and the Chaldeans in whose ships is a cry (Isa. 43:14).

"Babylon" denotes worship in which inwardly there is evil; "the Chaldeans," worship in which inwardly there is falsity; the "ships" are knowledges of truth which are corrupted.

[2] Again:

Sit thou silent and get thee into darkness, O daughter of the Chaldeans; for they shall no more call thee the lady of kingdoms. I was wrath with My people, I profaned My inheritance, and gave them into thy hand; these two things shall come to thee suddenly in one day, the loss of children and widowhood together; to the full shall they come upon thee, because of the multitude of thy sorceries, and because of the greatness of thine enchantments (Isa. 47:5, 6, 9).

Here it is evident that "Chaldea" is the profanation of truth, and is called "sorceries" and "enchantments." Again Go ye forth out of Babylon, flee ye from the Chaldeans (Isa. 48:20) that is, from the profanation of good and of truth in worship. In Ezekiel:--

Cause Jerusalem to know her abominations thy father was an Amorite, and thy mother a Hittite thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt; thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Asshur; hence thou hast multiplied thy whoredom even into the land of Chaldea (Ezekiel 16:2, 3, 26, 28, 29).

This is said specifically of the Jewish Church; "the Sons of Egypt" denote memory-knowledges; "the sons of Assyria," reasonings; "the land of Chaldea into which she multiplied her whoredom," the profanation of truth. That countries are not meant by Egypt, Assyria, and Chaldea, and that no other whoredom is spoken Of, may be seen by any one.

[3] Again:--

Oholah hath committed whoredom, and hath doted on her lovers the Assyrians, her neighbors; and she hath not forsaken her whoredoms from Egypt; she hath added to her whoredoms; and she saw men, it was portrayed upon the wall, images of the Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion, girded with girdles upon their loins, dyed turbans hanging down on their heads, all of them leaders to look upon, the likeness of the sons of Babylon, of the Chaldeans, the land of their nativity. As soon as she saw them she loved them lewdly, and sent messengers unto them into Chaldea; the sons of Babylon polluted her by their whoredoms (Ezek. 23:5, 8, 14-17).

Here the Chaldeans are called "sons of Babylon," and denote truths profaned in worship. "Oholah" denotes the spiritual church, which is called Samaria.

[4] In Habakkuk:--

I stir up the Chaldeans, a bitter and hasty nation, that march through the breadths of the earth, to possess dwelling places that are not theirs, a horrible and a terrible one, and from itself doth its judgment and its exaltation go forth; whose horses are swifter than leopards, and keener than the evening wolves and the horsemen thereof spread themselves, yea, the horsemen thereof come from afar; they By as an eagle that hasteth to devour wholly doth it come for violence the panting desire of its faces is toward the east (Habakkuk 1:6, 9).

The Chaldean nation is here described by many representatives that are significant of the profanations of truth in worship.

[5] Moreover, Babylon and Chaldea are described in two entire chapters in Jeremiah chapters 50 and 51, where what is signified by each is plainly evident, namely, by Babylon the profanation of celestial things, and by Chaldea the profanation of spiritual things, in worship. From all this therefore it is evident what is signified by "Ur of the Chaldees," namely, external worship in which there is inwardly profane idolatry. Moreover it has been permitted that I should be instructed by themselves that such was the character of their worship.

AC 1369. Verse 29. And Abram and Nahor took them wives; and the name of Abram‘s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah. "And Abram and Nahor took them wives; and the name of Abram‘s wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor’s wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah," signifies marriages of evil with falsity in idolatrous worship; which stand in the relationship here indicated. By the husbands are signified evils; by the wives, falsities.

AC 1370. That these things are signified it would take too long to set forth; for it would involve a setting forth of the genera and derivations of idolatries. These cannot be known except from the opposite things, that is, from profanations, as of the celestial things of love, of the spiritual things of the same, and of the rational things therefrom, and lastly of memory-knowledges. The profanations themselves of these things constitute the genera and species of idolatries; but not the worships of idols, which are external idolatries, and which worships can be conjoined with affections of good and truth, and thus with charity, as takes place among Gentiles who live in mutual charity. It is interior idolatrous worships that are signified in the Word by the external idolatrous worships. The births, the generations, and also the marriages of them, which are those of evil and falsity, are circumstanced precisely as are these relationships and these marriages, which have been described in (verse 27), and also in this one.

AC 1371. Verse 30. And Sarai was barren, she had no offspring. These words signify that what was evil and false reproduced itself no further.

AC 1372. This may be seen from the signification of "barren," concerning which elsewhere. For, as before shown, a son and a daughter signify truth and good; and in the opposite sense, evil and falsity. Hence "barren" signifies that the evil and falsity of idolatrous worship reproduced itself no further.

AC 1373. Verse 31. And Terah took Abram his son; and Lot the son of Haran, his son‘s son; and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife; and they went forth with them from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan; and they came even unto Haran, and stayed there. These words signify that those who had been in idolatrous worship were instructed in the celestial and spiritual things of faith, in order that a representative church might come forth from that source.

AC 1374. That this is signified may be seen from what has been said above, and from what is to be said in the following chapter.

AC 1375. Verse 32. And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years; and Terah died in Haran. "And the days of Terah were two hundred and five years," signifies the duration and state of the idolatrous worship meant by Terah; "and Terah died in Haran," signifies the end of idolatry, and the beginning of a representative church through Abram.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING SITUATION AND PLACE, AND ALSO CONCERNING DISTANCE AND TIME, IN THE OTHER LIFE

AC 1376. I have frequently conversed with spirits concerning the idea of place and of distance among them-that it is not anything real, but appears as if it were, being nothing else than their states of thought and of affection, which are thus varied, and are in this manner presented to view in the world of spirits; but not so much so in heaven among the angels, since these are not in the idea of place and time, but in that of states. But the spirits to whom bodily and earthly ideas adhere, do not apprehend this, for they suppose that the case is exactly as they see it to be. Such spirits can hardly be brought to believe otherwise than that they are living in the body, and are not willing to be persuaded that they are spirits; and thus scarcely that there is any appearance, or any fallacy, in relation to the matter, for they desire to live in fallacies. Thus do they preclude themselves from the apprehension and acknowledgment of truths and goods, which are as far as possible from fallacies. It has been shown them many times that change of place is nothing but an appearance, and also a fallacy of sense. For there are two kinds of mutation of place in the other life; one is that which has been spoken of before, when it is laid that all spirits and angels in the Grand Man constantly keep their own situation therein; which is an appearance. The other is that spirits appear in a place when in fact they are not there, which is a fallacy.

AC 1377. That in the world of spirits place, change of place, and distance, are an appearance, has been evidenced from the fact that all souls and spirits whatever who have existed from the first creation, appear constantly in their own places, and never change their places except when their state is changed; and that as their state is changed, so are the places and distances with them varied. But as every one has a general state which is regnant, and as the particular and individual changes of state have regard to the general state, therefore after these changes all return to their own situation.

AC 1378. I have been informed, both by conversation with angels, and by living experience, that spirits, as spirits, in regard to the organic forms which constitute their bodies, are not in the place where they are seen, but may be far away, and yet appear there. I know that they who suffer themselves to be carried away by fallacies will not believe this, but still the case is so. This has been illustrated to those spirits who have believed nothing to be true that they did not see with their eyes - even if this were mere fallacy - by the fact that something similar is exhibited among men in the world. Take for instance the sound of a speaker‘s voice coming to the ear of another person: if the person who hears it did not know to the contrary, by the discriminations of sound, learned by experience from infancy, and did not see the speaker at a distance, he would have no other belief than that the speaker was close to his ear. So with a man who sees remote objects: if he did not at the same time see intervening objects, and know from them, or judge of the distance by what he knows, he would believe a distant object to be near his eye. Much more is this the case with the speech of spirits, which is interior speech; and with their sight, which is interior sight.

[2] And the spirits were told, further, that when plain experience declares a fact, they ought not to doubt, and still less deny it, on the ground that it does not so appear to the senses, and that they do not perceive it. For even within the realm of nature there are many things that are contrary to the fallacies of the senses, but are believed because visible experience teaches them. For example, the sailing of a ship around the globe: they who suffer themselves to be carried away by the fallacies of the senses, might believe that ship and sailors would fall off when they came to the opposite side, and that the people at the antipodes could never stand upon their feet. Such also is the case with the subject before us, and with many things in the other life that are contrary to the fallacies of the senses, and yet are true, - as that man has no life of himself, but from the Lord; and very many other things. By these and other considerations, incredulous spirits could be brought to believe that the case is as we have stated it.

AC 1379. From all this it may also be seen that the walking and removal of spirits from place to place, and their advancements, which are so frequently seen, are nothing but changes of state; that is to say, they appear in the world of spirits as changes of place; but in heaven, as changes of state. The case is similar with many other things that are representative, and are there presented to view, concerning which of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 1380. That in the other life place, change of place, and distance are a fallacy, has been evidenced by the fact that spirits can by phantasy be carried up on high in a moment, even to a very great height, and can also at the same moment be carried into the depths below; and also as it were from one end of the universe to the other. Nay, the sorceresses and magicians there, can by phantasies induce others to believe that when they are in one place they are also at the same time in another, even in several places, thus counterfeiting as it were a universal presence. They who in the life of the body have aspired to exalted station, and also those who have been deceitful, often appear above the head, while really they are in a hell under the feet; and as soon as their soaring arrogance is taken away, they sink down into their own hell, as has been shown me. Their appearance on high is not an appearance, but a fallacy; for, as already said, there are two kinds of mutation of place; that arising from all spirits and angels keeping constantly in their own situation, being an appearance; and their appearing in one place when their real situation is not there, being a fallacy.

AC 1381. The souls and spirits who have not as yet been allotted a constant situation in the Grand Man, are carried to various places, now to this, now to that; now are seen on one side, now on another; now above, now below. These are called wandering souls or spirits, and are comparable to the fluids in the human body, which rise up from the stomach, sometimes to the head, sometimes to other parts, and are carried about. So is it with these spirits, until they come to their designated place, and to a situation in conformity with their general state. It is their states that are thus changed, and that are wandering.

AC 1382. Men cannot but confound the Divine Infinity with infinity of space; and as they have no apprehension of infinity of space except as of a nothing, which in fact it is, they do not believe in the Divine Infinity. Such also is the case with the Eternity, which men cannot conceive of except as an eternity of time, since it is presented by means of time to those who are in time. The true idea of the Divine Infinity is insinuated into the angels by the fact that they are instantly present under the Lord‘s sight, with no intervening space or time, even though they were at the furthest extremity of the universe; and the true idea of the Divine Eternity is insinuated by the fact that thousands of years do not appear to them as time, but scarcely otherwise than as if they had lived only a minute and both ideas are insinuated by the fact that in their present they have past and future things together. Hence they have no solicitude about future things; nor have they ever any idea of death, but only the idea of life; so that in all their present there is the Lord’s Eternity and Infinity.


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