HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter 12

CONCERNING THE PERCEPTION OF SPIRITS AND OF ANGELS AND CONCERNING SPHERES IN THE OTHER LIFE

AC 1383. Among the wonderful things in the other life are perceptions, Of which there are two kinds. One kind, which is angelic perception, consists in perceiving what is true and good, and what is from the Lord, and what from the persons themselves; and also in perceiving the source and quality of their thoughts, words, and actions, when these are from themselves. The other kind is common to all, to angels in the highest perfection, and to spirits according to their respective qualities, and consists in knowing the quality of another on his first approach.

AC 1384. As regards the first kind of perception, which is angelic, and which consists in perceiving what is true and good, also what is from the Lord and what from the persons themselves; and also in perceiving the source and quality of their thoughts, words, and actions, when these are from themselves, it has been granted me to converse with the sons of the Most Ancient Church concerning their perception. They said that of themselves they neither think nor can think anything, nor of themselves will anything; but that in all things whatever which they think and will, both in general and in particular, they perceive what comes from the Lord, and what from other sources; and they perceive not only how much is from the Lord, and how much is as from themselves, but also, when it is as from themselves, they perceive whence it is, from what angels, and likewise the quality of the angels and what their thoughts are, distinguishing every difference; thus they perceive what the influx is, and numberless other things. Perceptions of this kind exist in much variety. With the celestial angels, who are in love to the Lord, there is a perception of good, and from this, of all things of truth; and as they perceive truth from good, they do not admit of any speaking, and still less of any reasoning, about truth but they say that it is so, or that it is not so. Whereas the spiritual angels, who likewise have perception, although not such as the celestial have, speak concerning truth and good; but still they perceive them, although with a difference; for there are innumerable varieties of this perception, the varieties having reference to their perception as to whether a thing is of the Lords will, as to whether it is of His leave, or as to whether it is of His permission, all of which are perfectly distinct from each other.

AC 1385. There are spirits who belong to the province of the skin, especially the scaly skin, who desire to reason about everything; they have no perception of what is good and true; indeed the more they reason, the less they perceive; they make wisdom consist in reasoning, and on this base their claim to seem wise. They have been told that it is of angelic wisdom to perceive without reasoning whether a thing is good and true; but they do not apprehend that such perception is possible. These are they who in the life of the body had confused truth and good by means of matters of knowledge and of philosophy, and thereby had seemed to themselves to be pre-eminently learned; but as they had not previously adopted any principles of truth from the Word, they have less common sense than others.

AC 1386. So long as spirits suppose that they are under their own guidance and think from themselves, and that they have knowledge, understanding, and wisdom from themselves, they cannot have perception, but believe it to be a fable.

AC 1387. I have several times conversed about perception with those in the other life who, while they lived in the world, had regarded themselves as able to penetrate and understand all things telling them that angels perceive that they think and speak, and will and act from the Lord. But still they could not conceive what perception is, but supposed that if all things were to inflow in this way, they would be bereaved of all life; because in that case they would think nothing from themselves, or from what is their own; and in this they had made life to consist; and that in that case it would be another who was thinking, and not themselves; so that they would be mere organs devoid of life. But they were told that between having perception, and not having it, the difference of life is like that between light and darkness; and that men first begin to feel alive when they receive such perception; for then they live from the Lord, and also have what is their own, which is given together with all happiness and delight. It was also shown them by varied experience how the case is with perception, and at the time they acknowledged the possibility of it; but after a while they again did not know, doubted, and denied. From this it has been made evident how difficult it is for man to comprehend what perception is.

AC 1388. The second kind of perception, as has been said, is what is common to all, in the highest perfection to angels, and to spirits according to their quality. It consists in knowing the quality of another at his first approach, even if he does not speak. He manifests himself forthwith by a certain wonderful influx. It is known of a good spirit, not only of what goodness he is, but also of what faith; and when he speaks, this is known from every word. Of an evil spirit it is known of what evil he is and of what unbelief; and when he speaks, this is known from every word, and so manifestly that there can be no mistake. Something similar appears with men, who likewise can sometimes know from another‘s gesture, looks, or speech, what he is thinking, even although it is contrary to what he says; and this knowledge is natural to man, deriving its origin and character from the nature of spirits, and thus from the spirit of the man himself, and its communication with the world of spirits. This communicative perception has its beginning in the fact that the Lord wills that all goods may be communicable, and that all may be affected by mutual love, and so be happy. Hence such a perception reigns universally also among spirits.

AC 1389. Souls that have come into the other life have wondered that there is such a communication of another’s thoughts, and that they at once know the quality of another person‘s faith, as well as that of his disposition. But they were told that the spirit receives much more excellent faculties when it has been separated from the body. During the bodily life there is an influx of the objects of the senses; and also of phantasy from those things which thence inhere in the memory; besides anxieties for the future; various cupidities that are excited by external things; cares for food, clothing, place of abode, children; and other things, concerning which they take no thought in the other life; and therefore on the removal of these obstacles and hindrances, together with the corporeal parts that are of gross sensation, they cannot but be in a more perfect state. The same faculties remain, but are much more perfect, clear, and free; especially with those who have lived in charity and faith in the Lord, and in innocence; for the faculties of all such are immensely elevated above those which they had in the body, being finally elevated even to the angelic faculties of the third heaven.

AC 1390. Nor is there a communication merely of another’s affections and thoughts, but also of his memory-knowledge, to such an extent that one spirit supposes that he has known what another knows, even if he had known nothing about such matters. Thus there is a communication of all the other‘s knowledge. Some spirits retain what is thus communicated, and some do not.

AC 1391. Communications are made both by conversation with one another, and by ideas together with representations; for the ideas of thought of spirits are simultaneously representative, and by this means all things are set forth in great fullness. They can represent more by a single idea than they can utter by a thousand words. But the angels perceive what is within the idea, what the affection is, what the origin of the affection, what its end; besides other things that are interior.

AC 1392. The delights and happiness in the other life are wont to be communicated from one to many by a real transmission that is wonderful, by which they too are affected in a similar manner; and these communications are effected without any loss to him who makes the communication. It has been granted me also thus to communicate delights to others by transmissions. From this may be seen what must be the happiness of those who love the neighbor more than themselves, and who desire nothing more than to transfer their happiness to others; a condition that originates in the Lord, who in this manner communicates felicities to the angels. The communications of happiness are such continual transmissions; but without any reflection that they are from such an active origin, and from a determination as it were open and voluntary.

AC 1393. Communications are also effected in a wonderful way by means of removals, the nature of which cannot be perceived by man. Sad and troublesome things are removed in an instant, and thus things that give delight and happiness are presented without any hindrances; for when these have been removed, the angels flow in, and communicate their happy feelings.

AC 1394. It is owing to the existence of such perception as enables one to know in an instant what is the quality of another in respect to love and faith, that spirits and angels are joined together into societies in accordance with their agreement, and are separated from fellowship according to their disagreement; and this so exquisitely that there is not the smallest difference which does not dissociate or consociate. Hence the societies in the heavens are so distinct from one another that nothing can be conceived to be more so; and this in accordance with all the differences of love to the Lord, and of faith in Him, which cannot be numbered. Hence comes the form of heaven, which is such as to represent one man; and this form is continually being perfected.

AC 1395. As regards this kind of perception, I have learned many things from experience, but it would be tedious to relate them all. Often have I heard the deceitful speaking, and have perceived not only that there was deceit, but also what the deceit was, and what special wickedness there was in it. There is as it were an image of the deceit in every tone of the voice. I could also perceive whether the deceit belonged to him who was speaking, or to others who spoke through him. The case is similar with those who are in hatred: the nature of the hatred is at once perceived, and more things that are in it than man can in any wise be induced to believe. When the persons are presented against whom the hatred has been felt, a lamentable state results, for whatever had been thought and plotted against them stands forth to view.

AC 1396. A certain spirit who while he lived in the world had desired to arrogate to himself merit for his acts and his teaching, went away to the right and came to those who were not of such a character. In order that he might be associated with them, he said that he was nothing, and that he desired to serve them; but instantly, on his first approach, and indeed while he was still far away, they perceived what he was; and they at once replied that he was not what he professed to be, but that he desired to be great, and therefore could not be in agreement with them, who were little. Being ashamed at this, he withdrew, wondering that they knew him so far away.

AC 1397. As the perceptions are so exquisite, evil spirits cannot approach a sphere, or any society, where there are good spirits who are in mutual love. When they merely approach it they begin to be distressed, and they complain and lament. In his audacity and self confidence, a spirit who was evil obtruded himself into a certain society that is at the first threshold of heaven; but from the moment of his arrival he was scarcely able to breathe, and became sensible of a cadaverous stench from himself, and therefore fell back.

AC 1398. There were a number of spirits about me who were not good. An angel came, and I saw that the spirits could not endure his presence; for, as he came nearer, they fell back more and more. I wondered at this, but it was given me to know that the spirits could not stay in the sphere which he had with him. From this, and also from other experience, it has been made evident that one angel can put to flight myriads of evil spirits, for they cannot endure the sphere of mutual love. And yet it was perceived that the sphere of the angel had been tempered by means of others who were associated with him: if it had not been tempered, they would all have been dissipated. From all this it is evident what a perfect perception exists in the other life; and how those who are there are associated together, and also separated from fellow ship, in accordance with the perceptions.

AC 1399. Every spirit has communication with the interior and with the inmost heaven, though he is wholly ignorant of it, and without this communication be could not live. What he is inwardly, is known by the angels who are in his interiors, and he is also ruled by the Lord by means of these angels. Thus there are communications of his interiors in heaven, as there are of his exteriors in the world of spirits. By the interior communications he is disposed to use, to which he is led, beyond his knowledge. The case is the same with man: he likewise communicates with heaven by means of angels, although of this he is wholly ignorant-for otherwise he could not live. The things which flow in therefrom into his thoughts, are only the ultimate effects; all his life is from this source, and from this are ruled all the endeavors (conatus) of his life.

AC 1400. A continuation concerning perceptions and the spheres that arise from them, will be found at the end of this chapter.

GENESIS 12:1-20

1. And Jehovah said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy land, and from thy birth, and from thy father’s house, to the land that I will cause thee to see.

2. And I will make thee into a great nation; and I will bless thee, and will make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing.

3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and will curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed.

4. And Abram went as Jehovah had spoken unto him, and Lot went with him. And Abram was a son of five years and seventy years, when he went forth out of Haran.

5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother‘s son, and all their substance that they had gotten, and the soul that they had gained in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came

6. And Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem, even unto the oak-grove Moreh: and the Canaanite was then in the land.

7. And Jehovah was seen of Abram, and said, To thy seed will I give this land. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, who was seen of him.

8. And he removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel, and spread his tent; having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the east. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, and called on the name of Jehovah.

9. And Abram journeyed, going and journeying, toward the south.

10. And there was a famine in the land. And Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; because the famine was grievous in the land.

11. And it came to pass that when he drew nigh to come into Egypt, he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon:

12. And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say, This is his wife; and they will kill me, and will make thee to live.

13. Say, I pray, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.

14. And it came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt, that the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful.

15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house.

16. And he did well unto Abram for her sake; and he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels.

17. And Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues, and his house, because of the word of Sarai, Abram‘s wife.

18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she is thy wife?

19. Why saidst thou, She is my sister? and I might have taken her to me for a woman. And now, behold thy wife; take her, and go.

20. And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning him; and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had.

THE CONTENTS

AC 1401. True historical things begin here, all of which are representative, and each word significative. The things related in this chapter concerning Abram represent the Lord’s state from earliest childhood up to youth. As the Lord was born in the same way as other men, He also advanced from an obscure state to one more lucid. "Haran" is the first state, which was obscure; " Shechem" is the second; "the oakgrove Moreh" is the third; "the mountain which had Bethel toward the sea and Ai on the east," is the fourth; and the "journey thence toward the south into Egypt," is the fifth.

AC 1402. The things told of Abram‘s sojourn in Egypt represent and signify the Lord’s first instruction. "Abram" is the Lord; " Sarai," as a wife, is truth to be adjoined to the celestial " Sarai," as a sister, is intellectual truth; "Egypt" is memory-knowledge (scientia). The progress from memory-knowledges (a scientificis) even to celestial truths is described; this was according to Divine order, that the Lord‘s Human Essence might be conjoined with His Divine Essence, and at the same time become Jehovah.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 1403. From the first chapter of Genesis up to this point, or rather to the mention of Eber, the historicals have not been true but made-up historicals, which in the internal sense signify celestial and spiritual actualities. But in this chapter and in those which follow, the historicals are not made-up but true historicals; and in the internal sense these in like manner signify celestial and spiritual actualities, as any one may see from the single consideration that it is the Word of the Lord

AC 1404. In these things now before us, which are true historicals, all the statements and words both in general and in particular have in the internal sense an entirely different signification from that which they bear in the sense of the letter; but the historicals themselves are representative. Abram, who is first treated of, represents in general the Lord, and specifically the celestial man; Isaac, who is afterwards treated of, in like manner represents in general the Lord, and specifically the spiritual man; Jacob also in general represents the Lord, and specifically the natural man. Thus they represent the things which are of the Lord, of His kingdom, and of the church.

AC 1405. But the internal sense, as has already been clearly shown, is of such a nature that all things in general and in particular are to be understood abstractedly from the letter, just as if the letter did not exist; for in the internal sense is the Word’s soul and life, which does not become manifest unless the sense of the letter as it were vanishes. Thus, from the Lord, do the angels perceive the Word when it is being read by man.

AC 1406. What the historicals in this chapter represent, is evident from the Contents that have been premised; what is signified by the statements and the words, may be seen from what follows, where they are explained.

AC 1407. Verse 1. And Jehovah said unto Abram, Get thee out of thy land, and from thy birth, and from thy fathers house, to the land that I will cause thee to see. These and the things which follow occurred historically, as they are written; but the historicals are representative, and each word is significative. By "Abram" in the internal sense is meant the Lord, as has been said before. By "Jehovah said unto Abram," is signified the first mental advertence of all; "get thee out of thy land," signifies the corporeal and worldly things from which He was to recede; "and from thy birth," signifies the more exterior corporeal and worldly things; "and from thy father‘s house," signifies the more interior of such things; "to the land that I will cause thee to see," signifies the spiritual and celestial things that were to be presented to view.

AC 1408. These and the things which follow occurred historically as they are written but the historicals are representatives and all the words are significative. The case is the same with all the historicals of the Word, not only with those in the books of Moses, but also with those in the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. In all these, nothing is apparent but mere history; but although it is history in the sense of the letter, still in the internal sense there are arcana of heaven, which lie stored up and hidden there, and which can never be seen so long as the mind, together with the eye, is kept in the historicals nor are they revealed until the mind is removed from the sense of the letter. The Word of the Lord is like a body that contains within it a living soul; the things belonging to the soul do not appear while the mind is so fixed in corporeal things that it scarcely believes that there is a soul, still less that it will live after death; but as soon as the mind withdraws from corporeal things, those which are of the soul and life become manifest. And this also is the reason, not only why corporeal things must die before man can be born anew, or he regenerated, but also why the body itself must die so that he may come into heaven and see heavenly things.

[2] Such also is the case with the Word of the Lord: its corporeal things are those which are of the sense of the letter; and when the mind is kept in these, the internal things are not seen at all; but when the former are as it were dead, then for the first time are the latter presented to view. But still the things of the sense of the letter are similar to those which are with man while in the body, to wit, to the knowledges of the memory that come from the things of sense, and which are general vessels that contain interior or internal things within them. It may be known from this that the vessels are one thing, and the essentials contained in the vessels another. The vessels are natural; the essentials contained in the vessels are spiritual and celestial. So likewise the historicals of the Word, and all the expressions in the Word, are general, natural, and indeed material vessels, in which are things spiritual and celestial; and these in no wise come into view except by the internal sense.

[3] This will be evident to every one from the mere fact that many things in the Word are said according to appearances, and indeed according to the fallacies of the senses, as that the Lord is angry, that He punished curses, kills, and many other such things; when yet in the internal sense they mean quite the contrary, namely, that the Lord is in no wise angry and punishes, still less does He curse and kill. And yet to those who from simplicity of heart believe the Word as they apprehend it in the letter, no harm is done while they live in charity. The reason is that the Word teaches nothing else than that every one should live in charity with his neighbor, and love the Lord above all things. They who do this have in themselves the internal things; and therefore with them the fallacies taken from the sense of the letter are easily dispelled.

AC 1409. That the historicals are representative, but all the words significative, is evident from what has already been said and shown concerning representatives and significatives (n. 665, 920, 1361); nevertheless, since representatives begin here, it is well to give briefly a further explanation of the subject. The Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, looked upon all earthly and worldly, and also bodily things, which were in any wise objects of the senses, as being dead things; but as each and all things in the world present some idea of the Lord’s kingdom, consequently of things celestial and spiritual, when they saw them or apprehended them by any sense, they thought not of them, but of the celestial and spiritual things; indeed they thought not from the worldly things, but by means of them; and thus with them things that were dead became living.

[2] The things thus signified were collected from their lips by their posterity and were formed by them into doctrinals, which were the Word of the Ancient Church, after the flood. With the Ancient Church these were significative; for through them they learned internal things, and from them they thought of spiritual and celestial things. But when this knowledge began to perish, so that they did not know that such things were signified, and began to regard the terrestrial and worldly things as holy, and to worship them, with no thought of their signification, the same things were then made representative. Thus arose the Representative Church, which had its beginning in Abram and was afterwards instituted with the posterity of Jacob. From this it may be known that representatives had their rise from the significatives of the Ancient Church, and these from the celestial ideas of the Most Ancient Church.

[3] The nature of representatives may be manifest from the historicals of the Word, in which all the acts of the fathers, Abram, Isaac, and Jacob, and afterwards those of Moses, and of the judges and kings of Judah and Israel, were nothing but representatives. Abram in the Word, as has been said, represents the Lord; and because he represents the Lord, he represents also the celestial man; Isaac likewise represents the Lord, and thence the spiritual man; Jacob in like manner represents the Lord, and thence the natural man corresponding to the spiritual.

[4] But with representatives the character of the person is not considered at all, but the thing which he represents for all the kings of Judah and of Israel, of whatever character, represented the Lord‘s kingly function; and all the priests, of whatever character, represented His priestly function. Thus the evil as well as the good could represent the Lord and the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom; for, as has been said and shown above, the representatives were altogether separated from the person. Hence then it is that all the historicals of the Word are representative; and because they are representative, it follows that all the words of the Word are significative, that is, that they have a different signification in the internal sense from that which they bear in the sense of the letter.

AC 1410. Jehovah said unto Abram. That this signifies the first mental advertence of all, depends upon the fact that this historical is representative, and the words themselves significative. Such was the style in the Ancient Church, that when anything was true, they said "Jehovah said," or, "Jehovah spake," which signified that it was so; as has been shown above. But after significatives had been turned into representatives, then Jehovah or the Lord did actually speak with men; and when it is then said that Jehovah said, or, Jehovah spake with any one, it signifies the same as before; for the Lord’s words in the true historicals involve the same as His words in the made-up ones. There is only this difference, that the latter are composed to be like true history, and the former are not so composed. Wherefore that "Jehovah said unto Abram," signifies nothing else than the first mental advertence; as when in the Ancient Church any one was admonished by conscience, or by some other dictate, or by their Word, that a thing was so, it was then said in like manner that "Jehovah said."

AC 1411. Get thee out of thy land. That this signifies the corporeal and worldly things from which He was to recede, is evident from the signification of "land" or "earth," which is variable, adapting itself to the person or thing of which it is predicated-as in the first chapter of‘ Genesis, where likewise "earth" signifies the external man (n. 82, 620, 636, 913). That it here signifies corporeal and worldly things, is because these are of the external man. A "land," in the proper sense, is the land, region, or kingdom itself; it is also the inhabitant thereof; and also the people itself and the nation itself, in the land. Thus the word "land" not only signifies in a broad sense the people or the nation, but also in a limited sense the inhabitant. When the word "land" is used with reference to the inhabitant, its signification is then in accordance with the thing concerning which it is used. It is here used respecting corporeal and worldly things; for the land of his birth, out of which Abram was to go, was idolatrous. In the historical sense, therefore, the meaning here is that Abram should go out from that land; but in the representative sense, that He should recede from the things which are of the external man; that is, that external things should not resist, nor bring in disturbance; and because this is concerning the Lord, it signifies that His externals should agree with His internals.

AC 1412. And from thy birth. That this signifies the more exterior corporeal and worldly things, and that "from thy father’s house" signifies the more interior of such things, may be seen from the signification of "birth," and from the signification of a "father‘s house." There are in man corporeal and worldly things more exterior and more interior the more exterior are those which are proper to the body, such as pleasures and the things of sense the more internal are affections and things of memory-knowledge; and these are what are signified by "birth" and a "father’s house." That these are their significations may be confirmed by many passages of the Word, but as it is evident from the connection, and from looking at the things in the internal sense, there is no need to dwell on the confirmation.

AC 1413. To the land that I will cause thee to see. That this signifies the spiritual and celestial things that would be presented to view, is evident from the signification of "land" (n. 662, 1066), and here indeed of the land of Canaan, by which the Lord‘s kingdom is represented, as may be seen from many other passages in the Word. The land of Canaan is therefore called the Holy Land, and also the heavenly Canaan. And "because it represented the Lord’s kingdom, it also represented and signified the celestial and spiritual things that belong to His kingdom; here, those which belong to the Lord Himself.

AC 1414. As the Lord is here treated of, more arcana are contained than can ever be thought of and declared. For here, in the internal sense, is meant the Lord‘s first state, when born; which state, because most deeply hidden, cannot well be set forth to the comprehension. Suffice it to say that the Lord was like other men, except that He was conceived of Jehovah, but still was born of a virgin mother, and by birth derived infirmities from the virgin mother like those of man in general. These infirmities are corporeal, and it is said of them in this verse that He should recede from them, in order that celestial and spiritual things might be presented for Him to see. There are two hereditary natures connate in man, one from the father, the other from the mother. The Lord’s hereditary from the Father was the Divine, but His hereditary from the mother was he infirm human. This infirm nature which a man derives hereditarily from his mother, is something corporeal that is dispersed when he is being regenerated, while that which a man derives from his father remains to eternity. But the Lord‘s hereditary from Jehovah, as was said, was the Divine. Another arcanum is that the Lord’s Human also was made Divine. In Him alone there was a correspondence of all the things of the body with the Divine-a most perfect correspondence, infinitely perfect, giving rise to a union of the corporeal things with Divine celestial things, and of sensuous things with Divine spiritual things; and thus He was the Perfect Man, and the Only Man.

AC 1415. Verse 2. And I will make thee into a great nation; and I will bless thee, and will make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing. "I will make thee into a great nation" signifies the kingdom in the heavens and on the earth; it is said "a great nation," from things celestial and from goods; "and I will bless thee," signifies the fructification of celestial things and the multiplication of spiritual things; "and will make thy name great," signifies glory; "and thou shalt be a blessing," signifies that from the Lord are all things both in general and in particular.

AC 1416. I will make thee into a great nation. That this signifies the kingdom in the heavens and on the earth, is evident from the signification of a "nation," as being in the internal sense the celestial of love and the derivative good, thus all in the universe in whom is the celestial of love and of charity; and as in the internal sense the Lord is here treated of, there is meant all the celestial and all the derivative good, thus His kingdom, which is with those who are in love and charity. In the supreme sense the Lord is Himself the "great nation," because He is the celestial itself, and good itself; for all the good of love and of charity is from Him alone; and therefore the Lord is His kingdom itself, that is, He is the all in all of His kingdom, as is also acknowledged by all the angels in heaven. Hence now it is evident that "I will make thee into a great nation," signifies the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens and on earth.

[2] That in the internal sense, where the Lord and the celestial things of love are treated of, a "nation" signifies the Lord and all celestial things, is evident from the things adduced above concerning the signification of a "nation," and of "nations" (n. 1258, 1259). This may also be further confirmed by the following passages. Concerning Abraham it is said:--

Thy name shall not any more be called Abram, and thy name shall be Abraham, for the father of a multitude of nations have I given thee (Gen. 17:5).

The letter h in "Abraham" was taken from the name Jehovah, on account of his representation of Jehovah or the Lord. In like manner it is said of Sarai: Thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be. And I will bless her, and also give thee a son of her; thus I will bless her, and she shall become nations; kings of peoples shall be of her (Gen. 17:15, 16); where "nations" denote the celestial things of love, and "kind of peoples" the spiritual things of faith thence derived, which belong to the Lord alone.

[3] Concerning Jacob in like manner:--

Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name, and He called his name Israel: and God said, I am God the thunderer; increase and multiply a nation and a congregation of nations shall be from thee, and kings shall go forth out of thy loins (Gen. 35:10, 11)

where "Israel" denotes the Lord, and that He Himself is "Israel" in the supreme sense, is well known to some; and when He is "Israel," it is evident that "a nation" and "an assemblage of nations," and "kings out of His loins," are the celestial and the spiritual things of love, and therefore all who are in the celestial and the spiritual things of love. Concerning Ishmael, Abram’s son by Hagar, it is said:--

The son of the handmaid I will make him into a nation, because he is thy seed (Gen. 21:13, 18).

What is represented by Ishmael will be seen in its place; the "seed" of Abram is love itself, and from this the term "nation" is used for those begotten of Ishmael.

[4] That a "nation" signifies the celestial things of love, is evident in Moses:--

If hearing ye will hear My voice, and will keep My covenant, ye shall also be a peculiar treasure unto Me out of all peoples, and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation (Exod. 19:5, 6)

where "a kingdom of priests," which is the Lord‘s kingdom the heavens and on earth, being so named from the celestial things of love, is manifestly called "a holy nation;" whereas the Lord’s kingdom from His kingly function was named from the spiritual things of love, and is called "a holy people;" and for this reason " kings out of the loins," in the passage quoted above, are spiritual things. In Jeremiah:--

If these statutes have departed from before Me, saith Jehovah, the seed of Israel also shall cease, that it be not a nation before Me all the days (Jeremiah 31:36)

"the seed of Israel" denotes the celestial of charity; and when this ceases, there is no longer a nation before the Lord.

[5] In Isaiah:--

The people that walk in darkness have seen a great light; Thou hast multiplied the nation (Isaiah 9:2, 3).

This is said of the church of the nations specifically; but in general of all who are in ignorance and live in charity; these are a "nation," because they are of the Lord‘s kingdom. In David:--

That I may see the good of Thy chosen that I may be glad in the gladness of Thy nation, that I may glory in Thine inheritance (Ps. 106:5)

here "nation" plainly denotes the Lord’s kingdom. As the signification of nation" is the celestial of love and the derivative good, there originated, from a perception of this signification, the fact that the men of the Most Ancient Church were distinguished into households, families, and nations; and thereby they perceived the Lord‘s kingdom, and consequently the celestial itself. From this Perceptive arose the Significative, and from this the Representative.

AC 1417. That "a great nation" is so called from celestial things and goods, is evident from what has just been said and shown, and also from what was said above (n. 1259). Hence it may be known what in the proper sense is the Church of the Nations.

AC 1418. And I will bless thee. That this signifies the fructification of celestial things and the multiplication of spiritual things, is evident from the signification in the Word of "to bless," concerning which presently.

AC 1419. And I will make thy name great. That this signifies glory, is evident without explication. In the external sense, by "making a name," and by "glory," there is signified something worldly; but in the internal sense, something celestial. This celestial is not to strive to be the greatest, but to be the least, by serving all; as the Lord Himself said in Matthew:--

It shall not be so among you but whosoever would be great among you shall be your minister and whosoever would be first among you shall be your servant: even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many (Matthew 20:26-28; Mark 10:44, 45)

It is the celestial of love not to desire to be one’s own, but to belong to all; so that we desire to give others all that is our own in this consists the essence of celestial love. The Lord, being love itself, or the essence and life of the love of all in the heavens, wills to give to the human race all things that are His; which is signified by His saying that the Son of man came to give His life a ransom for many. From this it is evident that in the internal sense "name" and glory" are altogether different from what they are in the external sense. In heaven therefore all are rejected who desire to become great and the greatest; because this is contrary to the essence and life of heavenly love, which are from the Lord. Hence also it is that nothing is more contrary to heavenly love than the love of self. Concerning these things see what is related from experience above (n. 450, 452, 952).

AC 1420. And thou shalt be a blessing. That this signifies that all things both in general and in particular are from the Lord, is evident from the signification of "a blessing." A "blessing" is predicated of all goods; in the external sense, of corporeal, worldly, and natural goods in the internal sense, of spiritual and celestial goods. "To be a blessing," is to be the source of all goods, and the giver of all goods. This can by no means be said of Abram, and hence it is evident that by Abram is represented the Lord, who alone is "a blessing." In like manner in regard to what is said of Abraham hereafter:--

Abraham shall surely become a great and numerous nation, and in him shall all the nations of the earth be blessed (Gen. 18:18)

of Isaac:

In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed (Gen. 26:4),

and of Jacob:--

In thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth he blessed (Gen. 28:14).

That nations cannot be blessed, and are not blessed, in Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and in their seed, but in the Lord, may be seen by every one. This is clearly said in David:--

His name shall endure forever; before the sun shall the name of his son endure; and all nations shall be blessed in him (Ps. 72:17);

where the Lord is treated of. Again:--

Thou shalt set him for blessings forever (Ps. 21:6);

where also the Lord is treated of. In Jeremiah:--

The nations shall be blessed in Him, and in Him shall they glory (Jeremiah 4:2).

From these passages it is now evident that "a blessing" signifies the Lord, and that when He is called "a blessing," it signifies that from Him are all celestial and spiritual things, which alone are goods and because they alone are goods, they alone are truths; and therefore in proportion as there are celestial and spiritual goods in natural, worldly, and corporeal ones, in the same proportion these are goods, and are "blessed."

AC 1421. Verse 3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and will curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed. "I will bless them that bless thee," signifies all happiness to those who acknowledge the Lord from the heart; "and will curse him that curseth thee," signifies unhappiness to those who do not acknowledge Him; "and in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed," signifies that all things true and good are from the Lord.

AC 1422. I will bless them that bless thee. That this signifies all happiness to those who acknowledge the Lord from the heart, is evident from the signification of a "blessing," as involving all and each of the things that are from the Lord, as well those that are good as those that are true; thus celestial, spiritual, natural, worldly, and corporeal things; and because in the universal sense "blessing" embraces all these, it may be seen in each passage, from the connection, what is signified by "to bless;" for this adapts itself to the things of which it is predicated. From this it is evident that "I will bless them that bless thee," signifies all happiness to those who acknowledge the Lord from the heart; for in the internal sense, as already said, the Lord is here treated of.

[2] Among the ancients, "to bless Jehovah," or the Lord," was a customary form of speech, as is evident from the Word. Thus in David:--

Bless ye God in the congregations, the Lord from the fountain of Israel (Ps. 68:26).

Again

Sing to Jehovah, bless His name, proclaim His salvation from day to day (Ps. 96:2).

In Daniel:--

Then was the secret revealed in a vision of the night; therefore Daniel blessed the God of the heavens; he said, Blessed be the name of God Himself for ever and ever, for wisdom and power are His (Daniel 2:19, 20).

Of Zacharias and Simeon we also read that they "blessed God" (Luke 1:64; 2:28). Here it is evident that "to bless the Lord" is to sing to Him, to proclaim the good tidings of His salvation, to preach His wisdom and power, and thus to confess and acknowledge the Lord from the heart. They who do this cannot but be blessed by the Lord, that is, be gifted with those things which belong to blessing, namely, with celestial, spiritual, natural, worldly, and corporeal good; these, when they follow each other in this order, are the goods in which there is happiness.

[3] As "to bless Jehovah," or "the Lord," and "to be blessed by Jehovah," or "the Lord," was a common form of speech, it was therefore common also to say "Blessed be Jehovah." As in David:--

Blessed be Jehovah, because He hath heard the voice of my supplications (Ps. 28:6).

Blessed be Jehovah, for He hath made His mercy wonderful to me (Ps. 31:21).

Blessed be God, who hath not turned away my prayers, for His mercy from me (Ps. 66:20).

Blessed be Jehovah God, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things and blessed be His glorious name forever, and let the whole earth be filled with His glory (Ps. 72:18, 19).

Blessed art Thou, O Jehovah teach me Thy statutes (Ps. 119:12).

Blessed be Jehovah, my Rock, that teacheth my bands (Ps. 144:1).

In Luke:--

Zacharias, filled with the Holy Spirit, prophesied, saying, Blessed be the God of Israel, for He hath visited and wrought deliverance for His people (Luke 1:67, 68).

AC 1423. And will curse him that curseth thee. That this signifies the unhappiness of those who do not acknowledge the Lord, is evident from the signification of "being cursed," and of cursing," as being to turn one‘s self away from the Lord, as has been shown before (n. 245, 379), and consequently not to acknowledge Him; for they who do not acknowledge, turn themselves away. Thus "to curse" here involves all things opposite to those involved in "blessing."

AC 1424. And in thee shall all the families of the ground be blessed. That this signifies that all goods and truths are from the Lord, is evident from the signification of "to bless," which is treated of in this verse and the preceding; also from the signification of "the families of the ground," as being all good and truth; for in the Word "families" signify the like as do "nations" and "peoples," being predicated of both; and it is said, " families of the nations," and "families of the peoples." "Nations," as has been shown, signify goods and "peoples," as has also been shown, signify truths (n. 1259); and therefore "families" signify goods and also truths (n. 1261). The reason why these are called "all the families of the ground," is that all goods and truths are of the faith of love, which is of the church. That by "the ground" is signified the church, consequently the faith of the church, was shown above (n. 566).

AC 1425. Verse 4. And Abram went as Jehovah spake unto him; and Lot went with him. And Abram was a son of five years and seventy years when he went forth out of Haran. By "Abram," as already said, is represented the Lord as to His Human Essence. "And Abram went as Jehovah spake unto him," signifies His progression toward Divine things; "and Lot went with him," signifies what is sensuous; by "Lot" is represented the Lord as to His sensuous and corporeal man; "and Abram was a son of five years and seventy years," signifies that as yet there was not very much of the Divine; "when he went forth out of Haran," signifies an obscure state of the Lord.

AC 1426. That by "Abram" is represented the Lord as to His Human Essence, is evident from everything that is said of Abram. Afterwards he represents the Lord both as to the Human and also the Divine Essence, and he is then called "Abraham." The things that have so far been said, from the first verse, represent and signify the Lord’s first mental advertence that He was to put on celestial and thus Divine things. Here there commence the progressions of His Human Essence to His Divine Essence.

AC 1427. And Abram went as Jehovah spake unto him. That this signifies progression toward Divine things, is evident from what has just been said.

AC 1428. And Lot went with him. That this signifies what is sensuous, and that by "Lot" is represented the Lord as to His sensuous and corporeal man, is evident from the representation of Lot in what follows, where it is said that he was separated from Abram, and was saved by angels; but afterwards, when he was separated, Lot put on another representation, concerning which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy hereafter. It is evident that the Lord was born as are other men, but of a virgin mother, and that He possessed what is sensuous and corporeal as do other men; but He differed from other men in the fact that His sensuous and corporeal was afterwards united to celestial things, and was made Divine. The Lord’s sensuous and corporeal itself, or what is the same, His sensuous and corporeal man, as it was in His state of childhood-not as it became when united by means of celestial things to the Divine - is represented by Lot.

AC 1429. Abram was a son of five years and seventy years. That this signifies that as yet there was not very much of the Divine, is evident from the signification of the number "five" as being a little, and of the number "seventy" as being what is holy. That "five" denotes a little, has been shown above (n. 649); and also that " seventy," like "seven," signifies what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 881): here, because "seventy" is a predicated of the Lord, it signifies the holy Divine. That in the internal sense the numbers of Abram‘s years also signify other things, is evident from what has been said and shown before concerning years and numbers (n. 482, 487, 493, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813); and also from the fact that there is not a syllable or iota in the Word which has not an internal sense; and unless spiritual and celestial things were involved, it would not have been mentioned that Abram was then five years and seventy years old; neither would this have taken place at this age of Abram; as is evident also from other numbers, both of years and of measures, that occur in the Word.

AC 1430. When he went forth out of Haran. That this signifies an obscure state of the Lord, like that of man’s childhood, is evident from the signification of "Haran" in the preceding chapter, whither Terah first came with Abram, and where Terah the father of Abram died (Gen. 11:31, 32); and also from what follows, in that Jacob went to Haran, where Laban dwelt (Gen. 27:43; 28:10; 29:4). Haran was a region where worship was external; and indeed, as regards Terah, Abram, and Laban, it was idolatrous; yet in the internal sense the same is not signified as in the external, but only something that is obscure. When from the external sense we pass to the internal the idea of idolatry does not remain, but is wiped away, just as the idea of holy love arises from the mention of a mountain (n. 795); in passing from the external sense to the internal, the idea of a mountain first perishes, and there remains the idea of height, and by height is represented holiness. So in all other cases.

AC 1431. Verse 5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother‘s son, and all their substance that they had gotten, and the soul that they had gained in Haran: and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came. "And Abram took Sarai his wife," signifies good to which truth has been adjoined; by "Abram," as has been said, is meant the Lord; here, when He was a child; by Sarai" as a "wife," is meant truth: "and Lot his brother’s son," signifies sensuous truth, thus the first that is insinuated into a child; "and all their substance that they had gotten," signifies all things that are sensuous truths; "and the soul that they had gained in Haran," signifies every living essential that was possible in that obscure state; "and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan," signifies that He thus advanced to the celestial things of love; "and into the land of Canaan they came," signifies that He attained to the celestial things of love.

AC 1432. And Abram took Sarai his wife. That this signifies good to which truth has been adjoined, is evident from that which is dignified in the Word by a man and his wife (n. 915); thus here, in the internal sense, by Sarai" is signified truth. In all things of man both in general and in particular there is an image of a marriage; nor can there possibly be anything so small as not to contain this image within it, whether it be in the external man and each and everything belonging to it, or in the internal man and each and everything belonging to it. The reason is that all things both in general and in particular come forth and subsist from the Lord, and from the unition of His Human Essence, as in a marriage, with His Divine Essence; and from the conjunction or heavenly marriage of both with His kingdom in the heavens and on earth. In the present case therefore, where there was to be represented the truth that is joined to the Lord‘s good, and this by historic facts concerning Abram, it could be represented in no other way than by a "wife." That there is an image of a marriage in all things both in general and in particular, may be seen above (n. 54, 55, 718, 747, 917).

AC 1433. That by "Abram" is meant the Lord, in the present case when He was a child; and that by "Sarai his wife" is meant truth, is evident from what has been already said.

AC 1434. And Lot his brother’s son. That this signifies sensuous truth, and thus the first that was insinuated into the Lord when a child, is evident from the signification of "Lot," as being the sensuous-as stated in the explication of the preceding verse-and from the signification of "son," as being truth (n. 264, 489, 491, 533); and also from the signification of "brother," as being the truth of faith (n. 367). Thus sensuous truth is what is here signified, for in the internal sense there is no reflection on the persons and words, but only upon their signification. In heaven they do not know who Lot is, but only the quality that is represented by him; nor do they know what a son is, but the spiritual state by which one is relatively as a son; nor do they know what a brother is, except from brotherhood such as there is in heaven. As regards sensuous truth, it is the first truth that insinuates itself‘ for in childhood the judgment does not go higher. Sensuous truth consists in seeing all earthly and worldly things as being created by God, and each and everything for a purpose, and in all things whatsoever a certain image of God’s kingdom. This sensuous truth is insinuated solely with the celestial man; and as the Lord alone was a celestial man, these and similar sensuous truths were insinuated into Him in earliest childhood: whereby He was prepared for the reception of celestial things.

AC 1435. And all the substance that they had gotten. That this signifies all things that are sensuous truths, is evident from what has already been said. All the memory-knowledge from which a man thinks, is called "acquisition" or "substance." Without the acquisition of memory-knowledges, a man cannot as a man have any idea of thought. The ideas of thought are founded upon those things which have been impressed on the memory from the things of sense; and therefore memory-knowledges are vessels of spiritual things; and affections that are from good pleasures of the body are vessels of celestial things. All these are called "the substance got. ten," and indeed in Haran, by which is signified an obscure state, such as is that of infancy up to childhood.

AC 1436. And the soul that they had gained in Haran. That this signifies every living essential that was possible in that obscure state, is evident from the signification of " soul," as being what is living essential; and from the signification of " Haran" as being an obscure state, concerning which see the preceding verse. The soul in the proper sense signifies that which lives in man, and thus his very life. That in man which lives is not the body, but the soul, and the body lives by means of the soul. The life itself of man, or the living part of him, is from celestial love; there cannot possibly be anything living which does not derive its origin from this; and therefore by "soul" is here signified the good which lives from celestial love, which good is the living essential itself. In the literal sense, by "soul" is here meant every man, and also every beast that was alive, and which they had procured for themselves; but in the internal sense nothing else is signified than what is living essential.

AC 1437. And they went forth to go into the land of Canaan. That this signifies that He thus advanced to the celestial things of love, is evident from the signification of "the land of Canaan." That the land of Canaan represents the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens and on earth, is evident from many things in the Word. The reason is that the Representative Church was instituted there, in which all things both in general and in particular represented the Lord and the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom. Not only were the rites representative, but everything connected with them, as well the persons who ministered, as the things by which they ministered, and also the places of the ministration. As the Representative Church was there, the land was called the Holy Land, although it was anything but holy, for it was inhabited by the idolatrous and the profane. This then is the reason why by " the land of Canaan," here and in what follows, are signified the celestial things of love; for the celestial things of love, and these alone, are in the Lord’s kingdom, and constitute His Kingdom.

AC 1438. And into the land of Canaan they came. That this signifies that He attained to the celestial things of love, is evident from what has just been said concerning the land of Canaan. There is here described the first thing in the Lord‘s life-from birth to childhood - namely, that He attained to the celestial things of love. The celestial things of love are the very essentials; the rest come from them. With these He was first of all imbued; for from these as from their seed were all things afterwards made fruitful. The seed itself in Him was celestial, because He was born of Jehovah; and therefore He was the only one who had this seed in Himself. All men whatever have no other seed than something filthy and infernal, in and from which is what is their own; and this is from what is inherited from the father, as is known to every one; wherefore, unless they receive from the Lord a new seed and a new Own, that is, a new will and a new understanding, they cannot be otherwise than accursed to hell; from which all men, spirits, and angels, are drawn forth, and are continually withheld by the Lord.

AC 1439. Verse 6. And Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem, even unto the oak-grove Moreh: and the Canaanite was then in the land. "Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem" signifies the Lord’s second state, when the celestial things of love became apparent to Him, which are signified by "Shechem;" "even unto the oak-grove Moreh," signifies the third state, namely, the first perception, which is "the oak-grove Moreh;" "and the Canaanite was then in the land," signifies the evil hereditary from the mother in His external man.

AC 1440. Abram passed through the land, even unto the place Shechem. That this signifies the Lord‘s second state, when the celestial things of love became apparent to Him, is evident from what precedes and from the order of all these events, from what precedes, in that He advanced to the celestial things of love and attained to them, which is signified by "they went forth to go into the land of Canaan," and by " they came into the land of Canaan;" and from the order of the events, in that after He had advanced to celestial things and had attained to them, they then became apparent to Him. In celestial things there is the very light of the soul; because the Divine itself, that is, Jehovah Himself, is in them; and as the Lord was to conjoin the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, when He attained to celestial things it could not be otherwise than that Jehovah appeared to Him.

AC 1441. That these things are signified by "Shechem," is also evident from the fact that Shechem is as it were the first station in the land of Canaan, in journeying from Syria, or from Haran; and as the celestial things of love are signified by "the land of Canaan," it is evident that their first appearing is signified by Shechem. When Jacob returned from Haran into the land of Canaan, he in like manner came to Shechem, as is evident from the following passage:--

Jacob journeyed to Succoth, and built him a house, and made booths for his cattle therefore he called the name of the place Succoth. And Jacob came to Shalem, a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan, when be came from Paddan-aram, and encamped before the city. And he erected there an altar (Gen. 33:17-20)

where also by " Shechem" is signified the first of light. In David:--

God hath spoken in His holiness I will exult, I will divide Shechem, and will mete out the valley of Succoth; Gilead is Mine, and Manasseh is Mine, and Ephraim is the strength of Mine head Judah is My lawgiver; Moab is My washpot; upon Edom will I cast My shoe; over Philistia will I sound in triumph (Ps. 60:6-8; 108:7-9);

where the signification of " Shechem" is similar. That names signify nothing else than actual things (res), and that so also does Shechem," may be plainly seen from these prophetic sayings of David; for otherwise they would be little hut an accumulation of names. That Shechem was made a city of refuge (Josh. 20:7), and also a city of the priests (Josh. 24:21), and that a covenant was made there (Josh. 24:1, 25), involve also what is similar.

AC 1442. Unto the oak-grove Moreh. That this signifies the first perception, is also evident from the order. As soon as Jehovah appeared to the Lord in His celestial things it is evident that He attained perception all perception is from celestial things. What perception is, has been declared and shown before (n. 104, 202, 371, 483, 495, 503, 521, 536, 865). Every one receives perception from the Lord when he comes to celestial things. They who have become celestial men, such as those of the Most Ancient Church, have all received perception, as before shown (n. 125, 597, 607, 784, 895). They who become spiritual men, that is, who receive charity from the Lord, have something analogous to perception, or rather they have a dictate of conscience, more or less clear, in proportion as they are in the celestial things of charity. The celestial things of charity are attended with this; for in them alone the Lord is present, and in them He appears to man. How much more must this have been the case with the Lord, who from infancy advanced to Jehovah, and was conjoined and united to Him, so that they were One.

AC 1443. As regards "the oak-grove Moreh" being the first perception, the case is this. There are with man things intellectual, things rational, and things of memory (scientifica); his inmost things are intellectual, his interior things are rational, and his exterior things are those of the memory (scientifica); all these are called his spiritual things, which are in the order here given. The intellectual things of the celestial man are compared to a garden of trees of every kind; his rational things, to a forest of cedars and similar trees, such as there were in Lebanon; but his memory-knowledges (scientifica) are compared to oak-groves, and this from their intertwined branches such as are those of the oak. By trees themselves are signified perceptions as by the trees of the garden of Eden eastward, inmost perceptions, or those of intellectual things (n. 99, 100, 103) by the trees of the forest of Lebanon, interior perceptions, or those of rational things; but by the trees of an oak-grove, exterior perceptions, or those of memory-knowledges, which belong to the external man. Hence it is that "the oak-grove Moreh" signifies the Lord’s first perception; for He was as yet a child, and His spiritual things were not more interior than this. Besides, the oak-grove Moreh was where the sons of Israel also first came when they passed over the Jordan and saw the land of Canaan, concerning which in Moses:--Thou shalt put the blessing upon Mount Gerizim, and the curse upon Mount Ebal. Are they not beyond Jordan, behind the way of the going down of the sun, in the land of the Canaanite that dwelleth in the plain over against Gilgal, beside the oak-groves of Moreh (Deut. 11:29, 30) by which also is signified the first of perception, for the entrance of the sons of Israel represents the entrance of the faithful into the Lord‘s kingdom.

AC 1444. And the Canaanite was then in the land. That this signifies the evil hereditary from the mother, in His external man, is evident from what has been already said concerning that which was inherited by the Lord; for He was born as are other men, and inherited evils from the mother, against which He fought, and which He overcame. It is well known that the Lord underwent and endured the most grievous temptations, temptations so great that He fought alone and by His own power against the whole of hell. No one can undergo temptation unless evil adheres to him; he who has no evil cannot have the least temptation; evil is what the infernal spirits excite.

[2] In the Lord there was not any evil that was actual, or His own, as there is in all men, but there was hereditary evil from the mother, which is here called "the Canaanite then in the land." Concerning this, see what was said above, at (verse 1) (n. 1414), namely, that there are two hereditary natures connate in man, one from the father, the other from the mother; that which is from the father remains to eternity, but that which is from the mother is dispersed by the Lord while the man is being regenerated. The Lord’s hereditary nature from His Father, however, was the Divine. His hereditary from the mother was evil, and this is treated of here, and is that through which He underwent temptations (Mark 1:12, 13; Matt. 4:1; Luke 4:1, 2). But, as already said, He had no evil that was actual, or His own, nor had He any hereditary evil from the mother after He had overcome hell by means of temptations; on which account it is here said that there was such evil at that time, that is, that the "Canaanite was then in the land."

[3] The Canaanites were those who dwelt by the sea and by the coast of Jordan, as is evident in Moses. The spies on their return said:--

We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and surely it floweth with milk and honey, and this is the fruit of it. Howbeit the people that dwelleth in the land is strong, and the cities are fenced, very great; and moreover we saw the children of Anak there Amalek dwelleth in the south; and the Hittite and the Jebusite and the Amorite dwell in the mountains and the Canaanite dwelleth by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan (Num. 13:27-29).

That the Canaanites dwelt by the sea and by the coast of Jordan, signified evil thence in the external man, such as is the hereditary from the mother; for the sea and the Jordan were boundaries.

[4] That such evil is signified by "the Canaanite," is also evident in Zechariah:--

In that day there shall be no more a Canaanite in the house of Jehovah Zebaoth (Zechariah 14:21)

where the Lord‘s kingdom is treated of, and it is signified that the Lord will conquer the evil meant by the Canaanite and will expel it from His kingdom. All kinds of evils are signified by the idolatrous nations in the land of Canaan, among which were the Canaanites (Gen. 15:15, 19, 21; Exod. 3:8, 17; 23:23, 28; 33:2; 34:11; Deut. 7:1; 20:17; Josh. 3:10; 24:11; Judges 3:5). What evil is signified by each nation specifically, shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told elsewhere.

AC 1445. Verse 7. And Jehovah was seen of Abram, and said, To thy seed will I give this land. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, who was seen of him. "Jehovah was seen of Abram," signifies that Jehovah appeared to the Lord while yet a child; "and said, To thy seed will I give this land," signifies that celestial things should be given to those who should have faith in Him; "and there he built an altar to Jehovah, who was seen of him," signifies the first worship of His Father from the celestial of love.

AC 1446. Jehovah was seen of Abram. That this signifies that Jehovah appeared to the Lord while yet a child, is evident from the things that precede; also from the very representation of the Lord by Abram; and also from the order, in that He attained to celestial things, then to perception, from which there follows that Jehovah was seen.

AC 1447. And said, To thy seed will I give this land. That this signifies that celestial things should be given to those who should have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," and from the signification of "land." That "seed" signifies faith in the Lord, was shown above (n. 255, 256); and that "land" signifies celestial things, was also shown above, at (verse 1) of this chapter (n. 620, 636, 662, 1066). In the sense of the letter, by "the seed of Abram" is meant his posterity from Jacob, and by "land" is meant the land of Canaan itself, which would be given them for a possession, so that they might represent the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord‘s kingdom and church, and that the Representative Church might be instituted among them, and because the Lord was to be born there; but in the internal sense nothing else is signified by "seed" than faith in the Lord, and by "land" nothing else than celestial things, and in the present passage that celestial things should be given those who should have faith in Him. What is meant by having faith in the Lord has already been shown repeatedly.

AC 1448. And there he built an altar to Jehovah who was seen of him. That this signifies the first worship of His Father from the celestial of love, is evident from the signification of "an altar," as being the principal representative of worship (n. 921).

AC 1449. Verse 8. And he removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel, and spread his tent; having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the east. And there he built an altar to Jehovah, and called on the name of Jehovah. "He removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel," signifies the Lord’s fourth state when a child, namely, the progression of the celestial things of love, signified by being transferred to a mountain on the east of Bethel; "and spread his tent," signifies the holy things of faith; "having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the east," signifies that His state was still obscure; "and there he built an altar to Jehovah," signifies the external worship of His Father from that state "and called on the name of Jehovah," signifies the internal worship of His Father from that state.

AC 1450. And he removed from thence into the mountain on the east of Bethel. That this signifies the Lord‘s fourth state when a child, is evident from what precedes and from what follows, and also from the order itself. The order was that the Lord should first of all be imbued from infancy with the celestial things of love. The celestial things of love are love to Jehovah and love to the neighbor, and innocence itself in these. From these, as from the veriest fountains of life, flow all other things both in general and particular, for all other things are merely derivations. These celestial things are insinuated into man chiefly in his state of infancy up to childhood, and in fact without knowledges; for they flow in from the Lord, and affect him, before the man knows what love is and what affection is; as may be seen from the state of infants, and afterwards from the state of early childhood. These things in man are the remains which have been spoken of several times; and which are insinuated by the Lord and stored up for use in after life (n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 661). As the Lord was born as are other men, He was also introduced according to order into celestial things, and in fact by degrees from infancy to childhood, and afterwards into knowledges; and how the case was with Him in regard to these is described in this verse, and is represented in what follows by Abraham’s sojourn in Egypt.

AC 1451. That to be "removed into the mountain on the east of Bethel" signifies the progression of the celestial things of love, is evident from the signification of a "mountain," as being what is celestial, as has been shown above (n. 795, 796); and from the signification of "the east," as being Jehovah Himself as to love; for He is the East itself, as has also been shown above (n. 101, and elsewhere); and also from the signification of "Bethel," as being the knowledge of celestial things. Celestial things are insinuated into man both without knowledges, and with knowledges; celestial things without knowledges from infancy up to childhood, as said just above; but celestial things with knowledges from childhood onward to adult age. And as the Lord was to advance into the knowledges of celestial things, which are signified by "Bethel," it is here said that Abram passed over thence to a mountain on the east of Bethel.

AC 1452. And spread his tent. That this signifies the holy things of faith, is evident from the signification of a "tent," as being the holy of love, and consequently the holy of faith from love, as before shown (n. 414). That "he spread his tent," there signifies that this was now beginning.

AC 1453. Having Bethel toward the sea, and Ai on the East, signifies that the Lord‘s state was still obscure, that is to say, in regard to the knowledges of celestial and spiritual things; for it is one thing to be in celestial things, and another to be in the knowledges of celestial things. Infants and children are in celestial things more than adults, because they are in love toward their parents, and in mutual love, and also in innocence; but adults are in the knowledges of celestial things more than infants and children, while very many of them are not in the celestial things of love. Before man is instructed in the things of love and faith, he is in an obscure state, that is, in regard to knowledges; which state is here described by having Bethel toward the sea, that is on the west, and Ai on the east. By "Bethel," as has been said, is signified the knowledges of celestial things; but by "Ai" the knowledges of worldly things. The knowledges of celestial things are said to be "on the west" when they are in obscurity, for in the Word "the west" signifies what is obscure; and the knowledges of worldly things are said to be "on the east" when they are in clearness, for relatively to the west, the east is clearness. That the west and the east have this signification needs no confirmation, for it is evident to every one without confirmation.

[2] And that " Bethel" signifies the knowledges of celestial things, may be seen from other passages in the Word where Bethel is named; as in the next chapter, where it is said that Abram went on his journeys from the south even to Bethel, unto the place where his tent was in the beginning, between Bethel and Ai, unto the place of the altar which he made there (Gen. 13:3, 4) where "on his journeys from the south to Bethel," signifies progression into the light of knowledges, on which account it is not here said that Bethel was on the west and Ai on the east. When Jacob saw the ladder, he said:

This is none other but the House of God, and this is the gate of heaven; and he called the name of that place Bethel (Gen. 28:17, 19);

where the knowledge of celestial things is in like manner signified by "Bethel;" for man is a Bethel, that is a House of God, and also a gate of heaven, when he is in the celestial things of knowledges. When a man is being regenerated, he is introduced by means of the knowledges of spiritual and celestial things; but when he has been regenerated, he has then been introduced, and is in the celestial and spiritual things of the knowledges. Afterwards:--

God said unto Jacob, Arise, go up to Bethel, and dwell there; make there an altar to God who appeared unto thee (Gen. 35:1, 6, 7);

where in like manner "Bethel" signifies knowledges.

[3] That the ark of Jehovah was in Bethel, and that the sons of Israel came thither and inquired of Jehovah (Judges 20:18, 26, 27; 1 Sam. 7:16; 10:3) signify similar things; also that the king of Assyria sent one of the priests whom he had brought from Samaria, and he dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear Jehovah (2 Kings 17:27, 28). In Amos:--

Amaziah said unto Amos, O thou seer, go flee thee away into the land of Judah, and there eat bread, and there shalt thou prophesy but prophesy not again any more at Bethel, for this is the king’s sanctuary, and this is the house of the kingdom (Amos 7:12, 13).

[4] After Jeroboam had profaned Bethel (1 Kings 12:32; 13:1-8; 2 Kings 23:15) it had an opposite representation (Hosea 10:15; Amos 3:14, 15; 4:5-7). But that " Ai" signifies the knowledges of worldly things, may also be confirmed from the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word (Josh. 7:2; 8:1-28; Jer. 49:3, 4).

AC 1454. And he built an altar to Jehovah. That this signifies the external worship of His Father from that state, is evident from the signification of "an altar," as being the principal representative of worship (n. 921).

AC 1455. And called on the name of Jehovah. That this signifies the internal worship of His Father from that state, is evident from the signification of "calling on the name of Jehovah" (n. 440). Everybody can see that it is external worship to build an altar to Jehovah, and internal to call on the name of Jehovah.

AC 1456. Verse 9. And Abram journeyed, going and journeying toward the south. "And Abram journeyed, going and journeying," signifies further progression; "toward the south," signifies into goods and truths, and thus into a state of light as to the interiors.

AC 1457. And Abram journeyed, going and journeying. That this signifies further progression, is evident from the signification of "to go," and "to journey." Among the ancients, travels, journeys, and sojournings, signified nothing else; hence also in the internal sense they signify nothing else in the Word. Here commence the Lord‘s advancements into knowledges. That the Lord was also instructed as are other men, may be seen in Luke:--

The child grew and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts till the day of His appearing to Israel (Luke 1:80).

Again:--

The Child grew and waxed strong in spirit, and was filled with wisdom, and grace was upon Him (Luke 2:40).

Again:--

Joseph and the mother of Jesus after three days found Him in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, both hearing them and asking them questions; and all that heard Him were amazed at His understanding and answers. Seeing Him they wondered; but He said unto them, How is it that ye sought Me? Knew ye not that I must be in the things that are My Father’s? (Luke 2:46-49).

That He was then twelve years old, is stated in (Luke 2:42), of the same chapter. Again:--

Then Jesus advanced in wisdom and in age, and in grace with God and men (Luke 2:52).

AC 1458. That "toward the south" signifies into goods and truths, and thus into a state of light as to the interiors, is evident from the signification of "the south." That "the south" signifies a state of light, comes from the fact that there are neither quarters nor times in the other life, but states which are signified by quarters and times. The states of intellectual things are as the states of the times of the day and of the year, and also as the states of the quarters. The states of the day are those of evening, night, morning, and noon; the states of the year are those of autumn, winter, spring, and summer; and the states of the quarters are those of the sun, in its relation to the west, the north, the east, and the south. Similar to these are the states of intellectual things. And, what is wonderful, in heaven those are in light who are in a state of wisdom and intelligence, exactly according to their state; those being in the greatest light who are in a state of the highest wisdom and intelligence; but the wisdom there is that of love and charity, and the intelligence is that of faith in the Lord. That in the other life there is light to which the light of the world can scarcely be compared, is to me a fact established by much experience, and because there is in heaven such a correspondence between light and intellectual things, therefore in the Word, in this and in other passages, nothing else is signified in the internal sense by "the south." "The south" here signifies the intelligence which is procured by means of knowledges. These knowledges are celestial and spiritual truths, which in heaven are so many radiations of light, and they are also presented visible by means of the light, as before stated. As the Lord was now to be imbued with knowledges in order that as to the Human Essence also He might become the very Light of heaven, it is here said that "Abram journeyed, going and journeying toward the south."

[2] That this is the signification of "the south," may be seen from similar passages in the Word, as in Isaiah:--

I will say to the north, Give; and to the south, Keep not back; bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the end of the earth (Isaiah 43:6);

"the north" denotes those who are in ignorance; "the south" those who are in knowledges; "sons" truths; and "daughters" goods. Again:--

If thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and satisfy the afflicted soul, then shall thy light rise in the darkness, and thy thick darkness as the noonday (or south-meridies) (Isaiah 58:10);

to "draw out the soul to the hungry and to satisfy the afflicted soul," denotes the goods of charity in general; the "light rising in the darkness," means that they shall have the intelligence of truth; and "the thick darkness as the south," means that they shall have the wisdom of good; "the south," from its heat, signifies good, and from its light, truth.

[3] In Ezekiel:--

In the visions of God brought He me into the land of Israel, and set me upon a very high mountain, whereon was as it were the building of a city on the south (Ezekiel 40:2)

concerning the New Jerusalem, or the Lord‘s kingdom, which, because it is in the light of wisdom and intelligence, is "on the south." In David:--

Jehovah shall bring forth thy righteousness as the light, and thy judgment as the noonday (Ps. 37:6).

Again:--

Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror of the night, for the arrow that flieth by day, for the pestilence that walketh in the thick darkness, for the destruction that wasteth at noonday (or in the south) (Ps. 91:6, 6);

"not to fear for the destruction that wasteth in the south," means not to be afraid because of the damnation which comes upon those who are in knowledges and pervert them. In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, set thy face toward the south, and drop (thy word) to the south, and prophesy to the forest of the field of the south, and say to the forest of the south, All faces from the south to the north shall be burned in her (Ezekiel 20:46, 47);

"the forest of the south," denotes those who are in the light of truths, and who extinguish it, and thus those of this character who are within the church.

[4] In Daniel:--

Out of one of them there went forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward beauty (decus), and it grew even to the army of the heavens (Daniel 8:9, 10);

meaning those who fight against goods and truths. In Jeremiah:--

Give glory to Jehovah your God, before He maketh it grow dark, and before your feet stumble upon the mountains of twilight and ye look for light, and He turn it into the shadow of death, He shall make it thick darkness the cities of the south shall be shut, and there is none to open (Jeremiah 13:16, 19);

"the cities of the south" denote the knowledges of truth and good. In Obadiah:--

The captivity of Jerusalem which is in Sepharad shall inherit the cities of the south (Obadiah 1:20);

"the cities of the south" denote in like manner truths and goods; hence the very truths and goods of which they are the heirs the Lord’s kingdom is here treated of.

[5] That Abram‘s journeying, going and journeying toward the south, signifies, as before said, the Lord’s progression into goods and truths, and thus into a state of light as to the interiors, is to be thus understood: knowledges are the things that open the way for seeing celestial and spiritual things; by means of knowledges the way is opened for the internal man to advance toward the external, in which latter are the receiving vessels, which are as many as are the knowledges of good and truth; into these knowledges, as into their vessels, do celestial things inflow.

AC 1459. Verse 10. And there was a famine in the land. And Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; because the famine was grievous in the land. "There was a famine in the land," signifies a scarcity of knowledges as yet with the Lord when a child; "and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn," signifies instruction in knowledges from the Word; "Egypt" is the memory-knowledge of knowledges (scientia cognitionum); "to sojourn" is to be instructed; "because the famine was grievous in the land," signifies much scarcity in His external man.

AC 1460. There was a famine in the land. That this signifies a scarcity of knowledges as yet with the Lord when a child, is evident from what has been already said. During childhood the knowledges in a man never come from that which is interior, but from the objects of the senses, especially from the hearing. For, as before said, there are in the external man receiving vessels, called the things of the memory, and these are formed by means of knowledges--as everybody may know--the internal man flowing in and helping; consequently knowledges are learned and are implanted in the memory in accordance with the influx of the internal man. Thus also was it with the Lord when He was a child--for He was born as are other men and was instructed as are other men--but with Him the interiors were celestial, which adapted the vessels for the reception of the knowledges, and in such a way that the knowledges should afterwards become vessels to receive the Divine. The interiors with Him were Divine, from Jehovah His Father; the exteriors were human, from Mary His mother. Hence it may be seen that with the Lord, equally as with other men, there was in His external man, during His childhood, a scarcity of knowledges.

[2] That "famine" signifies a scarcity of knowledges, is evident from the Word in other places, as in Isaiah:--

They do not look into the work of Jehovah, and see not the doing of His hands. Therefore My people go into captivity because they have no knowledge (cognitio), and their glory are mortals of famine, and their multitude are parched with thirst (Isaiah 5:12, 13);

"mortals of famine" denote a scarcity of the knowledges of celestial things; a "multitude parched with thirst," a scarcity of the knowledges of spiritual things. In Jeremiah:--

They have lied against Jehovah, and have said, It is not He neither shall evil come upon us neither shall we see sword nor famine and the prophets shall become wind, and the word is not in them (Jeremiah 5:12, 13);

"sword and famine" denote the deprivation of the knowledges of truth and of good; "the prophets" are those who teach, in whom the word is not. That "to be consumed by the sword and famine," is to be deprived of the knowledges of truth and of good; and that vastation is denoted, by "the sword" as to spiritual things, and by "famine" as to celestial things, is evident in various places in the Word (Jer. 14:13-16, 18; Lam. 4:9).

[3] So too in Ezekiel:--

And I will increase famine upon you, and will break your staff of bread; and I will send upon you famine, and the evil wild beast; and they shall bereave thee, and I will bring the sword upon thee (Ezek. 5:16, 17);

"famine" denotes the deprivation of the knowledges of celestial things, or of the knowledges of good, whence come falsities and evils. In David:--

And He called for a famine upon the land, He brake the whole staff of bread (Ps. 105:16);

"to break the staff of bread," signifies to be deprived of heavenly food; for the life of good spirits and angels is sustained by no other food than the knowledges of good and truth, and the goods and truths themselves, whence comes the signification of "famine" and of "bread," in the internal sense. Again:--

He hath satisfied the longing soul, and hath filled the hungry soul with good (Ps. 107:9);

denoting those who desire knowledges. In Jeremiah:--

Lift up thy hands for the soul of thy young children, who faint for hunger at the head of all the streets (Lam. 2:19)

"hunger" denotes the lack of knowledges; "the streets," truths. In Ezekiel:--

They shall dwell confidently, and none to make afraid. And I will raise up for them a plant for a name, and they shall be no more consumed with famine in the land (Ezekiel 34:28, 29),

denoting that they shall no longer be made destitute of the knowledges of good and truth.

[4] In John:--

They shall hunger no more, neither thirst any more (Rev. 7:16);

concerning the Lord‘s kingdom, where there is an abundance of all celestial knowledges and goods, which is "not to hunger;" and of spiritual knowledges and truths, which is "not to thirst." In like manner spake the Lord in John:--

I am the Bread of life he that cometh to Me shall never hunger, and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst (John 6:35).

And in Luke:--

Blessed are ye that hunger now, for ye shall be filled (Luke 6:21).

And again:--

He hath filled the hungry with good things (Luke 1:53);

where celestial goods and their knowledges are treated of. That "famine" signifies a scarcity of knowledges, is plainly said in Amos:--

Behold, the days are coming, that I will send a famine upon the land; not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for waters, but of hearing the words of Jehovah (Amos 8:11, 12).

AC 1461. And Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn. That this signifies instruction in knowledges (cognitiones) from the Word, is evident from the signification of "Egypt," and from the signification of "sojourning." That "Egypt" signifies the memory-knowledge of knowledges, and that "to sojourn" signifies to be instructed, will be seen presently. That in His childhood the Lord was instructed as are other men, is evident from the passages in Luke that were adduced in the explication of (verse 9) (n. 1457); and also from what has been said just above concerning the external man, which cannot be reduced to correspondence and agreement with the internal except by means of knowledges. The external man is corporeal and sensuous nor does it receive anything celestial and spiritual unless knowledges are implanted in it, as in ground; for in these celestial things can have their recipient vessels. But the knowledges must be from the Word. Knowledges from the Word are such that they are open from the Lord Himself; for the Word itself is from the Lord through heaven, and the Lord’s life is in all things of the Word, both in general and in particular, although it does not so appear in the external form. Hence it may be seen that in His childhood the Lord did not will to imbue Himself with any other knowledges than those of the Word, which was open to Him, as before said, from Jehovah Himself, His Father, with whom He was to be united and become One; and this the more, because nothing is said in the Word that does not in its inmosts have regard to Him and that has not first come from Him; for the Human Essence was only a something that was added to His Divine Essence that was from eternity.

AC 1462. That relatively to the Lord, "Egypt" is the memory-knowledge of knowledges, but relatively to all other men is memory-knowledge (scientia) in general, is evident from its signification in the Word (n. 1164, 1165). For the Ancient Church was in Egypt as well as in many other places (n. 1238); and when this church was there, memory-knowledges (scientiae) flourished there more than anything else; hence by Egypt has been signified memory-knowledge. But after the people desired to enter by means of memory-knowledges into the mysteries of faith, and thus from their own power to investigate the truth of Divine arcana, Egypt became addicted to magic, and signified things of memory-knowledge which pervert, whence come falsities, and from these evils, as is evident in (Isaiah 19:11).

[2] That useful memory-knowledges are signified by "Egypt," thus in the present passage the memory-knowledge of knowledges, which is able to serve as vessels for celestial and spiritual things, is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:--

They have seduced Egypt, the corner stone of the tribes (Isaiah 19:13),

where it is called "the corner stone of the tribes," as it should serve for a support to the things that are of faith, which are signified by "the tribes." Again:--

In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak with the lip of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth each shall be called the city of the sun. In that day there shall be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to Jehovah at the border thereof. And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto Jehovah Zebaoth in the land of Egypt; for they shall cry unto Jehovah because of the oppressors, and He shall send them a Saviour and a Prince, and He shall deliver them; and Jehovah shall become known to Egypt, and the Egyptians shall know Jehovah in that day and they shall offer sacrifice and meat-offering, and shall vow a vow to Jehovah, and shall perform it. And Jehovah shall smite Egypt in smiting and in healing, and they shall return unto Jehovah, and He shall be entreated of them, and shall heal them (Isa. 19:18-22).

Here Egypt is spoken of in a good sense, denoting those who are in memory-knowledges (scientifica), that is, in natural truths, which are the vessels of spiritual truths.

[3] Again:--

In that day there shall be a path from Egypt to Assyria, and Assyria shall come into Egypt, and Egypt into Assyria, and the Egyptians shall serve Assyria. In that day shall Israel be the third with Egypt and with Assyria, a blessing in the midst of the land, which Jehovah Zebaoth shall bless, saying, Blessed be Egypt My people, and Assyria the work of My hands, and Israel Mine inheritance (Isa. 19:23-25).

Here by "Egypt" is signified the memory-knowledge of natural truths; by "Assyria," reason or rational things; by "Israel," spiritual things; all of which succeed one another; and therefore it is said that "in that day there shall be a path from Egypt to Assyria," and that "Israel shall be the third with Egypt and with Assyria."

[4] In Ezekiel:--

Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thine expansion, that it might be to thee for an ensign (Ezekiel 27:7);

concerning Tyre, by which is signified the possession of knowledges; "fine linen with broidered work" denotes the truths of memory-knowledges, that serve; for memory-knowledges being of the external man, ought to serve the internal man. Again:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, At the end of forty years will I gather Egypt from the peoples whither they have been scattered, and I will bring back the captivity of Egypt (Ezek. 29:13, 14);

denoting the same that is said in many places concerning Judah and Israel, in that they should be gathered from the peoples and brought back from captivity. In Zechariah:--

And it shall come to pass that whoso of the families of the earth goeth not up unto Jerusalem to worship the King Jehovah Zebaoth, upon them there shall be no rain and if the family of Egypt go not up and come not (Zechariah 14:17, 18);

also concerning Egypt in a good sense, and by which the like is meant.

[5] That memory-knowledge, or human wisdom, is signified by "Egypt," is evident also in Daniel, where the memory-knowledges of celestial and spiritual things are called "the hidden things of gold and silver," and also "the desirable things of Egypt" (Daniel 11:43). And it is said of Solomon that "his wisdom was multiplied above the wisdom of all the sons of the east, and above all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (1 Kings 4:30). The house built by Solomon for Pharaoh‘s daughter represented nothing else (1 Kings 7:8).

[6] That the Lord when an infant was brought into Egypt, signified the same that is here signified by Abram; and it took place for the additional reason that He might fulfill all the things that had been represented concerning Him. In the inmost sense the migration of Jacob add his sons into Egypt represented the first instruction of the Lord in knowledges from the Word, as is also manifest from the following passages. It is said of the Lord in Matthew:--

An angel of the Lord appeared to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise, and take the young child and His mother, and flee into Egypt, and be thou there until I tell thee. And he arose and took the young child and His mother by night, and departed into Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called My son (Matthew 2:13-15, 19-21);

concerning which it is said in Hosea:--

When Israel was a child then I loved him, and called My son out of Egypt (Hosea 11:1);

from which it is evident that by the "child Israel," is meant the Lord; and that His instruction when a child is meant by the words, "I called My son out of Egypt."

[7] Again in Hosea:--

By a prophet the Lord made Israel to go up out of Egypt, and by a prophet was he kept (Hosea 12:13, 14);

where in like manner by "Israel" is meant the Lord; by "a prophet" is signified one who teaches, and thus the doctrine of knowledges. In David:--

Turn us again, O God Zebaoth, cause Thy face to shine, and we shall be saved. Thou didst bring a vine out of Egypt, Thou didst drive out the nations, and plantedst it (Ps. 80:7, 8);

where also the Lord is treated of, who is called "a vine out of Egypt" in regard to the knowledges in which He was being instructed.

AC 1463. That "to sojourn" means to be instructed, is evident from the signification of "sojourning" in the Word, as being to be instructed; and this for the reason that sojourning and migration, or proceeding from place to place, is in heaven nothing but change of state, as before shown (n. 1376, 1379); and therefore, whenever traveling, sojourning, and passing from place to place, occur in the Word, nothing else is suggested to the angels than such change of state as exists with them. There are changes of state of both the thoughts and the affections changes of the state of the thoughts are knowledges, and in the world of spirits these changes are presented by means of instructions; which also was the reason why the men of the Most Ancient Church, having communication with the angelic heaven, by sojourning perceived nothing else. So in the passage before us, Abram’s going down into Egypt to sojourn, signifies nothing else than the instruction of the Lord.

[2] Similar, too, is the signification of Jacob and his sons‘ going down into Egypt; as in Isaiah:--

Thus hath said the Lord Jehovih, My people went down in the beginning into Egypt to sojourn there and Assyria oppressed them without cause (Isaiah 52:4);

where "Assyria" denotes reasonings. Hence also in the Jewish Church, those who were being instructed were called "sojourners, sojourning in the midst of them," concerning whom it was commanded that they should be treated as the home born (Exod. 12:48, 49; Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:13-16, 26, 29; 19:10). Of them it is thus written in Ezekiel:--

Ye shall divide this land unto you according to the tribes of Israel. And it shall come to pass that ye shall divide it by lot, for an inheritance unto you and to the sojourners that sojourn in the midst of you; and they shall be unto you as the home-born among the sons of Israel with you shall they cast the lot for an inheritance in the midst of the tribes of Israel; and it shall come to pass that in what tribe the sojourner sojourneth, there shall ye give him his inheritance (Ezekiel 47:21-23).

This is concerning the New Jerusalem, or the Lord’s kingdom; by "the sojourners sojourning" are meant those who suffer themselves to be instructed, consequently the Gentiles; that those are meant who are being instructed, is evident from its being said that in the tribe with which he has sojourned, there his inheritance should be given; "tribes" denote the things that are of faith.

[3] "Sojourning" has also nearly the same signification as "journeying," and "dwelling." By "journeying" are signified the arrangements and order of life, and by "dwelling" is signified to live (n. 1293); on which account the land of Canaan is also called the land of the sojournings of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Gen. 28:4; 36:7; 37:1; Exod. 6:4); and Jacob said unto Pharaoh:--

The days of the years of my sojournings, few and evil have been the days of the years of my life, and they have not attained unto the days of the years of the life of my fathers, in the days of their sojournings (Gen. 47:9);

where "sojourning" denotes life and instructions.

AC 1464. Because the famine was grievous in the land. That this signifies much scarcity in His external man, is evident from the signification of "famine," as given above in this verse. The arcana here contained are more than can be briefly told. The Lord had the power of learning above every other man; but because, unlike other men, He was to be instructed in celestial things before He was instructed in spiritual things, this is here declared; and also for the further reason that there was hereditary evil from the mother in His external man, against which He was to fight, and which He was to overcome; and also for other reasons innumerable.

AC 1465. Verse 11. And it came to pass, when he drew nigh to come into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife, Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon. "And it came to pass, when he drew nigh to come into Egypt," signifies when He began to learn; "Egypt," as before said, means the memory-knowledge of knowledges (scientia cognitionum); "he said unto Sarai his wife," signifies that He so thought concerning the truths to which celestial things were adjoined; "Sarai" as a wife is the truth adjoined to the celestial things that were in the Lord; "Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon," signifies that truth from a celestial origin is delightful.

AC 1466. And it came to pass, when he drew nigh to come into Egypt. That this signifies when He began to learn, is evident from the signification of "Egypt," as being the memory-knowledge of knowledges; and when the expression "to draw nigh" is used with reference to this, it can mean nothing else.

AC 1467. That "Egypt" is the memory-knowledge of knowledges, is evident from what was said and shown concerning Egypt under the preceding verse.

AC 1468. He said to Sarai his wife. That this signifies that He so thought concerning the truths to which celestial things were adjoined, is evident from the signification of Sarai when she is called a wife. A "wife," in the internal sense of the Word, signifies nothing else than truth conjoined with good; for the conjunction of truth with good is circumstanced precisely as is a marriage. In the Word, when a "husband" is mentioned, the husband signifies good, and the wife signifies truth; but when he is not called the husband, but the "man," then he signifies truth, and the wife signifies good: this is the constant usage in the Word, as before said (n. 915). In the passage before us, as Abram is named, Sarai his wife signifies truth. To say thus to Sarai his wife is, in the internal sense, to think so concerning the truths with which celestial things were conjoined. It is historically true that Abram so said to his wife, when journeying into Egypt; but as before said, all the historicals of the Word are representative, and all the words are significative. No other historicals are recorded in the Word, and in no other order, and no other words are used to express them, than such as in the internal sense may express these arcana.

AC 1469. That " Sarai," as a wife, is the truth that was adjoined to the celestial things which were in the Lord, is evident from what has just been said concerning the signification of Sarai his wife. It is said, "the truth that was adjoined to celestial things," because the Lord possessed all truth previous to His instruction. What is celestial has truth with it, the one being inseparable from the other, as light is from flame; but this truth was stored up in the Lord‘s internal man, which was Divine. The knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones) that He learned are not truths (vera seu veritates), but are only recipient vessels; just as whatever is in man’s memory is by no means truth, although it is so called; but the truth is therein, as in vessels. These vessels were to be formed, or rather to be opened, by the Lord, through instruction in knowledges from the Word; not only that celestial things might be insinuated into them, but also that the celestial things might in this way be made Divine; for the Lord conjoined the Divine Essence with the Human Essence in order that His Human things might likewise be made Divine.

AC 1470. Behold I pray, I know that thou art a woman beautiful to look upon. That this signifies that truth from a celestial origin is delightful, is evident from the signification of "a woman beautiful to look upon." All truth that is celestial, or that is produced from the celestial, is happy in the internal man, and delightful in the external, and with the celestial angels is so perceived; but it is altogether otherwise when it is not from a celestial origin. There are two kinds of happiness in the internal man, to which correspond two kinds of delight in the external man; one is of good, the other is of truth; celestial happiness and delight are of good, spiritual happiness and delight are of truth. It is also known that truth itself is attended with happiness and delight, but these are essentially such only when the truth is from what is celestial, for then the truth itself also becomes celestial, and is called celestial truth. To speak comparatively, truth is then like the light of the sun in the springtime, which has heat in its bosom, from which all things on the earth are made to vegetate, and are as it were animated. This celestial truth is the beautiful itself, or beauty itself. This is the truth which is here called "a woman beautiful to look upon." What further arcana are involved in these words, will be manifest from what follows.

AC 1471. Verse 12. And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say, This is his wife and they will kill me, and will make thee to live. "And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee," signifies the memory-knowledge of knowledges (scientia cognitionum), which is described as to what it is when they see celestial knowledges; "that they will say, This is his wife," signifies that they will call the knowledges celestial; "and they will kill me, and will make thee to live," signifies that they would not care for the celestial things, but only for the mere knowledges, which they would carry off.

AC 1472. And it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee. That this signifies the memory-knowledge of knowledges, which is described as to what it is when they see celestial knowledges, is evident from the signification of "Egypt," which is the memory-knowledge of knowledges, as before shown; and from this it is evident what is signified by the words "when the Egyptians see," namely, that this memory-knowledge is such as is described in this verse. The memory-knowledge of knowledges is attended with this, and it is some thing natural in it, as is manifested in children when they first begin to learn, namely, that the higher things are, the more they desire them; and still more when they hear that they are celestial and Divine. But this delight is natural, and arises from a desire that is of the external man. With other men this desire causes them to feel delight in the mere memory-knowledge of knowledges, without any further end; when yet the memory-knowledge of knowledges is nothing but an instrumental agency having for its end a use, namely, that the knowledges may serve celestial and spiritual things as vessels; and when they are thus serving, they are then for the first time in their use, and receive from the use their delight. Any one can see, if he pays attention, that in itself the memory-knowledge of knowledges is nothing but a means whereby a man may become rational, and thence spiritual, and at last celestial; and that by means of the knowledges his external man may be adjoined to his internal; and when this is done, he is in the use itself. The internal man regards nothing but the use. For the sake of this end also, the Lord insinuates the delight that childhood and youth perceives in memory-knowledges. But when a man begins to make his delight consist in memory-knowledge alone, it is a bodily cupidity which carries him away, and in proportion as he is thus carried away (that is, makes his delight consist in mere memory-knowledge), in the same proportion he removes himself from what is celestial, and in the same proportion do the memory-knowledges close themselves toward the Lord, and become material. But in proportion as the memory-knowledges are learned with the end of use,--as for the sake of human society, for the sake of the Lord‘s church on earth, for the sake of the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, and still more for the Lord‘s own sake,--the more are they opened toward Him. On this account also the angels, who are in the memory-knowledge of all knowledges, and indeed to such a degree that scarcely one part in ten thousand can be presented to the full apprehension of man, yet esteem such knowledge as nothing in comparison with use. From what has been said it may be seen what is signified by the words, "When the Egyptians shall see thee, they will say, This is his wife; and they will kill me and will make thee to live." These things were said because the Lord when a child knew this and thought in this way, namely, that if He should be carried away by a mere desire for the memory-knowledge of knowledges, this memory-knowledge is of such a character that it would care no more for celestial things, but only for the knowledges (cognitiones) which the desire for memory-knowledge would carry away. On these subjects more follows.

AC 1473. And they will say, This is his wife. That this signifies that they will call the knowledges celestial, is evident from the signification of a "wife," as being the truth that was adjoined to celestial things; hence "this is his wife" signifies that which is celestial.

AC 1474. And they will kill me, and will make thee to live. That this signifies that they would not care for celestial things, but only for mere knowledges, is evident from what has just been said.

Verse 13. Say, I pray, thou art my sister, that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee." Say, I pray, thou art my sister," signifies intellectual truth which is a "sister;" "that it may be well with me for thy sake,’ signifies that so the celestial could have no violence done to it; "and that my soul may live because of thee," signifies that so the celestial could be saved.

AC 1475. Say, I pray, thou art my sister. That this signifies intellectual truth, which is a "sister," is evident from the signification of a "sister," as being intellectual truth when celestial truth is a "wife," concerning which hereafter. These things stand thus: it is the nature of memory-knowledge to desire nothing more than to introduce itself into celestial things and explore them; but this is contrary to order, for it thus does violence to celestial things. Order itself is that the celestial by means of the spiritual introduces itself into the rational, and thus into the memory-knowledge (in scientificum), and adapts this to itself; and unless this order is observed, there cannot possibly be any wisdom. In the passage before us are also contained the arcana as to how the Lord was instructed by His Father according to all order; and thus how His external man was conjoined with His internal, that is, how His external man was made Divine, like the internal; thus how He became Jehovah as to each essence; which was done by means of knowledges, which are the means. Without knowledges as means, the external man cannot even become man.

AC 1476. That it may be well with me for thy sake. That this signifies that so the celestial could have no violence done to it, is evident from what has been said above; for as has been repeatedly said, the order is that the celestial flows into the spiritual, the spiritual into the rational, and this into the faculty of memory-knowledge. When there is this order, then the spiritual is adapted by the celestial, the rational by the spiritual, and the memory-knowledge by the rational. The memory-knowledge in general then becomes the ultimate vessel; or what is the same, memory-knowledges, specifically and particularly, become the ultimate vessels which correspond to rational things, rational things to spiritual things, and spiritual things to celestial things. When this is the order, the celestial cannot suffer any violence; otherwise, it does so suffer. As in the internal sense the Lord‘s instruction is here treated of, the method of His progress therein is here described.

AC 1477. That my soul may live because of thee. That this signifies that thus the celestial could be saved, is evident from the signification of the "soul," as being the celestial; for this is the soul itself, because the very life itself. Hence it is evident what is signified by the words "that my soul may live because of thee." It will be evident from what follows, that celestial or Divine things were not so adjoined to the Lord that they made one essence, until He endured temptations, and thus expelled the evil hereditary from the mother. Here and in the following verses it is described how meanwhile the celestial itself suffered no violence, but was saved.

AC 1478. Verse 14. And it came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt, that the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful. "It came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt," signifies when the Lord began to be instructed; "and the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful," signifies that the memory-knowledge of knowledges is of such a nature as to be highly pleasing to itself.

AC 1479. It came to pass when Abram was come into Egypt. That this signifies when the Lord began to be instructed, is evident from the representation of Abram, which in the internal sense is the Lord when a child; and from the signification of "Egypt," as being the memory-knowledge of knowledges, as before shown, at (verse 10). Hence it is evident that "to come into Egypt’ is to be instructed.

AC 1480. And the Egyptians saw the woman, that she was very beautiful. That this signifies that the memory-knowledge of knowledges is of such a nature as to be highly pleasing to itself, is evident from what was before said, at (verse 11), that such is the nature of memory-knowledge during childhood; for this is as it were innate in memory-knowledge, because it is innate in man, that at the very first it pleases for no other end than for the sake of knowing. Such is every man; his spirit is greatly delighted to know, so that there is scarcely anything it desires more; this is its food, by which it is sustained and refreshed, as the external man is by earthly food. This sustenance, which is that of his spirit, is communicated to the external man, to the end that this may be adapted to the internal man. But the various foods succeed one another in the following order: celestial food is all the good of love and charity from the Lord; spiritual food is all the truth of faith: on these foods the angels live; and from them comes forth the food, likewise celestial and spiritual, but of a lower angelic degree, on which angelic spirits live; from this again there comes a still lower celestial and spiritual food, which is that of reason and thence of memory-knowledge, on which good spirits live; and lastly comes corporeal food, which is proper to man while he lives in the body. These foods correspond to one another in a wonderful manner. From this it is also evident why and how memory-knowledge is very pleasing to itself; for the case therewith is the same as it is with appetite and taste and therefore eating, with man, corresponds to memory-knowledges in the world of spirits; and appetite and taste themselves correspond to the desire for these knowledges; as is evident from experience, concerning which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 1481. Verse 15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house. "The princes of Pharaoh saw her," signifies the primary precepts, which are "the princes of Pharaoh;" "and they praised her to Pharaoh," signifies that they were pleasing; "and the woman was taken to Pharaoh‘s house," signifies that they captivated the lower mind (animus).

AC 1482. The princes of Pharaoh saw her. That this signifies the primary precepts, which are "the princes of Pharaoh," is evident from the signification of "princes," and of "Pharaoh." In both the historical and prophetical parts of the Word, "princes" signify the things which are primary; and "Pharaoh" signifies the same as "Egypt;" and here "Egypt," or "Pharaoh," is used in the best sense, because predicated of the memory-knowledge of knowledges which the Lord first acquired in childhood. That they were primary precepts from the Word, is evident from the signification of these things in the internal sense. That, speaking generally, by "Pharaoh" in the Word is signified the same as by "Egypt," may be confirmed from many passages; as also that by the kings of other kingdoms, who are named, the same is signified as by the names of the kingdoms; but by "princes" are signified their primary things, as in Isaiah:--

The princes of Zoan are foolish, the wise counselors of Pharaoh; how say ye unto Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise, the son of ancient king? The princes of Zoan are become fools, the princes of Noph are deceived (Isaiah 19:11, 13).

Here "the princes of Zoan," and "the wise counselors of Pharaoh," denote the primary memory-knowledges; and as wisdom first flourished in Egypt, as before said, it is called "the son of the wise," and "the son of ancient kings." So "princes" frequently denote in the Word primary things.

AC 1483. And they praised her to Pharaoh. That this signifies that they were pleasing, may be seen without explication.

AC 1484. And the woman was taken to Pharaoh’s house. That this signifies that they captivated the lower mind, is evident from the signification of "woman," and from the signification of "house." A "woman" signifies truth, here the truth that was in the memory-knowledges with the delights of which the Lord was captivated in childhood. The delights of truth are those which come from the intellectual truth which is signified by a "sister." A "house" signifies the things that are in man, especially those which are of his will, as before shown (n. 710); here therefore those which are of the lower mind, or of the affection of knowing and learning.

AC 1484a. Verse 16. And he did well unto Abram for her sake; and he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels. "He did well unto Abram for her sake," signifies that memory-knowledges were multiplied with the Lord; "and he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels," signifies all the things in general that belong to memory-knowledges.

AC 1485. And he did well unto Abram for her sake. That this signifies that memory-knowledges were multiplied with the Lord, is evident from the signification of "doing well unto," as being to enrich. This is said of the memory-knowledge that is signified by "Pharaoh," that it did well unto Abram, that is to the Lord when a child; and this for her sake, that is, for the sake of the intellectual truth that He desired. It was this desire for truth from which the enriching came.

AC 1486. And he had flock and herd, and he-asses and menservants, and maidservants and she-asses, and camels. That these words signify all things in general that belong to memory knowledges, is evident from the signification of all these things in the Word. But it would be too tedious to show what is signified by each in particular, as what by the "flock and herd," the "he-asses and menservants," the "maidservants and sheasses," and the "camels." Each has its own peculiar signification. In general they signify all things that belong to the memory-knowledge of knowledges, and to memory-knowledges. Regarded in themselves, memory-knowledges are "he-asses and menservants;" their pleasures are "maidservants and she-asses;" "camels" are general things of service; "flock and herd" are possessions; and so in the Word throughout. All things whatever that are in the external man, are nothing but things of service, that is, they are for the service of the internal man. So it is with all memory-knowledges, which belong solely to the external man; for they are procured from earthly and worldly things by means of sensuous impressions, in order that they may serve the interior or rational man, and this the spiritual man, this the celestial, and this the Lord. Thus are they subordinated one to another, as are the more external things to the more internal, in their order; and thus all things whatever, both in general and in particular, are, in their order, subordinated to the Lord. Memory-knowledges are therefore the lowest and outermost things, in which are terminated in their order the things that are more interior; and because they are the lowest and outermost things, they must be pre-eminently things of service. Every one may know for what such knowledges may be serviceable, if he reflects or inquires in himself for what use they are; and when he is thus reflecting upon their use, he can also apprehend the quality of the use. Every memory-knowledge must be for the sake of some use, and this is its service.

Verse 17. And Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues, and his house, because of the word of Sarai, Abram‘s wife. "Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues," signifies that the memory-knowledges were destroyed; "and his house," signifies which He had collected; "because of the word of Sarai, Abram’s wife," signifies because of the truth that was to be adjoined to the celestial.

AC 1487. And Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues. That this signifies that the memory-knowledges were destroyed, is evident from the signification of "Pharaoh," as being memory-knowledge in general, consequently the memory-knowledges that belong to such knowledge; and from the signification of being "smitten with plagues," as being to be destroyed. As regards memory-knowledges the case is this. In childhood they are acquired for no other end than that of knowing; with the Lord, they were acquired from the delights and affection of truth. The memory-knowledges acquired in childhood are very numerous, but are disposed by the Lord into order so as to serve for use; first, to give the ability to think; then that they may be of use by means of thought; and lastly that this may take effect, that is to say that the very life may consist in use, and be a life of uses. These are the things performed by the memory-knowledges that are acquired in childhood; and without them the external man can never be conjoined with the internal, and at the same time become use. When man becomes use, that is, when he thinks all things from the end of use, and does all things for the end of use--if not by manifest reflection, still by tacit reflection from a nature acquired by so doing--then the memory-knowledges which have served the first use--that the man may become rational--being no longer of service, are destroyed; and so on. These are the things here meant by the words "Jehovah smote Pharaoh with great plagues."

AC 1488. And his house. That this signifies which He had collected, is evident from the signification of a "house," as being, in this place, the memory-knowledges that are collected. To collect memory-knowledges, and by their means frame the external man, and build it up, is not unlike building a house; and therefore such things are signified in many passages of the Word by "building," and by "building houses," as in Isaiah:--

I create new heavens and a new earth they shall build houses, and inhabit them and they shall plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them they shall not build and another inhabit (Isaiah 65:17, 21, 22);

here "houses" mean where there are wisdom and intelligence, thus where there are the knowledges of good and truth; for the Lord‘s kingdom is here treated of, namely, the new heavens and the new earth. In Jeremiah:--

Build ye houses and dwell in them; and plant gardens, and eat the fruit of them (Jeremiah 29:5);

where the meaning is similar. In David:--

Blessed is the man that feareth Jehovah, that delighteth greatly in His commandments; wealth and riches are in his house, and his righteousness endureth forever (Ps. 112:1, 3);

where "wealth and riches" denote the wealth and riches of wisdom and intelligence, thus knowledges; which are "in his house," that is, are in him.

[2] "House" is used in the opposite sense in Zephaniah:--

I will visit upon them that say in their heart, Jehovah hath not done good, and hath not done evil and their wealth shall be for a spoil, and their houses a desolation; and they shall build houses and shall not in habit them, and they shall plant vineyards but shall not drink the wine thereof (Zephaniah 1:12, 13).

In Haggai:--

Go up into the mountain, and bring wood, and build the house. Ye looked for much, and lo, it came to little; and ye brought it into the house, and I did blow it away. Why? saith Jehovah. Because of My house, which is deserted, while ye run every one to his own house; therefore upon you are the heavens shut from dew (Haggai 1:8-10);

"houses" denote memory-knowledges by which, through reasoning, come falsities. In Isaiah:--

Woe unto them that join house to house, that cause field to draw near to field, till there be no place, and ye dwell alone in the midst of the land. Shall not many houses be for a desolation, great and good, without an inhabitant? The vineyard of Jehovah is the house of Israel (Isaiah 5:8, 9, 7);

also denoting memory-knowledges by means of which come falsities. In Amos:--

Behold, Jehovah commandeth, and will smite the great horse with breaches, and the little house with clefts. Shall horses run upon the rock? will one plow there with oxen? that ye have turned judgment into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into wormwood (Amos 6:11, 12);

where "houses" denote in like manner falsities and the derivative evils; "horses," reasoning; "judgment," truths, which are "turned into gall;" and "the fruit of righteousness," goods which are "turned into wormwood."

[3] Thus throughout the Word, "houses" denote human minds, in which there should be intelligence and wisdom. In the passage before us, "the house of Pharaoh" denotes memory-knowledges by means of which comes intelligence, and thereby wisdom. The like is also signified by the house which Solomon built for the daughter of Pharaoh (1 Kings 7:8). Because "houses" denote minds, in which are intelligence and wisdom, and in which are affections belonging to the will, the word "house" in the Word is of a wide signification; but what its specific signification is, may be seen from the things of which it is predicated. Man himself is also called "a house."

AC 1489. Because of Sarai, Abram’s wife. That this signifies because of the truth that was to be adjoined to what is celestial, is evident from the signification of a "wife," and consequently of "Sarai the wife," as being truth that is to be adjoined to the celestial, concerning which above, at (verse 12). The case is this: unless the knowledges which in childhood have performed the use of making the man rational, are destroyed, so that they are as nothing, truth can never be conjoined with what is celestial. These first memory-knowledges are for the most part earthly, corporeal, and worldly. However Divine may be the precepts that a child learns, he still has no other idea concerning them than that which is obtainable from such knowledges; and therefore, so long as those lowest knowledges cling to him, from which are his ideas, his mind cannot be elevated. With the Lord it was the same, because He was born as are other men, and was to be instructed as are others, but according to Divine order, which is such as has been stated. In these things which are said concerning Abram in Egypt, there is described the Divine order--how in the Lord the external man was conjoined with the internal, so that the external also might become Divine.

AC 1490. Verse 18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? Why didst thou not tell me that she is thy wife? "And Pharaoh called Abram," signifies that the Lord bethought Himself; "and said, What is this that thou hast done unto me?" signifies that it grieved Him; "Why didst thou not tell me that she is thy wife?" signifies seeing that He knew that He ought not to have any other truth than that which would be conjoined with what is celestial.

AC 1491. And Pharaoh called Abram. That this signifies that the Lord bethought Himself, is evident from the signification of "Pharaoh," as being memory-knowledge. The memory-knowledge itself (scientia), that is, the matters of memory-knowledge (scientifica), which the Lord acquired when a child, are here called "Pharaoh;" thus it is that knowledge itself which thus addresses the Lord, that is, it is Jehovah who does so by means of that knowledge. Hence it is evident that these things signify that the Lord bethought Himself. Mental advertence comes by means of memory-knowledge, thus by means of Pharaoh, by whom, as before said, this knowledge is signified.

AC 1492. And said, What is this that thou hast done unto me? That this signifies that it grieved Him, is also evident from the very indignation in which this is said: the grief itself is thus expressed. The internal sense is such that the affection itself that lies hidden in the words is what constitutes it; the words of the letter are not attended to, but are as if they had no existence. The affection in these words is the indignation as it were of the memory-knowledge, and the Lord‘s grief; and in fact grief from this, that the memory-knowledges which He had learned with pleasure and delight should be thus destroyed. The case herein is like that of little children who when they love something their parents see to be hurtful to them, and it is taken away from them, are thereby grieved.

AC 1493. That she was thy wife. That this signifies that He ought to have no other truth than that which was to be conjoined with what is celestial, is evident from the signification of a "wife," as being the truth that was to be conjoined with what is celestial (verse 12). There is here described the order in which the Lord advanced to intelligence, and thus to wisdom; so that, as He was wisdom itself as to His Divine Essence, so He should become wisdom itself as to His Human Essence.

AC 1494. Verse 19. Why saidst thou, She is my sister? and I might have taken her to me for a woman. And now behold thy wife; take her and go. "Why saidst thou, She is my sister?" signifies that He then knew no otherwise than that He had intellectual truth; "and I might have taken her to me for a woman," signifies that so He might have done violence to the truth that was to be conjoined with what is celestial; "and now behold thy wife; take her and go," signifies that truth was to be conjoined with what is celestial.

AC 1495. Why saidst thou, She is my sister? That this signifies that He then knew no otherwise than that He had intellectual truth, is evident from the signification of a "sister," as being intellectual truth; and also from the fact that Abram had said so (verse 13), which was done to the end that the celestial might not suffer any violence, but might be saved. From all this it is evident that when the Lord as a child learned memory knowledges, He first of all knew no otherwise than that those knowledges were solely for the sake of the intellectual man, that is, in order that He might get to know truths from them; but it was afterwards disclosed that they had existed in order that He might attain to celestial things; and this took place to prevent celestial things from suffering violence, and in order that they might be saved. When man is being instructed, there is a progression from memory-knowledges to rational truths; further, to intellectual truths; and finally, to celestial truths, which are here signified by the "wife." If the progression is made from memory knowledges and rational truths to celestial truths without intellectual truths as media, the celestial suffers violence, because there can be no connection of rational truths-which are obtained by means of memory-knowledges-with celestial truths, except by means of intellectual truths, which are the media. What celestial truths are, and what intellectual truths are, will be seen presently.

[2] That it may be known how these things stand, something shall be said respecting order. The order is for the celestial to inflow into the spiritual and adapt it to itself; for the spiritual thus to inflow into the rational and adapt it to itself; and for the rational thus to inflow into the memory-knowledge and adapt it to itself. But when a man is being instructed in his earliest childhood, the order is indeed the same, but it appears otherwise, namely, that he advances from memory-knowledges to rational things, from these to spiritual things, and so at last to celestial things. The reason it so appears is that a way must thus be opened to celestial things, which are the inmost. All instruction is simply an opening of the way; and as the way is opened, or what is the same, as the vessels are opened, there thus flow in, as before said, in their order, rational things that are from celestial spiritual things; into these flow the celestial spiritual things and into these, celestial things. These celestial and spiritual things are continually presenting themselves, and are also preparing and forming for themselves the vessels which are being opened; which may also be seen from the fact that in themselves the memory-knowledge and rational are dead, and that it is from the inflowing interior life that they seem to be alive. This can become manifest to any one from the thought, and the faculty of judgment.

[3] In these lie hidden all the arcana of analytical art and science, which are so many that they can never explored even as to the ten thousandth part; and this not with the adult man only, but also with children, whose every thought and derivative expression of speech is most full of them (although man, even the most learned, is not aware of this), and this could not possibly be the case unless the celestial and spiritual things within were coming forth, flowing in, and producing all these things.

AC 1496. I might have taken her to me for a woman. That this signifies that so the truth that was to be conjoined with what is celestial might have suffered violence, is evident from what has just been said; and also from what was said above at (verse 13). As regards truth being conjoined with what is celestial, the case is this. Regarded in itself, the truth learned from childhood is nothing but a vessel adapted to the reception of what is celestial. Truth has no life from itself, but only from the celestial that flows in. The celestial is love and charity; all truth is thence, and because all truth is thence it is nothing but a kind of vessel; and so are truths themselves plainly presented in the other life; truths there are never regarded from truths, but from the life which is in them; that is, from the celestial things which are of love and charity in the truths; from these it is that truths become celestial, and are called celestial truths. We can now see what intellectual truth is, as also that with the Lord intellectual truth opened the way to celestial things. Truth in the memory (verum scientificum) is one thing; rational truth is another; and intellectual truth is another; they succeed one another. Truth in the memory is a matter of memory-knowledge; rational truth is this truth confirmed by reason; intellectual truth is conjoined with an internal perception that it is so. This intellectual truth existed with the Lord in His childhood, and with Him opened the way to celestial things.

AC 1497. And now behold thy wife; take her and go. That this signifies that truth was to be conjoined with what is celestial, is evident from the signification of a "wife," as being truth that is to be conjoined with what is celestial ( at (verses 11 and 12).

AC 1498. Verse 20. And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning him; and they sent him away, and his wife, and all that he had. "And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning him, (and they sent him away)," signifies that memory-knowledges left the Lord; "and his wife," signifies that they also left the truths that were conjoined with celestial things; "and all that he had," signifies that they left all things that belonged to celestial truths.

AC 1499. And Pharaoh commanded the men concerning him, (and they sent him away). That this signifies that memory-knowledges left the Lord, is evident from the signification of "Pharaoh," as being memory-knowledge; and also from the signification of "men," as being intellectual things (n. 158). "The men" here, because attributed to Pharaoh, or to memory-knowledge, signify intellectual things adapted thereto. As regards memory-knowledges leaving the Lord, the case is this. When celestial things are being conjoined with intellectual truths, and these are becoming celestial, then all things that are empty are dissipated of themselves; this is in the nature of the celestial.

AC 1500. And his wife. That this signifies that they left the truths that were conjoined with celestial things, that is to say, that memory-knowledges left them, is evident from the signification of "wife," as being truth conjoined with what is celestial, and also from what has just been said. Empty memory-knowledges leave celestial things, as vain things are wont to leave wisdom; they are as crusts and scales that separate themselves of their own accord.

AC 1501. And all that he had. That this signifies that they left all things that belonged to celestial truths, follows in the series.

AC 1502. From all this it is now evident that Abram’s sojourn in Egypt represents and signifies nothing else than the Lord, and in fact His instruction in childhood. This is also confirmed by what is said in Hosea:--

Out of Egypt have I called My son (Hosea 11:1; Matt. 2:15);

and again from what is said in Moses:--

The dwelling of the sons of Israel who dwelt in Egypt was third years and four hundred years; and it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years, and it came to pass on the selfsame day, that all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt (Exod. 12:40, 41);

which years were not reckoned from Jacob‘s going down into Egypt, but from the sojourning of Abram in Egypt, counting from which the years were four hundred and thirty. Thus by the "son out of Egypt" (Hosea 11:1) in the internal sense is signified the Lord. This is further confirmed by the fact that in the Word "Egypt" signifies memory-knowledge (n. 1164, 1165, 1462).

[2] And that these arcana are contained is also evident from the fact that the same is said of Abram during his sojourn in Philistia, namely, that he called his wife his sister (Gen. 20:1-18); and similar things are said of Isaac when he also was sojourning in Philistia, in that he too called his wife his sister (Gen. 26:6-13). These things would not have been related in the Word, and with almost the same circumstances, unless these arcana had been concealed within them. Moreover this is the Word of the Lord, which can in no wise have any life, unless there is an internal sense that has regard to Him.

[3] The arcana which lie stored up in these things, as also in those said concerning Abram and Isaac in Philistia, are--how the Lord’s Human Essence was conjoined with His Divine Essence, or what is the same, how the Lord became Jehovah as to His Human Essence also; and that His inauguration went on from childhood, which inauguration is here treated of. Moreover these things also involve more arcana than man can ever believe; but those which can be told are so few as to be almost nothing. Besides the most profound arcana concerning the Lord, they also involve arcana concerning the instruction and regeneration of man, that he may become celestial; as also concerning his instruction and regeneration, that he may become spiritual; and not only concerning the instruction of the individual man, but also concerning that of the church in general. And, further, they involve arcana concerning the instruction of little children in heaven; in a word, concerning the instruction of all who become images and likenesses of the Lord. These things do not at all appear in the sense of the letter, for the reason that the historical narrative veils them over and obscures them; but they appear in the internal sense.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING PERCEPTION; AND CONCERNING SPHERES IN THE OTHER LIFE

AC 1503.

AC 1504. It has already been said that it is known in the other life what another is on his first approach, even though he does not speak. From this it may be known that a man‘s interiors are in a kind of unconscious activity, and that from this the quality of the spirit is perceived. That it is so has been evidenced by the fact that this sphere of the activity not only extends itself to a distance, but that sometimes also, when the Lord permits, it is in various ways made perceptible to the senses.

AC 1505. I have also been informed how these spheres, which in the other life become so perceptible to the senses, are acquired. Take as an example one who has formed a high opinion of himself and of his own pre-eminent excellence. He at last becomes imbued with such a habit, and as it were with such a nature, that wherever he goes, though he looks at others and speaks with them, he keeps himself in view; and this at first manifestly, but afterwards not manifestly, so that he is not aware of it; but still it is regnant, both in the particulars of his affection and thought, and in those of his bearing and speech. Men can see this in others. And this is the kind of thing that in the other life makes a sphere, which is perceived, but no more frequently than the Lord permits. The same is the case with other affections; and therefore there are as many spheres as there are affections and combinations of affections, which are innumerable. The sphere is as it were the man’s image extended outside of himself, the image in fact of all things that are in him. In the world of spirits that which is presented to the view or perception is only something general; what the man is as to particulars, is known in heaven; but what as to the least particulars is known to none but the Lord.

AC 1506. In order that the nature of spheres may be known, I may adduce some things from experience. A certain spirit who had been known to me and with whom I had conversed while he lived in the body, appeared many times afterwards among the evil; and as he had a high opinion of himself, he had acquired a sphere of pre-eminent excellence, because of which the spirits suddenly fled away, so that none appeared but himself alone; and he filled the whole surrounding sphere, which was one of self-regard. Being deprived of companions, he presently fell into another state; for in the other life one who is deprived of the society in which he is, at first becomes as if he were half dead, for his life is then supported solely by the influx of heaven into his interiors. He then began to lament and feel torment. The other spirits afterwards said that they could not endure his presence, because he desired to be greater than others. Being at last brought into association with others, he was carried up on high, so that it seemed to him that he alone governed the universe; to such a degree does the love of self puff itself up when left to itself. He was then cast down among the infernals. Such a lot awaits those who think themselves greater than others. More than any other love is the love of self contrary to mutual love, which is the life of heaven.

AC 1507. A certain person during his bodily life had seemed to himself to be greater and wiser than others in other respects he was well disposed, and not much given to despising others in comparison with himself; but as he had been born of high rank, he had contracted a sphere of supereminence and authority. In this character he came to me, and for a long time spake not, but I noticed that he was encompassed as with a mist, which going forth from him began to cover the other spirits; at which they began to be distressed. Thereupon, addressing me, they said that they could not possibly stay there, for they were deprived of all their freedom, so that they did not dare to say anything. He also began to speak to them, calling them his sons, and at times instructing them, but with the authority that he had contracted. This showed the nature in the other life of a sphere of authority.

AC 1508. Many times has it been given me to observe that those who in the world had been endowed with high rank, could not help contracting thereby a sphere of authority, and therefore in the other life they could neither hide nor get rid of it. In those of them who had been endowed with faith and charity, the sphere of authority is in a wonderful way conjoined with a sphere of goodness, so that it is not troublesome to any one; indeed a kind of corresponding subordination is shown them by well-behaved spirits; and in fact they have no sphere of commanding, but only a sphere that is natural to them from their high birth, and which after some delay they put off; for they are good, and strive to put it off.

AC 1509. For several days such spirits were with me as during their life in this world had cared nothing for the good of society, but only for themselves, being useless members of the commonwealth, and who had no end but to live sumptuously, to be clothed splendidly, and to grow rich; being well practiced in simulation, and in ways of insinuating themselves by various forms of flattering assent and a display of services, but only that they might seem devoted, and be intrusted with their master‘s goods, while they looked down with contempt upon all who were earnestly employed. It was perceived that they had been courtiers. The effect of their sphere was to take from me the power of close application, and to make it so irksome for me to act and to think in serious matters, true and good, that at last I scarcely knew what to do. When such as these come among spirits, they induce on them a similar torpor. In the other life they are useless members, and are rejected wherever they come.

AC 1510. Every spirit-and still more every society of spirits--has his own sphere from his principles and persuasions, which sphere is that of his principles and persuasions. Evil genii have a sphere of cupidities, and in their case the sphere of principles and persuasions is such that when acting upon another it makes truths to be as falsities and calls forth all things that are confirmatory, so as to induce a belief that falsities are truths, and that evils are goods.

[2] This has shown how easily a man may be confirmed in falsities and evils, if he has no belief in the truths which are from the Lord. Such spheres are dense in proportion to the nature of the falsities. These spheres can by no means agree with the spheres of spirits who are in truths. If they approach, there arises a repugnance; and if by permission the sphere of falsity prevails, the good come into temptation and into anxiety. I have also perceived the sphere of unbelief, which is such that those who are in it do not believe anything that is said, and scarcely what is presented to their sight. There is also the sphere of those who believe nothing but what they apprehend by the senses.

[3] A certain one was seen by me, clothed in something dark, sitting at a mill, as if grinding meal, and at the side were seen little mirrors, and I afterwards saw some things produced by phantasy, but which were aerial. I wondered who he was; but he came to me and said that he was the one who sat at the mill; and that he had such ideas, as that all things whatsoever are only phantasies, and that nothing is real. For this reason he had become such as he was.

AC 1511. It has been made known to me by much experience, so well known that nothing can be more so, that spirits who are in falsities flow into the thought, and induce a persuasion exactly as if what is false is true, so that it cannot possibly appear otherwise, and this they do from their sphere. In like manner genii, who are in evils, inflow in the same way into the will, and produce an effect exactly as if what is evil is good, so that it cannot possibly be felt otherwise; and this also from their sphere. This influx of spirits of both kinds it has been given me to plainly perceive a thousand times; also from whom it came, and how angels from the Lord removed such things; besides many other things that cannot so well be specifically narrated; so that I have become assured, with all possible certainty, whence come the falsities and evils with man; and also that such spheres as remain after the death of the body and manifest themselves so evidently, are from principles of falsity and cupidities of evil.

AC 1512. The spheres of phantasies, when presented in visible form, appear like clouds, more or less dense according to the quality of the phantasy. There is a certain misty rock under the left foot, where the antediluvians are, and under which they stay. That cloudiness, by which they are kept apart from all others in the other life, arises from their phantasies. From those who have lived in hatred and revenge, there exhale such spheres as cause swooning, and excite vomiting. Such spheres are as it were poisonous; and it is usual to test how poisonous they are, and how dense, by fillets of a dull azure color: as these fade away, the sphere also is lessened.

AC 1513. A certain spirit came to me of those called the luke-warm, who bore himself as if he had repented; nor did I perceive the deceit, although I thought that he was concealing something within. But the spirits said that they could not endure his presence, and that they felt within themselves such an effect as men feel when moved to vomit, and that he was among those who are to be spewed out. He afterwards spoke abominable things; nor could he desist, however much he was persuaded not to speak so.

AC 1514. Spheres are also made susceptible to sense by odors, which spirits smell much more exquisitely than men; for, wonderful to say, odors correspond to spheres. When the sphere of those who have indulged in the practice of simulation and have thereby contracted a nature, is turned into an odor, there is a stench of vomit. When the sphere of those who have studied eloquence to the end that everything may redound to self-admiration, is made odoriferous, it is like the odor of burnt bread. With those who have indulged in mere pleasures, and have been in no charity and faith, the odor of their sphere is like that of excrement. So is the odor of those who have spent their lives in adulteries, but this is still more offensive. When the sphere of those who have lived in deep hatred and revenge, and in cruelty, is turned into odors, there is a cadaverous stench. The stench of mice is diffused around from those who have been sordidly avaricious; the stench of bedbugs from those who persecute the innocent. These odors cannot be smelled by any man, except by one whose interior sensations are opened, so that he may be in company with spirits.

AC 1515. The sphere of the stench of a certain woman was perceived, who was afterwards associated with sirens; and that stench exhaled for some days wherever she went. The spirits said that the stench seemed deadly; yet she perceived nothing of it. The stench of sirens is similar, because their interiors are filthy, while their exteriors are for the most part becoming and fair (n. 831). It is wonderful how quickly the sirens in the other life learn all things there, and know better than others how things are, even matters of doctrine; but all to the end that they may turn them into magic, and arrogate to themselves command over others. They enter into the affections of the good by the simulation of good and truth; but still their quality remains, which shows that what is doctrinal is nothing, unless the man becomes as it teaches, that is, unless he has the life as the end in view and besides, there are many among the infernals who had been pre-eminently skilled in doctrinal things. But they who have lived a life of charity are all in heaven.

AC 1516. I have spoken with spirits about the sense of taste, which they said that they do not possess, but a something from which they know what taste is, and which they likened to an odor, but which they could not describe. It was brought to my recollection that taste and smell meet in a kind of third sense, as is evident also from animals which examine their food by the smell, from which they know whether it is wholesome and suitable for them.

AC 1517. A vinous odor was perceived, and I was informed that it came from those who compliment one another from friendship and rightful love, so that there is also truth in the compliments. This odor exists with much variety, and comes from the sphere of the beautiful in forms.

AC 1518. When the celestial angels are with the body of a deceased person who is to be raised up, the smell of the body is turned into an aromatic odor; on perceiving which, evil spirits cannot approach.

AC 1519. The spheres of charity and faith, when perceived as odors, are most delightful; the odors are pleasant, as of flowers, lilies, and spices of various kinds, with indefinite variety. Moreover, the spheres of the angels also are sometimes made visible as atmospheres or auras, which are so beautiful, so pleasant, and so various, that they cannot possibly be described.

AC 1520. But in regard to what has been said of the possibility of perceiving the interiors of a spirit by spheres extended and projected outside of him, as also by odors, it is to be known that these are not always perceptible and besides, they are tempered in various ways by the Lord, in order that the quality of spirits may not always be exposed before others.


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