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AC GENESIS Chapter 14
CONCERNING THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS AND ANGELS
AC 1634. It is known from the Word of the Lord that many persons formerly spoke with spirits and angels, and that they heard and saw many things that are in the other life; but that afterwards heaven was as it were shut, insomuch that at the present day the existence of spirits and angels is scarcely credited, and still less that any one can speak with them; for men regard it as impossible to speak with the unseen, and with those whose existence they in their hearts deny. But as of the Lords Divine mercy I have now for some years been permitted to hold converse with spirits and angels almost continually, and to be in companionship with them as one of themselves, I may now relate what it has been given me to learn concerning their speech with one another.
AC 1635. The speech of spirits with me has been heard and perceived as distinctly as the speech of man with man; indeed, when I have spoken with them while I have been in company with men, I observed that just in the same way as I heard the men speaking sonorously, so also did I hear the spirits; insomuch that the spirits sometimes wondered that others did not hear what they said to me; for as regards the hearing there was absolutely no difference. But as the influx into the internal organs of hearing is different from that of speech with men, it could be heard only by myself; to whom of the Lords Divine mercy these organs have been opened. Human speech passes in through the ear, by an external way, by means of the air; but the speech of spirits does not enter through the ear, nor by means of the air; but by an internal way, into the same organs of the head or brain. Consequently the hearing is the same.
AC 1636. How difficult it is for men to be brought to believe in the existence of spirits and angels, and still more that any one can speak with them, has been evidenced to me by the following example. There were certain spirits who when they lived in the body had been among the more learned, and had then been known to me (for I have spoken with nearly all with whom I was acquainted during their bodily life, with some for several weeks, with others for a year, exactly as if they had been living in the body). These spirits were once brought into a state of thought similar to that which they had while they lived in the world: in the other life this is easily done. The inquiry was then suggested, whether they believed that any man can speak with spirits. They then said, in that state, that it was a phantasy to believe any such thing; and this they asserted very persistently. From this it was given to know with how much difficulty a man can be brought to believe that any speaking with spirits is possible to man, for the reason that men do not believe in the existence of spirits, and still less that they are themselves to come among them after death. And at this these same spirits then wondered greatly; and yet they were among the more learned, and had spoken much in public concerning the other life, and concerning heaven and the angels; so that this might have been thought to be most fully known to them as a matter of memory-knowledge, especially from the Word, where it is frequently met with.
AC 1637. Among the wonderful things in the other life is the fact that the speech of spirits with a man is in his native tongue, which they speak as readily and skillfully as if they had been born in the same land, and had been brought up with the same language; and this whether they are from Europe, from Asia, or from any other part of the globe. The case is the same with those who lived thousands of years ago, before the language in question had come into existence. The spirits indeed know no otherwise than that the language in which they speak with a man is their own, and that of their native land. The case is the same with other languages in which the man is skilled; but beyond these languages, the spirits cannot utter a syllable of any language, unless to do this is given them by the Lord immediately. Even little children who had died before they had been taught any language, speak in the same way.
 But the reason is that the language with which spirits are familiar is not a language of words, but is a language of ideas of thought; and this language is the universal of all languages; and when they are with a man, their ideas of thought fall into the words that are in the man, and this in a manner so correspondent and fitting that the spirits know no otherwise than that the words themselves are theirs, and that they are speaking in their own language; when yet they are speaking in that of the man. I have occasionally spoken with spirits concerning these matters. All souls, as soon as they enter into the other life, are endowed with the gift of being able to understand the speech of all who are in the whole world, precisely as if it were their native tongue, for they perceive whatever a man thinks. They are endowed with other faculties also that are still more excellent. Hence it is that souls, after the death of the body, can converse and associate with all, of whatever region or language they may have been.
AC 1638. The words which they speak, that is, which they call up or bring forth from the mans memory, and suppose to be their own, are well chosen and clear, full of meaning, distinctly pronounced, and applicable to the subject; and, wonderful to say, they know how to choose the words better and more promptly than the man himself; and as has been shown, they are even acquainted with the various significations of the words, and instantly apply them, without any premeditation, for the reason, as before said, that the ideas of their language flow solely into words that are fitting. The case with this is nearly like that of a man who speaks without any thought of the words he is using, being simply in the meaning of the words; then, in accordance with the meaning, his thought falls readily and spontaneously into words; the inner meaning is that which calls forth the words. In such an internal meaning, only one still more subtle and excellent, does the speech of spirits consist; and through this a man communicates with spirits, although he is unaware of it.
AC 1639. The speech of words, as has been said, is the speech proper to man, and in fact to his corporeal memory; but the speech of ideas of thought is the speech of spirits, and in fact of the interior memory, which is the memory of the spirit. Men are not aware that they have this memory, because the memory of particulars, or of material things, which is corporeal, is everything, and obscures the interior memory; when yet without the interior memory, which is proper to his spirit, man cannot think at all. From this memory I have often spoken with spirits, thus in their own language, that is, by ideas of thought. How universal and copious this language is, may be seen from the fact that every word contains an idea of great extension; for it is well known that the single idea of a word may be set forth by many words; and this is still more true of the idea of one whole subject, and still more so of the idea of a number of such subjects, which can be brought together into one compound idea that still appears as simple; from which may be seen what is the quality of the natural speech of spirits among themselves, and by means of which speech man is conjoined with spirits.
AC 1640. I have been enabled to perceive distinctly not only what was said to me by spirits, but also where they were when speaking; whether above the head, or below; whether at the right hand, or at the left; at the ear, or at some other point near or within the body; at what distance, whether greater or less. For they spoke with me from the various places or positions in which they were, according to their position in the Grand Man, that is, according to their state.
 I have also been enabled to perceive when they were coming, and when they were going away, and whither, and how far; also whether they were many or few; besides other things; and also from their speech to perceive their quality, for from their speech, in like manner as from their sphere, it is plainly manifest of what genius and of what natural disposition they are; also of what persuasion and what affection; so that if they are deceitful, even if there is no deceit while they are speaking, still the generic and specific character of their deceitfulness is perceived from every word and idea; and so with all other malignities and cupidities; so that there is no need of much exploration, for there is an image of the spirit in every word and idea.
 It is also perceived whether the idea of their speech is closed, or is open also what is from themselves, what from others, and what from the Lord. This is much the same as it is with a mans countenance, from which, without a word, it is often known whether there is present dissembling, or deceit, or gladness, or cheerfulness natural or affected, whether there is friendliness from the heart, whether modesty, and also whether there is insanity; sometimes also the same is apparent from the tone of the mans speech. Why then should not this be the case in the other life, where the perception greatly exceeds such apperception? Indeed, before a spirit speaks, it is known from the thought alone what he intends to say; for thought flows in with greater rapidity than speech.
AC 1641. Spirits in the other life converse among themselves as men do on earth; and they who are good, with all familiarity of friendship and love, as I have frequently heard; and this in their own speech, by which they express more in a minute than a man can in an hour. For their speech, as before said, is the universal of all languages, being by means of ideas, the primitives of words. They speak upon subjects with such acuteness and perspicuity, by so many series of reasons following one another in order, and exercising persuasion, that if a man knew of it he would be astounded. They join persuasion and affection to their discourse, and thus give it life.
 Sometimes also they discourse by means of simultaneous representations before the sight, and thus to the life. As for example: let the discourse be about shame, whether it can exist without reverence: among men this cannot be discussed except by means of many reasonings from evidence and examples, and still it remains in doubt; but with a spirit all would be done within a minute, by means of the states of the affection of shame varied in their order, and by means of those of reverence also; thus by perceiving the agreements and the disagreements, and at the same time beholding them in the representatives adjoined to the speech; from which they forthwith perceive the conclusion, which thus flows of itself from the disagreements thus reduced to agreement. So in all other cases. Souls come into this faculty directly after death; and good spirits then love nothing more than to instruct those who are newly arrived, and the ignorant.
 The spirits themselves are not aware that they speak with one another with speech of such surpassing excellence, and that they are furnished with an endowment so preeminent, unless it is given them by the Lord to reflect upon it; for this mode of speaking is natural to them, and is then inherent. The case in this respect is the same as it is with a man when he fixes his mind on the meaning of things, and not on the words and the mode of speaking, in that, without reflection, he sometimes does not know what kind of speech he is making use of.
AC 1642. This then is the speech of spirits; but the speech of angelic spirits is still more universal and perfect; and the speech of angels is more universal and perfect still. For there are three heavens, as before said the first is where good spirits are, the second is where angelic spirits are, and the third is where angels are. The perfections thus ascend, as from exterior things to things more interior. To use a comparison for the sake of illustration, it is almost like hearing relatively to sight, and sight relatively to thought; for what the hearing can receive through speech in an hour, can be presented before the sight in a minute, as, for example, a view of plains, palaces, and cities and all that can be seen by the eye in many hours, can be comprehended by the thought in a minute. In such a ratio does the speech of spirits stand to the speech of angelic spirits, and the speech of angelic spirits to the speech of angels; for angelic spirits distinctly comprehend more in one idea of speech or thought, than spirits by several thousand; and so it is with angels in comparison with angelic spirits. How then must it be with the Lord, from whom is all the life of affection, thought, and speech, and who alone is the Speech, and the Word!
AC 1643. The speech of angelic spirits is beyond comprehension so that it will be treated of in few words, and only that kind which is called representative. The subject of the discourse is itself presented representatively in a wonderful form, which is withdrawn from the objects of sense, and is varied by means of the most pleasant and beautiful representatives in ways innumerable, with a continual influx of affections from the happy current of mutual love inflowing through the higher heaven from the Lord; from which influx each and all things are as it were alive. Each subject is thus presented, and this through continuous series. Not one single representative in any series can possibly be described to the understanding. These are the things that flow into the ideas of spirits but to them they are not apparent, except as something general that flows in and affects them, without their having a distinct perception of the things that are distinctly perceived by the angelic spirits.
AC 1644. There are very many evil spirits of an interior kind, who do not speak as spirits do, but are also in the beginnings of ideas, and are thus more subtle than other spirits. There are many such spirits but they are completely separated from the angelic spirits, and cannot even approach them. These more subtle evil spirits likewise art their ideas to objects and things in an abstract way, but to such as are filthy; and in them they represent to themselves various things of a filthy nature; and they involve their ideas in such things. They are as it were silly. Their speech was made known to me, and was also represented by the unclean dregs from a vessel; and the intellectual element of their speech was represented by the hinder parts of a horse, whose forward parts did not appear; for in the world of spirits the intellectual is represented by horses. But the speech of angelic spirits was represented by a maiden of graceful carriage, becomingly attired in a robe of white, that was neatly fitted to a kind of vest.
AC 1645. But the speech of angels is ineffable, far above the speech of spirits, for it is above that of angelic spirits, and is not intelligible in any way to man so long as he lives in the body. Nor can the spirits in the world of spirits form any idea of it, for it is above the perceptive power of their thought. This speech of angels is not of things represented by any ideas like those of spirits and angelic spirits; but it is a speech of ends and of the derivative uses, which are the primaries and the essentials of things. Into these are angelic thoughts insinuated, and are varied there with indefinite variety; and in each and all things of that speech there is an inward and happy delight from the good of mutual love from the Lord, and a beautiful and delightful one from the truth of faith from that good. Ends, and the uses from them, are as it were most delicate recipients, and are the delightful subjects of unnumbered variations; and this by means of celestial and spiritual forms that are beyond comprehension. In these they are kept by the Lord, for the Lords kingdom is simply a kingdom of ends and uses; and for this reason also the angels who are with a man attend to nothing else than the ends and uses, and elaborate nothing else from the mans thought. All other things, which are ideal and material, they care nothing for; because these are far below their sphere.
AC 1646. The speech of angels sometimes appears in the world of spirits, thus before the interior sight, as a vibration of light. or of resplendent Same; and this with variation according to the state of the affections of their speech. It is only the general things of their speech, as regards the states of affection, and which general things originate in numberless distinct things, that are thus represented.
AC 1647. The speech of the celestial angels is distinct from that of the spiritual angels, and is even more ineffable and inexpressible. The celestial and good things of ends are what their thoughts are insinuated into, and they are therefore in happiness itself; and, wonderful to say, their speech is far more abounding, for they are in the very fountains and origins of the life of thought and of speech.
AC 1648. There is a speech of good spirits, and also of angelic spirits, which is a simultaneous speech of many, especially in circles or choirs, concerning which of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter. The speech in choirs has often been heard by me; it has a cadence (labens), as if in rhythm. They have no thought about the words or ideas, for into these their sentiments flow spontaneously. No words or ideas flow in which multiply the sense, or draw it away to something else, or to which anything artificial adheres, or that seems to them elegant from self, or from self-love, for such things would at once cause disturbance. They do not inhere in any word; they think of the sense; the words follow spontaneously from the sense itself. They come to a close in unities, for the most part simple; but when in those which are compound, they turn by an accent to the next. These things are the result of their thinking and speaking in society; hence the form of the speech has a cadence in accordance with the connection and unanimity of the society. Such was once the form of songs; and such is that of the Psalms of David.
AC 1649. Wonderful to say, this kind of speech, possessing the rhythmical or harmonic cadence of songs, is natural to spirits. They speak so among themselves, although they are not aware of it. Immediately after death souls come into the habit of speaking in this way. I have been initiated into the same, and it has at last become familiar. The reason their speech is of this nature, is that they speak in society, which for the most part they are not aware of: a very clear proof that they are all distinguished into societies, and that consequently all things fall into the forms of the societies.
AC 1650. A continuation concerning the speech of spirits, and its diversities, will be found at the end of this chapter.
1. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim,
2. That they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and with the king of Bela, this is Zoar.
3. All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim, this is the Salt Sea.
4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled.
5. And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shavehkiriathaim;
6. And the Horites in their Mount Seir, even to El-paran which is over in the wilderness.
7. And they returned, and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh, and smote all the field of the Amalekites, and also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazazon-tamar.
8. And there went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar; and they set the battle in array with them in the valley of Siddim;
9. With Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar: four kings with five.
10. And the valley of Siddim was pits, pits of bitumen; and the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and they fell there, and they that remained fled to the mountain.
11. And they took all the wealth of Sodom, and of Gomorrah, and all their food, and departed.
12. And they took Lot, Abrams brothers son, and his substance, and departed; and he was dwelling in Sodom.
13. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew; and he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner; and these were men of the covenant of Abram.
14. And Abram heard that his brother was made captive; and he hastened his trained men that were born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued unto Dan.
15. And he divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smote then, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus.
16. And he brought back all the substance, and also brought back his brother Lot and his substance, and the women also, and the people.
17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, this is the kings valley.
18. And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine, and he was priest to GOD MOST HIGH.
19. And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram to GOD MOST HIGH, Possessor of the heavens and the earth.
20. And blessed be GOD MOST HIGH, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all.
21. And the king of Sodom said unto Abram, Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself.
22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hand to JEHOVAH GOD MOST HIGH, Possessor of the heavens and the earth;
23. That from a thread even to the thong of a shoe, I will not take aught that is thine; lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram.
24. Save only that which the boys have eaten, and the portion of the men who went with me, Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre; let them take their portion.
AC 1651. This chapter treats of the Lords temptation combats, which are represented and signified by the wars here described.
AC 1652. The goods and truths in the external man, but which only appeared as goods and truths, were the things from which the Lord fought in His childhood against evils and falsities. The apparent goods and truths are signified by the kings named in (verse 1); but the evils and falsities against which He fought are signified by the kings named in (verse 2); and these were unclean (verse 3).
AC 1653. These evils and falsities against which He fought did not show themselves earlier than in childhood; and then they burst forth, which is signified by their previously serving Chedorlaomer (verse 4).
AC 1654. The Lord then warred against and conquered the persuasions of falsity of all kinds, which are the Rephaim, the Zuzim, the Emim, and the Horites (verses 5, 6); next, the falsities and evils themselves, which are the Amalekite and the Amorite (verse 7) afterwards the other falsities and evils, which are the kings named in (verses 8 to 11).
AC 1655. Apparent truths and goods, which are not in themselves truths and goods, took possession of the external man (verse 12); and the rational man which is "Abram the Hebrew," perceiving this, laid claim to it and liberated it (verses 13 to 16).
AC 1656. After these combats, evil and falsity submitted themselves (verse 17).
AC 1657. The Lords internal man in the interior man, or the Divine in the rational, is Melchizedek, from whom came the benediction after the combats (verses 18 to 20). The tithes are the remains, or the states of good and truth from the combats (verse 20).
AC 1658. The evil and infernal spirits, being overcome, begged for life, and did not care for other things; but nothing was taken from them by the Lord, because He had no strength from their evils and falsities; but they were given into the power (potestas) of good spirits and angels (verses 21-24).
THE INTERNAL SENSE
AC 1659. The things contained in this chapter appear as if they were not representative, for it treats only of wars between several kings, and the rescue of Lot by Abram; and finally concerning Melchizedek; and thus it seems as if they contained no heavenly arcanum. But still these things, like all the rest conceal in the internal sense the deepest arcana, which also follow in a continuous series from those which go before, and connect themselves in a continuous series with those which follow.
 In those which precede, the Lord has been treated of, and His instruction, and also His external man, which was to be conjoined with the internal by means of knowledges (scientiae et cognitiones). But as His external man was--as before said--of such a nature that it had in it by inheritance from the mother things that hindered conjunction, and yet that were to be expelled by means of combats and temptations, before His external man could be united to His internal man, or His Human Essence to the Divine Essence, therefore these combats are treated of in this chapter; and are represented and signified in the internal sense by the wars of which it treats. It is known within the church that Melchizedek represented the Lord, and therefore that the Lord is meant in the internal sense where Melchizedek is mentioned. It may be concluded from this, that not only the things concerning Melchizedek, but all the rest also, are representative; for not a syllable can have been written in the Word which was not sent down from heaven, and consequently in which the angels do not see heavenly things.
 In very ancient times also, many things were represented by wars, which they called the Wars of Jehovah, and which signified nothing else than the combats of the church, and of those who were of the church, that is, their temptations, which are nothing but combats and wars with the evils in themselves, and consequently with the diabolical crew that excite the evils, and endeavor to destroy the church and the man of the church. That nothing else is meant in the Word by "wars," may be clearly seen from the fact that nothing can be treated of in the Word except the Lord and His kingdom, and the church; because it is Divine and not human, consequently heavenly and not worldly, and therefore by "wars," in the sense of the letter, nothing else can be meant in the internal sense. This will be more evident from what follows.
AC 1660. Verses 1, 2. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, that they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this Zoar. "It came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim," signifies so many kinds of apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, in the Lords external man. Each of the kings and each of the nations signifies some such good and truth; "they made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar," signifies so many kinds of cupidities of evil, and of persuasions of falsity, against which the Lord combated.
AC 1661. And it came to pass in the days of Amraphel king of Shinar, Arioch king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim. That these signify so many kinds of apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, that were in the Lords external man, may be seen from the signification of all these in the internal sense, and also from what follows. For the Lords combat against evils and falsities is treated of; here, His first combat, which took place in his childhood and earliest youth; which He then first engaged in and sustained when He had been imbued with knowledges (scientiae et cognitiones), on which account it is here said, "in the days of these."
 No one can ever fight against evils and falsities until he has learned to know what evil and falsity are, and therefore not until he has been instructed. A man does not know what evil is, still less what falsity is, until he has the full use of his understanding and judgment, which is the reason why a man does not come into temptations until he has arrived at adult age; thus every man in his age of manhood, but the Lord in His childhood.
 Every man combats first of all from the goods and truths he has received through knowledges; and from them and by them he judges about evils and falsities. Every man also, when he first begins to combat, supposes that the goods and truths from which he combats are his own; that is, he attributes them to himself, and at the same time attributes to himself the power by which he resists. This also is permitted for the man cannot then know otherwise. Until a man has been regenerated, he cannot possibly know, so as to be able to say that he knows, acknowledges, and believes, that nothing of good and truth is from himself, but that all good and truth are from the Lord; or that he cannot resist any evil and falsity from his own power; for he does not know that evil spirits excite and infuse the evils and falsities still less that by means of evil spirits he is in communication with hell; and that hell presses upon him as the sea does upon every part of a dike, which pressure of hell no man can possibly resist by his own powers. But as until he has been regenerated a man cannot but suppose that he resists by his own powers, this also is permitted; and thus he is introduced into combats or temptations; but afterwards he is more and more enlightened.
 When a man is in such a state that he supposes good and truth to be from himself, and that the power of resisting is his own, then the goods and truths from which he combats against evils and falsities are not goods and truths, although they appear so; for there is what is his own in them, and he places self-merit in victory, and glories as if it were he who had overcome the evil and falsity, when yet it is the Lord alone who combats and overcomes. That this is really the case, none can know but they who are being regenerated by means of temptations.
 And as in his earliest childhood the Lord was introduced into most grievous combats against evils and falsities, neither could He at that time suppose otherwise; and this not only because it was according to Divine order that His Human Essence should be introduced to the Divine Essence and be united to it by means of continual combats and victories, but also because the goods and truths from which He combated against evils and falsities were of the external man; and as these goods and truths were therefore not altogether Divine, they are therefore called appearances of good and truth. His Divine Essence introduced His Human in this manner, in order that it might overcome from its own power. But there are more arcana here than can possibly be described. In a word, in the first combats, the goods and truths in the Lord, from which he combated, were imbued with things inherited from the mother, and so far as they were imbued with things inherited from the mother, they were not Divine; but by degrees, as He overcame the evil and falsity, they were purified and made Divine.
AC 1662. That each of the kings, and each of the nations, signifies such good and such truth, is evident from their signification in the internal sense, as applied to the subject here treated of; for every nation, and every land, signifies some certain thing in general, and this both in the proper and in the opposite sense; but the general signification applies itself to the subject being treated of. That apparent goods and truths are signified by the names of these kings and these nations, can be confirmed by many passages; but as this has been done so many times before, and as so many names occur here, it would be too tedious thus to explain them all one by one.
AC 1663. They made war with Bera king of Sodom, and with Birsha king of Gomorrah, Shinab king of Admah, and Shemeber king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar. That these signify so many kinds of cupidities of evil and of persuasions of falsity, against which the Lord fought, may likewise be seen from the signification of the kings and nations here named, and also from what follows. What cupidity of evil and what persuasion of falsity is signified by each one, it would also be too tedious to set forth. Of the signification of Sodom and Gomorrah, of Admah and Zeboiim, and of Zoar, we have already briefly treated. They are the most general or the most universal kinds of evils and falsities; and these, being signified in the internal sense, here follow in their series.
 That the Lord underwent and endured the most grievous temptations--temptations more grievous than have ever been endured by any one--is not so well known from the Word, where it is only mentioned that He was in the wilderness forty days, and was tempted by the devil. The temptations themselves which He then had, are described in a few words only; but these few involve them all; as that it is said in (Mark 1:12, 13), that He was there with the beasts, by which are signified the worst of the infernal crew; and the things which are mentioned (in Matthew and in Luke), that He was taken by the devil upon the pinnacles of the temple, and upon a high mountain, are nothing but representatives of most grievous temptations which He had in the wilderness; concerning which, of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter.
AC 1664. That the wars here mentioned signify nothing else, in the internal sense, than spiritual wars, or temptations, was said above, at the beginning of this chapter. By the wars mentioned in the Word, especially in the Prophets, nothing else is signified. The wars of men can have no place in the internals of the Word for such things are not spiritual and celestial, such as alone belong to the Word. That combats with the devil, or what is the same, with hell, are signified by the wars mentioned in the Word, may be seen from the passages that now follow, besides many others. In John:--
They are spirits of demons, doing signs, to go forth to the kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather them together unto the war of that great day of God Almighty (Rev. 16:14);
where every one can see that no other war is signified, on the "great day of God Almighty."
The beast that cometh up out of the abyss shall make war (Rev. 11:7);
where "the abyss" is hell. Again:--
The dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, who keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ (Rev. 12:17).
It was given unto him to make war with the saints (Rev. 13:7).
All of these "wars" are combats such as are those of temptations. The wars of the kings of the south and of the north, and the other wars mentioned in Daniel chapters 10 and 11), also the things said of Michael (Dan. 10:13, 21; 12:1; Rev. 12:7), mean the same.
 That "wars" signify nothing else, is evident also from the other Prophets. As in Ezekiel:--
Ye have not gone up into the breaches, neither have ye built up the fence for the house of Israel, to stand in the war in the day of Jehovah (Ezekiel 12:5);
where this is said concerning the prophets. In Isaiah:--
They shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning hooks nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more (Isaiah 2:4);
where it is plain that no other wars are meant; and consequently that by the weapons of war, as by swords, spears, shields, and others, nothing else is meant in the Word than the things that pertain to such wars.
 Again in Isaiah:--
Bring ye water to him that is thirsty ye inhabitants of the land of Tema, meet with his bread him that is wandering; for they shall wander before the swords, before the drawn sword, and before the bent bow, and before the grievousness of war (Isaiah 21:14, 15).
Shepherds and their flocks shall come unto the daughter of Zion; they shall pitch their tents against her round about; they shall feed down every one his space; sanctify a war against her arise, and let us go up at noon (Jeremiah 6:3-5)
where no other war is meant, for it is against the daughter of Zion, that is, the church.
How is the city of praise not forsaken, the city of my joy therefore her young men shall fall in her streets, and all the men of war shall be cut off in that day (Jer. 49:25, 26);
"the city of praise and of joy" denotes the things which are of the church; "the men of war," those who combat.
 In Hosea:--
In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, and with the fowl of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the ground; and I will break the how, and the sword, and war out of the land, and will make them to lie down in confidence (Hosea 2:18)
where in like manner "war" denotes combats, and the various arms of war those things which pertain to spiritual combat; these are "broken" when, cupidities and falsities ceasing, the man comes into the tranquillity of Peace.
 In David:--
Behold the works of Jehovah, who hath made solitudes in the earth, making wars to cease unto the end of the earth He breaketh the how, and cutteth the spear in sunder; He burneth the chariots in the fire (Ps. 46:8, 9)
where the meaning is similar. Again
In Salem is the habitation of God, and His dwelling place in Zion. There He brake the fiery shafts of the bow, the shield, and the sword, and the war (Ps. 76:2, 3).
As the priests represented the Lord, who alone combats for man, their service is called "warfare" (Num. 4:23, 35, 39, 43, 47).
 That Jehovah alone, that is, the Lord, combats and overcomes the devil that is with man when he is in the combats of temptations, although it does not so appear to the man, is a constant truth; for not even the smallest thing can be brought upon a man by evil spirits that is not by permission; and nothing, however small, can be averted by angels, except from the Lord; so that it is the Lord alone who sustains all the combat, and who overcomes; which also is everywhere represented by the wars waged by the sons of Israel against the nations. That it is the Lord alone, is also declared in Moses:--
Jehovah your God who walketh before you, He shall fight for you (Deut. 1:30).
Jehovah your God is He that walketh with you, to fight for you against your enemies, to save you (Deut. 20:4; Joshua 23:3, 5).
 For the wars there that were carried on against the idolatrous inhabitants of the land of Canaan, all represented the Lords combats with hell; and consequently those of His church, and those of the men of His church. This also accords with the following words in Isaiah:--
As the lion roareth, and the young lion, over his prey, when a multitude of shepherds come running against him, he will not be dismayed at their voice, nor afflicted by their tumult so Jehovah Zebaoth shall come down to fight upon Mount Zion, and upon the bill thereof (Isaiah 31:4).
 For this reason, also, Jehovah or the Lord is also called a "Man of War." As in Moses:--
Jehovah is a Man of War, Jehovah is His name (Exod. 15:3).
And in Isaiah:--
Jehovah shall go forth as a Hero, He shall stir up zeal like a Man of wars; He shall cry, yea, He shall shout aloud, He shall prevail against His enemies (Isaiah 42:13).
This also is why many things that pertain to war are attributed to the Lord; as here to "cry" and" shout aloud."
 Spirits and angels also appear as men of war when a representation is made. As in Joshua:--
Joshua lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man over against him, and his sword drawn in his hand. And he said unto Joshua, I am the prince of Jehovahs army. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth (Joshua 5:13, 14).
These things were so seen because they were representative; and for the same reason the posterity of Jacob called their wars the Wars of Jehovah.
 The same also was the case in the Ancient Churches; and among them were books which also were called The Wars of Jehovah; as is evident in Moses:--
It is said in the Book of the Wars of Jehovah (Num. 21:14, 15).
This was written in a manner not unlike that in which wars are treated of in this chapter but the wars of the church were signified. Such a mode of writing was familiar in those times; for then there were interior men, and they thought of exalted things.
AC 1665. Verse 3. All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim, this is the Salt Sea. "All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim," signifies that they were in the unclean things of cupidities; "this is the Salt Sea," signifies the filthy things of the derivative falsities.
AC 1666. All these were gathered together at the valley of Siddim. That this signifies that they were in the unclean things of cupidities, may be seen from the signification of " the valley of Siddim," concerning which see below (verse 10), where it is said that "the valley of Siddim was pits, pits, of bitumen," that is, that it was full of pits of bitumen, by which are signified the foul and unclean things of cupidities (n. 1299). The same may be seen from the fact that by Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim were signified the cupidities of evil and the persuasions of falsity, which in themselves are unclean. That they are unclean may be seen by every one within the church; and it also is actually seen in the other life. Such spirits desire nothing better than to pass their time in marshy, boggy, and excrementitious places, so that their nature carries such things with it. Such unclean things sensibly exhale from them when they approach the sphere of good spirits; especially when they desire to infest the good, that is, to gather together to attack them. From this it is evident what "the valley of Siddim" is.
 That "this is the Salt Sea," signifies the filthy things of the derivative falsities, may be seen from the signification of "the Salt Sea," which is as it were the same as that of the valley of Siddim; for it is said, "the valley of Siddim, this is the Salt Sea;" but these words are added for the reason that "the Salt Sea" signifies the falsities which burst forth from the cupidities; for there cannot possibly be any cupidity that does not produce falsities. The life of cupidities may be likened to a coal fire, and the falsities to the obscure light from it. As there cannot be fire without light, so neither can there be cupidity without falsity. All cupidity is of some foul love; for that which is loved is desired (cupitur), and hence is called cupidity and in cupidity itself there is the love in question in its continuity. whatever favors or dissents to this love or cupidity is called falsity. Hence it is evident why the words "the Salt Sea" are here added to the words "the valley of Siddim."
 As cupidities and falsities are what vastate or lay waste man, that is, deprive him of all the life of the love of good, and of the affection of truth, vastation is described in many passages by "saltness." As in Jeremiah:--
He that maketh flesh his arm shall be like a bare shrub in the desert, and shall not see when good cometh, and shall inhabit the parched places In the wilderness, a salt land, and not inhabited (Jeremiah 17:5, 6).
The miry places thereof and the marshes thereof shall not be healed; they shall be given up to salt (Ezekiel 47:11).
Jehovah turneth rivers into a wilderness, and water-springs into drought, a fruitful land into one of saltness, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein (Ps. 107:33, 34).
Moab shall be as Sodom, and the sons of Ammon as Gomorrah, a place left to the nettle, and a pit of salt, and a desolation forever (Zephaniah 2:9).
 In Moses:--
The whole land is brimstone and salt, a burning; it shall not be sown and shall not sprout, neither shall any herb spring up in it as in the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, of Admah and Zeboiim (Deut. 29:23).
"The whole land brimstone and salt, a burning," denotes vastated goods and truths; "brimstone," the vastation of good; "salt," the vastation of truth; for parching and saltness destroy the land and the products of the land just as cupidity destroys goods and as falsity destroys truths. As "salt" was significative of devastation, it was also customary to sow with salt the cities which were destroyed, that they might not be rebuilt (Judges 9:45). "Salt" is used also in the opposite sense, signifying that which gives fertility, and as it were relish.
Verse 4. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and in the thirteenth year they rebelled. "Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer," signifies that the evils and falsities did not appear in childhood, but that they served the apparent goods and truths; "and in the thirteenth year they rebelled," signifies the beginning of temptations in childhood.
AC 1667. Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer. That this signifies that the evils and falsities did not appear in childhood, but that they served the apparent goods and truths, is evident from the representation and signification of "Chedorlaomer," and also of those who served (verse 1); and also from the signification of "twelve." "Chedorlaomer," together with those named above (verse 2), signifies the apparent goods and truths in the Lord, thus His external man in respect to these things. "Chedorlaomer" here denotes all that are named above (verse 2) in the complex, as is evident also from what follows, as also from the circumstance that he was king of Elam, the signification of which has been given already, as being faith from charity; here therefore truth and good; for faith and the things of faith are nothing but truths, and charity and the things of charity are goods
 but here the goods of infancy, which, although they appear good, are not good so long as hereditary evil contaminates them. That which is inherent and which adheres is from the love of self and the love of the world. Whatever is of the love of self and of the love of the world then appears as good, but is not good; but still it is to be called good so long as it is in an infant or a child who does not yet know what is truly good. The ignorance excuses, and the innocence makes it appear as good. But the case is different when the man has been instructed, and knows what good and evil are. Such good and truth as are in a child before he has been instructed, are signified by "Chedorlaomer."
 By their "serving twelve years" is signified all the time that there are such good and truth; for in the internal sense "twelve" signifies all things that pertain to the faith of charity, or to faith from charity, much the same as "Elam" (Gen. 10:22). And so long as such good and truth are in a man, whether it be in his childhood or at any other age, evils and falsities can effect nothing; that is, evil spirits do not venture to do anything, or to introduce any evil; as is evident with infants, well disposed children, and the simple in heart; with whom, even though evil spirits, or the worst of the diabolic crew, were present, they could effect nothing at all, but are in subjection; which is here signified by their serving chedorlaomer twelve years.
 The reason of their being then in subjection and serving is that the man has not yet acquired to himself a sphere of cupidities and falsities. For evil spirits and genii are not allowed to operate except into those thing which a man has procured to himself by his acts, and not into those which are from inheritance; and therefore before the man procures such spheres to himself, the evil spirits serve; but as soon as he procures them, they pour themselves in upon him, and endeavor to rule; for they are then in his very sphere, and find there a certain delight, or their very life. Where the carcass is, there are the eagles.
AC 1668. And in the thirteenth year they rebelled. That this signified the beginning of temptations in childhood, is evident from the signification of "the thirteenth year," and from the signification of "rebelling." The thirteenth year is intermediate between the twelfth and the fourteenth. What is signified by "twelve" has been stated; and what by "fourteen" will be stated presently. The intermediate between no temptation and temptation is "thirteen." What "rebelling" signifies may be seen when it is predicated of the evils in a man, or of evil spirits, when they have been in subjection or are serving, and begin to rise up and infest.
 Evils or evil spirits rebel in proportion as the man who desires to be in good and truth confirms in himself any evils and falsities, that is, in proportion as cupidities and falsities insinuate themselves into his goods and truths. In cupidities and falsities is the life of evil spirits, and in goods and truths is the life of angels; and hence come infestation and combat. This is so with all who have conscience; and much more was it the case with the Lord when a child, who had perception. With those who have conscience there arises therefrom a dull pain; but with those who have perception, a sharp one, and the more interior the perception is, the sharper is the pain. From this we may see what was the nature of the Lords temptation in comparison with that of men, for He had interior and inmost perception.
AC 1669. Verse 5. And in the fourteenth year came Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim. In the fourteenth year," signifies the first temptation; "came Chedorlaomer," signifies the apparent good in the external man; "and the kings that were with him" signifies the apparent truth which is of that good; "and smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim," signifies the persuasions of falsity, or the hells of such, which the Lord conquered.
AC 1670. In the fourteenth year. That this signifies the first temptation, may be seen from the signification of fourteen," or the end of the second week, concerning which, see above (n. 728), where the time of seven days or of one week signifies the beginning of temptation. "Fourteen," or the term of two weeks, signifies the same. It is here said in the fourteenth year," in reference to the twelve years which precede; by which, as before said, is signified the time of childhood.
AC 1671. Came Chedorlaomer. That this signifies the apparent good in the external man, is evident from the signification of "chedorlaomer," explained in the preceding verse, as being apparent good and truth, here good only, because it is said also, "and the kings that were with him," and by "the kings" is signified the truth.
AC 1672. And the kings that were with him. That this signifies the apparent truth which is of that good, is evident from the signification of "kings" in the Word. "Kings," "kingdoms," and "peoples," in the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word, signify truths and the things which are of truths, as may be abundantly confirmed. In the Word an accurate distinction is made between a "people" and a "nation;" by a "people" are signified truths, and by a "nation" goods, as before shown (n. 1259, 1260). "Kings" are predicated of peoples, but not so much of nations. Before the sons of Israel sought for kings, they were a nation, and represented good, or the celestial; but after they desired a king, and received one, they became a people, and did not represent good or the celestial, but truth or the spiritual; which was the reason why this was imputed to them as a fault (1 Sam. 8:7-22). As Chedorlaomer is named here, and it is added, "the kings that were with him," both good and truth are signified; by "Chedorlaomer," good, and by "the kings," truth. But what was the quality of the good and truth at the beginning of the Lords temptations has already been stated.
AC 1673. And smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth-karnaim, and the Zuzim in Ham, and the Emim in Shaveh-kiriathaim. That this signifies the persuasions of falsity, or the hells of such, which the Lord conquered, is evident from the signification of "the Rephaim," "the Zuzim," and "the Emim," as being of similar kind with "the Nephilim," who are mentioned in (Genesis 6:4); and in the exposition of that passage (n. 581) it was sufficiently and abundantly shown that by "the Nephilim" are signified persuasions of falsity, or those who from a persuasion of their own exaltation and preeminence have made nothing of all holy and true things and who have infused falsities into their cupidities as is also plain from the passages there adduced (Num. 13:33; Deut. 2:10, 11; Isa. 14:9; 26:14, 19; Ps. 88:10). The different kinds of persuasions of falsity are what are here signified by these three and by "the Horites in Mount Seir for there are many kinds of persuasions of falsity, not only according to the falsities, but also according to the cupidities to which they are adjoined, or into which they are infused, or from which they flow forth and are produced. The nature of these persuasions of falsity can never appear to any man, who scarcely knows more than that there is such a thing as persuasion of falsity and cupidity of evil; but in the other life they are most distinctly arranged into their genera and into their species.
 The most direful persuasions of falsity existed with those who lived before the flood, especially with those who were called "Nephilim." These Nephilim are of such a character that in the other life they by their persuasions take away from the spirits to whom they come all faculty of thinking, so that these spirits seem to themselves scarcely to live, much less to be able to think anything true. For, as before shown, there is in the other life a communication of the thoughts of all, and therefore when such a persuasiveness flows in, it cannot do otherwise than as it were murder all power of thought in others. Such were the wicked tribes against whom the Lord combated in His earliest childhood, and whom He conquered; and unless the Lord had conquered them by His coming into the world, not a man would have been left at this day upon the earth; for every man is governed by the Lord through spirits. These same Nephilim are at this day enclosed by their phantasies by what seems like a misty rock, out of which they are continually striving, but in vain, to rise up (n. 1265-1272), and in many other places above). These, and others like them, were also meant in Isaiah:--
The dead shall not live, the Rephaim shall not rise, because Thou hast visited and hast destroyed them, and hast made all their memory to perish (Isaiah 26:14).
 Also in David:--
Wilt Thou show a wonder to the dead? shall the Rephaim arise and praise Thee? (Psalms 88:10),
where by "the dead" are not meant the dead, but the damned. There are also those at this day, especially from the Christian world, who likewise have persuasions, but not so direful as the antediluvians had. There are certain persuasions of falsity which take possession of both the will part and the intellectual part of man; such were those of the antediluvians, and of those who are here signified by the Rephaim, the Zuzim, and the Emim. But there are other persuasions of falsity which take possession of the intellectual part only, and which arise from the principles of falsity that are confirmed in ones self. These are not so powerful, nor so deadly, as the former; but still they cause much annoyance to spirits in the other life, and take away in part their ability to think. Spirits of this kind excite in a man nothing but confirmations of what is false, so that the man sees no otherwise than that falsity is truth, and evil good. It is their sphere which is of such a character. As soon as anything of truth is called forth by angels, they suffocate and extinguish it.
 A man can perceive whether he is governed by such as these simply by observing whether he thinks the truths of the Word to be false, and confirms himself so that he cannot see otherwise; if such be the case, he may be pretty sure that such spirits are with him, and that they have the dominion. In like manner they who persuade themselves that their private advantage is the common good, and who regard nothing as being for the common good but what is also to their own advantage in this case also the evil spirits who are present suggest so many things in confirmation that they see no otherwise. They who are such that they regard every advantage to themselves as the common good, or who veil it over with the appearance of being the common good, do much the same in the other life in regard to the common good there. That such is the nature of the influx of spirits with man, it has been given me to know by continual experience to the life.
AC 1674. Verse 6. And the Horites in their Mount Seir, even to El-paran, which is over in the wilderness. "The Horites in their Mount Seir," signifies the persuasions of falsity that are from the love of self; "even to El-paran, which is over in the wilderness," signifies their extension.
AC 1675. The Horites in their Mount Seir. That this signifies the persuasions of falsity that are from the love of self, is evident from the signification of "the Horites," and from the signification of " Seir." As regards the Horites, they were those who dwelt in Mount Seir (Genesis 36:8, 20), where Esau is spoken of, who is called Edom. By "Esau" or "Edom," in the genuine sense, is sign, fled the Lord as to His Human Essence; and He is also represented by Esau or Edom, as may be seen from many passages of the Word both historical and prophetical; concerning which, of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter. And as they who are in persuasions of falsity were represented by the Horites, and as at that time representatives came forth into actual realization, therefore the driving out of the Horites from Mount Seir by the descendants of Esau had a similar representation.
 Of this it is said in Moses:--
That also is accounted a land of Rephaim; Rephaim dwelt therein aforetime and the Ammonites call them Zamzummim a people great and many, and tall as the Anakim and Jehovah destroyed them from before them, and they had them in possession, and dwelt in their place. As He did for the sons of Esau, that dwelt in Seir, in that He destroyed the Horites from before them and they had them in possession, and dwelt in their place (Deut. 2:20-22).
These things represent and signify the same as what is here related concerning Chedorlaomer, namely, that Chedorlaomer and the kings with him smote the Horites in Mount Seir; for by Chedorlaomer, as before said, are represented the Lords good and truth in His childhood, thus the Lords Human Essence in respect to good and truth at that time, by which He destroyed the persuasions of falsity, that is, the hells filled with such a crew of the devil, that attempted to destroy the world of spirits, and consequently the human race, by persuasions of falsity.
 And as Esau or Edom represented the Lord in respect to His Human Essence, Mount Seir also, and Paran, represented the things that belonged to His Human Essence, namely, the celestial things of love. This is evident from the blessing of Moses:--
Jehovah came from Sinai, and arose to them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, and He came from the ten thousands of holiness from His right hand was a fire of law unto them, yea, He loveth the peoples (Deut. 33:2, 3)
that "Jehovah arose from Mount Seir, and shone forth from Mount Paran," signifies nothing else than the Lords Human Essence. Every one may know that to rise from Mount Seir, and to shine forth from Mount Paran, signifies neither mountains nor their inhabitants, but Divine realities, thus the celestial things of the Lords Human Essence, of which it is predicated that Jehovah arose and shone forth from it.
 That " Seir" has this signification is evident from the Song of Deborah and Barak, in the book of Judges:--
O Jehovah, when Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when Thou departedst out of the field of Edom the earth trembled, the heavens also dropped drops, the clouds also dropped water, the mountains bowed down, this Sinai before Jehovah the God of Israel (Judges 5:4, 5)
where to "go forth out of Seir," and to "depart out of the field of Edom," have no other signification.
 This is even more manifest in the prophecy of Balaam (who was one of the sons of the east, or from Syria, where there was a remnant of the Ancient Church), as given in Moses:--
I see Him, but not now I behold Him, but not nigh there shall are a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise up out of Israel, and Edom shall be an inheritance, Seir also shall be an inheritance, belonging to His enemies (Num. 24:17, 18)
where "to see Him, but not now," to "behold Him, but not nigh," is the Lords coming into the world; whose Human Essence is called " a star out of Jacob," which is to arise, and also " Edom," and " Seir;" that Edom and Seir were not to be the inheritance, a plain to every one. That "Seir, belonging to His enemies," or the mountain of His enemies, should be an inheritance, means the same as in many other places, where it is said that the enemies were to be expelled, and their land possessed.
 That Mount Paran also, or El-paran, named in this verse, signifies the same, is evident likewise in Habakkuk:--
God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran. Selah. His honor covered the heavens, and the earth was filled with His praise (Habakkuk 3:3).
But it is to be known that mountains and lands have and take a signification from those who inhabit them; from the Horites when the Horites dwelt there; and when these were expelled, from those who expelled them, as from Esau or Edom, and also from other sources; and therefore the signification exists in two senses, the genuine and the opposite; in the genuine the places in question denote the Lords Human Essence; in the opposite, the love of self. The Lords Human Essence is celestial love itself, and the opposite to celestial love is the love of self. So the Horites here signify the persuasions of falsity from the love of self.
 There are persuasions of falsity from the love of self, and there are persuasions of falsity from the love of the world; the persuasions that are from the love of self are most foul; but the persuasions from the love of the world are not so foul. The persuasions of falsity from the love of self are opposite to the celestial things of love; but the persuasions of falsity from the love of the world are opposite to the spiritual things of love. Persuasions from the love of self carry with them a desire to exercise command over all things; and so far as restraints are relaxed to them, they rush on, even to desire to exercise command over the universe, and even over Jehovah Himself, as has been shown. Therefore persuasions of this kind are not tolerated in the other life. But persuasions from the love of the world do not rush on so far; but only to the insanity of not being contented with ones lot. They vainly affect a heavenly joy, and desire to appropriate the goods of others, but not so much with the disposition to exercise command. But the differences that exist among these persuasions are innumerable.
AC 1676. Even to El-paran which is in the wilderness. That this signifies their extension, may be seen from the fact that the Horites were smitten and were compelled to flee thus far. The wilderness of Paran is mentioned in (Gen. 21:21; Num. 10:12; 12:16; 13:3, 26; Deut. 1:1). What is here signified by "El-paran which is in the wilderness," cannot so well be explained, except in so far as to say that the Lords first victory over the hells signified by those nations did not as yet extend any further, but how far it did extend is signified by "El-paran in the wilderness."
 He to whom it has not been given to know heavenly arcana, may suppose that there was no need of the Lords coming into the world to fight against the hells, and by means of temptations admitted into Himself to vanquish and conquer them, when they might have been subjugated at any time by the Divine Omnipotence, and shut up in their hells but that still the fact is really so, is a certain truth. To unfold the arcana themselves merely as to the most general things would fill a whole work; and it would also give occasion for reasonings about such Divine mysteries as human minds would not comprehend, however fully they might be unfolded; and most people would not desire to comprehend them.
 Therefore it is sufficient for men to know, and, because it is so, to believe, that it is an eternal truth that unless the Lord had come into the world and subjugated and conquered the hells by means of temptations admitted into Himself, the human race would have perished; and that otherwise those who have been on this earth even from the time of the Most Ancient Church could not possibly have been saved.
AC 1677. Verse 7. And they returned and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh, and smote all the field of the Amalekites, and also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. "They returned and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh," signifies a continuation; " and smote all the field of the Amalekites," signifies the kinds of falsities; " and also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar," signifies the kinds of evils that were derived from them.
AC 1678. They returned and came to En-mishpat, this is Kadesh. That this signifies a continuation, is evident from what goes before, and from what follows. Here now the falsities and the evils derived from them are treated of. The falsities are signified by "the Amalekite," and the evils that were derived from them are signified by "the Amorite in Hazezon-tamar." By "Kadesh" are signified truths, and also contentions about truths. Because the falsities, and the evils derived from them which the Lord conquered in His first combat, are here treated of, it is here said, " En-mishpat, this is Kadesh," because there was contention about truths.
 That "Kadesh" signifies truths concerning which there is contention, is evident in Ezekiel, where the boundaries of the Holy Land are described:--
The corner of the south southward from Tamar as far as the waters of Meriboth (contentions) Kadesh, an inheritance to the great sea, and the corner of the south southward (Ezekiel 47:19; 48:28)
where "the south" denotes the light of truth; its boundary, by which is signified contention about truths, is called "Kadesh." Kadesh also was where Moses smote the rock, out of which waters came forth, which waters were called Meribah, from contention (Num. 20:1, 2, 11, 13).
By a "rock," as is known, the Lord is signified; by "waters," in the internal sense of the Word, are signified spiritual things, which are truths they were called "the waters of Meribah" because there was contention about them. That they were also called "the waters of the contention of Kadesh," is evident in Moses:--
Ye rebelled against My mouth in the wilderness of Zin, in the contention of the assembly, to sanctify Me by the waters in their eyes. The are the waters of contention of Kadesh in the wilderness of Zin (Num. 27:14; Deut. 32:51).
So too it was to Kadesh that the spies returned from the land of Canaan, and Kadesh was the place where the Israelites murmured and contended, not being willing to enter into the land (Num. 13:26).
 It is evident from these things that "En-mishpat," or "the Fountain of Judgment," or "the Fountain of Mishpat-Kadesh," signifies contention about truths, and thus a continuation. As these are true historicals, and this occurred just as is here stated, it may appear as if such things were not represented and signified by the places to which Chedorlaomer came, and by the nations that he smote; but all the historicals in the Word are representative and significative. both those relating to places and nations, and also those relating to things done; as may be clearly seen from all things in both the historical and the prophetical parts of the Word.
AC 1679. And smote all the field of the Amalekites. That this signifies the kinds of falsities, is evident from the representation and signification of the Amalekite nation. By all the nations that were in the land of Canaan there were represented different kinds of evils and falsities, as will be evident, of the Lords Divine mercy, from what follows. Falsities were signified by " the Amalekites," and evils derived from the falsities, by "the Amorites in Hazezon-tamar." That falsities by which truths are attacked are signified by the Amalekites, may be seen from the things that are related concerning them (Exod. 17:13-16; Num. 13:29; 24:20; Deut. 25:17-19; Judges 5:13, 14; 1 Sam. 15:1-35; 27:8; Ps. 83:7, 8).
 By the Rephaim, Zuzim, Emim, and Horites, spoken of in (verses 5, 6), were signified the persuasions of falsity that arise from cupidities of evil, that is, from evils; but by the Amalekites and the Amorite in Hazezon-tamar, are signified the falsities from which come evils. Falsity from evil is one thing, and falsity and the evil derived from it is another. Falsities spring either from cupidities, which are of the will, or from received principles, which are of the understanding. Falsities that are from the cupidities of the will are foul, nor do they suffer themselves, like others, to be easily rooted out, for they cohere with the mans very life. The very life of man is that which desires, that is, loves. While a man is confirming in himself this life, or cupidity, or love, all the things which confirm are falsities, and are implanted in his life. Such were the antediluvians.
 But the falsities from received principles, which are of the understanding, cannot be thus rooted in the will part of man. False or heretical doctrines, for instance, have their origin outside of the will, from the mans being imbued with such things from infancy, and afterwards from confirmation in adult age. But as they are false, they cannot but produce evils of life; as for instance in the case of a man who believes in meriting salvation by works, and confirms himself in this belief,-the merit itself, self justification, and confidence, are the evils that come from it; or on the other hand one who believes that it is impossible to have piety of life without placing merit in works,-the evil from this is that he extinguishes in himself all piety of life, and gives himself up to cupidities and pleasures. So in many other cases. Such are the falsities and the evils derived from them that are treated of in this verse.
AC 1680. And also the Amorite that dwelt in Hazezon-tamar. That this signifies the kinds of evils derived from those falsities, is evident from what has just been said, and also from the representation and signification of the Amorites, spoken of in the next chapter, (Gen. 13:16). As regards the evils and falsities against which the Lord combated, it is to be known that what He fought against was the infernal spirits who were in the evils and falsities, that is, it was the hells filled with such spirits, which continually infested the human race. The infernals desire nothing else than to destroy every one; and they perceive no greater pleasure than in torturing others.
 All spirits in the other life are distinguished in the following manner: those who desire evil against others are infernal or diabolical spirits but those who desire good to others are good and angelic spirits. A man can know among which he is, whether among the infernal or among the angelic: if he intends evil to his neighbor, thinks nothing but evil concerning him, and actually does it when he can, and takes delight therein, he is among the infernals, and also becomes infernal in the other life; whereas the man who intends good to his neighbor, and thinks nothing but good respecting him, and actually does it when he can, is among the angelic spirits, and also becomes an angel in the other life. This is the distinctive characteristic. Let every one examine himself by this, in order to learn what he is.
 That a man does no evil when he is unable or afraid to do it, amounts to nothing; or that he does good for the sake of self; for these are external things that are removed in the other life. A man there is such as he thinks and intends. There are many who can speak well from a habit formed in the world; but it is instantly perceived whether the mind or intention agrees therewith; if not, they are rejected among the infernals of their own genus and species.
AC 1681. Verses 8, 9. And there went out the kind of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar; and they set the battle in array with them in the valley of Siddim; with Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar; four kings with five. "There went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar," signifies, as before, the evils and falsities that reign generally; "and they set the battle in array with them," signifies that they began the attack; " in the valley of Siddim," signifies here as before, uncleanness; " with Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar," signifies the truths and goods in the external man; "Chedorlaomer king of Elam," signifies the truth; "Tidal king of Goiim," the good; and the others the things derived from these; "four kings with five," signifies the union of the last named, and the disunion of the others.
AC 1682. There went out the king of Sodom, and the king of Gomorrah, and the king of Admah, and the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, this is Zoar. That these signify the evils and falsities that reign generally, is evident from what was said above, at (verse 2), concerning these kings, namely, that they are cupidities of evil and persuasions of falsity. In that verse by the same kings are signified all evils and all falsities in general, or what is the same, cupidities of evil and persuasions of falsity, and therefore it is said that war was made with them. Afterwards the war with the Rephaim, Zuzim, Emim, and Horites, was treated of; also the war with the Amalekite and the Amorite; and finally with these kings who were named in the beginning. Here therefore by the same kings are signified only the reigning evils and falsities that are of a less degree.
AC 1683. They set the battle in array with them. That this signifies that they began the attack, is evident from the signification of "setting the battle in array," as meaning to fight against; for it is said above (verse 3) that they rebelled. The same is evident also from the fact that evil spirits are those who make the assault. For it is the case that the Lord never began the combat with any hell, but the hells assaulted Him; as is also the case with every man who is in temptation, or In combat with evil spirits. In mans case the angels never make the assault, but always and continually the evil or infernal spirits do so; the angels only ward off and defend. This comes from the Lord, who never desires to bring evil upon any one, or to thrust him down into hell, even if he were the worst and the most bitter enemy of all; but it is he who brings the evil upon himself, and precipitates himself into bell. This also follows from the nature of evil, and from the nature of good. It is the nature of evil to desire to maltreat every one; but that of good to desire to maltreat no one. The evil are in their very life when they are assaulting; for they continually desire to destroy. The good are in their very life when they are assaulting no one, and when they can be of use in defending others from evils.
AC 1684. In the valley of Siddim. That this signifies uncleanness, is evident from what was before said (verse 3) concerning the valley of Siddim and the Salt Sea.
AC 1685. With Chedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of Goiim, and Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar. That this signifies the truths and goods in the external man, is evident from the signification of the same in (verse 1) of this chapter. That "Chedorlaomer king of Elam signifies truths, and "Tidal king of Goiim" goods, and the others the things derived from these, is evident from the fact that the same kings are here enumerated in a different order from that of (verse 1) above. There "Chedorlaomer king of Elam" stands in the third place, but here in the first; and there "Tidal king of Goiim" is in the fourth place, but here in the second. It is truth that is first in combat, for combat is from truth; for from truth it is known what falsity is and what evil is; on which account such combats never arise until the man has been imbued with knowledges (scientiae et cognitiones) of truth and good. Hence by "Chedorlaomer," who is here named in the first place, is signified the truth that was in the Lord; which is also evident from the signification of "Elam," as being faith from charity, which is the same thing as truth, as has been shown before, (Gen. 10:29). It follows from this that "Tidal king of Goiim," or of nations," signifies good; and that the other kings signify the truths and goods that are derived from these.
AC 1686. Four kings with five. That this signifies the union of the last named, and the disunion of the first named, may be seen from the signification of " four," and of " five." " Four" signifies union, because it is made up of pairs, as also does two when it has relation to marriages of things (n. 720). But "five" signifies disunion, because it means but little (n. 649). The signification of all things is in accordance with the subject of which they are predicated.
AC 1687. Verse 10. And the valley of Siddim was pits, pits, of bitumen; and the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and fell there, and they that remained fled to the mountain. The valley of Siddim was pits, pits, of bitumen," signifies the uncleanness of the falsities and cupidities; " and the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and fell there," signifies that those evils and falsities were overcome; " and they that remained fled to the mountain," signifies but not all of them; "the mountain" is the love of self and of the world.
AC 1688. The valley of Siddim was pits, pits (or full of pits), of bitumen. That this signifies the uncleanness of the falsities and cupidities, is evident from the signification of " Siddim," which is uncleanness (verse 3); also from the signification of "pits," as being falsities and of " bitumen," as being cupidities. Falsities are called " pits," from the unclean water in then; and cupidities are called "bitumen," from the foul sulphurous smell in such water.
AC 1689. The king of Sodom and of Gomorrah fled, and fell there. That this signifies that these evils and falsities were overcome, is evident from the signification of " Sodom" and of "Gomorrah," as being the evils of cupidities and the falsities of persuasions spoken of above. Here "the king of Sodom and of Gomorrah" denotes all the evils and falsities, even those signified by the other kings; and also from the signification of "fleeing and falling," as being to be overcome.
AC 1690. They that remained fled to the mountain. That this signifies that not all were overcome, is evident without explication, from the fact that there was a residue that fled away. In the internal sense the temptations are treated of that the Lord sustained in His childhood, concerning which nothing is related in the Word of the New Testament, except concerning His temptation in the wilderness, or soon after He came out of the wilderness, and finally concerning His last temptation in Gethsemane and what then followed. That the Lords life, from His earliest childhood even to the last hour of His life in the world, was continual temptation and continual victory, is evident from many things in the Word of the Old Testament; and that it did not cease with the temptation in the wilderness is evident from what is said in Luke:--
And when the devil had completed every temptation, he departed from Him for a season (Luke 4:13)
as also from the fact that He was tempted even to the death on the cross, and thus to the last hour of His life in the world. Hence it is evident that the whole of the Lords life in the world, from His earliest childhood, was continual temptation and continual victory. The last was when He prayed on the cross for His enemies, and thus for all in the whole world.
 In the Word of the Lords life, in the Gospels, none but the last is mentioned, except His temptation in the wilderness. More were not disclosed to the disciples. The things that were disclosed appear in the sense of the letter so slight as to be scarcely anything; for to speak and to answer in this manner is no temptation, when yet His temptation was more grievous than can ever be comprehended and believed by any human mind. No one can know what temptation is except the one who has been in it. The temptation that is related in (Matthew 4:1-11; Mark 1:12, 13; Luke 4:1-13), contains all temptations in a summary; namely, that from love toward the whole human race, the Lord fought against the loves of self and of the world, with which the hells were filled.
 All temptation is an assault upon the love in which the man is, and the temptation is in the same degree as is the love. If the love is not assaulted, there is no temptation. To destroy any ones love is to destroy his very life; for the love is the life. The Lords life was love toward the whole human race, and was indeed so great, and of such a quality, as to be nothing but pure love. Against this His life, continual temptations were admitted, as before said, from His earliest childhood to His last hour in the world. The love which was the Lords veriest life is signified by His "hungering," and by the devils saying,
If Thou art the Son of God, command this stone that it be made bread and by Jesus answering that man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word of God (Luke 4:2-4; Matt. 4:2-4).
 That He fought against the love of the world, or all things that are of the love of the world, is signified by
The devil took Him up into a high mountain, and showed Him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time, and said unto Him, All this power will I give Thee and the glory of them, for it hath been delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will, I give it; if Thou therefore wilt worship before me, all shall be Thine. But Jesus answered and said unto him, Get thee behind Me, Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve (Luke 4:5-8; Matt 4:8-10).
 That He fought against the love of self, and all things that are of the love of self, is signified by this:--
The devil took Him into the holy city, and set Him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said unto Him, If Thou art the Son of God, cast Thyself down for it is written, He shall give His angels charge concerning Thee, and upon their hands they shall bear Thee up, lest Thou dash Thy foot against a stone. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God (Matt. 4:5-7; Luke 4:9-12).
Continual victory is signified by its being said that after the temptations, "angels came and ministered unto Him" (Matt. 4:11; Mark 1:13).
 In brief, the Lord from His earliest childhood up to the last hour of His life in the world, was assaulted by all the hells, against which He continually fought, and subjugated and overcame them, and this solely from love toward the whole human race. And because this love was not human but Divine, and because such as is the greatness of the love, such is that of the temptation, it may be seen how grievous the combats were, and how great the ferocity on the part of the hells. That all this was so, I know of a certainty.
AC 1691. That "the mountain" means the love of self and the love of the world, may be seen from the signification of a " mountain," concerning which presently. All evil and falsity come forth from the love of self and the love of the world; they have no other origin; for the love of self and the love of the world are the opposites of celestial love and spiritual love; and because they are the opposites, they are what are continually endeavoring to destroy the celestial and spiritual things of the kingdom of God. From the love of self and of the world come forth all hatreds; from hatreds, all revenges and cruelties and from these, all deceits; in short, all the hells.
 That in the Word by "mountains" there is signified the love of self and the love of the world, may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--
The proud eyes of man shall be humbled and the loftiness of men shall be brought low. The day of Jehovah Zebaoth is upon all that is proud and lofty, upon all the high mountains, and upon all the hills that are lifted up, and upon every lofty tower (Isaiah 2:11, 12, 14, 15)
the "high mountains" plainly denote the love of self; and the "hills that are lifted up," the love of the world.
Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low (Isa. 40:4)
here also "mountain and hill- manifestly denote the love of self and the love of the world. Again:--
I will lay waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbage (Isa. 42:15)
where also "mountains" denote the love of self, and "hills" the love of the world. In Ezekiel:--
The mountains shall be thrown down, and the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the earth (Ezekiel 38:20).
 In Jeremiah:--
Behold I am against thee. O destroying mountain, which destroyest all the earth; and I will stretch out mine hand against thee, and roll thee down from the rocks, and will make thee a mountain of burning (Jeremiah 51:25)
where Babel and Chaldea are spoken of, by which is signified the love of self and of the world, as before shown. In the Song of Moses:
A fire is kindled in Mine anger, and shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall devour" the earth and her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains (Deut. 32:22)
"the foundations of the mountains" mean the hells, as is plainly said; these are called the foundations of the mountains, because the love of self and the love of the world reign in them, and are from them.
 In Jonah:--
The waters compassed me about, even to the soul; the deep was round about me the seaweed was wrapped about my head; I went down to the cuttings-off of the mountains; the bars of the earth were upon me forever yet hast Thou brought up my lives from the pit, O Jehovah my God (Jonah 2:5, 6)
the Lords temptations against the hells are thus prophetically described by Jonah, when he was in the belly of the great fish. So likewise in other passages of the Word, especially in David. He who is in temptations is in the hells; place has nothing to do with being in the hells, but state.
 As " mountains" and " towers" signify the love of self and of the world, it may be seen what is signified by the Lords being taken by the devil "upon a high mountain," and "upon a pinnacle of the temple," namely, that He was led into temptation combats, the most extreme of all, against the loves of self and of the world, that is, against the hells. " Mountains" also, in the opposite sense, signify celestial and spiritual love, as before shown (n. 795, 796).
AC 1692. Scarcely any one can know what temptations, or combats of temptations, effect. They are the means by which evils and falsities are broken up and dispersed, and by which horror of them is induced; and not only is conscience given, but it is also strengthened thereby, and so the man is regenerated, which is the reason why they who are being regenerated are let into combats, and undergo temptations and they who do not undergo them in the life of the body, do so in the other life, if they are capable of being regenerated, on which account the Lords church is called militant. But the Lord alone sustained the most cruel combats of temptations by His own strength or His own power; for He was surrounded by all the hells, and continually conquered them.
 It is the Lord alone also who fights in the men who are in the combats of temptations, and who overcomes. Man from his own power can effect nothing at all against evil or infernal spirits; for they are so connected with the hells that if one were overcome, another would rush in, and so on forever. They are like the sea which presses upon every part of a dike; and if the dike should be broken through by a cleft or a crack, the sea would never cease to burst through and overflow, until nothing was left standing. So would it be with man unless the Lord alone sustained in him the combats of temptations.
AC 1693. Verse 11. And they took all the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah, and all their food, and departed. "They took all the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah," signifies that these were deprived of the power of doing evil; " and all their food," signifies that they were deprived of the power of thinking falsity; "and departed," signifies that so they were left.
AC 1694. They took all the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah. That this signifies that these were deprived of the power of doing evil, is evident from the signification of taking away any ones wealth. By the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah nothing else is meant in the internal sense but evil and falsity. Evil is here signified by "the wealth," and falsity by "the food." Relatively to the good, spiritual wealth and riches are nothing but the goods and truths with which they are gifted and enriched by the Lord; and therefore relatively to the evil, wealth and riches are nothing but the evils and falsities they have acquired to themselves. Such things are also signified in the Word by "riches." From this it is evident that to take the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah is to deprive them of the power of doing evil.
AC 1695. And all their food. That this signifies that they were deprived of the power of thinking falsity, is evident from the signification of "food." What the celestial, spiritual, and natural food are that are enjoyed in the other life, has been shown before (n. 56-58, 680, 681). These also correspond to the food of the body; and therefore are represented in the Word by food, and are called "food." But the food of evil and infernal spirits is that which is contrary to wisdom, intelligence, and true knowledge, which is all falsity; and wonderful to say, evil spirits are sustained by this food. The reason that it sustains them is that it is their life. Unless there is given them the means of vilifying the truth, and indeed of blaspheming it, they cannot live. But still license is given them to think and speak only that falsity which is from their evil, and not that which is contrary to their evil, for this would be deceit for in so far as they speak falsity from their evil, it is from their life; and then it is forgiven them, because their nature is such that otherwise they could not live.
 As to their being deprived of the power of doing evil and of thinking falsity, the case is this: In the combats of temptations the evil spirits are permitted to draw forth all the evil and falsity that are in the man, and to battle from the evil and falsity of the man; but when they have been overcome, they are no longer permitted to do so, for they instantly perceive in the man that good and truth have been confirmed. Spirits, more than men, are gifted with such perception; from the very sphere of a man who has been confirmed in truth and good, they know at once how the case is, what answer they will get, and more besides. This is plainly evident with the spiritual regenerate man, with whom there are evil spirits equally as well as with the non-regenerate, but they are subjugated and serve. This is what is meant by their being deprived of the power of doing evil and of thinking falsity.
AC 1696. And departed. That this signifies that they were left, is evident without explication.
AC 1697. Verse 12. And they took Lot, Abrams brothers son, and his substance, and departed; and he was dwelling in Sodom. " They look Lot, Abrams brothers son, and his substance, and departed," signifies that the apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, took possession of the external man, and of all things therein; "and he was dwelling in Sodom," signifies the state of the external man.
AC 1698. And they took Lot, Abrams brothers son, and his substance, and departed. That this signifies that the apparent goods and truths, which in themselves are not goods and truths, took possession of the external man, and of all things therein, is evident from the signification of "Lot." That " Lot" signifies the sensuous or external man in the Lord, has already been frequently stated and shown; but here by "Lots is signified the external man in respect to the apparent goods and truths, which are Lots "substance." That in the Lords earliest childhood these goods and truths appeared to be goods and truths, but in themselves were not so, has been already explained; but that they were by degrees purified, and this in fact by means of the combats of temptations, may be seen from what has been said concerning temptations.
AC 1699. And he was dwelling in Sodom. That this signifies the state of the external man, is evident from the signification of " Sodom."
AC 1700. Verse 13. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew, and he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite, the brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner; and these were men of the covenant of Abram. "There came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew," signifies that the Lord perceived from His interior man; "Abram the Hebrew" is the interior man to which the internal or Divine man is adjoined; "and he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite," signifies the state of perception from the rational man; "the brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner, and these were men of the covenant of Abram," signifies the state of the rational man in respect to the external man as regards the quality of its goods and truths.
AC 1701. And there came one that had escaped, and told Abram the Hebrew. That this signifies that the Lord perceived from His interior man, is evident from the signification of "Abram the Hebrew," as being the interior man conjoined with the internal, explained just below. And as in the internal sense these things are predicated of the Lord, and the historicals are representative, it is evident that the coming of one who had escaped, and his telling, signifies nothing else than that the Lord perceived. The interior man perceives what is going on in the external man just as if one were to tell it. The Lord, who had a perception of all things that were taking place, knew very clearly the quality and the source of all that took place in connection with Himself, as for example if anything of evil were taking possession of the affections of His external man, or anything of falsity of its thoughts, He could not but know what it was, and whence; and also what evil spirits were exciting the evil and the falsity; and how they were exciting them, besides other things; for such things, and others beyond number, are not concealed from the angels, and scarcely from men who have celestial perception, still less from the lord.
AC 1702. That "Abram the Hebrew" is the interior man to which the internal or Divine man was adjoined, may be seen from the signification of "Abram the Hebrew," or from the surnaming of Abram, in that he is here called "the Hebrew." In what goes before, and in what follows, where Abram is spoken of, he is not called the Hebrew; he is so called in this passage only; and therefore some distinct thing in the Lord is represented and signified by "Abram the Hebrew." that is represented and signified may be seen from the internal sense, namely, that it is the interior man adjoined to the internal or Divine man, as may likewise be seen from the series of things in the internal sense. The Hebrews are named in the Word when anything of servitude is signified, whatever it may be; as may be seen from what follows. The interior man is such that it serves the internal or Divine man; and for this reason the interior man is here called "Abram the Hebrew."
 What the interior man is, scarcely any one knows, and it must therefore be briefly stated. The interior man is intermediate between the internal and the external man. By the interior man the internal man communicates with the external; without this medium, no communication at all is possible. The celestial is distinct from the natural, and still more from the corporeal, and unless there is a medium by which there is communication, the celestial cannot operate at all into the natural, and still less into the corporeal. It is the interior man which is called the rational man; and this man, because it is intermediate, communicates with the internal man, where there is good itself and truth itself; and it also communicates with the exterior man, where there are evil and falsity. By means of the communication with the internal man, a man can think of celestial and spiritual things, or can look upward, which beasts cannot do. By means of the communication with the exterior man, a man can think of worldly and corporeal things, or can look downward; in this differing little from the beasts, which have in like manner an idea of earthly things. In a word, the interior or middle man is the rational man himself, who is spiritual or celestial when he looks upward, but animal when he looks downward.
 It is well known that a man can know that he speaks in one way while thinking in another, and that he does one thing while willing another; and that there exist simulation and deceit; also that there is reason, or the rational; and that this is something interior, because it can dissent; and also that with one who is to be regenerated there is something interior which combats with that which is exterior. This that is interior, and that thinks and wills differently from the exterior, and that combats, is the interior man. In this interior man there is conscience with the spiritual man, and perception with the celestial. This interior man conjoined with the Divine internal man that was in the Lord, is what is here called "Abram the Hebrew."
AC 1703. That the term "Hebrew" is predicated in the Word of some form of servitude, is evident from the following passages. In Moses:--
When thy brother, a Hebrew, or a Hebrewess, shall be sold unto thee, and serve thee six yeas, then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee (Deut. 15:12)
where it is said "a Hebrew" and " a Hebrewess," because servitude is treated of. In Jeremiah:--
At the end of seven years ye shall let go every man his brother that is a Hebrew, who hath been sold unto thee, and hath served thee six" years (Jeremiah 34:9, 14)
where in like manner the term "Hebrew" is used, because servitude is treated of otherwise the sons of Jacob are not in the Prophets called "Hebrews." In Samuel:--
The Philistines said, Be strong, and be men, that ye be not servants unto the Hebrews as they have been to you (1 Sam. 4:9)
where the word is used for the same reason.
 In Moses:--
Jehovah said unto Moses, Go in unto Pharaoh, and say to him, Thus saith Jehovah, the God of the Hebrews, Let My people go, that they may serve Me (Exod. 9:1, 13; 10:3)
where they are called "Hebrews" from serving. The wife of Potiphar, speaking of Joseph:--
Called unto the men of her house, and said unto them, See, he hath brought in a Hebrew unto us to mock us (Gen. 39:14).
Joseph is here called "a Hebrew" because he was a servant there. The chief of the butlers said unto Pharaoh:--
There was with us a young man, a Hebrew, servant to the captain of the guard, and he interpreted to us our dreams (Gen. 41:12).
Moreover, the Egyptians called the sons of Israel Hebrews," because they were servants, or in servitude, as is known (Exod. 1:15, 16, 19).
AC 1704. And he was dwelling in the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite. That this signifies the state of perception from the rational man, is evident from the signification of an "oak-grove," and of "the oak-groves of Mamre the Amorite," spoken of before (n. 1442, 1443, 1616).
AC 1705. The brother of Eshcol, and the brother of Aner, and these were men of the covenant of Abram. That by these is signified the state of the rational man in respect to the external man, as regards the quality of its goods and truths, may be seen from their signification as explained below at (verse 24), where also they are named. In brief, by Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner, are represented and signified the angels who were with the Lord when He fought in His earliest childhood, and who were adapted to the goods and truths then with the Lord. They are named from these goods and truths. In no case does an angel in heaven have any name; it is goods and truths from which names are predicated of them; for instance, "Michael" and the other angels named in the Word are not angels with such names; but they bear these names from the office they fill, whatever it may be. It is the same here with Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner; but representatively.
AC 1706. Verse 14. And Abram heard that his brother was taken captive; and he hastened his trained men that were born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued unto Dan. "Abram heard that his brother was taken captive," signifies that the interior man perceived in what state was the external man; "and he hastened his trained men that were born in his house," signifies those goods in the external man that were now delivered from the yoke of servitude; "three hundred and eighteen," signifies their quality; "and pursued unto Dan," signifies the commencement of purification.
AC 1707. Abram heard that his brother was taken captive. That this signifies that the interior man perceived in what state the external was, is evident from the signification of "Abram" in the verse that immediately precedes this, as being the interior man to which the internal or Divine man was adjoined; and from the signification of "Lot," as being the external man, as has been shown before; also from the signification of "hearing that his brother was captive," as being to perceive in what state the external man was, namely, as was said in (verse 12), that apparent goods and truths had possession of it.
 The case is this: When the interior man (meant by "Abram the Hebrew") perceived that the goods and truths from which the combat was waged were not goods and truths except apparently, and that they had possession of the whole of the external man (signified by "Lot, his brothers son"), then the interior man, or the Divine internal man through the interior, purified them. How this is done, no one can possibly know but he to whom it has been revealed; for the influx of the internal man, through the interior or middle man, into the external man, is an arcanum, especially at the present time, when few, if any, know what the interior man is, and still less what the internal man is. What the internal man is, and what the interior man, may be seen just above, at (verse 13). But here it shall be briefly stated what is the nature of the influx.
 The internal man in every one belongs to the Lord alone; for there the Lord stores up the goods and truths with which He gifts man from infancy. Thence through these He flows into the interior or rational man, and through this into the exterior; in this way it is given to the man to think, and to be a man. But the influx from the internal man into the interior or middle man, and so into the exterior man, is twofold; it is either by celestial things, or by spiritual things or what is the same, it is either by goods, or by truths. By celestial things, or goods, it flows in only with regenerate men, who have been gifted either with perception or with conscience; thus it flows in by perception or by conscience; for which reason the influx by celestial things has no existence except with those who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor. But by spiritual things, or truths, the Lord flows in with every man; and unless there were this influx the man could not think, and therefore could not speak. then a man is such that he perverts the goods and truths, and when he cares nothing for celestial and spiritual things, there is then no influx of celestial things, or goods, but the way for these is closed; and yet there is an influx of spiritual things, or truths, for a way for them is continually kept open. Hence may be seen what is the nature of the interior or middle, that is, of the rational man.
 The internal man in the interior or middle man is here signified by "Abram." then the celestial things, or goods, flow in from the internal man into the interior man, the internal man then appropriates to itself the interior or middle man, and makes it its own but the interior or middle man is still distinct from the internal man. The case is similar when the internal man flows in through the interior or middle man into the exterior man, for then it likewise appropriates the exterior man to itself, and makes it its own; but yet the exterior man is distinct from the interior man. So now, when the internal man perceived in the interior or middle man that the state of the external man was such, namely, that the external man was made captive, that is, that not genuine but apparent goods and truths had taken possession of it, from which it had fought against so many enemies, it then flowed in, and reduced all things to order, and liberated it from the things which infested it, and thus purified it, that is to say, so that its goods and truths were not apparent but genuine goods and truths, and were thus conjoined with the internal or Divine man; and this, as before said, by means of the interior or middle man.
 In this the Lord was not like any man for His interior man as to celestial things or goods was Divine, and was adjoined to His internal man even from birth. His internal man, together with this interior man, was Jehovah Himself, His Father. But He was similar to other men in this, that His interior man as to spiritual things or truths had been adjoined to His external man, and thus was Human; but this also was made Divine, that is, Jehovah, by means of combats of temptations and continual victories from its own power. The external man is what is called "Lot;" in the former state however this is called "Abrams brothers son," but in this "Abrams brother;" for it was called his brothers son when possessed by apparent goods and truths, but his brother when possessed by genuine goods and truths.
AC 1708. And he hastened his trained men that were born in his house. That this signifies these goods and truths in the external man which were now delivered from the yoke of servitude, is evident from the signification of the "trained men," as also of those "born in Abrams house." Abrams "men in training," or novitiates, in the internal sense, are those goods in the external man which can be conjoined with the interior man; those "born in the house," in the internal sense, are the same goods and also truths, as being proper to that man. But these things contain more arcana that can be told; in the first place these- how, after the combats of temptations, apparent goods become genuine goods, and that they can then be conjoined with the interior or middle man, and through this with the internal man, and be made in like manner Divine. For the Lord adjoined His Human Essence to His Divine Essence by degrees, and this by means of combats of temptations and victories, as before said. These goods that were made genuine are what are called Abrams "men in training," or novitiates for these goods were in training, and were novitiates; and as they were procured by His own power, they are called "born in his house."
AC 1709. Three hundred and eighteen men. That this signifies their quality, namely, that they are the holy things of combat, is involved in the number "eighteen," and also in the number "three hundred;" for these numbers are composed of three and six. "Three" signifies what is holy (n. 720, 901); and "six" combat (n. 737, 900). That Abram hastened so many, is an historical truth but still it was representative, as is all the history in the Word in the five books of Moses, in Joshua, in Judges, in Samuel, in the Kings, in Daniel, and in Jonah, where the numbers in like manner involve arcana; for nothing has been written in the Word which was not of this nature, otherwise it would not be the Word, and otherwise it would not have been related that Abram hastened three hundred and eighteen; and also that these were in training, and born in his house; besides many other things which are said in this chapter.
AC 1710. And pursued even to Dan. That this signifies a state of purification, is evident from the connection of the things in the internal sense. To "pursue the enemies" is here to expel the evils and falsities which were with the goods and truths, and that caused them to merely appear to be goods and truths, and thus to liberate and purify them. "Even to Dan," signifies to the farthest limit of Canaan, thus to the uttermost boundaries whither they had fled. That Dan" signifies the farthest limits, or the extreme boundaries of Canaan, is evident in many places in the Word. As in Samuel:--
To transfer the kingdom from the house of Saul, and to set up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan even to Beer-sheba (2 Sam. 3:10).
In gathering, all Israel shall be gathered together, from Dan even to Beer-sheba (2 Sam. 17:11).
David said to Joab, Go now to and fro through all the tribes of Israel, from Dan even to Beer-sheba (2 Sam. 24:2, 15).
In the book of Kings:--
Judah and Israel dwelt in safety, every man under his vine and under this fig-tree, from Dan even to Beer-sheba (1 Kings 4:25).
From these passages it is evident that Dan was the farthest boundary of Canaan, whither the enemies were pursued which infested the goods and truths of the external man. But as Dan was a boundary of Canaan, and therefore within Canaan, lest they should stay there, they were driven further, namely, "to Hobah on the left of Damascus," as is evident from the things stated in the verse next following, and in this way purification was effected. By the land of Canaan, in a holy sense, as before said, is signified the Lords kingdom, thus the celestial of love, or good; primarily, the good with the Lord.
AC 1711. Verse 15. And he divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus. "He divided himself against them by night, signifies the shade in which the apparent goods and truths were "he and his servants," signifies the rational man, and the things in the external man which obeyed; "and smote them," signifies vindication; "and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus," signifies as far as this extended.
AC 1712. He divided himself against them by night. That this signifies the shade in which the apparent goods and truths were, is evident from the signification of "night," as being a state of shade. There is said to be a state of shade when it is not known whether the good and truth are apparent or are genuine. When any one is in apparent good and truth, be supposes them to be genuine good and truth; the evil and falsity that are in apparent good and truth are what cause the shade, and make them appear genuine. They who are in ignorance can know no otherwise than that the good which they do is their own, and that the truth which they think is their own, and it is the same with those who attribute to themselves the goods they do, and place merit in them, not knowing that in this case they are not good, although they appear so; and that the Own and self-merit which they place in them are the evils and falsities which obscure and darken. So in many other cases.
 The kind and the measure of the evil and falsity which lie concealed in them, cannot possibly be so well seen in the life of the body as in the other life, where they are presented to view as in clear light. But the case is different if this is done from ignorance that is not confirmed, for in this case those evils and falsities are easily dispersed. But if men confirm themselves in the belief that they can do good and resist evil by their own powers, and that they thus merit salvation, in this case this idea remains attached, and causes the good to be evil, and the truth to be falsity. But still it is according to order for a man to do good as of himself; and therefore he ought not to slacken his hand, with the thought, "If I can do nothing of good from myself, I ought to wait for immediate influx," and thus remain in a passive state, for this would be contrary to order but he must do good as of himself; yet, when he reflects upon the good which he does or has done, let him think, acknowledge, and believe that the Lord has done the work in him.
 If he slackens his effort, thinking as has been said, he is then not a subject into which the Lord can operate. The Lord cannot flow into any one who deprives himself of everything into which power can be infused. It is as if one were not willing to learn anything without a revelation to himself; or as if one would teach nothing unless the words were put into him; or as if one would attempt nothing unless he were put into action as one without will. But if these things were done. he would be still more indignant at being like an inanimate thing; when yet that which is animated by the Lord in a man is that which appears as if it were from himself. It is thus an eternal truth that a man does not live from himself, but that if he did not appear to live from himself he could not live at all.
AC 1713. He and his servants. That this signifies the rational man, and the things in the external man which obeyed, is evident from the signification of " he," that is, of Abram, as being the interior man (explained above); and from the signification of "servants," as being the things which obey. All the things that are in the external man before it has been liberated and vindicated, are called "servants," for they do nothing but render obedience to the interior man. For example: in the exterior man there are affections and there are memory-knowledges the former are from the goods of the interior man, and the latter are from the truths of the same. When these are made to act so that they accord with the interior man, they are said to serve and obey; and therefore by "servants" nothing else is here signified than those things in the external man which obeyed.
AC 1714. And smote them. That this signifies vindication, is evident from the connection, and without explication.
AC 1715. And pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus. That this signifies as far as this extended, is evident from the signification of Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus." It is not known where Hobah was situated, as there is no further mention of it in the Word. But Damascus was the principal city of Syria (2 Sam. 8:5, 6; Isa. 7:8); and by it is signified almost the same as by Syria (Gen. 10:22) The farthest boundary of the land of Canaan, beyond Dan, is described as being Damascus, as in Amos:--
Ye have taken up Siccuth your king, and Chiun your images the star of your gods which ye made to yourselves, and I will cause you to go away beyond Damascus (Amos 5:26, 27).
The boundary of the holy land, or of the Lords kingdom, toward the north, is also called the "boundary of Damascus" (Ezek. 47:16-18; 48:1). Here, where it is said that they were smitten and driven as far as Hobah, which is on the left of Damascus, there is signified the extent to which the apparent goods and truths were purified. But unless it is known what was the character of the apparent goods and truths, and by what means they were purified so as to be made genuine, it cannot be explained what is properly meant here by Hobah, on the left of Damascus; except in a general way, that they were purified.
AC 1716. Verse 16. And he brought back all the substance, and also brought back his brother Lot and his substance, and the women also, and the people. "He brought back all the substance," signifies that the interior man reduced all things in the external man into a conforming state; "and also brought back his brother Lot and his substance," signifies the external man and all the things belonging to it; "the women and the people," signifies both the goods and the truths.
AC 1717. And he brought back all the substance. That this signifies that the interior man reduced all things in the external man into a conforming state, may be seen from the signification of "bringing back all the substance." The "substance" here is the things which Chedorlaomer and the kings with him took from their enemies; as told in what goes before. By Chedorlaomer and the kings with him, are signified the goods and truths of the exterior man. The substance they took from their enemies was nothing else than their being deprived of the power of doing evil and thinking falsity, which was signified by the wealth of Sodom and Gomorrah, and by all the food which they took (verse 11).
 This matter is of such a nature that it cannot be set forth in few words; but what here follows may be sufficient to give some notion of it. He who is in the combats of temptations, and overcomes, acquires to himself more and more a power (potestas) over the evil spirits, or over the diabolical crew, till at last they do not dare to tempt at all. But as often as a victory is gained, so often does the Lord reduce into order the goods and truths from which the combat was waged; and so often are they thus purified; and so far as they are purified, so far are the celestial things of love insinuated into the exterior man, and a correspondence effected. These are the things that are signified by bringing back all the substance.
 He who supposes that the external man can be reduced into correspondence without combats of temptations is mistaken for temptations are the means of dissipating evils and falsities, as also of introducing goods and truths, and of reducing the things which are of the external man into obedience, so that it may serve the interior or rational man, and through this the internal, that is, the Lord operating through the internal man. That these things are effected by temptations, no one can know but he who has been regenerated through temptations. But how this is done can scarcely be described even in the most general manner, since it is done without the mans knowing whence and how; for it is the Lords Divine operation.
AC 1718. And also brought back his brother Lot and his substance. That this signifies the external man and all that belongs to it, is evident from the signification of "Lot," which is the external man, as has been stated several times before. What the external man is, is scarcely known at this day; for it is thought that only that which belongs to the body constitutes the external man as the faculties of sense, namely, the touch, taste, smell, hearing, and sight; and also the appetites and pleasures. But these constitute the outermost man, which is merely corporeal. The knowledges that belong to the memory, and the affections that are of the love, with which the man has been imbued, properly constitute the external man; also those faculties of sense which properly belong to the spirit, together with the pleasures that the spirit enjoys. That these properly constitute the external or exterior man, is evident from men in the other life, that is, spirits. These in like manner possess an external man, and in like manner an interior man, and consequently an internal man. The body is only as it were a covering, a crust, which is dissolved in order that the man may truly live, and that all things belonging to him may become more excellent.
AC 1719. The women and the people. That this signifies both the goods and the truths, may be seen from the signification of "wives" and of "daughters," as being what is good (n. 489-491, 568, 915)-here the word "women" is used instead of wives and daughters; and from the signification of "people," as being truth (n. 1259, 1260).
AC 1720. Verse 17. And the king of Sodom went out to meet him, after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him, at the valley of Shaveh, this is the kings valley. "The king of Sodom went out to meet him," signifies that the evil and falsity submitted themselves; "after his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him," signifies the liberation and vindication of the apparent goods and truths; "at the valley of Shaveh, this is the kings valley," signifies the state of the external man as to goods and truths at that time.
AC 1721. The king of Sodom went out to meet him. That this signifies that the evil and falsity submitted themselves, is evident from the signification of "the king of Sodom," as being the evil and falsity against which was the combat; and from the signification of "going out to meet," as being to submit ones self. The king of Sodom is here spoken of, because the fact that evil and falsity submitted themselves occurs here in the series; but he is specially treated of in (verse 21).
AC 1722. After his return from smiting Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him. That this signifies the liberation and vindication of the apparent goods and truths, is evident from the things which precede, and from what was said above concerning Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him.
AC 1723. At the valley of Shaveh, this is the kings valley. That this signifies the state of the external man as to goods and truths at that time, may be seen from the signification of "the valley of Shaveh," and also of "the kings valley." "The valley of Shaveh" signifies the goods of the external man; and "the kings valley" signifies the truths of the same. The external man is called a "valley" from the fact that it is below. That which is more external is also lower, as that which is more internal is also higher. That a "king" signifies truth, has been said before (n. 1672).
AC 1724. Verse 18. And Melchizedek king of Salem bought forth bread and wine; and he was priest to God Most High. "Melchizedek" signifies the celestial things of the interior man in the Lord; "king of Salem," signifies a state of peace as to interior or rational things; "brought forth bread," signifies celestial things and the refreshment from them; "and wine," signifies spiritual things and the refreshment from them; "and he was priest," signifies the holy of love; "to God Most High," signifies the internal man, which is Jehovah.
AC 1725. Melchizedek. That this signifies the celestial things of the interior man in the Lord, may be seen from the signification of the name "Melchizedek," to be explained presently; and also from the things that precede and from those which follow. What the internal man is, and what the interior man, and what the external, has been sufficiently shown above; also that the internal man flows in through the interior man into the external; as also that the internal man flows into the interior man either by celestial things or by spiritual things; by celestial things with every regenerate man, that is, with those who live in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor; but by spiritual things with every man, whatever his quality may be; thence is his light from heaven, that is, his ability to think and speak, and to be a man. On this subject see what was said before (n. 1707).
 The celestial things of the interior man are all those which are of celestial love, as has often been said before. These celestial things in the Lords interior man, or the Lords interior man as to these celestial things, is called "Melchizedek." The internal man in the Lord was Jehovah Himself. The interior man, when purified after the combats of temptations, was also made Divine and Jehovah; in like manner also the external; but now, when the interior man was in the state of the combats of temptation, and was not yet much purified by the combats of the temptations, it is called as to the celestial things "Melchizedek," that is, "King of holiness and righteousness."
 That this is really so, may also be seen in David, where the Lords combats of temptations are in like manner treated of, and at last His interior man as to celestial things is called "Melchizedek." Thus in David:--
Jehovah said unto my Lord, bit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. Jehovah shall send forth the scepter of Thy strength out of Zion; rule Thou in the midst of Thine enemies. Thy people are willing offerings in the day of Thy might in honors of holiness from the womb of the morning Thou hast the dew of Thy birth. Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest forever, after My word Melchizedek. The Lord at Thy right hand smote through kings in the day of His anger (Ps. 110:1-5).
Here the Lords combats of temptations with the hells are treated of, as in the chapter before us, as may be seen from every word. That the Lord is here treated of He Himself teaches (Matt. 22:41-43; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42-44); to "make His enemies His footstool," to "rule in the midst of His enemies," the "day of might," to " smite kings in the day of His anger," signify the combats of temptations, and victories.
AC 1726. King of Salem. That this signifies a state of peace as to interior or rational things, is evident from the signification of "Salem." In the original language "Salem" means "peace," and also "perfection;" thus it signifies a state of peace, and a state of perfection. A state of peace is the state of the Lords kingdom; in that state the Lords celestial and spiritual things are as in their morning, and in their spring; for peace is like the dawn in the early morning, and like the spring in the springtime. The dawn and the spring cause all things that then meet the senses to be full of joy and gladness; every object draws an affection from the general one of the dawn and of the springtime. So is it with the state of peace in the Lords kingdom: in the state of peace all celestial and spiritual things are as it were in their morning or springtide flower and smile, that is, in their happiness itself. So does the state of peace affect everything, for the Lord is peace itself. This is signified by Salem also in David:--
In Judah is God known, His name is great in Israel, in Salem also is His tabernacle, and His dwelling place in Zion (Ps. 76:1, 2).
When a man is in the combats of temptations, he is by turns gifted by the Lord with a state of peace, and is thus refreshed. A state of peace is here signified by "Salem;" and presently also by the "bread and wine," by which celestial and spiritual things are signified; thus a state of celestial and spiritual things in peace, which state is refreshment itself.
AC 1727. Brought forth bread and wine. That to "bring forth bread" signifies celestial things and refreshment from them, and to "bring forth wine" signifies spiritual things and refreshment from them, is evident from the signification of "bread," as being what is celestial (n. 276, 680); and from the signification of "wine," as also of the "vine" and the "vineyard," as being what is spiritual (n. 1069, 1071). and because "bread" signifies celestial things, and " wine" spiritual things, they were made symbols also in the Holy Supper. That Melchizedek brought forth bread and wine, has here a similar signification; for bread in the Ancient Church was the representative of all celestial things, and wine the representative of all spiritual things; thus here of the Lord Himself, from whom is all that is celestial and all that is spiritual.
AC 1728. And he was priest. That this signifies the holy of love, is evident from the signification of "priest" in the Word. There are two things which are predicated of the Lord, namely, that He is King, and that He is Priest. A king, or the royalty, signifies the holy which is true; and a priest, or the priesthood, signifies the holy which is good; the former is the Divine spiritual, the latter the Divine celestial. The Lord as King governs each and all things in the universe from Divine truth; and as Priest, from Divine good. Divine truth is the very order of His universal kingdom, all the laws of which are truths, or eternal verities Divine good is the very essential of order, all things of which are of mercy. Both of these are predicated of the Lord. If Divine truth alone were His, no mortal could be saved, for truths condemn every one to bell; but Divine good, which is of mercy, uplifts from hell to heaven. These are what the kings and priests in the Jewish Church represented and these likewise Melchizedek represented, as king of Salem, and priest to God Most High.
AC 1729. To God Most High. That this signifies the internal man, which is Jehovah, is evident from what has been said already several times concerning the Lords internal man, that it is Jehovah Himself, and thus that the Lord is the same as Jehovah the Father; as He Himself says in John:--
I am the way, and the truth, and the life. Philip saith, Show us the Father. Jesus saith unto him, Am I so long time with you, and dost thou not know Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; how sayest thou then, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me? Believe Me, that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:6, 8-11).
 It is the Lords Human Essence which is called the " Son of man;" which also, after the combats of the temptations, was united to His Divine Essence, so that it was itself also made Jehovah; wherefore in heaven they know no other Jehovah the Father than the Lord (n. 15). With the Lord all is Jehovah; not only His internal and His interior man, but also the external man, and the very body; and therefore He alone rose into heaven with the body also; as is sufficiently evident in the Gospels, where His resurrection is treated of; as also from the words of the Lord Himself:--
Wherefore do thoughts arise in your hearts? See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; handle Me and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see Me have. And when He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet (Luke 24:38-40).
AC 1730. Verse 19. And he blessed him, and said, Blessed be Abram to God Most High, Possessor of the heavens and the earth. "And he blessed him," signifies the enjoyment of celestial and spiritual things "and said, Blessed be Abram to God Most High," signifies the Lords interior man, that it came into the enjoyment of goods from His internal man; "Possessor of the heavens and the earth," signifies the conjunction of the internal man, or Jehovah, with the interior and the exterior man.
AC 1731. He blessed him. That this signifies the enjoyment of celestial and spiritual things, may be seen from the signification of "blessing," as being to enjoy all goods (n. 981, 1096). They are in the enjoyment of all goods who enjoy celestial and spiritual goods for all goods, of whatever name, are from these. The things which are contained in this verse declare and proclaim the conjunction of the Lords Human Essence with His Divine Essence the blessing itself involves this.
AC 1732. Blessed be Abram to God Most High. That this signifies the Lords interior man, that it came into the enjoyment of goods from His internal man, is in like manner evident from the signification of "blessing" as being the enjoyment of goods, as before said; also from the signification of "Abram" here, as being the interior or rational man, treated of above (verse 13); and also from the signification of "God Most High," as being the Lords internal, which subject also has been treated of before. By "Abram," as before said, is signified the interior or rational man which is to be united to the internal man or Jehovah, and this by the combats of temptations and victories. For with the interior man the case is as follows The interior man, as before said, is intermediate between the internal and the external man, and enables the internal man to flow into the external; for without the interior man there is no communication. There is thus effected a communication of celestial things, and of spiritual. When the communication was of celestial things, the interior man was called "Melchizedek;" but when there is a communication of spiritual things, it is called "Abram the Hebrew."
AC 1733. Possessor of the heavens and the earth. This signifies the conjunction of the internal man or Jehovah with the interior and the exterior man, as appears from the signification of "heaven and earth." That which is interior in man is called heaven;" and that which is exterior is called " earth." The reason why "heaven" signifies that which is interior in man, is that a man as to his interiors is an image of heaven, and so is a kind of little heaven. Primarily the Lords interior man is heaven, because the Lord is the all in all of heaven, and thus is heaven itself. It follows from this that the exterior man is called the earth. For the same reason also, by the "new heavens" and the "new earth," spoken of in the Prophets and in the Apocalypse, nothing else is meant than the Lords kingdom, and every one who is a kingdom of the Lord, or in who)) the Lords kingdom is. That "heaven and earth" signify these things may be seen, as to "heaven," (n. 82, 911); and as to "earth," (n. 82, 620, 636, 913).
 That here "God Most High, Possessor of the heavens and earth," signifies the conjunction in the Lord of the internal man with the interior and exterior man, may be seen from the fact that as to His internal man the Lord was Jehovah Himself; and because the internal man or Jehovah led and instructed the external, as a father his son, therefore relatively to Jehovah He is called, as to the external man, the "Son of God;" but relatively to the mother, He is called the " Son of man." The Lords internal man, which is Jehovah Himself, is what is here called "God Most High;" and before plenary conjunction or union was effected, it is called " Possessor of the heavens and earth," that is, Possessor of all things which are in the interior and the exterior man; for these, as before said, are here meant by "the heavens and the earth."
AC 1734. Verse 20. And blessed be God Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. And he gave him tithes of all. "Blessed be God Most High," signifies the Lords internal man; "who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand," signifies victory. "And he gave him tithes of all," signifies remains derived from victory.
AC 1735. Blessed be God Most High. That this signifies the Lords internal man, is evident from the things which were said just above concerning the internal man. In the Ancient Church, Jehovah was called "God Most High" for the reason that "height" represented and therefore signified what is internal, and thus "the Most High" signified what is inmost. Hence the worship of the Ancient Church was upon high places, mountains, and hills. The inmost also has the same relation to the exterior and the outermost, as the highest bears to the lower and the lowest. The Most High or the Inmost is the Celestial of Love, or Love itself. Jehovah, or he Lords internal man, was the very Celestial of Love, that is, Love itself, to which no other attributes are fitting than those of pure Love, thus of pure Mercy toward the whole human race which is such that it wills to save all and make them happy to eternity, and to bestow on them all that it has; thus out of pure mercy to draw all who are willing to follow, to heaven, that is, to itself, by the strong force of love. This Love itself is Jehovah.
 Of nothing can Am or Is be predicated except of Love. From this Love-because in Love, or of Love itself-is the very Being (Esse) of all life, that is, Life itself; and because Jehovah alone is the Being of life, or Life itself, as He alone is Love, each and all things have thence their being and their life; nor can any one be and live of himself except Jehovah alone, that is, the Lord alone; and as no one can be and live of himself except the Lord alone, it is a fallacy of sense that men seem to themselves to live of themselves. The angels plainly perceive that they do not live of themselves, but from the Lord, since they live in the very being of the Lords life, because in His love. But yet to them above all others there is given the appearance as of living from themselves, together with ineffable happiness. This therefore is to live in the Lord, which is never possible unless we live in His love, that is, in charity toward the neighbor.
AC 1736. That the Lord is Jehovah, who is here called "God Most High," is plainly evident from the Word. In Isaiah:--
Jehovah Zebaoth is His name, and thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; the God of the whole earth is He called (Isaiah 54:5)
where it is plain that the Redeemer and the Holy One of Israel, who is the Lord alone, is "Jehovah Zebaoth" and "the God of the whole earth." Again:--
Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel, I am Jehovah thy God (Isaiah 48:17).
I do help thee, saith Jehovah, thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel (Isaiah 41:14).
The expressions "the Holy One of Israel," and "the God of Israel" occur many times. That the Lord is the Holy One of Israel and the God of Israel is clearly evident in that They saw the God of Israel, and there was under His feet as it were a work of sapphire stone, and as it were the substance of heaven for clearness (Exod. 24:10).
 No other was acknowledged and called Jehovah by the Jewish Church, for it worshiped the one God Jehovah, and this was the more fully the case for the reason-which was unknown to most of them-that all the rites of that church represented the Lord, and all the things of the Word in the internal sense were significative of Him. In Isaiah:--
He will swallow up death forever; and the Lord Jehovih will wipe away the tear from off all faces. And it shall be said in that day, Lo, this is our God; we have waited for Him, and He will save us; this is Jehovah, we have waited for Him; let us exult and be glad in his salvation (Isaiah 25:8, 9),
treating of the coming of the Lord.
 In the same:--
Behold the Lord Jehovih will come in strength, and His arm shall rule for Him. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd, He shall gather the little lambs in His arm, He shall carry them in His bosom, He shall lead the sucklings (Isa. 40:10, 11).
Here the Lord is plainly spoken of, who is "the Lord Jehovih." That He "shall come in strength," and "His arm rule for Him," signifies that He would conquer the hells by His own power; to "feed His flock, gather the little lambs in His arm, carry them in His bosom, and lead the sucklings," are predicated of His love or mercy.
Thus said Jehovah that created the heavens, God Himself that formed the earth and made it, He established it, He created it not an emptiness, He formed it to be inhabited: I am Jehovah, and there is none else. Am not I Jehovah, and there is no God else besides Me? a just God, and a Saviour, there is none besides Me. Look unto Me and be saved, all the ends of the earth for I am God, and there is none else (Isa. 45:18, 21, 22).
Here the Lord is manifestly spoken of as being alone Jehovah and God. To "create the heavens and form the earth" is to regenerate, thus the Creator of heaven and earth is the Regenerator, (n. 16, 88, 472); and therefore the Lord is often called the Creator, Former, and Maker.
Thou art our Father, for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us. Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer, Thy name is from everlasting (Isa. 63:16).
Here the Lord is plainly meant, who alone is the "Redeemer." In Moses:--
Take heed of His face, and hear His voice, provoke Him not, for He will not bear your transgression, for My name is in the midst of Him (Exod. 23:21).
That "name" means essence, see above (n. 144, 145); and "in the midst" means the inmost (n. 1074).
 In Isaiah:--
Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6),
plainly said of the Lord. In Jeremiah:--
Behold the days come that I will raise unto David a righteous offshoot, and He shall reign a King, and shall act intelligently, and shall do judgment and justice in the earth; in His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell in confidence; and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jeremiah 23:5, 6),
plainly meaning the Lord. In Zechariah:--
Jehovah shall be King over all the earth; in that day there shall be one Jehovah, and His name one (Zechariah 14:9),
plainly speaking of the Lord. The "name" denotes the essence.
AC 1737. Who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand. That this signifies victory, may be seen without explication. The conjunction of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence was procured and effected by the Lord by continual combats of temptations and victories, and this from His own power. He who apprehends the mode of the conjunction and union in any other way is much mistaken. By this He became righteousness. The conjunction or union was effected with the Celestial of Love, that is, with Love itself, which, as before said, is Jehovah. The conjunction of men with the Lord is also effected by temptations, and by the implanting of faith in love. Unless faith is implanted in love, that is, unless a man by the things that are of faith receives the life of faith, that is, charity, there is no conjunction. This alone is to follow Him, namely, to be conjoined with the Lord just as the Lord as to His Human Essence was conjoined with Jehovah. Hence also all such are called "sons of God," from the Lord who was the only Son of God, and hence they become images of Him.
AC 1738. And he gave him tithes of all. That this signifies remains derived from victory, is evident from the signification of" tithes," as being remains (n. 576). But what remains are may be seen above (n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 661, 1050), namely, that they are all the states of love and charity, and consequently all the states of innocence and peace, with which a man is gifted. These states are given to man from infancy, but less by degrees as the man advances into adult age. But when a man is being regenerated, he then receives new remains also, besides the former, thus new life. For it is from remains, or by remains, that a man is a man; for without the state of love and charity, and without the state of innocence-which states insinuate themselves into the other states of his life-a man is not a man, but is worse than any wild beast. The remains acquired in the combats of temptations are those which are here meant. These remains are what are signified by the tithes given to Melchizedek by Abram; and they are all the celestial things of love which the Lord procured to Himself by the continual combats and victories by which He was continually being united to His Divine Essence, until His Human Essence in like manner became Love, or the Being of life, that is, Jehovah.
AC 1739. Verse 21. And the king of Sodom said to Abram, Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself. "The king of Sodom said," signifies the evil and falsity which were over-come; "unto Abram," signifies the Lords rational; "Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself," signifies that He should give them life, and they would not care for other things.
AC 1740. The king of Sodom said. That this signifies the evil and falsity which were overcome, is evident from the signification of "Sodom," which is evil and falsity, as was shown above in this chapter. It is said in (verse 17), that the king of Sodom went out to meet Abram, by which is signified that evil and falsity submitted themselves; it is now added that they are suppliants.
 That evil and falsity were conquered, or that evils and falsities are conquered by the combats of temptations, and that goods and truths are thereby put on, comes from the fact that evils and falsities are thus dissipated; and when these have been dissipated goods and truths succeed in their place; and these are afterwards confirmed more and more, and are thus strengthened. For it is by evil spirits that evils and falsities are excited; and unless they are excited, the man scarcely knows that they are evils and falsities; but when excited they are manifest. And the longer the combats of temptations last, the more manifest do the evils and falsities become, until at last they are held in abhorrence.
 And as evils and falsities are dissipated, goods and truths take their place; and the greater the horror that is conceived for evils and falsities, the more of love for goods and truths is insinuated by the Lord. And further, the greater the horror for evils and falsities, the less do evil spirits dare to approach, for they cannot endure aversion and horror for the evils and falsities in which their life consists, and are sometimes seized with terror on their first approach. And the more of love there is for goods and truths, the more do the angels love to be with the man, and together with the angels, heaven; for they are in their own life when in the goods of love and truths of faith.
AC 1741. To Abram. That this signifies the Lords rational, is evident from the representation of Abram. In the two chapters which precede, Abram represented the Lord or His state in childhood here in this chapter, he represents the Lords rational, and is then called "Abram the Hebrew;" as is evident from what has been said and shown above at (verse 13); and here the representation is the same; for in this chapter no other Abram is meant than Abram the Hebrew. The Lords spiritual which is adjoined to His internal man is Abram the Hebrew but the celestial which is adjoined to His internal man is represented and signified by Melchizedek, as before said.
AC 1742. Give me the soul, and take the substance to thyself. That this signifies that He should give them life, and they would not care for other things, is evident from the signification of "soul," as being life (n. 1000, 1005, 1040); and from the signification of the "substance," as being the other things that are not so properly of life, of which more will be said presently.
 The life which evil spirits have, and which they love extremely, is the life of the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, hence a life of hatreds, revenge, and cruelties; and they suppose that there can be no delight in any other life. They are like men-for they have been men, and they retain this belief from their life when they were men-who place all life in the delights of such cupidities, not knowing but that such life is the only life, and that when they lose it they will utterly die. But of what nature is that life which they love, is plain from those of this character in the other life, where it is turned into a fetid and excrementitious life, and wonderful to say, they perceive the stench as most enjoyable; as may be seen from what is related from experience in (n. 820, 954).
 It was the same with the demons, who, when the Lord cast them out of the maniac, fearing for their life, asked that they might be sent into the swine (Mark 5:7-13). That these demons were those who in the life of the body had been given up to filthy avarice, may be seen from the fact that such seem to themselves in the other life to pass their time among swine, for the reason that the life of swine corresponds to avarice, and is therefore delightful to them; as is evident from what is related from experience in (n. 939).
AC 1743. Verse 22. And Abram said to the king of Sodom, I have lifted up my hand to Jehovah God Most High, Possessor of the heavens and the earth. "Abram said to the king of Sodom," signifies the reply; "I have lifted up my hand to Jehovah," signifies the state of mind in the Lord; "Possessor of the heavens and the earth," signifies conjunction.
AC 1744. Abram said to the king of Sodom. That this signifies the reply, is evident without explication.
AC 1745. I have lifted up my hand to Jehovah. That this signifies the state of mind in the Lord, is evident from the signification of "lifting up the hands." The lifting up of the hand to Jehovah is a gesture of the body corresponding to an affection of the mind, as is well known. In the sense of the letter, those things which are interior, or of the mind, are expressed by external things which correspond; but in the internal sense it is internal things that are meant; here therefore the lifting up of the hand means the mind, or an affection of the mind.
 So long as the Lord was in a state of temptations, He spoke with Jehovah as with another; but so far as His Human Essence was united to His Divine Essence, He spoke with Jehovah as with Himself; which is evident from many passages in the Gospels, as also from many in the Prophets and in David. The cause is clearly evident from what has been said before concerning the inheritance from the mother. So far as this remained, He was as it were absent from Jehovah; but so far as this was extirpated, He was present, and was Jehovah Himself.
 This may be illustrated by the conjunction of the Lord with the angels. Sometimes an angel does not speak from himself, but from the Lord, and he then does not know but that he is the Lord; but then his externals are quiescent. It is otherwise when his externals are active. The reason is, that the internal man of the angels is the Lords possession; and so far then as there are no obstructions on the part of what is their own, it is the Lords, and even is the Lord. But in the Lord, a plenary conjunction or an eternal union with Jehovah was wrought, so that His very Human Essence also is Jehovah.
AC 1746. Possessor of the heavens and the earth. This signifies conjunction, as appears from what was said above, at (verse 19); where the same words occur, with the same signification.
AC 1747. Verse 23. That from a thread even to the thong of a shoe, I will not take aught that is thine, lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram. "That from a thread even to the thong of a shoe," signifies all natural and corporeal things that were unclean; "I will not take aught that is thine," signifies that in celestial love here was nothing of the kind; "lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram," signifies that the Lord derived no strength whatever from such things.
AC 1748. That from a thread even to the thong (or latchet) of a shoe. That this signifies all natural and corporeal things that were unclean, is evident from the signification of "the thong of a shoe." In the Word the sole of the foot and the heel signify the ultimate natural (n. 259). A shoe is that which covers the sole of the foot and the heel; a "shoe" therefore signifies what is natural still further, thus the corporeal itself. The signification of a "shoe" is according to the subject. When predicated of goods it is taken in a good sense; and when of evil, in a bad sense; as here in treating of the substance of the king of Sodom, by whom evil and falsity are signified, the "thong of a shoe" signifies unclean natural and corporeal things. By the "thread of a shoe" falsity is signified, and by the "thong of a shoe" evil, and this the most worthless of all, because the word is a diminutive.
 That such things are signified by a "shoe," is evident also from other passages in the Word; as when Jehovah appeared to Moses out of the midst of the bush, and said to Moses:--
Draw not nigh hither; put off thy shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thou standest is holy ground (Exod. 3:5).
The prince of the army of Jehovah said in like manner to Joshua:--
Put off thy shoe from off thy foot; for the place whereon thou standest is holiness (Josh. 5:15).
Here every one can see that the shoe would take away nothing from the holiness, provided the man were holy in himself; but that it was said for the reason that the shoe represented the ultimate natural and corporeal which was to be put off.
 That it is the unclean natural and corporeal, is also plain in David:--
Moab is my washpot, upon Edom will I cast My shoe (Ps. 60:8).
The command to the disciples involves what is similar:-
Whosoever shall not receive you, nor hear your words, as ye go out of that house or that city, shake off the dust of your feet (Matt. 10:14; Mark 6:11; Luke 9:5)
where the "dust of the feet" has a signification like that of a "shoe," namely, uncleanness from evil and falsity, because the sole of the foot is the ultimate natural. They were commanded to do this because they were at that time in representatives, and thought that heavenly arcana were stored up in these alone, and not in naked truths.
 Because a "shoe" signified the ultimate natural, the putting off of the shoe, or the shoe-loosing, signified that one should be divested of the ultimate things of nature; as in the case of him who was not willing to fulfill the duty of brother-in-law, spoken of in Moses:--
If the man is not willing to fulfill the duties of a husbands brother, then his brothers wife shall come unto him in the eyes of the elders, and draw his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face; and she shall answer and Say, So shall it be done to the man that doth not build up his brothers house. And his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe taken off (Deut. 25:5-10);
meaning that which is devoid of all natural charity.
 That a "shoe" signifies the ultimate natural, in a good sense also, is likewise evident from the Word; as in Moses, concerning Asher:--
Blessed be Asher above the sons; let him be acceptable unto his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil; iron and brass shall thy shoe be (Deut. 33:24, 25)
where the "shoe" denotes the ultimate natural; a "shoe of iron" natural truth, a "shoe of brass" natural good, as is evident from the signification of iron and brass (n. 425, 426). And because a "shoe" signified the ultimate natural and corporeal, it became a symbol of what is least and most worthless; for the ultimate natural and corporeal is the most worthless of all things in man. This was meant by John the Baptist, when be said,
There cometh One that is mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose (Luke 3:16; Mark 1:7; John 1:27).
AC 1749. I will not take aught that is thine. That this signifies that in celestial love there was nothing of the kind, may be seen from the fact that it was Abram who said that he would not take aught from the king of Sodom. Abram represented the Lord, now victorious, and thus the things which were of celestial love, which He procured to Himself by the victories; and the king of Sodom represented evil and falsity, from which there was nothing in the Lord as a victor, or in celestial love.
 What is meant by these things in the internal sense cannot be made evident unless it be known how the case is in the other life. With evil and infernal spirits there reigns the love of self and of the world. Hence they think that they are the gods of the universe, and that they can do much. When they are vanquished, although they perceive that they can do nothing at all, there still remains the notion of power and dominion; and they think that they can contribute much to the Lords power and dominion, and therefore in order that they may reign together with the good spirits, they offer them their services. But as the things by which they think that they can effect anything are nothing but evil and falsity; and in the Lord, or in celestial love, there is nothing but good and truth, the king of Sodom, by whom such are represented, is here told in reply that there was nothing of the bind in the Lord, or that the Lord had no power from evil and falsity.
 Dominion from evil and falsity is altogether contrary to dominion from good and truth. Dominion from evil and falsity consists in desiring to make all slaves; dominion from good and truth in desiring to make all free. Dominion from evil and falsity consists in destroying all; but dominion from good and truth in saving all. From which it is evident that dominion from evil and falsity is of the devil, and that dominion from good and truth is of the Lord. That the two kinds of dominion are altogether contrary to each other may be seen from the Lords words in (Matthew 12:24-30); also from His saying that no one can serve two masters (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13).
AC 1750. Lest thou shouldest say, I have enriched Abram. That this signifies that the Lord derived no strength whatever from such things, may be seen from the signification of "being enriched," which is to acquire power and strength. How these things are, is evident from what has just been said.
AC 1751. Verse 24. Save only that which the lads have eaten, and the portion of the men who went with me; Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre, let them take their portion. "Save only that which the lads have eaten," signifies the good spirits; "and the portion of the men who went with me," signifies the angels; "Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre," signifies the things that appertained to them; "let them take their portion," signifies that they have been given into their power (potestas).
AC 1752. Save only that which the lads have eaten. That this signifies the good spirits, is evident from what precedes, and from what follows. It is evident from what precedes, for Mamre, Eshcol, and Aner are mentioned above (verse 13) as being allies of the covenant of Abram, by whom was signified the state of the Lords rational man as to His external man, in respect to the quality of its goods and truths; and thus it is evident that by them were signified the angels who were with the Lord when He was combating, as is plain from the explication there given. The same is evident from what follows, as will presently appear. Those who went with Abram are here called "the lads" or "children," by whom no others are meant than good spirits but by "the men," who am spoken of immediately afterwards, are meant angels. That there were angels with the Lord when He fought against the hells, is evident from the Word; as also from the consideration that when He was in the combats of temptations, it could not be otherwise than that angels should be present, to whom the Lord from His own power gave strength, and as it were power, to fight together with Him, for all the power that the angels have is from the Lord.
 That angels fight against the evil, may be seen from what has occasionally been said before concerning the angels with man-that they protect man, and avert the evils which are threatened by infernal spirits (n. 50, 227, 228, 697, 968) but all their power is from the Lord. The good spirits also are angels, but lower ones, for they are in the first heaven; the angelic spirits are in the second; and the angels, properly so called, are in the third (n. 459, 684). Such is the form of government in the other life that the good spirits are subordinate to the angelic spirits, and the angelic spirits to the real angels; so that they constitute one angelic society. The good spirits and the angelic spirits are those who are here called "the lads;" but the real angels, "the men."
AC 1753. And the portion of the men who went with me. That this signifies the angels, is evident from what has just been said; and also from the fact that angels, when they have appeared to men, are in the Word called "men."
AC 1754. Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre. That these signify the things appertaining to them, is evident from what is said above in this chapter (verse 13) concerning the same, namely, that by their names are signified the goods and truths from which the combat was waged, and not so much the angels themselves, for the angels are meant by "the lads," and "the men," as has been said. For the angels never have any name given them, but are distinguished in respect to their quality by goods and truths: and on this account nothing else is signified in the Word by a name but the essence and its quality (n. 144, 145, 340). This may be seen also in Isaiah, where the Lord is spoken of:--
His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of eternity, Prince of peace (Isaiah 9:6),
where by the "name" is meant of what quality He is, that is, that He is wonderful, counselor, God, a Hero, Father of eternity, Prince of peace.
 In Jeremiah, where also the Lord is spoken of:--
This is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jeremiah 23:5, 6),
where it is plainly evident that the name is "Righteousness." So too in Moses, where likewise the Lord is spoken of:--
He will not bear your transgression, for My name is in the midst of Him (Exod. 23:21),
where also the "name" denotes the essence, as being Divine. So also in many other passages of the Word, where it is said that "they called on the name of Jehovah;" that "they should not take the name of Jehovah in vain;" and in the Lords Prayer, "Hallowed be Thy name." The case is similar with the names of angels; and is so here with the names of Eshcol, Aner, and Mamre, who represent angels, in that these names signify the things appertaining to the angels.
AC 1755. Let them take their portion. That this signifies that they had been given into their power, is evident from what was said above (verses 21-24), namely, that it was the Lords will to receive nothing from them, because He derived no strength from any such thing. That they had been given into the power of the angels stands thus: It is the angels who rule over evil and infernal spirits, as has been made evident to me from much experience. But the Lord foresees and sees all things in both general and particular, and provides and disposes therefore but some things from permission, some from sufferance, some from leave, some from good pleasure, some from will. The desire to rule is itself something of mans own which differs from anything that the angels receive from the Lord; but still all their dominion is of love and mercy, apart from any desire to rule. But these things, being deeper arcana, cannot be stated to the understanding in a few words. It is sufficient to know that the evil and infernal spirits have been delivered into the power (potestas) of the angels, and that the Lord governs all things, both in general and in particular, down to the veriest singulars, concerning which, of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter, where Providence and Permissions are treated of.
AC 1756. The foregoing are the things that are in general involved in the internal sense of this chapter; but the series or connection itself of the things, and its beauty, cannot appear when each separate thing is explained in detail according to the signification of the words, as they would if they were embraced in a single idea, for when they are all apprehended under a single idea the things that had been scattered appear beautifully coherent and connected. The case herein is like that of one who hears another speaking, and gives his attention to the words; in which case he does not so well apprehend the idea of the speaker as he would if he paid no attention to the words or their signification. For the internal sense of the Word holds nearly the same relation to the external or literal sense as speech does to its words when these are scarcely heard, still less attended to, and when the mind is kept exclusively in the sense of the things signified by the words of the speaker.
 The most ancient mode of writing represented subjects by using persons and words which were understood as meaning things that were quite different. Profane writers then composed their historicals in this way, even those matters which pertained to civic and moral life; and in fact so that nothing was exactly the same as it was written in the letter, but under this something else was meant; they even presented affections of every kind as gods and goddesses, to whom the heathen afterwards instituted Divine worship, as may be known to every man of letters, for such ancient books are still extant. They derived this mode of writing from the most ancient people who existed before the flood, who represented heavenly and Divine things to themselves by such as were visible on the earth and in the world, and so filled their minds and souls with joys and delights while beholding the objects of the universe, especially such as were beautiful in their form and order; and therefore all the books of the church of those times were written in this way. Such is the book of Job; and, in imitation of those books, such is Solomons Song of Songs. Such were the two books mentioned by Moses in (Num. 21:14, 27); besides many that have perished.
 At a later period this style of writing was venerated on account of its antiquity, both among the Gentiles and the posterity of Jacob, to such a degree that whatever was not written in this style they did not venerate as Divine, and therefore when they were moved by the prophetic Spirit, they spoke in a similar manner; and this for many hidden reasons. This was the case with Jacob (Gen. 49:3-17); with Moses (Exod. 15:1-21; Deut. 33:2-29); with Balaam, who was of the sons of the East, from Syria where the Ancient Church still existed (Num. 23:7-10, 19-24; 24:5-9, 17-24) with Deborah and Barak (Judges 5:2-31); with Hannah (1 Sam. 2:2-10). And though very few understood or knew that their words signified the heavenly things of the Lords kingdom and church, still, being touched and penetrated with the awe of admiration, they felt that what was Divine and holy was in them
 But that the historicals of the Word are similar-that is, that in respect to every name and every word they are representative and significative of the celestial and the spiritual things of the Lords kingdom-has not yet become known to the learned world, except in that the Word is inspired as to the smallest iota, and that there are heavenly arcana in all things of it in both general and particular.
CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPEECH OF SPIRITS, AND ITS DIVERSITIES
AC 1757. The speech of spirits with man, as before said, is effected by words; but the speech of spirits among themselves, by ideas the originaries of words, such as are the ideas of thought; these however are not so obscure as are mans ideas while he lives in the body, but are distinct, like those of speech Human thought, after the decease of the body, becomes more distinct and clear; and the ideas of thought become discrete, so as to serve for distinct forms of speech; for obscurity has been dissipated together with the body; and so the thought-being liberated from the shackles in which it was as it were entangled, and consequently from the shade in which it was involved-becomes more instantaneous; and hence the mental view, perception, and utterance of each thing is more prompt.
AC 1758. The speech of spirits is diverse: each society or family of spirits, and even every spirit, can be distinguished from others by their speech (much as is the case with men), not only by the affections which make the life of the speech and which fill or give impulse to the words, and by the accents, but also by the tones, and by other characteristics not so easily described.
AC 1759. The speech of celestial spirits cannot easily flow into the articulate sounds or words that appertain to man; for it cannot be suited to a word in which there is anything that sounds harshly, or in which there is a rough doubling of consonants, or in which there is an idea that is derived from memory-knowledge; on which account they rarely flow into the speech otherwise than by affections which, like a flowing stream or a gentle breeze, soften the words. The speech of spirits who are intermediate between the celestial and the spiritual is sweet, Flowing like the gentlest atmosphere, soothing the recipient organs, and softening the words themselves; it is also rapid and sure. The flow and the pleasantness of the speech come from the fact that the celestial good in their ideas is of this character, and there is nothing in the speech that dissents from the thought. All the sweet harmoniousness in the other life comes from goodness and charity. The speech of the spiritual also is flowing, but is not so soft and gentle. It is chiefly these who speak.
AC 1760. There is also a flowing speech of evil genii; yet it is so only to the outward hearing; but inwardly it is grating, because from a pretense of good, and no affection of it. There is also a speech of these genii that is devoid of the flowing character, in which the dissent of the thoughts is perceived as something that silently creeps along.
AC 1761. There are spirits who do not inflow in a stream-like manner, but by vibrations and movements to and fro, as it were in lines, and more or less sharp. The same inflow not only with the speech, but also with the reply. They are those who from many causes reject the interior things of the Word; looking upon man as their tool, and as of little account; and caring for themselves alone.
AC 1762. There are spirits who do not speak, but who have expressed the sentiments of their mind by changes induced on my face, and have presented their ideas so vividly that their thought was thus made manifest as it were in a form. This was done by changes about the region of the lips, passing thence to the face; also about the eyes, while they were communicating the interior sentiments of their mind; around the left eye when they were communicating truth and affections of truth, and around the right eye when communicating good and affections of good.
AC 1763. I have also heard a simultaneous speech of many spirits speaking together, that undulated like a roll, and flowed into the brain in varying directions. Also a speech of certain spirits that terminated in a quadruple movement, as if to the tone and sound of men threshing. These spirits are separated from others. They induce a pain in the head, as if from the suction of an air-pump. Some have been heard who spoke with a sonorous voice, but as if within, in themselves but still it came to the hearing as speech.
 Others who spake by a belching forth of the words as from the belly; these are such as wish to give no attention to the sense of a thing, but are forced to speak by others. I have heard some who spoke with a rough or cracked sound; these apply themselves to the left side, under the elbow; also to the left external ear. Some I heard who could not speak aloud, but as if they had a cold; these belong to the class of those who by insinuations into the delights of others worm out their secrets for the purpose of doing harm.
 There are spirits of low stature, who, although few, speak like a great multitude, with a sound like thunder; they were heard above the head, and I thought that there was a multitude but one of them came to me at the left side beneath the arm, and spoke in the same way with a thundering voice; he also moved away, and did the same. Whence such spirits come, will of the Lords Divine mercy be told elsewhere. But these kinds of speech are comparatively rare. It is a remarkable fact that what is said in these various ways is heard as loudly and sonorously by one whose interior organs of hearing are opened, and also by spirits, as are sounds and the speech of men on earth; but they are not heard at all by one in whom these organs are not opened.
AC 1764. Once also spirits conversed with me simply by representatives shown before the sight, by representing flames of various colors; lights clouds rising and falling; small houses and platforms for speaking of different kinds; vessels; persons variously dressed, and many other things, which were all significative; and merely from these it could be known what they desired to convey.
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