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AC GENESIS Chapter 15
CONCERNING THE OLD SCRIPTURE OR WORD; IN WHICH ARE STORED UP DIVINE THINGS, WHICH ARE OPEN BEFORE GOOD SPIRITS AND ANGELS
AC 1767. When the Word of the Lord is being read by a man who loves the Word and lives in charity, or by a man who from simplicity of heart believes what is written and has not formed principles contrary to the truth of faith which is in the internal sense, it is presented by the Lord before the angels in such beauty and in such pleasantness, with representatives also, and this with inexpressible variety in accordance with all their state at the time, that every particular is perceived as if it had life, which life is that which is in the Word, and from which the Word had birth when it was sent down from heaven. From this cause the Word of the Lord is such, that although in the letter it appears crude, there are stored up in it spiritual and celestial things which lie open before good spirits, and before angels, when the Word is being read by man.
AC 1768. That the Word of the Lord is so presented before good spirits and before angels, it has been given me to hear and to see; and I am therefore permitted to relate the experiences themselves.
AC 1769. A certain spirit came to me not long after his departure from the body, as I was able to infer from the fact that he did not yet know that he was in the other life, but supposed that he was living in the world. It was perceived that he had been devoted to studies, concerning which I spoke with him. But he was suddenly taken up on high; and, surprised at this, I imagined that he was one of those who aspire to high things, for such are wont to be taken up on high; or else that he placed heaven at a great height, for such likewise are often carried up on high, that they may know from experience that heaven is not in what is high, but in what is internal.
 But I soon perceived that he was taken up to the angelic spirits, who were in front, a little to the right, at the entrance to heaven. He then spoke with me from thence, saying that he saw things more sublime than human minds could at all comprehend. While this was taking place, I was reading the first chapter of Deuteronomy, about the Jewish people, in that men were sent to explore the land of Canaan and what was in it. While I was reading this, he said that he perceived nothing of the sense of the letter, but the things in the spiritual sense, and that these were wonders which he could not describe. This was in the first entrance to the heaven of angelic spirits what wonders then would be perceived in that heaven itself! and what in the angelic heaven!
 Certain spirits who were with me, and who before had not believed that the Word of the Lord is of such a nature, then began to repent of their unbelief; they said, in that state, that they believed because they heard the spirit say that he heard, saw, and perceived that it was so.
 But other spirits still persisted in their unbelief, and said that it was not so, but that these things were fancies; and therefore they too were suddenly taken up, and spoke with me from thence; and they confessed that it was anything but fancy, because they really perceived that it was so; and by a more exquisite perception indeed than can ever be given to any sense during the life of the body.
 Soon others also were taken up into the same heaven, and among them one whom I had known in the life of the body, who testified to the same effect, saying also, among other things, that he was too much amazed to be able to describe the glory of the Word in its internal sense. Then, speaking from a kind of pity, he said that it was strange that men knew nothing at all of such things. He said further that from where he then was he could look most deeply into my thoughts and my affections, and perceived in them more things than he could tell; such as causes, influxes, whence they came, and from whom; the ideas, and how they were mixed with earthly things, and that these were to be wholly separated; besides other things.
AC 1770. On two occasions afterwards I saw others taken up into the second heaven, among the angelic spirits; and they spoke with me thence while I was reading the third chapter of Deuteronomy from beginning to end. They said that they were solely in the interior sense of the Word; at the same time asserting that there was not a tittle in which there was not a spiritual sense that coheres most beautifully with all the rest, and further that the names signify real things. Thus they too were confirmed; because they had not believed before that each and all things in the Word have been inspired by the Lord; and this they wished to confirm before others by an oath, but it was not permitted.
AC 1771. Certain spirits also were in unbelief concerning the Word of the Lord, as to there being such things stored up in its bosom, or within it; for in the other life spirits are in unbelief like that in which they had been in the life of the body; and this is not dissipated except by means provided by the Lord, and by living experiences. On this account, while I was reading some of the Psalms of David, the deeper insight or mind of these spirits was opened. These were not taken up among angelic spirits. They then perceived the interior things of the Word in those Psalms; and being amazed at them said that they had never believed such things.
 The same portion of the Word was then heard by many other spirits; but they all apprehended it in different ways. With some it filled the ideas of their thought with many pleasant and delightful things, thus with a kind of life in accordance with the capacity of each one, and at the same time with an efficacy that penetrated to their inmosts, and this to such a degree with some that they seemed to be uplifted toward the interiors of heaven, and nearer and nearer to the Lord, according to the degree in which they were affected by the truths and the goods therewith injoined.
 The Word was then at the same time brought to some who had no apprehension of its internal sense, but only of the external or literal sense; and to them the letter appeared to have no life. From all this it was manifest what the Word is when the Lord fills it with life-that it is of such efficacy that it penetrates to the inmosts; also what it is when He does not fill it with life-that it is then the letter only, with scarcely any life.
AC 1772. Of the Lords Divine mercy I too have been permitted in the same way to see the Lords Word in its beauty in the internal sense, and this many times; not as it is while the words are being explained as to the internal sense in detail, but with all things both in general and particular brought together into a single series or connection, which may be said to be the seeing of a heavenly paradise from an earthly one.
AC 1773. Spirits who had found delight and joy in the Word of the Lord during their life in the body, have in the other life a kind of joyous heavenly warmth which it has also been permitted me to feel. The warmth of those who had some measure of this delight was communicated to me. It was like a vernal heat, beginning in the region of the lips, and diffusing itself about the cheeks, and thence as far as the ears, ascending also to the eyes, and descending toward the middle region of the breast.
 The warmth of those who had been still more affected by delight in the Word of the Lord, and by the interior things of it which the Lord Himself had taught, was also communicated to me; beginning at the breast it ascended thence toward the chin, and descended toward the loins. The warmth of those who had been even more delighted and affected, was still more interiorly joyous and vernal, extending indeed from the loins upward toward the breast, and thence through the left arm to the hands. I was instructed by the angels that this is really the case, and that the approach of those spirits brings such warmths, although they themselves do not feel them, because they are in them, just as infants, children, and youths are not commonly sensible of their own warmth which they have in greater measure than adults and old people, because they are in it.
 I was also made sensible of the warmth of some, who had indeed been delighted with the Word, but had not been solicitous about the understanding of it; their warmth was felt in the right arm only. As regards the warmth: evil spirits also can by their artifices produce a warmth which counterfeits delight, and can communicate it to others but it is only an external warmth, without an origin from internals. Such warmth is that which putrefies and converts food into excrement, like the heat of adulterers, and that of those who have been immersed in filthy pleasures.
AC 1774. There are spirits who do not desire to hear anything about the interior things of the Word; and even should they understand them, they are still unwilling. They are chiefly those who have placed merit in works, and who therefore have done goods from the love of self and of the world, or for the sake of the rank or wealth to be gained for themselves, and the consequent reputation, thus not for the sake of the Lords kingdom. In the other life such desire more than others to enter heaven but they remain outside of it; for they are unwilling to be imbued with the knowledges of truth, and thereby to be affected with good. They interpret the meaning of the Word from the letter according to their fancies, and by advancing whatever favors their cupidities with its approval. Such were represented by an old woman who had a face not comely, but of even snowy paleness, with irregular features (cui inerant inordinata), which made her ugly. But those who admit and love the interior things of the Word, were represented by a girl in early maidenhood, or in the flower of youth, handsomely dressed, and adorned with garlands and heavenly ornaments.
AC 1775. I have conversed with certain spirits concerning the Word, saying that it has been necessary that of the Lords Divine Providence some revelation should come into existence, for a revelation or Word is the general recipient vessel of spiritual and celestial things, thus conjoining heaven and earth; and that without it they would have been disjoined, and the human race would have perished. And besides it is necessary that there should be heavenly truths somewhere, by which man may be instructed, because he was born for heavenly things, and, after the life of the body, ought to come among those who are heavenly; for the truths of faith are the laws of order in the kingdom in which he is to live forever.
AC 1776. It may seem a paradox, but still it is most true, that the angels understand the internal sense of the Word better and more fully when little boys and girls are reading it, than when it is read by adult persons who are not in the faith of charity. The cause has been told me, and is that little boys and girls are in a state of mutual love and innocence, and thus their most tender vessels are almost heavenly, and are simply capacities for receiving, which therefore can be disposed by the Lord; although this does not come to their perception, except by a certain delight suited to their genius. It was said by the angels that the Word of the Lord is a dead letter; but that in him that reads it is vivified by the Lord according to the capacity of each one; and that it becomes living according to the life of his charity and his state of innocence, and this with inexpressible variety.
AC 1777. A continuation follows at the end of this chapter
1. After these words, the word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram; I am a shield to thee, thy exceeding great reward.
2. And Abram said, Lord Jehovih, what wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer the Damascene?
3. And Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed, and behold a son of my house is mine heir.
4. And behold the word of Jehovah came unto him, saying, This one shall not be thine heir; but he that shall go forth but of thy bowels shall be thine heir.
5. And He led him forth abroad, and said, Look now coward heaven, and number the stars, if thou be able to number them; and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be.
6. And he believed in Jehovah, and He imputed it to him for righteousness.
7. And He said unto him, I am Jehovah who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land, to inherit it.
8. And he said, Lord Jehovih, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?
9. And He said unto him, Take thee a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years, and a turtledove, and a young pigeon.
10. And he took unto him all these and divided them in the midst, and laid each part over against the other; and the birds he did not divide.
11. And the fowls came down upon the bodies, and Abram drove them away.
12. And it came to pass when the sun was going down that a deep sleep fell upon Abram, and behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him.
13. And He said unto Abram, Knowing thou shalt know that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years.
14. And also that nation whom they shall serve will I judge; and after that shall they go out with great substance.
15. And thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age.
16. And in the fourth generation they shall return hither, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated.
17. And it came to pass that the sun went down, and there was thick darkness; and behold a furnace of smoke, and a torch of fire that passed between those pieces.
18. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates:
19. The Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite;
20. And the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim;
21. And the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite,
and the Jebusite.
AC 1778. Here in the internal sense are continued the things concerning the Lord after He had endured in childhood the most severe combats of temptations, which were directed against the love which He cherished toward the whole human race, and in particular toward the church; and therefore being anxious concerning their future state a promise was made Him but it was shown at the same time what the state of the church would become toward its end when it would begin to expire; but that still a new church should revive, which would take the place of the former, and the heavenly kingdom would be immensely increased.
AC 1779. The Lords consolation after the combats of temptations described (verse 1).
AC 1780. The Lords complaint respecting the church, that it was in externals only (verses 2, 3). A promise concerning an internal church (verse 4). Concerning its multiplication (verse 5). That the Lord is righteousness (verse 6). And unto Him alone belongs the kingdom in the heavens and on earth (verse 7).
AC 1781. And as He desired to be assured that the human race would be saved (verse 8), it was shown Him how the case is with the church, in general, specifically, and in particular (verses 9 to 17).
AC 1782. The "heifer," "she-goat," and "ram," are the representatives of the celestial things of the church; the "turtledove" and the "young pigeon" are the representatives of its spiritual things (verse 9). The church was on one side, and the Lord on the other (verse 10). The Lord would dissipate evils and falsities (verse 11). But the falsities would still infest it (verses 12, 13). From these there should be deliverance (verse 14). Thus the Lord received consolation (verse 15). But that evils would take possession (verse 16). And at last nothing hut falsities and cupidities would reign (verse 17). Then would come the Lords kingdom, and a new church, the extension of which is described (verse 18). The falsities and evils to be expelled from it are the nations named (verses 19 to 21).
THE INTERNAL SENSE
AC 1783. The things which are here contained, are as before said true historicals, namely, that Jehovah spoke thus with Abram, and that the land of Canaan was promised him as an inheritance; that he was commanded so to place the heifer, the she-goat, ram, turtledove, and young pigeon that the fowls came down upon the bodies that a deep sleep fell upon him, and in the sleep a terror of darkness; and that when the sun had set, there was seen by him as it were a furnace of smoke with a torch of fire between the parts; besides the other historicals. These are true historicals, but still each and all of them, even to the least of what was done, are representative; and the words themselves by which they are described, are, as to the smallest iota, significative. That is to say, in each and all of these things there is an internal sense; for each and all of the things contained in the Word are inspired, and being inspired they cannot but be from a heavenly origin; that is, they must necessarily store up within them celestial and spiritual things, for otherwise it could not possibly be the Word of the Lord.
 These are the things contained in the internal sense and when this sense lies open, the sense of the letter is obliterated, as if there were none; and on the other hand, when attention is given solely to the historical sense or that of the letter, the internal sense is obliterated, as if there were none. These two are related as is heavenly light to the light of the world; and, conversely, as is the light of the world to heavenly light. When heavenly light appears, then the light of the world is as thick darkness; as has been made known to me by experience; but when any one is in the light of the world, then heavenly light, if it appeared, would be as thick darkness; the same as with human minds: to him who places everything in human wisdom, or in memory-knowledges, heavenly wisdom appears as an obscure nothing; but to him who is in heavenly wisdom, human wisdom is as a kind of obscure general affair, which, if there were not heavenly rays in it, would be as thick darkness.
AC 1784. Verse 1. After these words, the word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram, I am a shield to thee, thy exceeding great reward. "After these words, the word of Jehovah came unto Abram in a vision," signifies that after the combats in childhood there was revelation; "a vision" denotes inmost revelation, which is that of perception " Fear not, Abram, I am a shield to thee," signifies protection against evils and falsities, which is to be trusted; "thy great reward," signifies the end or purpose of the victories.
AC 1785. After these words, the word of Jehovah came to Abram in a vision. That this signifies that after the combats in childhood there was revelation, is evident from the signification of "words," also of "the word of Jehovah to Abram," and also from the signification of "a vision." By "words," in the Hebrew language, are signified actual things here the things accomplished, which are the Lords combats of temptations, treated of in the preceding chapter. "The word of Jehovah to Abram" is nothing else than the Lords word with Himself but in childhood, and in the combats of temptations, when the Essences were not yet united as a one, it could not appear otherwise than as a revelation. What is internal, when it acts into what is external, in a state and at moments when this is far away, is presented in no other manner. This is the state which is called the Lords state of humiliation.
AC 1786. That "a vision" denotes inmost revelation, which is that of perception, may be seen from the nature of visions, which take place in accordance with the mans state. To those whose interiors are closed, a vision is very different from what it is to those whose interiors are open. For example: when the Lord appeared to the whole congregation in Mount Sinai, the appearing was a vision that was different to the people from what it was to Aaron, and that was different to Aaron from what it was to Moses; and again, visions were different to the prophets from what they were to Moses. There are many kinds of visions, concerning which, of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter. The more interior the visions, the more perfect they are With the Lord they were the most perfect of all; because He then had perception of all things in the world of spirits and in the heavens, and also had immediate communication with Jehovah. This communication is represented, and in the internal sense is signified, by the vision in which Jehovah appeared to Abram.
AC 1787. Fear not, Abram, I am a shield to thee. That this signifies protection against evils and falsities, which is to be trusted, is evident from the signification of "a shield," to be explained presently. These words, namely, that Jehovah is a shield, and that He is an exceeding great reward, are words of consolation after temptations. Every temptation is attended with some kind of despair (otherwise it is not a temptation), and therefore consolation follows. He who is tempted is brought into anxieties, which induce a state of despair as to what the end is to be. The very combat of temptation is nothing else. He who is sure of victory is not in anxiety, and therefore is not in temptation.
 The Lord also, as He endured the most dire and cruel temptations of all, could not but be driven into states of despair, and these He dispelled and overcame by His own power; as may be clearly seen from His temptation in Gethsemane, thus recorded in Luke:--
When Jesus was at the place, He said unto the disciples, Pray that ye enter not into temptation. But He was parted from them about a stones cast and kneeling down He prayed, saying, Father, if Thou be willing let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not My will, but Thine, be done. And there appeared unto Him an angel from heaven, strengthening Him; and being in an agony, He prayed more earnestly and His sweat became as drops of blood falling down upon the ground (Luke 22:40-45).
He began to be sorrowful and sore troubled. Then saith He unto the disciples, My whole soul is sorrowful even unto death. And going forward a little He fell on His face, praying, and saying, My Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from Me; nevertheless, not as I will, but as Thou wilt. Again a second time He went away, and prayed, saying, My Father, if this cup cannot pass except I drink it, Thy will be done. And He prayed a third time, saying the same word (Matthew 26:37-44).
He began to be terrified, and sore troubled, and said to the disciples, My soul is encompassed with sorrow even unto death. He went forward a little, and fell on the ground, and prayed that, if it were possible, the hour might pass away from Him. He said, Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee; remove this cup from Me; howbeit, not as I will, but as Thou wilt: and He spake thus a second time and a third (Mark 14:33-41).
 From these passages we may see what was the nature of the Lords temptations-that they were the most terrible of all; and that He felt anguish from the very inmosts, even to the sweating of blood; and that He was then in a state of despair concerning the end and the event; and also that He had consolations. The words now under consideration, "I, Jehovah, am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward," involve in like manner consolation after the combats of temptations treated of in the foregoing chapter.
AC 1788. That a "shield" means protection against evils and falsities, which is trusted in, is evident without explication; for from common usage the expression has become familiar that Jehovah is a shield and a buckler. But what is specifically signified by "a shield," may be seen from the Word, in that as regards the Lord it signifies protection, and as regards man, trust in the Lords protection. As war" signifies temptations (n. 1664), so all the weapons of war signify some specific thing belonging to temptation, and to defence against evils and falsities, that is, against the diabolical crew that induce the temptation, and that tempt. Therefore a shield" signifies one thing, a "buckler" signifies another, and a "target" another, a "helmet" another, a "spear" and a "lance" another, a "sword" another, a "bow and arrows" another, a "coat of mail" another; concerning each of which of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter.
 The reason why a "shield" in relation to the Lord signifies protection against evils and falsities, and in relation to man trust in the Lord; is that it was a protection to the breast; and by the breast good and truth are signified good because the heart is there, and truth because the lungs are there. That this is the signification of a "shield," is evident in David:--
Blessed be Jehovah my rock, who teacheth my hands combat, my fingers war; my mercy and my fortress, my fortified citadel and my deliverer, my shield, and He in whom I trust (Ps. 144:1, 2),
where the "combat" and "war" are those of temptations, and in the internal sense, the Lords temptations; the "shield," with reference to Jehovah, is protection; and with reference to man is trust, as is plainly evident.
 In the same:--
O Israel, trust thou in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield. O house of Aaron, trust ye in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield. Ye that fear Jehovah, trust in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield (Ps. 115:9-11),
where the meaning is similar. Again:--
Jehovah is my fortress, my God in whom I trust. He shall cover thee with His wing; and under His wings shalt thou trust; His truth is a shield and a buckler (Ps. 91:2, 4),
where "a shield" and "a buckler" denote protection against falsities.
Jehovah is my rock and my fortress and my deliverer, my God, my strong rock in whom I trust, my shield, and the horn of my salvation. Jehovah is a shield unto all that trust in Him (Ps. 18:2, 30),
where the meaning is similar. Again:--
Thou that provest the hearts and reins, a just God; my shield is upon God who saveth the upright in heart (Ps. 7:9, 10),
meaning trust. Again:--
Thou hast given me the shield of Thy salvation, and Thy right hand will hold me up (Ps. 18:35),
also signifying trust. Again:--
The shields of the earth belong unto God; He is greatly exalted (Ps. 47:9),
where trust is again meant.
Jehovah God is a sun and a shield; Jehovah will give grace and glory; good shall not be withheld from them that walk in integrity (Ps. 84:11),
signifying protection. In Moses:--
Thy blessings, O Israel; who is like unto thee, a people saved in Jehovah, the shield of thy help, and who is the sword of thy excellency, and thine enemies shall be mistaken in regard to thee (Deut. 33:29);
"the shield" denoting protection.
 As weapons of war are spoken of with reference to those who are in the combats of temptations, so also the same weapons of war are attributed to the enemies who assail and tempt, and then they signify the contrary things; thus a "shield" signifies the evils and falsities from which they fight, and which they defend, and in which they trust. As in Jeremiah:--
Make ye ready the shield and buckler, and draw near to battle. Harness the horses, and go up, ye horsemen, and stand forth in helmets, furbish the lances, put on the coats of mail (Jer. 46:3, 4).
Besides many other passages.
AC 1789. Thy great reward. That this signifies the end and purpose of the victories, is evident from the signification of " reward," as being the prize after the combats of temptations; here the end and purpose of the victories, because the Lord never looked for any prize of victory for Himself. His prize of victories was the salvation of the whole human race; and it was from love toward the entire human race that He fought. He who fights from this love demands for himself no prize, because this love is such that it wills to give and transfer all its own to others, and to have nothing for itself; so that it is the salvation of the whole human race that is here signified by the "reward."
AC 1790. Verse 2. And Abram said, Lord Jehovih, what wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer the Damascene? "Abram said, Lord Jehovih," signifies the Lords perception; "Abram" is the interior man; the "Lord Jehovih" is the internal man relatively to the interior; "what wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless?" signifies that there was no internal church; "and the steward of my house," signifies an external church; "is this Eliezer the Damascene" denotes the external church.
AC 1791. Abram said, Lord Jehovih. That this signifies the Lords perception, may be seen from the fact that the Lord had the most interior and perfect perception of all things. This perception, as before said, was a perceptive sensation and knowledge of all things that were taking place in heaven, and was a continual communication and internal conversation with Jehovah, which the Lord alone had. This is meant in the internal sense by the words "Abram said to Jehovah;" thus was represented by Abram when he spoke with Jehovah; and the like is signified in what follows wherever the expression "Abram said to Jehovah" occurs.
AC 1792. That "Abram" denotes the interior man, or that Abram represented the Lords interior or rational man, has been stated before. What the Lords interior man is, was shown in the foregoing chapter.
AC 1793. That the "Lord Jehovih" is the internal man relatively to the interior, is evident from what has been said concerning the Lords internal man, namely, that it Was Jehovah Himself, from whom He was conceived, and whose only Son He was, and to whom the Lords Human became united after He had by the combats of temptation purified the maternal human, that is, that which He derived from the mother. The appellation "Lord Jehovih" occurs very often in the Word; indeed, as often as Jehovah is called "Lord" He is not called "Lord Jehovah," but "Lord Jehovih," and this especially where temptations are treated of.
 As in Isaiah:--
Behold, the Lord Jehovih cometh in strength, and His arm shall rule for Him; behold, His reward is with Him, and His work before Him. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd, He shall gather the lambs in His arm, and carry them in His bosom, and shall lead those that give suck (Isaiah 40:10, 11),
where "the Lord Jehovih cometh in strength," relates to His victory in the combats of temptations; "His arm shall rule for Him," means that it is from His own power. What the reward is that is mentioned in the first verse of this chapter is here declared, namely, that it is the salvation of the whole human race, that is to say, "He feeds His flock like a shepherd, gathers the lambs in His arm, carries them in His bosom, and leads those that give suck;" all of which things pertain to inmost or Divine love.
 Again in the same Prophet:--
The Lord Jehovih hath opened Mine ear, and I was not rebellious; I have not turned away backward. I gave My body to the smiters, and My cheeks to them that plucked off the hair; I hid not My face from shame and spitting; and the Lord Jehovih will help Me; behold the Lord Jehovih will help Me (Isa. 50:5-7, 9),
where temptations are manifestly treated of.
AC 1794. What wilt Thou give me, and I am walking childless? That this signifies that there is no internal church, may be seen from the signification of "walking childless." To "walk," in the internal sense, is to live (n. 519); but one who is childless is one who has no seed, or no posterity of his own. This is treated of in (verses 3-5), where it is explained what is meant by one who is childless, or one who has no seed.
AC 1795. And the steward of my house. That this signifies an external church, is evident from the signification of the "steward of a house," in the internal sense, that is, in respect to the church. The external church is called "the steward of a house," when the internal church itself is the house, and the father of the family is the Lord. The external church is circumstanced no otherwise, for all stewardship belongs to the external of the church; as the administration of rituals, and of many things that pertain to the place of worship and to the church itself, that is, to the House of Jehovah or of the Lord.
 The externals of the church without the internals are things of naught; they have their being from the internals, and are such as the internals are. The case herein is the same as it is with man: his external or corporeal is in itself a thing of no account unless there is an internal which gives it soul and life. Such therefore as is the internal, such is the external; or such as is the mind (animus et mens), such is the worth of all things which come forth by means of the external or corporeal. The things which are of the heart make the man; not those which are of the mouth and the gestures; and such is the case with the internals of the church. But still the externals of the church are like the externals of a man, in that they take charge of and administer; or what is the same, the external or corporeal man may in like manner be called the steward or administrator of the house, when the house means the interiors. From this it is evident what "childless" means, namely, the state in which there is no internal of the church, but only an external; as was the case at the time of which the Lord complained.
AC 1796. Is this Eliezer the Damascene. From what has just been said it is now evident that these words denote the external church; and the same appears from the signification of a "Damascene." Damascus was the principal city of Syria, where there were remains of the worship of the Ancient Church, and whence came Eber, or the Hebrew nation, with which there was nothing but the external of the church (n. 1238, 1241), thus nothing but the stewardship of the house. That there is in these words something of despair, and consequently of the Lords temptation, is evident from the words themselves, and also from the consolation that follows respecting the internal church.
AC 1797. Verse 3. And Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed, and behold a son of my house is mine heir. "Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed," signifies that there was no internal of the church, which is love and faith; "behold a son of my house is mine heir," signifies that there would be in the Lords kingdom only what is external.
AC 1798. Abram said, Lo to me Thou hast not given seed. That this signifies that there was no internal of the church, is evident from the signification of "seed," which is love and faith, spoken of above (n. 255, 256, 1025), and from the signification of an heir, as explained in what follows. That love and the faith derived from it are the internal of the church, has already been several times said and shown. No other faith is meant as being the internal of the church than that which is of love or charity, that is, which is from love or charity.
 Faith, in a general sense, is all the doctrinal teaching of the church. But doctrine (doctrinale) separated from love or charity, by no means makes the internal of the church, for doctrine is only knowledge which is of the memory, and this exists also with the worst men, and even with infernals. But the doctrine that is from charity, or that is of charity, does make the internal of the church, for this is of the life. The life itself is the internal of all worship; and so is all doctrine that flows from the life of charity and it is this doctrine that is of faith which is here meant. That it is this faith which is the internal of the church, may be seen from this consideration alone, that he who has the life of charity is acquainted with all things of faith. If you will, just examine all doctrinal things, and see what and of what quality they are; do they not all pertain to charity, and consequently to the faith that is from charity?
 Take only the Precepts of the Decalogue. The first of these is to worship the Lord God. He who has the life of love or of charity worships the Lord God, because this is his life. Another precept is to keep the Sabbath. He who is in the life of love, or in charity, keeps the Sabbath holy, for nothing is more sweet to him than to worship the Lord, and to glorify Him every day. The precept, "Thou shalt not kill," is altogether of charity. He who loves his neighbor as himself, shudders at doing anything that injures him, still more at killing him. So too the precept, "Thou shalt not steal;" for he who has the life of charity would rather give of his own to his neighbor, than take anything away from him. And so with the precept, "Thou shalt not commit adultery;" he who is in the life of charity the rather guards his neighbors wife, lest any one should offer her such injury, and regards adultery as a crime against conscience, and such as destroys conjugial love and its duties. To covet the things that are the neighbors is also contrary to those who are in the life of charity; for it is of charity to desire good to others from ones self and ones own; such therefore by no means covet the things which are anothers.
 These are the precepts of the Decalogue which are more external doctrinal things of faith; and these are not only known in the memory by him who is in charity and its life, but are in his heart; and he has them inscribed upon himself, because they are in his charity, and thus in his very life; besides other things of a dogmatic nature which he in like manner knows from charity alone; for he lives according to a conscience of what is right. The right and the truth which he cannot thus understand and explore, he believes simply or from simplicity of heart to be so because the Lord has said so; and he who so believes does not do wrong, even though what he thus accepts is not true in itself, but apparent truth.
 As for example, if any one believes that the Lord is angry, punishes, tempts, and the like. Or if he holds that the bread and wine in the Holy Supper are significative, or that the flesh and blood are present in some way in which they explain it- it is of no consequence whether they say the one thing or the other, although there are few who think about this matter, or even if they do think about it, provided this is done from a simple heart, because they have been so instructed, and nevertheless live in charity: these, when they hear that the bread and wine in the internal sense signify the Lords love toward the whole human race, and the things which are of this love, and mans reciprocal love to the Lord and the neighbor, they forthwith believe, and rejoice that it is so. Not so they who are in doctrinal things and not in charity; these contend about everything, and condemn all whoever they may be that do not say (they call it believe) as they do. From all this every one can see that love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor are the internal of the church.
AC 1799. Behold a son of my house is mine heir. That this signifies that there would be only what is external in the Lords kingdom, is evident from the signification in the internal sense of an "heir" and of "inheriting." To become an heir, or to inherit, signifies eternal life in the Lords kingdom. All who are in the Lords kingdom are heirs; for they live from the Lords life, which is the life of mutual love; and from this they are called sons. The Lords sons or heirs are all who are in His life, because their life is from Him, and they are born of Him, that is, are regenerate. They who are born of any one are heirs; and so are all who are being regenerated by the Lord, for in this case they receive His life.
 In the Lords kingdom there are those who are external, those who are interior, and those who are internal. Good spirits, who are in the first heaven, are external; angelic spirits, who are in the second heaven, are interior; and angels, who are in the third, are internal. They who are external are not so closely related or so near to the Lord, as they who are interior; nor are these so closely related or so near to the Lord, as they who are internal. The Lord, from the Divine love or mercy, wills to have all near to Himself; so that they do not stand at the doors, that is, in the first heaven; but He wills that they should be in the third; and, if it were possible, not only with Himself, but in Himself. Such is the Divine love, or the Lords love; and as the church was then only in externals, He in these words complained, saying, "Behold, a son of my house is mine heir," by which is signified that there would thus be only what is external in His kingdom. But consolation follows, and a promise concerning what is internal, in the verses that follow.
 What the external of the church is, has been stated before (n. 1083, 1098, 1100, 1151, 1153). What pertains to doctrine does not itself make the external, still less the internal, as before said; nor with the Lord does it distinguish churches from each other, but that which does this is a life according to doctrinals, all of which, provided they are true, look to charity as their fundamental. What is doctrine but that which teaches how a man must live?
 In the Christian world it is doctrinal matters that distinguish churches and from them men call themselves Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Calvinists, or the Reformed and the Evangelical, and by other names. It is from what is doctrinal alone that they are so called; which would never be if they would make love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor the principal of faith. Doctrinal matters would then be only varieties of opinion concerning the mysteries of faith, which truly Christian men would leave to every one to hold in accordance with his conscience, and would say in their hearts that a man is truly a Christian when he lives as a Christian, that is, as the Lord teaches. Thus from all the differing churches there would be made one church; and all the dissensions that come forth from doctrine alone would vanish; yea, all hatreds of one against another would be dissipated in a moment, and the Lords kingdom would come upon the earth.
 The Ancient Church just after the flood, although spread through many kingdoms, was yet of this character, that is, men differed much among themselves as to doctrinal matters, but still made charity the principal; and they looked upon worship, not from doctrinal matters which pertain to faith, but from charity which pertains to life. This is meant where it is said (Gen. 11:1), that they all had one lip, and their words were one (n. 1285).
AC 1800. Verse 4. And behold the word of Jehovah came unto him, saying, This one shall not be thine heir; but he that shall go forth out of thy bowels shall be thine heir. "Behold the word of Jehovah came unto him," signifies an answer: "saying, This one shall not be thine heir" signifies that what is external shall not be the heir of His kingdom; "but he that shall go forth out of thy bowels," signifies those who are in love to Him and in love toward the neighbor; he shall be thine heir," signifies that they shall be made heirs.
AC 1801. Behold the word of Jehovah came unto him. That this signifies an answer, namely that there should not be what is external of the church, but that there should be what is internal, is evident from what follows. "The word of Jehovah," or this answer, is the consolation.
AC 1802. Saying, This one shall not be thine heir. That this signifies that what is external shall not be the heir of His kingdom, is evident from the signification of becoming an heir, or inheriting, explained just above. The heir of the Lords kingdom is not what is external, but what is internal. What is external is so too, but through What is internal, for they then act as a one. That it may be known how the case herein is, it is to be kept in mind that all who are in the heavens-as well those who are in the first and in the second, as those who are in the third,-that is, as well those who are external and those who are interior, as those who are internal-are heirs of the Lords kingdom; for they all make one heaven. In the Lords heavens, the internals and the externals are circumstanced exactly as they are in man. The angels in the first heaven are subordinate to those in the second, and these are subordinate to the angels in the third heaven. The subordination however is not that of command, but is, as in a man, the influx of things internal into things more external; that is, the Lords life inflows through the third heaven into the second, and through this into the first, in the order of their succession, besides that it inflows immediately into all the heavens. The inferior or subordinate angels do not know that this is so unless reflection is given them by the Lord; thus there is no subordination of command.
 In proportion to the existence of what is internal in an angel of the third heaven is he an heir of the Lords kingdom; and in proportion to the same in an angel of the second heaven is he an heir; and in like manner, in proportion to the existence of what is internal in an angel of the first heaven, is he too an heir. It is that which is internal that causes any one to be an heir. With the interior angels there is more of what is internal than there is with the more external angels, and therefore the former are nearer to the Lord, and are more fully heirs. That which is internal is love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor in proportion therefore to the love and the charity which they have, in the same proportion are they sons and heirs, for in the same proportion are they partakers of the Lords life.
 But no one can possibly be taken up from the first or external heaven into the second or interior heaven until he has been instructed in the goods of love and the truths of faith. So far as he has been instructed, so far he can be taken up, and can come among angelic spirits. It is the same with angelic spirits before they can be taken up or come into the third heaven, or among angels. By instruction the interiors are formed, and thereby the internals, and are adapted to receiving the goods of love and the truths of faith, and thereby the perception of what is good and true. No one can perceive what he does not know and believe, consequently he cannot be gifted with the faculty of perceiving the good of love and the truth of faith except by means of knowledges, so as to know what they are and of what nature. It is so with all, even with infants, who are all instructed in the Lords kingdom. But these are easily instructed, because they are imbued with no principles of falsity; they are however instructed in general truths only; and when they receive these they perceive things without number or limit.
 The case in this respect is the same as it is with one who has been persuaded respecting any truth in general: the particulars of the general truths, and the singulars of the particulars, which are confirmatory, he easily learns, as it were of himself, or spontaneously; for he is affected by the truth in general, and thence also by the particulars and singulars of the same truth, which confirm for these enter into the general affection with delight and pleasantness, and thus constantly perfect it. These are the internal things on account of which they are called "heirs," or by means of which they can inherit the Lords kingdom. But they first begin to be heirs, or to have a heritage, when they are in the affection of good, that is, in mutual love, into which they are introduced by the knowledges of good and truth, and by the affections of them; and in proportion as they are in the affection of good, or in mutual love, in the same proportion are they "heirs," or have an inheritance. For mutual love is the veriest life (vitale) which they receive from the Lords essence, as from their Father. These things may be seen from what follows in the next verse.
AC 1803. But he that shall go forth out of thy bowels. That this signifies those who are in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor, is evident from the signification of "bowels," and of "going forth out of the bowels," which is to be born; and here it means those who are being born of the Lord. They who are being born of the Lord, that is, who are being regenerated, receive the Lords life. The Lords life, as before said, is the Divine love, that is, love toward the whole human race; or His will to eternally save, if possible, the whole of it, or all men. They who have not the Lords love, that is, who do not love the neighbor as themselves, never have the Lords life, and therefore are never born of Him, that is, have not "come forth out of His bowels;" and therefore they cannot be heirs of His kingdom.
 From which it is evident that by "to go forth out of the bowels," in the internal sense, are here signified those that are in love to Him and in love toward the neighbor. So in Isaiah:--
Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; I am Jehovah thy God, who teacheth thee to profit, who leadeth thee in the way that thou shouldest walk. Oh that thou hadst hearkened to My commandments, and thy peace had been as a river, and thy righteousness as the billows of the sea, and thy seed had been as the sand, and those who go forth out of thy bowels as the gravel thereof (Isaiah 48:17-19).
The "seed as the sand," denotes good; and "those who go forth out of the bowels as the gravel," truth; thus those who have love, for these alone are in the love of good and truth.
 Moreover, in the Word "bowels" signify love or mercy for the reason that the bowels of generation, especially the mothers womb, represent and thus signify chaste conjugial love, and the love for children that is derived from it. As in Isaiah:--
The stirring of Thy bowels and of Thy compassions toward me have restrained themselves (Isaiah 63:15).
Is not Ephraim a dear son unto Me? Is he not a child of delights? Therefore My bowels are troubled for him; in mercy I will have mercy upon him (Jeremiah 31:20).
 It is evident from this that the Lords love itself, or mercy itself, and compassion toward the human race, are what are signified in the internal sense by "bowels," and by "going forth out of the bowels;" consequently by "them that go forth out of the bowels" are signified those who have love. (That the Lords kingdom is mutual love, may be seen above, n. 548, 549, 684, 693, 694).
AC 1804. He shall be thine heir. That this signifies that they shall become heirs, is evident from the signification of an "heir," already treated of.
AC 1805. Verse 5. And He led him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and number the stars, if thou be able to number them; and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be. "He led him forth abroad," signifies the sight of the interior man which from external things sees internal; "and said, Look now toward heaven," signifies a representation of the Lords kingdom in a mental view of the universe; "and number the stars," signifies a representation of things good and true in a mental view of the constellations "if thou canst number them," signifies the fruitfulness of love and the multiplication of faith; "and He said unto him, So shall thy seed be," signifies the heirs of the Lords kingdom.
AC 1806. He led him forth abroad. That this signifies the sight of the interior man which from things external sees things internal, may be seen from the signification of "leading forth abroad," in connection with what follows. Things internal are led forth, when with the eyes of the body a man contemplates the starry heaven, and thence thinks of the Lords kingdom. Whenever a man sees anything with his eyes, and sees the things that he looks upon as if he saw them not, but from them sees or thinks of the things which are of the church or of heaven, then his interior sight, or that of his spirit or soul, is "led forth abroad." The eye itself is properly nothing but the sight of his spirit led forth abroad, and this especially to the end that he may see internal things from external; that is, that he may, from the objects in the world, reflect continually upon those which are in the other life; for this is the life for the sake of which he lives in the world. Such was the sight in the Most Ancient Church; such is the sight of the angels who are with man; and such was the Lords sight.
AC 1807. And said, Look now toward heaven. That this signifies a representation of the Lords kingdom in a mental view of the universe, may be seen from the signification of "heaven." "Heaven" in the Word, in the internal sense, does not signify the heavens which appear to the eyes; but the Lords kingdom, universally and particularly. When a man who is looking at internal things from external sees the heavens, he does not think at all of the starry heaven, but of the angelic heaven; and when he sees the sun, he does not think of the sun, but of the Lord, as being the Sun of heaven. So too when he sees the moon, and the stars also; and when he sees the immensity of the heavens, he does not think of their immensity, but of the immeasurable and infinite power of the Lord. It is the same when he sees all other things, for there is nothing that is not representative.
 In like manner as regards the things on the earth; as when he beholds the dawning of the day he does not think of the dawn, but of the arising of all things from the Lord, and of progression into the day of wisdom. So when he sees gardens, groves, and flower-beds, his eye remains not fixed on any tree, its blossom, leaf, and fruit; but on the heavenly things which these represent; nor on any flower, and its beauty and pleasantness; but on what they represent in the other life. For there is nothing beautiful and delightful in the skies or on the earth, which is not in some way representative of the Lords kingdom (n. 1632). This is the "looking toward heaven" which signifies a representation of the Lords kingdom in a mental view of the universe.
 The reason why all things in the sky and on earth are representative, is that they have come forth and do continually come forth, that is, subsist, from the influx of the Lord through heaven. It is with these things as it is with the human body, which comes forth and subsists by means of the soul; on which account all things in the body both in general and in particular are representative of the soul. The soul is in the use and the end; but the body is in the performance of them. All effects, whatever they may be, are in like manner representatives of the uses which are the causes; and the uses are representative of the ends which belong to the first principles.
 They who are in Divine ideas never come to a stand in the objects of the external sight; but from them and in them constantly see internal things. The veriest internal things themselves are those which are of the Lords kingdom, thus those which are in the veriest end itself. It is the same with the Word of the Lord; he who is in Divine things never regards the Lords Word from the letter; but regards the letter and the literal sense as being representative and significative of the celestial and spiritual things of the church and of the Lords kingdom. To him the literal sense is merely an instrumental means for thinking of these. Such was the Lords sight.
AC 1808. And number the stars. That this signifies a representation of what is good and true in a mental view of the constellations, is evident from what has just been said; and also from the representation and signification of "the stars," as being things good and true. The "stars" are frequently mentioned in the Word, and everywhere they signify things good and true, and also, in the contrary sense, things evil and false; or what is the same, they signify angels or societies of angels, and also in the contrary sense evil spirits and their associations. When they signify angels or societies of angels, they are then fixed stars; but when evil spirits and their associations, they are wandering stars, as I have very frequently seen.
 That all things in the skies and on the earth are representative of celestial and spiritual things, has been evidenced by this plain indication, that things similar to those which appear before the eyes in the sky and on the earth, are also presented to view in the world of spirits, and this as plainly as in clear day; and there they are nothing but representatives. For instance, when the starry heaven appears, and the stars therein are fixed, it is instantly known that they signify things good and true; and when the stars appear wandering, it is instantly known that they signify things evil and false. From the very glow and sparkle of the stars it may also be known of what kind they are; besides numberless other things. Hence, if one is willing to think wisely, he may know what is the origin of all things on the earth, namely, that it is the Lord; and the reason why they come forth on the earth not ideally but actually, is that all things, both celestial and spiritual, which are from the Lord, are living and essential, or as they are called substantial, and therefore they come forth into actual existence in ultimate nature (n. 1632).
 That the stars represent and signify things good and true, may be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:--
The stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shine not with their light; the son has been darkened in his going forth, and the moon doth not cause her light to shine; and I will visit evil upon the world, and their iniquity upon the wicked (Isaiah 13:10, 11)
where the day of visitation is treated of. Every one can see that by "the stars" and "constellations" here are not meant the stars and constellations, but things true and good; and by "the sun," love; and by "the moon," faith for the evils and falsities which cause darkness are treated of.
 In Ezekiel:--
When I shall extinguish thee I will cover the heavens, and make the stars thereof black; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not make her light to shine all the luminaries of light I will make black over thee, and will set darkness upon thy land (Ezekiel 32:7, 8),
where the meaning is similar. In Joel:--
The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were blackened, and the stars withdrew their shining (Joel 2:10; 3:15),
where the meaning is similar. In David:--
Praise Jehovah, sun and moon; praise Him, all ye stars of light; praise Him, ye heavens of heavens (Ps. 148:3, 4),
meaning the same.
 That by the "stars" are not meant the stars, but things good and true, or what is the same, those who are in things good and true, as the angels are, is plainly said in John:--
I saw the Son of man; and He had in His right hand seven stars. The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest upon My right hand, and the seven candlesticks: the seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches (Rev. 1:13, 16, 20).
The fourth angel sounded, so that the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; that the third part of them should be darkened, and the day shone not for the third part of it, and the night in like manner (Rev. 8:12),
where it is clearly evident that what is good and true was darkened. In Daniel:--
There came forth a little horn, which grew exceedingly toward the south and toward the east and toward adornment (decus) and it grew even to the army of the heavens; and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them (Daniel 8:9, 10),
which words plainly show that "the army of the heavens" and "the stars" are things good and true, which were trampled upon.
 From these passages may be seen what is meant by the words of the Lord in Matthew:--
In the consummation of the age, immediately after the affliction of those days, the son shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken (Matthew 24:29).
And in Luke:--
There shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations in despair, the sea and the waves roaring (Luke 21:25);
where by "the sun" the sun is not meant at all, nor by "the moon" the moon, nor by "the stars" the stars, nor by "the sea" the sea; but the things which they represent, namely, by "the son" the celestial things of love, by "the moon" the spiritual things, by "the stars" things good and true, that is, the knowledges of what is good and true, which are thus darkened near the consummation of the age, when there is no faith, that is, no charity.
AC 1809. If thou canst number them. That this signifies the fruitfulness of love and the multiplication of faith, or what is the same, the fruitfulness of good and the multiplication of truth, may be seen without explication; for the words plainly mean that they cannot be numbered.
AC 1810. So shall thy seed be. That this signifies the heirs of the Lords kingdom, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being love and the faith derived from it, or what is the same, those who are in love and faith, both angels and men. That "seed" has this signification has already in various places been stated and shown. These words signify in general the Lords kingdom, which is so vast and numerous that no one can ever credit it; so that it can only be expressed by IMMENSE. Its immensity will of the Lords Divine mercy be treated of elsewhere; it is what is here signified by the words of this verse, "Look now toward heaven, and number the stars, if thou canst number them; and He said unto him, so shall thy seed be." These words also signify the innumerable goods and truths of wisdom and intelligence, together with their attendant happiness, in every angel.
AC 1811. Verse 6. And he believed in Jehovah, and He imputed it to him for righteousness. "He believed in Jehovah," signifies the Lords faith at that time; "and He imputed it to him for righteousness," signifies that herein the Lord first became righteousness.
AC 1812. He believed in Jehovah. That this signifies the Lords faith at that time, is evident from the very words, and also from the connection of things in the internal sense; which is that while He lived in the world the Lord was in continual combats of temptations, and in continual victories, from a constant inmost confidence and faith that because He was fighting for the salvation of the whole human race from pure love, He could not but conquer; which is here meant by "believing in Jehovah." From the love from which any one fights it is known what his faith is. He who fights from any other love than love toward the neighbor and toward the Lords kingdom, does not fight from faith, that is, does not "believe in Jehovah," but in that which he loves, for the love itself for which he fights is his faith. For example he who fights from the love of becoming the greatest in heaven, does not believe in Jehovah, but rather in himself; for to desire to become the greatest is to desire to command others; thus he fights for command and so in all other cases. And thus from the love itself from which any one fights, it may be known what his faith is.
 But in all His combats of temptations the Lord never fought from the love of self, or for Himself, but for all in the universe, consequently, not that He might become the greatest in heaven, for this is contrary to the Divine Love, and scarcely even that He might be the least; but only that all others might become something, and be saved. As He also says in Mark:--
The two sons of Zebedee said, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on Thy right hand, and the other on Thy left, in Thy glory. Jesus said, Whoever would be great among you shall be your minister and whoever would be first among you, shall be servant of all. For the Son of man also came not to be ministered onto, but to minister, and to give His soul a ransom for many (Mark 10:37, 43-45).
This is the love, or this is the faith, from which the Lord fought, and which is here meant by "believing in Jehovah."
AC 1813. He imputed it to him for righteousness. That this signifies that herein the Lord first became righteousness, may also be seen from the connection of things in the internal sense, in which the Lord is treated of. That the Lord alone became righteousness for the whole human race, may be seen from the fact that He alone fought from Divine love, namely, from love toward the whole human race, whose salvation was what in His combats He solely desired and burned for. In regard to His Human Essence the Lord was not born righteousness, but became righteousness through combats of temptations and victories, and this from His own power. As often as He fought and overcame, this was imputed to Him for righteousness, that is, it was added to the righteousness that He was becoming, as a continual increase, until He became pure righteousness.
 A man who is born of a human father, or of the seed of a human father, when fighting from himself cannot fight from any other love than the love of self and of the world, thus not from heavenly love, but from infernal love, for such is the character of his Own from his father, in addition to the Own acquired by his own conduct. Therefore he who supposes that he fights from himself against the devil is hugely mistaken. In like manner he who desires to make himself righteous by his own powers--that is, to believe that the goods of charity and the truths of faith are from himself, consequently that he merits heaven by them--acts and thinks against the good and truth of faith; for it is a truth of faith, that is, it is the truth itself, that the Lord fights. And therefore because he then acts and thinks against the truth of faith, he takes away from the Lord what is His, and makes what is the Lords to be his own, or what is the same, he puts himself in the Lords place, and thereby puts that which is infernal in himself. Hence it is that such men desire to become great, or the greatest, in heaven; and hence it is that they falsely believe that the Lord fought against the hells in order that He might be the greatest. What is mans own is attended with such phantasies, which appear as if they were truths, but are just the reverse.
 That the Lord came into the world in order to become righteousness, and that He alone is righteousness, was also foretold by the prophets and therefore this could have been known before His coming; and also that He could not become righteousness except through temptations, and victories over all evils and all the hells. As in Jeremiah:--
In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell in confidence, and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jeremiah 23:6).
In the same:--
In those days and in that time will I cause an Offshoot of righteousness to grow onto David, and He shall do judgment and righteousness in the land. In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell in confidence; and this is what they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jeremiah 33:15, 16).
He saw, and there was no man; and He wondered that there was none to intercede; and His arm brought salvation unto Him, and His righteousness it upheld Him. And He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, and a helmet of salvation upon His head (Isaiah 59:16, 17; Isa. 63:3, 5).
"His arm" means His own power. Because the Lord alone is righteousness, the "habitation of righteousness" also is mentioned in (Jeremiah 31:23; 50:7).
AC 1814. Verse 7. And He said unto him, I am Jehovah, who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees to give thee this land to inherit it. "He said unto him, I am Jehovah," signifies the Lords internal man, which was Jehovah, and from which He had perception; "who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees," signifies the first state of the external man; "to give thee this land to inherit it," signifies the Lords kingdom, of which He alone is the possessor.
AC 1815. He said unto him, I am Jehovah. That this signifies the Lords internal man, which is Jehovah, and from which He had perception, is evident from what has been already said, namely, that the Lords Internal, that is, whatever the Lord received from the Father, was Jehovah in Him, for He was conceived from Jehovah. What a man receives from his father is one thing, and what he receives from his mother is another. From his father a man receives all that is internal, his soul itself or life being from the father; but he receives from his mother all that is external. In a word, the interior man, or spirit itself, is from the father; but the outer man, or body itself, is from the mother; which every one can comprehend merely from the fact that the soul itself is implanted by the father, and this begins to clothe itself in a little bodily form in the ovule. whatever is afterwards added, whether in the ovule or in the womb, is of the mother, for it has no increase from anywhere else.
 It may be seen from this that as to His internals the Lord was Jehovah. But because the external, which the Lord received from the mother, was to be united to the Divine or Jehovah, and this through temptations and victories, as before said, it could not appear otherwise to Him in those states, than that when He spoke with Jehovah it was as it were with another; when yet He spoke with Himself, that is, so far as He was in a state of conjunction. The Lords perception, which He had in the highest perfection above all who have been born, was from His Internal, that is, from Jehovah Himself, which is here signified in the internal sense by the words, "Jehovah said unto him."
AC 1816. Who led thee forth out of Ur of the Chaldees. That this signifies the first state of His external man, may be seen from the signification of "Ur of the Chaldees." The maternal which the Lord received from birth, or the inheritance from the mother, is what is here signified by "Ur of the Chaldees." The nature of this has been described before. It was out of this maternal, or inheritance from the mother, that He was led forth whenever He conquered evils and falsities, that is, the hells.
AC 1817. To give thee the land, to inherit it. That this signifies the Lords kingdom, of which He alone is the possessor, is evident from the signification of the "land," here the Holy Land or Land of Canaan, as being the heavenly kingdom; and also from the signification of "inheriting," spoken of several times before. To "inherit the land," signifying to possess the heavenly kingdom, is here predicated of the Lords Human Essence; for as to the Divine Essence He was the Possessor of the universe, consequently of the heavenly kingdom, from eternity.
AC 1818. Verse 8. And he said, Lord Jehovih, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it? "He said, Lord Jehovih," signifies a conversation, as it were, of the Interior man with the Internal; "whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?" signifies a temptation against the Lords love, which desired to be fully assured.
AC 1819. He said, Lord Jehovih. That this signifies a conversation, as it were, of the Interior man with the Internal, is evident from what was said in the preceding verse in connection with the words, "Jehovah said unto him;" and also from what was said (verse 2) concerning the Lord Jehovih, as denoting the conversation of the Interior man with the Internal, or Jehovah, especially when He was in temptation.
AC 1820. Whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it? That this signifies a temptation against the Lords love, which desired to be fully assured, may be seen from the doubt that is implied in the words themselves. He who is in temptation is in doubt concerning the end in view. The end in view is the love, against which the evil spirits and evil genii fight, and thereby put the end in doubt; and the greater the love is, the more do they put it in doubt. If the end which is loved were not put in doubt, and indeed in despair, there would be no temptation. Assurance respecting the result precedes the victory, and belongs to the victory.
 As few know how the case is with temptations, it may here be briefly explained. Evil spirits never fight against other things than those which the man loves; the more ardently he loves them, the more fiercely do they wage the combat. It is evil genii who fight against the things that pertain to the affection of good, and evil spirits that fight against those which pertain to the affection of truth. As soon as they notice even the smallest thing which a man loves, or perceive as it were by scent what is delightful and dear to him, they forthwith assault it and endeavor to destroy it, and thereby the whole man, for mans life consists in his loves. Nothing is more delightful to them than to destroy a man in this way, nor would they desist, even to eternity, unless they were driven away by the Lord. They who are malignant and crafty insinuate themselves into mans very loves by flattering them, and thus bring the man among themselves; and presently, when they have brought him in, they attempt to destroy his loves, and thereby murder the man, and this in a thousand ways that cannot be comprehended.
 Nor do they wage the combat simply by reasoning against things good and true, because such combats are of no account, for if they were vanquished a thousand times they would still persist, since reasonings against goods and truths can never be wanting. But they pervert the goods and truths, and inflame with a certain fire of cupidity and of persuasion, so that the man does not know otherwise than that he is in the like cupidity and persuasion; and at the same time they enkindle these with delight that they snatch from the mans delight in something else, and in this way they most deceitfully infect and infest him; and this they do with so much skill, by leading him on from one thing to another, that if the Lord did not aid him, the man would never know but that the case was really so.
 They act in a similar way against the affections of truth that make the conscience: as soon as they perceive anything of conscience, of whatever kind, then from the falsities and failings in the man they form to themselves an affection; and by means of this they cast a shade over the light of truth, and so pervert it; or they induce anxiety and torture him. They also hold the thought persistently in one thing, and thus fill it with phantasies; and at the same time they clandestinely clothe the cupidities with the phantasies; besides innumerable other arts, which cannot possibly be described to the apprehension. These are a few of the means, and only the most general, by which they can make their way to mans conscience, for this above all else they take the great est delight in destroying.
 From these few statements, and they are very few, it may be seen what temptations are, and that they are, in general, such as the loves are, and from this we may see what was the nature of the Lords temptations, that they were the most terrible of all, for such as is the greatness of the love, such is the fearful character of the temptation. The Lords love was the salvation of the whole human race, and was most ardent; consequently it was the whole sum of the affection of good and affection of truth in the highest degree. Against these, with the most malignant wiles and venom, all the hells waged the combat; but still the Lord conquered them all by His own power. Victories are attended with the result that the malignant genii and spirits afterwards dare not do anything; for their life consists in their being able to destroy, and when they perceive that a man is of such a character that he can resist, then at the first onset they flee away, as they are wont to do when they draw near to the first entrance to heaven, for they are at once seized with horror and terror, and hurl themselves backward.
AC 1821. Verse 9. And He said unto him, Take thee a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years, and a turtle-dove, and a young pigeon. " He said unto him," signifies perception; "take a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years," signifies the representatives of the celestial things of the church; a "heifer" being representative of exterior celestial things, a "she-goat" of interior celestial things, and a "ram" of spiritual celestial things; they were to be "three years" old, because they were to involve all things of the church as to times and states; "and a turtle-dove and a young pigeon," signifies the representatives of the spiritual things of the church; a "turtledove" those which are exterior, and a "young pigeon" those which are interior.
AC 1822. He said unto him. That this signifies perception, is evident from what was said in (verses 2, 7). Perception itself is nothing else than a kind of internal speech, which internal speech manifests itself by being perceived. All interior dictate, and even conscience, is nothing else; but perception is a higher or more interior degree of it.
AC 1823. Take a heifer of three years, and a she-goat of three years, and a ram of three years. That this signifies the representatives of the celestial things of the church, is evident from the signification of the same animals in the sacrifices. No one who thinks sanely can believe that the various animals which were sacrificed signified nothing but sacrifices; or that an ox and a bullock or a calf signified the same as a sheep, a kid, and a she-goat, and these the same as a lamb; and that a turtle-dove signified the same as young pigeons; the fact being that every animal had its own special signification. This may be sufficiently evident from the fact that in no case was one offered instead of another; and that those are expressly named which were to be used in the daily burnt-offerings and sacrifices, those on the Sabbaths and festivals, those used in free-will offerings, vows, and peace-offerings, those in expiation of guilt and sin, and those in purifications; which would never have been so unless something special had been represented and signified by each animal.
 But what was signified by each particular kind would be too tedious to explain here; it is sufficient to know now that celestial things were signified by the animals, and spiritual things by the birds; and by each kind, some special celestial or spiritual thing. The Jewish Church itself, and all things relating to it, were representative of such things as are of the Lords kingdom, where there is nothing but what is celestial and spiritual, that is, nothing but what is of love and of faith; as may also be sufficiently evident from the signification of the clean and useful beasts, explained above (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 776). As in the Most Ancient Churches these were significative of heavenly goods, they afterwards became representative in the church, when worship merely external, which was also representative, was valued and acknowledged.
 As the state of the church is here treated of, and it is foretold what that state is to be, this was shown to Abram by similar representatives, exactly as is here related; but still such things are signified in the internal sense, as indeed every one may know and think; for what would be the need of taking a heifer three years old, a she-goat three years old, a ram three years old, a turtledove, and a young pigeon, of dividing them into two parts, and placing them so, unless everything had been significative? But what these things signified may be seen from what follows.
AC 1824. That "a heifer" signifies the representatives of exterior celestial things, a she-goat" the representatives of interior celestial things, and "a ram" those of spiritual celestial things, may be seen from the sacrifices, concerning which, of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter, where the sacrifices are treated of. There are exterior celestial things, and interior celestial things, as well as spiritual celestial things. Exterior celestial things are those which are of the external man, interior celestial things are those which are of the internal man, and spiritual celestial things are those which are derived from these. The celestial itself is love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor. This celestial flows in from the Lord, and in fact through the internal man into the external. In the interior man this is called the interior celestial; in the external man the exterior celestial. The exterior celestial is all affection of good; nay, it is also all the pleasure which comes from the affection of good. So far as the good of love and of charity is in these, that is, in the affection of good and in the pleasure derived from it, so far the celestial is in them, and also happiness. But the spiritual celestial is all the affection of truth in which there is the affection of good, or the affection of truth which is begotten by the affection of good; thus it is faith in which is charity, or faith which is begotten by charity.
AC 1825. That "three years old" involves all things of the church as to times and states, is evident from the signification of "three" in the Word. By "three" is signified the full time of the church, from its origin even to its end, and thus all its state. The last time of the church is therefore signified by the third day, the third week, the third month, the third year and the third age, which are all the same. As the state of the church is signified by the number three, so also is the state of every one who is a church, and everything which is of the church, as may be seen from the signification of this number in the passages adduced from the Word (n. 720, 901).
 That "a heifer of three years" thus signifies the time or state of the church even to the last, that is, when it has been vastated or made desolate, may also be seen in Isaiah:--
My heart crieth out upon Moab; her fugitives are unto Zoar, a heifer of three years old; for by the ascent of Luhith, with weeping he shall go up in it; for in the way of Horonaim they shall raise up a cry of breaking to pieces (Isaiah 15:5).
Also in Jeremiah:--
Gladness and exultation are gathered from Carmel, and from the land of Moab; and I will make wine to cease from the winepresses; none shall tread with shouting; the shouting shall be no shouting. From the cry of Heshbon even unto Elealeh, even unto Jahaz have they uttered their voice, from Zoar even unto Horonaim, a heifer of three years old; for the waters of Nimrim also shall become desolations (Jeremiah 48:33, 34).
No one could possibly perceive what these things mean unless he knew what is signified by "Moab," by "Zoar," "the ascent of Luhith," "the cry of Heshbon unto Elealeh," by "Jahaz," by "Horonaim," "the waters of Nimrim," and by "a heifer three years old." That this is an uttermost vastation is plain.
AC 1826. And a turtle-dove and a young pigeon. That this signifies the representatives of the spiritual things of the church, is evident from the signification of birds in general and of turtle-doves and pigeons in particular. That "birds" signify spiritual things, which are those of faith or of truth, and therefore are intellectual and rational things, was shown above (n. 40, 745, 776, 991); also that "doves" signify the goods and truths of faith (n. 870). What they signified in the sacrifices shall of the Lords Divine mercy be stated in what follows, where the sacrifices are treated of. In the Word, especially in the prophetic part, when celestial things are spoken of, spiritual things also are spoken of, and in this way they are conjoined; because the one is from the other, so that the one is the others (n. 639, 680, 683, 707, 793, 801).
AC 1827. That "a turtle-dove" signifies the representatives of exterior spiritual things, and "a young pigeon" the representatives of interior spiritual things, may be seen from what has been said respecting celestial things, of which the exterior were signified by the "heifer," the interior by the "she-goat," and the intermediate by the "ram."
AC 1828. Verse 10. And he took unto him all these and divided them in the midst, and laid each part over against the other; and the birds he did not divide. "He took unto him all these," signifies that it was so done; "and divided them in the midst," signifies the church and the Lord; "and laid each part over against the other," signifies a parallelism and correspondence as to celestial things; "and the birds he did not divide," signifies spiritual things, wherein there was not such parallelism and correspondence.
AC 1829. He took unto him all these. That this signifies that it was so done, is evident without explication.
AC 1830. And divided them in the midst. That this signifies the church and the Lord, is evident from what follows; for celestial things were signified by the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram, and spiritual things by the turtle-dove and the young pigeon; and these, when divided and placed opposite to each other, can have no other signification.
AC 1831. And laid each part over against the other. That this signifies a parallelism and correspondence as to the celestial things, may be seen from the consideration that the parts on one side signify the church, and the parts on the other the Lord; and when these are placed opposite to each other, this is nothing else than a parallelism and correspondence; and as the heifer, the she-goat, and the ram were so divided and placed, and by these celestial things are signified (verse 9), it is evident that there is a parallelism and correspondence as to celestial things. It is otherwise with spiritual things, concerning which presently. Celestial things, as has often been said, are all that pertain to love to the Lord and to love toward the neighbor. It is the Lord who gives love and charity; it is the church that receives. What unites is conscience, in which the love and charity are implanted; and therefore the middle space between the parts signifies that in man which is called perception, internal dictate, and conscience. The things which are above the perception, dictate, and conscience, are the Lords; those which are below, are in man. Because they thereby mutually regard each other, there is said to be a parallelism; and because they correspond to each other, as the active and the passive, there is said to be correspondence.
AC 1832. And the birds he did not divide. That this signifies spiritual things, and that in them there is not such a parallelism and correspondence, is evident from the signification of "birds," as being what is spiritual (as distinguished from what is celestial), and as treated of in (verse 9), just above and from the statement that he did not divide the birds in the midst; consequently that there is not such a parallelism and correspondence. By spiritual things are signified, as often said before, all the things of faith, consequently all doctrinal things, for these are called things of faith, although they are not of faith until they have been conjoined with charity. Between these and the Lord there is not a parallelism and correspondence, for they are such things as do not flow in by internal dictate and conscience, as do those which are of love and charity, but they flow in by instruction, and so by hearing, thus not from the interior, but from the exterior, and in this way they form their vessels or recipients in man.
 The greater part of them appear as if they were truths, but are not truths, such as those things which are of the literal sense of the Word, and are representatives of truth and significatives of truth, and thus are not in themselves truths; some of them even being falsities, which however can serve as vessels and recipients. But in the Lord there are none but truths that are essentially such; and therefore with these there is no parallelism and correspondence on the part of those apparent truths, but still they may be so adapted as to serve as vessels for the celestial things which are of love and charity. These apparent truths are what constitute the cloud of the intellectual part, before spoken of, into which the Lord insinuates charity, and so makes conscience.
 For example: with those who remain in the sense of the letter of the Word, and suppose that it is the Lord who leads into temptation and who then torments mans conscience, and who suppose that because He permits evil He is the cause of evil, and that He thrusts the evil down into hell, with other similar things: these are apparent truths, but are not truths; and because they are not truths that are such in themselves, there is no parallelism and correspondence. Still the Lord leaves them intact in man, and miraculously adapts them by means of charity so that they can serve celestial things as vessels. So also with the worship, the religious teachings and morals, and even with the idols, of the well-disposed Gentiles these likewise the Lord leaves intact, and yet adapts them by means of charity so that they also serve as vessels. The case was the same in regard to the very numerous rites in the Ancient Church, and afterwards in the Jewish Church; which in themselves were nothing but rituals in which there was not truth, but which were tolerated and permitted, and indeed commanded, because they were held as sacred by parents, and so were implanted in the minds of children and impressed upon them from infancy as truths.
 These and other such things are what are signified by the statement that the birds were not divided. For the things that are once implanted in a mans opinion, and are accounted as holy, the Lord leaves intact, provided they are not contrary to Divine order; and although there is no parallelism and correspondence, still He adapts them. These same things are what was signified in the Jewish Church by the birds not being divided in the sacrifices; for to divide is to place the parts opposite to each other in such a manner that they may adequately correspond; and because the things which have been spoken of are not adequately in correspondence, they are obliterated in the other life with those who suffer themselves to be instructed, and truths themselves are implanted in their affections of good. That in the Jewish Church for the sake of this representation and signification the birds were not divided, is evident in Moses:--
If his offering to Jehovah be a burnt-offering of birds, then he shall bring his offering of turtle-doves or of the sons of the pigeon. And he shall cleave it with its wings, he shall not divide it (Lev. 1:14, 17).
And the same in the case of the sacrifices for sin (Lev. 5:7, 8).
AC 1833. Verse 11. And the fowls came down upon the bodies, and Abram drove them away. "The fowls came down upon the bodies," signifies evils and the falsities thence derived, that were desirous to destroy; "and Abram drove them away," signifies that the Lord put them to flight.
AC 1834. The fowls came down upon the bodies. That this signifies evils and the falsities thence derived that were desirous to destroy, is evident from the signification of " fowls," as being falsities. "Fowls" in the Word signify truth-- as shown above--and also in the opposite sense falsity (for almost all such things in the Word are thus used in both senses) that " fowls" signify falsity also has been shown before (n. 778, 866, 988). Every one can see that this signifies arcana otherwise it would not have been worthy of mention. What the arcanum is has also been already stated, and is evident from the series or connection of things in the internal sense, namely, that it is concerning the state of the church.
 When a church is raised up by the Lord, it is in the beginning blameless, and the one then loves the other as his brother, as is known from the case of the primitive church after the Lords coming. All the churchs children then lived together as brethren, and likewise called one another brethren, and loved one another; but in process of time charity grew cold and vanished away and as it vanished, evils succeeded, and together with these falsities insinuated themselves. Hence came schisms and heresies, which would never be the case if charity were regnant and alive, for then they would not even call schism, nor heresy, but a doctrinal matter in accordance with each persons opinion; and this they would leave to each persons conscience, provided such doctrinal matter did not deny first principles, that is, the Lord, eternal life, and the Word; and provided it was not contrary to the Divine order, that is, to the precepts of the decalogue.
 The evils and the falsities thence derived which succeed in the church when charity vanishes, are what are here meant by the fowls which Abram drove away, that is, which the Lord, who is here represented by Abram, put to flight. Abram drove away nothing but the fowls, and nothing at all of evil and falsity; nor is Abraham known in heaven except as is any other man, who can do nothing at all of himself; but the Lord alone; as also is said by Isaiah:--
Thou art our Father, for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us; Thou O Jehovah art our Father, our Redeemer; Thy name is from everlasting (Isaiah 63:16).
AC 1835. And Abram drove them away. That this signifies that the Lord put them to flight, is evident from what has been said. And such also is the case with a church when it is beginning to recede from charity. Evils and the falsities thence derived are then more easily put to flight, for as yet the church is in a state that is not so far removed from charity, and thus mens minds are more easily bent. But in process of time evils and the falsities derived from them increase, and so are confirmed and strengthened; and this is treated of in what follows.
 So far as possible the Lord is continually putting evils and falsities to flight, but through conscience. then conscience is relaxed, there is no medium through which the Lord can flow in, for the Lords influx with man is by means of charity into his conscience. But in place of this charity a new medium succeeds and is formed, which is external, namely, the fear of the law, fear for life, for honors and wealth, and the reputation from these. But these are not of conscience; they are only external bonds which enable a man to live in society with others, and to appear as a friend, whatsoever he may be inwardly.
 But this medium, or these bonds, are of no account in the other life, for there externals are removed, and every one remains as he is internally. There are very many who have lived a moral and a civic life, have injured no one, have performed acts of friendship and civility, nay, have done good to many, but only for the sake of self, with a view to honors, gain, and the like. In the other life these are among the infernals, because they have nothing of good and truth within, but only evil and falsity, nay, hatred, revenge, cruelty, adulteries, which do not appear before man, that is to say in so far as the fears just referred to, which are external bonds, prevail.
AC 1836. Verse 12. And it came to pass when the sun was going down, that a deep sleep fell upon Abram, and behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him. "The sun was going down," signifies the time and the state before the consummation; "that a deep sleep fell upon Abram," signifies that the church was then in darkness "and behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him," signifies that the darkness was terrible; "darkness" means falsities.
AC 1837. The sun was going down. That this signifies the time and the state before the consummation, is evident from the signification of "the sun." In the internal sense "the sun" signifies the Lord, and thence it signifies the celestial things which are of love and charity, consequently love itself and charity (n. 30-38, 1053). From this it is evident that the "going down of the sun" denotes the last time of the church, which is called the consummation, when there is no longer any charity. The Lords church is also compared to the times of the day; its first period to the rising of the sun, or to the dawn and the morning; its last to the setting of the sun, or to the evening and the shades then prevailing, for the two things are similarly circumstanced. The church is also compared to the times of the year; its first period to the spring, when all things are in bloom that which is before the last to the autumn, when they begin to become inactive. It is even compared to the metals; its first period is called golden; its last, iron and clay (Daniel 2:31-33). From all this it is evident what is signified by "the going down of the sun," namely, that it signifies the time and the state before the consummation, seeing that the sun had not yet set. In what follows, the state of the church when the sun has set is treated of, in that there was then thick darkness and the smoke of a furnace, and that a torch of fire passed between the pieces.
AC 1838. A deep sleep fell upon Abram. That this signifies that the church was then in darkness, is evident from the signification of " a deep sleep." A "deep sleep," relatively to one of wakefulness, denotes a dark state and this state is here attributed to the Lord, who is represented by Abram; not that there was ever with Him a deep sleep or a state of darkness, but that there was with the church. The case herein is the same as it is in the other life, where the Lord is always the Sun, and Light itself; but where before the evil He appears as darkness; for the Lord appears according to the state of each person. So here this is said of the church when it is in a state of darkness.
 Also take as an example, vastation, punishment, and condemnation, which are attributed to the Lord in many passages of the Word; when nevertheless they belong to the man of the church, who vastates, punishes, and condemns himself. It appears before man as if the Lord vastated, punished, and condemned; and because it appears so, it is so expressed according to the appearances for if man were not instructed by appearances, he would not suffer himself to be instructed at all. What is contrary to the appearance he does not believe or comprehend, except at a later period, when he possesses judgment and has been gifted with the faith of charity.
 So with the church when it is in a state of darkness, the Lord is then obscured before its people, so that He does not appear, that is, is not acknowledged; although the Lord is not at all obscured, but man, in whom and with whom the Lord should be; but still the obscuration is predicated of the Lord. So is it here with the "deep sleep," by which there is signified a dark state of the church.
AC 1839. Behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him. That this signifies that the darkness was terrible, and that "darkness" means falsities, is evident from the signification of "darkness," as being falsities, to be explained presently. The state of the church before its consummation, when the sun was " going down," is described by the "terror of great darkness;" but its state when the sun had gone down is described by the "thick darkness" and the other things mentioned in (verse 17).
 The same is thus described by the Lord in Matthew:--
The sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken (Matthew 24:29).
This does not mean that the sun of the world will be darkened, but the celestial which is of love and charity; nor the moon, but the spiritual which is of faith; nor that the stars will fall from heaven, but that the knowledges of good and truth with the man of the church will do so, for these are "the powers of the heavens;" nor will these things take place in heaven, but on earth; for heaven is never darkened.
 That "a terror of great darkness fell upon him," means that the Lord was horrified at so great a vastation. So far as any one is in the celestial things of love, so far does he feel horror when he perceives a consummation. So it was with the Lord, above all others; for He was in love itself, both celestial and Divine.
 That "darkness" signifies falsities is evident from very many passages in the Word; as in Isaiah:--
Woe unto them that put darkness for light, and light for darkness (Isaiah 5:20);
"darkness" denotes falsities, and "light" truths. In the same:--
He shall look onto the land, and behold darkness, distress, and the light is darkened (Isaiah 5:30);
"darkness" denoting falsities, and "the light darkened" the truth not appearing.
 In the same:--
Behold, darkness covereth the earth, and thick darkness the peoples (Isaiah 60:2).
The day of Jehovah, it is darkness, and not light. Shall not the day of Jehovah be darkness, and not light? and thick darkness and no brightness in it? (Amos 5:18, 20).
The great day of Jehovah is near; that day is a day of wrath, a day of straitness and distress, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and thick darkness, a day of cloud and shade (Zephaniah 1:14, 15).
In these passages, the "day of Jehovah" denotes the last time and state of the church; "darkness and thick darkness" falsities and evils.
 The Lord likewise calls falsities "darkness" in Matthew:--
If thine eye be evil, thy whole body is darkened. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness (Matthew 6:33).
"Darkness" here denotes the falsities which take possession of those who are in knowledges; and the meaning is, how great is this darkness above that of others, or of the Gentiles, who have not knowledges.
 Again in Matthew:--
The sons of the kingdom shall be cast out into the outer darkness (Matthew 8:12; 22:13).
"The outer darkness" denotes the more direful falsities of those who are in the church; for they darken the light, and bring up falsities against truths, which Gentiles cannot do. In John:--
In Him was life, and the life was the light of men and the light appeareth in the darkness, but the darkness comprehended it not (John 1:4, 5).
"The darkness" here denotes falsities within the church.
 Falsities outside of the church are also called "darkness," but such as can be illuminated. Such are spoken of in Matthew:--
The people that sat in darkness saw a great light, and to them that sat in the region and shadow of death, did light spring up (Matthew 4:16)
"darkness" here denoting the falsities of ignorance, such as are those of the Gentiles.
 In John:--
And this is the judgment, that the Light is come into the world, but men loved the darkness rather than the Light, for their works were evil (John 3:19)
"the Light" denotes truths, and "the darkness" falsities; and "the Light" denotes the Lord, because all truth is from Him; and "the darkness" the hells, because all falsity is from them.
Jesus said, I am the Light of the world; he that followeth Me shall not walk in the darkness (John 8:12).
Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness seize upon you, for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither he goeth. I am come a light into the world, that whosever believeth in Me may not abide in the darkness (John 12:35, 46).
"The light" denotes the Lord, from whom are all good and truth; "the darkness" falsities, which are dispersed by the Lord alone.
 The falsities of the last times, which are called "darkness" in the verse before us, or of which the "terror of great darkness" is predicated, were represented and signified by the darkness that came upon the whole earth, from the sixth hour to the ninth (at the crucifixion), and also by the sun being then darkened, by which was represented and signified that there was then no longer either love or faith (Matt. 27:45; Mark 15:33; Luke 23:44, 45).
AC 1840. Verse 13. And He said unto Abram, Knowing thou shall know that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years. "He said unto Abram," signifies a perception; "knowing thou shalt know," signifies that it is certain; "thy seed shall be a stranger," signifies that charity and faith shall be rare; in a land that is not theirs," signifies where there is a church that is as it were not composed of those who are in charity and faith; "and they shall serve them," signifies oppression; "and they shall afflict them," signifies their severe temptations "four hundred years," signifies the duration and state.
AC 1841. He said unto Abram. That this signifies a perception, is evident from what has been already said (verse 9) and elsewhere), where the same words have the same signification.
AC 1842. Knowing thou shalt know. That this signifies that it is certain, is evident without explication.
AC 1843. Thy seed shall be a stranger. That this signifies that charity and faith shall be rare, is evident from the signification of "a stranger," and of "seed." A "stranger" or "sojourner" signifies one that is not born in the land, so that he is not acknowledged as a native, and thus is looked upon as an alien. But "seed" signifies charity and its faith (n. 255, 1025), (verse 3). Because that is called "strange" which is looked upon as alien, and alien is that which is not in the land or of the land, it follows that it is that which is rare; and consequently it here means that charity and the faith of charity, which are the "seed," will be rare. It is the time before the consummation that is here treated of, when there shall be "great darkness," that is, falsities; the seed shall then be a stranger, that is, charity and faith will then be rare.
 That faith would be rare in the last times was foretold by the Lord when He spoke of the consummation of the age (Matt. 24:4-51; Mark 13:3-37; Luke 21:7-38), where everything that is said implies that charity and faith will be rare at those times, and that at last there will be none. The like is said by John in the Apocalypse, and also in many passages of the Prophets, besides what is said in the historical parts of the Word.
 But by the faith that will perish in the last times there is meant nothing but charity, for there cannot possibly be any faith but the faith of charity. He who has not charity cannot have any faith at all, for charity is the very soil in which faith is implanted; it is its heart, from which it exists and lives. The ancients therefore compared love and charity to the heart, and faith to the lungs, both of which are in the breast. This comparison involves a real likeness, seeing that if a man should pretend to a life of faith without charity, it would be like having life from the lungs alone without the heart, which is manifestly impossible and therefore the ancients called all things that pertain to charity things of the heart, and all things that pertain to faith without charity they said were of the mouth only, or of the lungs by the influx of the breathing into the speech. Thence came the ancient forms of speech concerning good and truth that they must go forth from the heart.
AC 1844. In a land which is not theirs. That this signifies where there is a church that is as it were not composed of those who are in charity and faith, is evident from the signification of "a land," as being the church (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067). At this day men speak of the church as existing from the mere doctrinals of faith, and thereby distinguish the churches of the Lord, not caring what life men live-whether they cherish inward hatreds, and tear one another like wild beasts, rob one another, and deprive others of reputation, honor, and wealth, and at heart deny whatever is holy. And yet with such there is no church at all; but the church is with those who love the Lord, and who love the neighbor as themselves, who have conscience, and are averse to such hatreds as have been mentioned. But among those previously described these men are like strangers, and are treated with the utmost possible abuse and persecution, or else are regarded as being simple, mean, and of no account. This then is what is meant by "thy seed shall be a stranger in the land."
AC 1845. And they shall serve theirs. That this signifies oppression, may be seen from what has just been said.
AC 1846. And they shall afflict them. That this signifies their severe temptations, may be seen from the signification of "afflicting," or of "affliction," as being persecution, consequently temptation. In the Word of the Lord nothing else is signified by "affliction." As in Isaiah:--
I will purge thee, and not with silver; I will choose thee in the furnace of affliction (Isaiah 48:10),
"affliction" denoting temptation. In Moses:--
Thou shalt remember all the way by which Jehovah thy God hath led thee these forty years in the wilderness, that He might afflict thee, to tempt thee. Jehovah, who fed thee in the wilderness with manna which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and that He might tempt thee, to do thee good at thy latter end (Deut. 8:2, 16);
to "afflict" manifestly denotes to tempt.
 In the same:--
When the Egyptians did evil unto us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard servitude and we cried unto Jehovah, the God of our fathers, and Jehovah heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression (Deut. 26:6, 7).
Here we find the same things as in the present verse: that they "served" and were "afflicted," by which in like manner are signified the temptations of the faithful, as likewise by their afflictions in the wilderness, by which also there were represented the temptations of the Lord.
 As in Isaiah:--
He was despised, a man of sorrows, and we hid as it were our faces from Him; He was despised, and we esteemed Him not. But truly He hath borne our diseases, and carried our sorrows; yet we did esteem Him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted (Isaiah 53:3, 4).
By these words are signified the Lords temptations; by His "bearing our sicknesses, and carrying our sorrows," is not meant that the faithful are to undergo no temptations, nor is it meant that He took their sins upon Himself, and so bore them; but it means that by the combats and victories of temptations He overcame the hells, and in this way would alone, even as to His Human Essence, endure the temptations of the faithful.
 Temptations are also called by the Lord "afflictions;" as in Mark:--
They that are sown upon stony places, when they have heard the Word have no root in themselves, but endure for a while; afterwards, when affliction and persecution arise because of the Word, straightway they are offended (Mark 4:16, 17).
"Affliction" here manifestly denotes temptation; to "have no root in themselves," is to have no charity, for in this is faith rooted, and they who have not the support of this root yield in temptations. In John:--
In the world ye have affliction; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world (John 16:33).
"Affliction" here denotes temptation.
 In Matthew:--
Nation shall be stirred up against nation and kingdom against kingdom all these things are the beginning of sorrows. Then shall they deliver you up unto affliction. Then shall be great affliction, such as hath not been from the beginning of the world. Immediately after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened (Matthew 24:7-9, 21, 29).
Here the consummation of the age, or the last times of the church, are treated of; "affliction" denotes temptations, both external and internal, the external being persecutions from the world, and the internal being persecutions from the devil. That there will be no charity, is signified by "nation being stirred against nation, and kingdom against kingdom;" also by "the sun," that is, the Lord and love and charity, being "darkened."
AC 1847. Four hundred years. That this signifies the duration and state, namely, of the temptations, is evident from the signification of "four hundred," which number signifies the same as "forty," namely, the durations and states of temptations (n. 730, 862). The durations of temptations, both the shorter and the more lasting, are described in the Word by "forty." In the literal sense the words before us relate to the stay of the sons of Jacob in Egypt; and that this was four hundred and thirty years is evident from (Exodus 12:40); though the time was not so great as reckoned from Jacobs coming into Egypt, but it was reckoned from Abrams sojourn there, as has been observed before. The number four hundred and thirty is mentioned, from Abrams sojourn, for the reason that this number involves the temptations which they represented by their servitude in Egypt, and afterwards also by the forty years afflictions in the wilderness.
AC 1848. Verse 14. And also that nation whom they shall serve will I judge, and after that shall they go out with great substance. And also that nation whom they shall serve," signifies the evil who oppress "will I judge," signifies visitation and judgment; "and after that shall they go out with great substance," signifies deliverance, and that they will have celestial and spiritual goods.
AC 1849. And also that nation whom they shall serve. That this signifies the evil who oppress, is evident from the signification of a "nation" and of "serving." In the genuine sense a "nation" signifies goods, or what is the same, good persons; for when goods are spoken of in the abstract, they are in a subject; and this is a man, a spirit, or an angel. But in the opposite sense a "nation" signifies evils, or what is the same, the evil (n. 1159, 1258-1260). But to "serve," or "servitude," signifies oppression, as in the preceding verse.
AC 1850. Will I judge. That this signifies visitation and judgment, may be seen without explication. By "judging," or "judgment," there is not signified any last judgment, as people in general suppose, that is, that the heaven and the earth are to perish, and that so a new heaven and a new earth will be created, as spoken of in the Prophets and in the Apocalypse; and thus that all things are to perish, which opinion has spread itself so widely that it has even taken possession of the minds of those who are best instructed; and this to such a degree that they do not believe that the dead are to rise except at that time. And therefore because this time was foretold, and still, after so many centuries have since passed by, they see that it has not come and is not at hand, feeling safe they confirm themselves in their assurance that there is no such thing, and therefore that they will not rise again. But it is to be known that by the last judgment, or by the destruction of heaven and earth, no such thing is meant. According to the sense of the letter it is so; but not at all according to the internal sense: in this sense the last judgment means the last time of the church; the heaven and earth that will perish, mean the church as to internal and external worship, which becomes no church when there is no charity.
 There was a last judgment of the Most Ancient Church when all charity and faith had failed, and when there was no perception, as was the case just before the flood. The flood itself, treated of above, was the last judgment of that church; heaven and earth, that is, the church, then perished; and a new heaven and a new earth, that is, a new church, were created, which was called the Ancient Church, and which also has been treated of. This church likewise had its last time, namely, when all charity grew cold and all faith was darkened, which was about the time of Eber. This time was the last judgment of that church; which was the heaven and earth that had perished.
 The Hebrew Church was a new heaven and a new earth, and this too had its last time, or last judgment, when it became idolatrous; and the" a new church was raised up among the descendants of Jacob, which was called the Jewish Church, and which was a church that was merely representative of charity and faith. In this church, that is, among the descendants of Jacob, there was neither charity nor faith, and therefore no church, but only the representative of a church, for the reason that it had become impossible for there to be immediate communication of the Lords kingdom in the heavens with any true church on earth, and therefore a mediate communication was effected by means of representatives. The last time of this so-called church, or its last judgment, was when the Lord came into the world; for the representatives then ceased, that is, the sacrifices and similar rites; and in order that these might cease, the Jews were cast out of the land of Canaan.
 After this a new heaven and a new earth were created, that is, a new church, which is to be called the Primitive Church, which was commenced by the Lord, and afterwards gradually became stronger, and which at first was in charity and faith. The destruction of this church is foretold by the Lord in the Gospels, and by John in the Apocalypse; and this destruction is what is called the Last Judgment. Not that heaven and earth are now to perish, but that in some quarter of the globe a new church will be raised up, the present one remaining in its external worship, as the Jews do in theirs, in whose worship it is well known that there is nothing of charity and faith, that is, nothing of the church. So far as regards the last judgment in general.
 In particular, there is a last judgment for every one immediately after he dies; for he then passes into the other life, in which, when he comes into the life that he had in the body, he is adjudged either to death or to life. There is also a last judgment in the singular, for with a man who is adjudged to death, every single thing condemns him, for there is nothing in his thought and will, not even the least thing, that does not resemble his last judgment, and that does not drag him to death. In like manner with the man who is adjudged to life: in him every single thing of his thought and of his will presents an image of his last judgment, and all carry him on to life. For such as is man in general, such is he in the singulars of his thought and of his affection. These are the things that are signified by the last judgment.
AC 1851. And after that shall they go out with great substance. That this signifies deliverance, and that they will have celestial and spiritual goods, is evident from the signification of "going out," which is to be liberated, and from the signification of "substance," which is celestial and spiritual goods, for this is the substance of those who suffer the persecutions, and undergo the temptations, oppressions, afflictions, or servitudes, that are treated of in this and the preceding verses. These goods are also represented and signified by the substance of the sons of Jacob when they went out of Egypt (Exod. 11:2; 12:36) and also by their substance in the land of Canaan when the nations had been driven out; and in the Prophets, whenever the spoils taken from their enemies are treated of, by which they were enriched.
AC 1852. Verse 15. And thou shall go to thy fathers in peace, thou shall be buried in a good old age. " Thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace," signifies that nothing of the goods and truths shall be harmed; "thou shalt be buried in a good old age," signifies the enjoyment of all goods by those who are the Lords.
AC 1853. Thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace. That this signifies that nothing of the goods and truths shall be harmed, may be seen from the signification of "fathers," also of "going to ones fathers," and of "peace." In the internal sense, "fathers" here signify the same as "daughters" and "sons" taken together. That "daughters" signify goods, and "sons" truths, has been shown before (n. 489-491, 533, 1147); hence "fathers" signify the things which belong to daughters and sons together. To "go to ones fathers" is to pass from the life of the body into the life of the spirit, or from the world into the other life. "In peace," signifies that he shall lose nothing, and thus that nothing shall be harmed, for he who passes into the other life loses nothing of the things that belong to him as a man; he retains and has with him everything except the body, which had been an impediment to the interior exercise of his faculties. That no death, or passing to the fathers by death, is here meant, will be evident from what next follows.
AC 1854. Thou shalt be buried in a good old age. That this signifies the enjoyment of all goods by those who are the Lords, is evident from the fact that those who die and are buried do not die, but pass from an obscure life into a clear one. For the death of the body is merely the continuation and also the perfection of the life, and they who are the Lords then first come into the enjoyment of all goods, which enjoyment is signified by "a good old age." The expressions that they "died," were "buried," and were "gathered to their fathers," are often met with, but in the internal sense these do not signify the same as in the sense of the letter. In the eternal sense are such things as are of the life after death and are eternal; but in the sense of the letter are such as are of the life in the world and belong to time.
 Consequently they who are in the internal sense (as the angels are) when such expressions are met with never abide in ideas of death and burial, but in such as relate to the continuance of life, for they regard death as nothing but the putting off of those things which are of grossest nature and of time, and as being a continuation of the real life; in fact they do not know what death is, for they think nothing about it. And the like is the case with the ages of man, so that when it is here said "in a good old age," the angels have no perception at all of old age, indeed they do not know what old age is, for they are constantly verging toward the life of early manhood and of youth. Such life, and consequently the celestial and spiritual things of it, are what are meant when "a good old age" and similar expressions occur in the Word.
AC 1855. Verse 16. And in the fourth generation they shall return hither, for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated. "In the fourth generation they shall return hither," signifies the time and state of restoration; "for the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated," signifies the last time, when there is no longer any good.
AC 1856. In the fourth generation they shall return hither. That this signifies the time and state of restoration, is evident from the signification of " the fourth generation." "The fourth generation" signifies the same as " forty" and as "four hundred;" namely, the duration and the state of temptation, spoken of at (verse 13); it is a sort of diminutive from these. Whether a number be larger or smaller, provided it be of the same stock, it involves the same; as has already been stated several times. That "the fourth generation" does not signify any generation from Abram, or from Isaac, or from Jacob, is evident from the historicals of the Word; for there were more generations, and these people were very different from their fathers when they returned. "The fourth generation" is an expression that occurs likewise in other places, yet in the internal sense it never signifies any generation; and here it signifies the time and state of restoration, because it signifies the end of those things which are signified by "forty" or by "four hundred" (n. 862, 1847).
AC 1857. For the iniquity of the Amorites is not yet consummated. That this signifies the last time, when there is no longer any good, is evident from the signification of "the Amorite," and also from the signification of "consummation." By "the Amorite" in the Word, is signified evil in general, for the reason that the land of Canaan was called the land of the Amorites (Ezek. 16:3, 4; Amos 2:9, 10). And therefore by "the Amorite" in this passage are signified all the nations of the land of Canaan; and by these, as before said, were signified evils and falsities specifically; and consequently by "the Amorite" are signified all evils in general. By "consummation" is signified the last time, when there is no longer any good.
 But what is meant in the internal sense by the fact that the iniquity of the Amorites was not yet consummated, is an arcanum. For the state of the case with the evil in the other life is that they are not punished until their evils have reached their height, and this both in general and in particular. For such is the equilibrium in the other life that evil punishes itself, that is to say those who are evil run into the punishment of their evil, but only when it has reached its height. Every evil has its limit that varies in each individual case, beyond which it is not allowable to pass. When an evil person passes beyond this limit he precipitates himself into the penalty, and this is so in every particular.
 It is the same in general, the wicked thrust themselves down into hell, not in a moment, but successively. This has its origin in the universal law of order established by the Lord, that the Lord never casts any one down into bell; but that evil casts itself down, or that the evil person casts himself down, and this successively, until the evil has been consummated, and nothing of good any longer appears. So long as there is any good, he is uplifted above hell; but when there is nothing but evil, of himself he is thrust down into it. Good and evil must first be separated from each other, for they are opposites and no one is allowed to incline both ways. This is what is signified by the iniquity of the Amorites having to be consummated. But with the good the case is otherwise; they are continually uplifted by the Lord toward heaven, and their evil is successively wiped away.
 The same is the case with the state of a church. The visitation does not come until its evil has been consummated, that is, until there is no longer any good of charity and truth of faith. This consummation is very often spoken of in the Prophets. As in Isaiah:--
A consummation and a decree have I heard from the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth upon the whole earth (Isaiah 28:22).
O Babel, that dwellest upon many waters, great in treasures, thine end is come, the measure of thy gain (Jeremiah 51:13).
Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon the city of thy holiness, to consummate the transgression, and to seal up sins, and to expiate iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up vision and prophet, and to anoint the holy of holies (Daniel 9:24).
At length upon the bird of abominations shall be desolation, and even unto the consummation and the decree shall it pour itself out upon the devastation (Daniel 9:27).
 The consummation is also foretold by the Lord Himself in these words of Luke:--
They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led captive among all the nations; and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations, until the times of the nations shall be fulfilled (Luke 21:24).
To "fall by the edge of the sword," signifies by falsities, for "a sword" in the Word is the punishment of what is false; " Jerusalem" denotes the Lords kingdom and the church (n. 402); "nations" evils (n. 1260). Thus the signification is that there would be a consummation when the church should be possessed by evils and falsities, and so be destroyed of itself.
AC 1858. Verse 17. And it came to pass that the sun went down, and there was thick darkness; and behold a furnace of smoke, and a torch of fire, which passed between those pieces. "And it came to pass that the sun went down," signifies the last time, when the consummation came; "and there was thick darkness," signifies when hatred was in the place of charity; "and behold a furnace of smoke," signifies the densest falsity; "and a torch of fire," signifies the burning heat of cupidities; "which passed between those pieces," signifies that it separated those who were of the church from the Lord.
AC 1859. And it came to pass that the sun went down. That this signifies the last time, when the consummation came, is evident from what was said above (verse 12) concerning the setting of the sun and its signification, namely, that it is the last time of the church.
AC 1860. And there was thick darkness. That this signifies when hatred was in the place of charity, is evident from the signification of "thick darkness." In the Word "darkness" signifies falsities, and "thick darkness" evils. There is "darkness" when falsity is in the place of truth; and there is "thick darkness" when evil is in the place of good, or what is precisely the same, when hatred is in the place of charity. When hatred is in the place of charity, the thick darkness is so great that the man is quite unaware that it is evil, still less that it is so great an evil as in the other life to thrust him down to hell, for they who are in hatred perceive a kind of delight and as it are a kind of life in it, and this delight and life themselves cause him scarcely to know but that it is good, for whatever favors a mans pleasure and cupidity, because it favors his love, he feels as good, and this to such a degree that when he is told that it is infernal he can scarcely believe it, still less when he is told that such delight and life are in the other life turned into an excrementitious and cadaverous stench. And still less does he believe that he is becoming a devil and a horrible image of hell; for hell consists of nothing but hatreds and such diabolical forms.
 Yet any one might know this who possesses any faculty for thinking, for if he should describe or represent, or if he could in any manner picture, hatred, he would do it no otherwise than by diabolical forms, such as those who are in hatred also become after death, and, wonderful to say, such men are capable of declaring that in the other life they shall come into heaven; some merely for saying that they have faith, when yet there are in heaven none but forms of charity, and what these are may be seen from experience (n. 553). Let all such therefore consider how these two forms, of hatred and of charity, can agree together in one place.
 That "darkness" signifies falsity, and "thick darkness" evil, may be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:--
Behold, darkness covereth the earth, and thick darkness the peoples (Isaiah 60:2).
Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble, for the day of Jehovah cometh, a day of darkness and thick darkness (Joel 2:1, 2).
That day is a day of wrath, a day of wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and thick darkness (Zephaniah 1:15).
Shall not the day of Jehovah be darkness and not light, and thick darkness and no brightness in it? (Amos 5:20).
In these passages "the day of Jehovah" denotes the last time of the church, which is here treated of; "darkness" denotes falsities, " thick darkness" evils both therefore are mentioned; otherwise it would be a repetition of the same thing, or an unmeaning amplification. But the word in the original language that in this verse is rendered "thick darkness" involves falsity as well as evil, that is, dense falsity from which is evil, and also dense evil from which is falsity.
AC 1861. And behold a furnace of smoke and a torch of fire. That "a furnace of smoke" signifies the densest falsity, and " a torch of fire" the burning heat of cupidities, is evident from the signification of "a furnace of smoke" as being dense falsity, and from the signification of "a torch of fire" as being the burning heat of cupidities. It is said "a furnace of smoke," because a man, especially a man of the church, who has a knowledge of the truth and still does not acknowledge, but in heart denies it, and indeed passes his life in things contrary to the truth, appears no otherwise than as a furnace of smoke-- himself as the furnace, and the falsity from his hatreds as the smoke. The cupidities from which are the falsities appear as torches of fire from such a furnace, as is evident also from the representatives in the other life, described from experience, (n. 814, 1528). It is cupidities of hatred, revenge, cruelties, adulteries--and still more when these are mingled with deceits-- that appear and become such things.
 That by a "furnace," "smoke," and "fire" such things are signified in the Word may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--
Every one is a hypocrite and a wicked one, and every mouth speaketh folly. For wickedness burneth as the fire, it devoureth the briars and thorns, and kindleth in the thickets of the forest, and they mount up as the rising of smoke. In the wrath of Jehovah Zebaoth is the land darkened, and the people is become like food for fire; a man shall not spare his brother (Isaiah 9:17-19).
Here "fire" denotes hatreds and "the rising of smoke" from it such falsities; hatred is described by "no man sparing his brother;" for when such men are looked upon by the angels they appear no otherwise than as here described.
 In Joel:--
I will show wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day of Jehovah come (Joel 2:30, 31).
Here "fire" denotes hatred; "pillars of smoke" falsities; "the sun" charity; and "the moon" faith.
 In Isaiah:--
The land shall become burning pitch; it shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up to eternity (Isaiah 34:9, 10).
"Burning pitch" denotes direful cupidities; and "smoke" falsities.
 In Malachi:--
Behold the day cometh burning as a furnace, and all the proud and every one that worketh wickedness shall be stubble, and the day that cometh shall set them on fire, it shall leave them neither root nor branch (Malachi 4:1).
A "burning furnace" here denotes the same as before; the "root" denotes charity; the " branch" truth, which shall not be left.
 In Hosea:--
Ephraim became guilty in Baal, he shall be as the chaff that is driven with the whirlwind out of the threshing-floor, and as the smoke out of the chimney (Hosea 13:1, 3).
"Ephraim" denotes an intelligent man who becomes such.
 In Isaiah:--
The strong shall be as tow, and his work as a spark; and they shall both burn together, and none shall quench them (Isaiah 1:31)
meaning those who are in the love of self, or what is the same, in hatred against the neighbor, in that they shall be thus kindled by their own cupidities. In John:--
Babylon is become a habitation of demons. They cried out when they saw the smoke of her burning. Her smoke goeth up for ever and ever (Rev. 18:2, 18; 19:3).
 In the same:--
He opened the pit of the abyss, and there went up a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace and the sun was darkened, and the air, from the smoke of the pit (Rev. 9:2).
In the same:--
Out of the mouths of the horses went forth fire and smoke and brimstone. By these was the third part of men killed, by the fire and the smoke and the brimstone, that went forth out of their mouth (Rev. 9:17, 18).
In the same:--
He that worshipeth the beast shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God poured out unmixed in the cup of His anger, and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone (Rev. 14:9, 10).
In the same:--
The fourth angel poured out his vial upon the sun, and it was given to him to scorch men with fire; and men were scorched with great heat, and blasphemed the name of God (Rev. 16:8, 9).
In like manner it is said that
They were cast into the lake of fire burning with brimstone (Rev. 19:20; 20:14, 15; 21:8).
 In these passages "fire" denotes the cupidities, and " smoke" the falsities that will reign in the last times. These things were seen by John when his interior sight was opened, just as they appear in the other life. Similar things are also seen by spirits, and by souls after death. Hence it may be seen what hell fire is, that it is nothing but hatred, revenge, and cruelty, or what is the same, the love of self; for such do these become. During his life in the body, any man of such a quality, however he might appear outwardly, if inspected closely by the angels would appear no otherwise in their eyes, that is, his hatreds would appear as torches of fire, and the falsities derived from them as furnaces of smoke.
 Concerning this fire the Lord thus speaks in Matthew:--
Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and cast into the fire (Matthew 3:10; Luke 3:9);
by "good fruit" is meant charity: he who deprives himself of this cuts himself down, and casts himself into such fire. Again:--
The Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that cause stumbling, and them that do iniquity, and shall cast them into the furnace of fire (Matthew 13:41, 42, 50),
with a like meaning. And again:--
The king saith unto those on the left hand, Depart from me, ye cursed, into the eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels (Matthew 25:41).
 That they should be "sent into the eternal fire," "the Gehenna of fire," and that "their worm should not die, and their fire should not be quenched" (Matt. 18:8, 9; Mark 9:43-49), have a like meaning. In Luke:--
Send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue; for I am tormented in this flame (Luke 16:24),
with a like meaning.
 They who are not acquainted with the arcana of the Lords kingdom suppose that the Lord casts the wicked into hell, or into such fire, which, as before said, is that of hatreds but the case is very different, for it is the man himself, or the diabolical spirit himself, who casts himself down. But because it so appears it has been expressed in the word according to the appearance, and indeed according to the fallacies of the senses; and especially was this necessary in the case of the Jews, who were unwilling to accept anything at all unless it were in accordance with the senses, whatever might be the fallacies thus involved. On this account the sense of the letter, especially in the prophecies, is full of such things.
 As in Jeremiah:--
Thus said Jehovah, Judge judgment in the morning, and deliver the spoiled out of the had of the oppressor, lest My fury go forth like fire, and burn, and there be none to quench it, because of the wickedness of their Works (Jeremiah 21:12).
To "judge judgment" is to speak truth; to "deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor," is to do the good of charity; "fire" denotes the infernal punishment of those who do not do these things, that is, who pass their lives in the falsity of hatred. In the sense of the letter such "fire" and "fury" are attributed to Jehovah, but in the internal sense it is quite the contrary.
 In like manner in Joel:--
The day of Jehovah: a fire devoureth before Him, and behind Him a flame burneth (Joel 2:1, 3).
There went up a smoke out of His nostrils, and fire out of His mouth devoured, coals did burn from Him, and thick darkness was under His feet (Ps. 18:8, 9).
A fire is kindled in Mine anger, and it shall burn unto the lowest hell, and shall devour the earth and her increase, and set on fire the foundations of the mountains (Deut. 32:22),
where "fire" denotes the hatreds, and "smoke" the falsities which are in men, which are attributed to Jehovah or the Lord for the reasons that have been given. In the hells also the appearance is that Jehovah or the Lord does this, but it is quite the contrary; they do it to themselves, because they are in the fires of hatred. Hence it is manifest how easily a man may fall into phantasies if the internal sense of the Word is not known.
 It was similar with the "smoke" and "fire" that were seen by the people on Mount Sinai when the law was promulgated. For Jehovah, or the Lord, appears to every one according to his quality--to celestial angels as a Sun, to spiritual angels as a Moon, to all the good as a Light of varied delight and pleasantness but to the evil as a smoke and as a consuming fire. And as when the Law was promulgated, the Jews had nothing of charity, but the love of self and of the world prevailed in them, and thus nothing but evils and falsities, He therefore appeared to them as a smoke and fire, when at the same instant He appeared to the angels as the Sun and Light of heaven.
 That He so appeared to the Jews because they were of such a character, is evident in Moses:--
The glory of Jehovah abode upon Mount Sinai, and the appearance of the glory of Jehovah was like devouring fire on the top of the mount, in the eyes of the sons of Israel (Exod. 24:16, 17).
And Mount Sinai was all of it smoking, because Jehovah descended upon it in fire, and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly (Exod. 19:18).
Ye came near and stood under the mountain, and the mountain burned with fire, even to the heart of heaven; darkness, cloud, and thick darkness and Jehovah spake unto you out of the midst of the fire (Deut. 4:11, 12; 5:22).
It came to pass when ye heard the voice out of the midst of the darkness, while the mountain did burn with fire, that ye came near unto me, and ye said, Now therefore why should we die? for this great fire will consume us if we hear the voice of Jehovah our God any more, then we shall die (Deut. 5:23-25).
 Just so would it be with any one else who should see the Lord, and who has passed his life in hatred and in the foul things of hatreds, for he could see Him no otherwise than from his hatred and its foulnesses, these being the recipients of the rays of good and truth from the Lord, and they would turn these rays into such fire, smoke, and thick darkness. From the same passages it is also plain what the "smoke of the furnace" is, and what the "torch of fire," namely, the most dense falsity and most filthy evil, that would in the last times take possession of the church.
AC 1862. That passed between those pieces. That this signifies that it separated those who were of the church from the Lord, may be seen at (verse 10) concerning the partition of the animals in the midst, as signifying a parallelism and correspondence in respect to celestial things; and that one part being placed opposite the other signified the church and the Lord; and that the intermediate space or interspace signified that which comes in between the Lord and the church, or between the Lord and the man of the church, which is conscience, in which goods and truths have been implanted by means of charity. When hatreds succeed in place of charity, and evils and falsities in place of goods and truths, there is then no conscience of what is good and true; but this middle space or interspace appears to be filled with a furnace of smoke and with torches of fire, that is, with persuasions of falsity and with hatreds, which are what altogether separate the Lord from the church.
 These are the things signified by the passing between the pieces; chiefly that of the torch of fire, for this is the love of self, or what is the same, the evil of hatred. This may also be seen in Jeremiah, where we find nearly the same words:--
I will give the men who have transgressed My covenant, who have not established the words of the covenant which they made before Me, the calf which they cut in twain and passed between the parts thereof; the princes of Judah, and the princes of Jerusalem, the eunuchs, and the priests, and all the people of the land, that passed between the parts of the calf I will even give them into the hand of their enemies, and into the hand of them that seek their souls; and their carcass shall be for food to the fowl of the heavens and to the beast of the earth (Jeremiah 34:14, 18-20).
AC 1863. Verse 18. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy, seed will I give the land, from the river of Egypt, even to the great river, the river Euphrates. "In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram," signifies the conjunction of the Lords interior man with His Internal or Jehovah; "saying, Unto thy seed will I give this land," signifies the consolations after these temptations and horrors, in that they who are in charity and in faith in Him will become heirs; "from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates," signifies the extension of spiritual and celestial things; "to the river of Egypt," is the extension of spiritual things; "to the river Euphrates," is the extension of celestial things.
AC 1864. In that day Jehovah made a covenant with Abram. That this signifies the conjunction of the Lords interior man with His Internal, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038). And as the Lord is here treated of in the internal sense, it signifies interior conjunction. For the Lord advanced more and more to conjunction and union with Jehovah His Father, until He became One, that is, the Human Essence itself also became Jehovah, who was the Lords Internal itself. These things were represented by the covenant which Jehovah made with Abram. Every one can see that Jehovah never makes a covenant with a man, for this would be contrary to the Divine. What is a man but something vile and filthy, which of itself thinks and does nothing but evil? All the good that he does is from Jehovah; from which it may be seen that this covenant, like other covenants with Abrams posterity, was nothing but a representative of the Divine, and of the celestial things of the kingdom of God; in the present case that the covenant was representative of the conjunction of the Lords Human Essence with His Divine Essence, that is, with Jehovah. That it was representative of the conjunction of the Lords interior man with His Internal, that is, Jehovah, is evident from what has been said before, namely, that by the combats and victories of temptations the Lord conjoined and united Himself more and more. What His interior man was, has been told before, namely, that it was intermediate between the internal man and the external.
AC 1865. Saying, Unto they seed will I give this land. That this signifies the consolation after these temptations and horrors, in that they who are in charity and faith in Him should become heirs, is evident from the signification of "seed," and from the signification of the "land." By the "seed of Abram" are signified love and the faith derived therefrom (n. 255, 256, 1025), consequently all those who are in charity and in faith in the Lord. But by the land of Canaan is signified the Lords kingdom; therefore to "give the land unto thy seed" signifies that the heavenly kingdom should be given as an inheritance to those who from charity have faith in Him.
 That these things were a consolation to the Lord after His temptations and horrors, may be seen without explication. For after those hard and adverse eventualities which the Lord had seen, that is to say, after he had put to flight evils and falsities--which were signified by the fowls that came down upon the bodies and that Abram drove away (verse 11)-and yet after all dense falsities infused themselves, at which He shuddered (which were signified by the "terror of great darkness" that fell upon Abram in the deep sleep, (verse 12), and yet at last mere falsities and evils took possession of the human race (which are signified by "the furnace of smoke" and "the torch of fire" which passed between the pieces, mentioned in (verse 17), that precedes this), the Lord could not but be in distress and grief; and therefore consolation now follows, such as was given above (verses 4 and 5); namely, that His seed should inherit the land, that is, that they who are in charity and in faith in Him should become heirs of His kingdom. To Him the salvation of the human race was the only consolation, for He was in Divine and celestial love, and became, even as to His Human Essence, the Divine and celestial Love itself, in which the love of all is alone regarded and is at heart.
 That the Divine love is such may be seen from the love of parents toward their children, which increases according to the degree in which it descends, that is, it becomes greater toward the more remote descendants than it is toward the immediate children. Nothing ever exists without a cause and an origin, consequently neither does this love in the human race that is characterized by a constant increase toward the descendants in succession. The cause and origin of this cannot but be from the Lord, from whom inflows all conjugial love, and that of parents toward their children, and the source of which is that His love for all is like that of a father for his sons, who desires to make all His heirs, and provides an inheritance for those who are to be born, as He does for those already born.
AC 1866. From the river Euphrates. That this signifies the extension of spiritual and celestial things--to the river of Egypt" being the extension of spiritual things, and "to the river Euphrates" being the extension of celestial things--is evident from the signification of "the river of Egypt," and from the signification of "the great river," or "the Euphrates." That these "rivers" signify the extension of spiritual and celestial things, may be seen from the signification of the land of Canaan, as being the Lords kingdom in the heavens and on the earth, in which there is nothing but the spiritual things which are of faith and the celestial things which are of mutual love; and therefore nothing but the extension of these can be meant by the boundaries of the land of Canaan. For what the land of Canaan is, what the river of Egypt is, and what the great river Euphrates is, and indeed what the boundaries of any land are, they who are in the heavens do not know at all; but they well know what the extension of spiritual and celestial things is, and also the determinations and the limitations of the states of these things. These things they have in mind while the others are being read by man; and so the letter vanishes and together with it that historical sense which has served as an objective form for the heavenly ideas.
 That "the river of Egypt" signifies the extension of spiritual things, is because "Egypt" signifies memory-knowledges (scientifica), which, together with a mans rational and intellectual things, constitute spiritual things (n. 1443); and that "Egypt" in the internal sense signifies memory-knowledges may be seen (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462). That "the river Euphrates" signifies the extension of celestial things, may be seen from a consideration of the lands which that river bounds and separates from the land of Canaan, and by which likewise in many passages are signified the knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones) of celestial things but here, because it is called "the river" and "the great river," celestial things and the knowledges (cognitiones) of them are what alone are signified; for a "great river" and "greatness" are predicated of these.
AC 1867. Verses 19, 20, 21. The Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim, and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Girgashite, and the Jebusite. "The Kenite, and the Kenizzite, and the Kadmonite," signify falsities which are to be expelled from the Lords kingdom; "the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Rephaim," signify persuasions of falsity; "the Amorite and the Canaanite," signify evils; "the Girgashite and the Jebusite," signify falsities from evils.
AC 1868. That these things are signified by these nations it would be too tedious to confirm from the Word; and there is no need to do so here, because they are merely named. Some of them have been treated of above; the "Rephaim" as signifying the persuasions of falsity (n. 567, 581, 1673); the "Amorite" as signifying evils (n. 1680); the "Canaanite" as signifying evils (verse 16); the "Perizzite" as signifying falsities (n. 1574). What is the specific signification of the other nations, shall of the Lords Divine mercy be told in what follows, as they occur.
 As regards the nations which are to be expelled from the Lords kingdom, the case is this. In the other life the evil and diabolical spirits desire nothing more than to come up into the world of spirits and infest the good spirits, but as often as they do so they are cast out, in like manner as in a man who is being regenerated the falsities and evils which have taken possession of him are subjugated and dissipated, and the goods and truths of the Lords kingdom are implanted in their place.
 These were represented by the nations that were expelled from the land of Canaan by the sons of Jacob; and the same were represented by the Jews themselves, who were afterwards expelled from the land. The same occurred with many nations of old that represented similar things, as the Horites who were driven from Mount Seir by the descendants of Esau (Deut. 2:12, 22); and the Avvim who were expelled by the Caphtorim (Deut. 2:23); also the Emim or Rephaim who were driven out by the Moabites (Deut. 2:9-11); and also the Zamzummim who were expelled by the Ammonites (Deut. 2:19-21).
CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE HOLY SCRIPTURE OR WORD
AC 1869. How many things there are in a single word of the Word has been shown me by the opening of the ideas of thought. It is a remarkable fact that in the other life this can be done so to the very life that the ideas themselves appear visible in form, and thus like pictured images. One who during his life in this world had lived in charity or mutual love, and had taken great delight in the Word, had his ideas thus opened. There then appeared beautiful things beyond number, together with delicious and delightful things of an affecting nature, and it was said that the things which thus appear visible can be opened again as to their interiors, and that when these have been opened things still more beautiful and delightful are presented that are attended with happiness itself. Such are all angelic ideas, for they are open from the Lord Himself.
 To spirits who wondered that ideas of thought could be so opened in the other life, this was illustrated by taking the case of the sight of the eye, the rays of vision of which are so dull and obscure that the smaller things in nature (which contain things innumerable) they see only as something opaque, black, and shapeless; but when the same objects are viewed through a microscope, things more interior are presented to view, connected in beautiful series and flowing in delightful order; and it is seen that these might in like manner be opened still more by a more powerful microscope. In this way such spirits have been shown how the case is with the internal sight, the rays of which are nothing but ideas, in that in themselves these ideas are so gross that anything more gross can scarcely exist in that sphere, although men think differently. But concerning ideas, of the Lords Divine mercy hereafter.
AC 1870. The case is similar with the Word of the Lord; each of its words presents in form its own idea, for a word is nothing but an idea so presented in form that the sense may be perceived; and in the ideas are things so innumerable, and which cannot come to mans perception, but only to that of angels, that it can never be believed. And when these are opened by the Lord, more internal forms are presented to the perception by delightful and happy things, and to the sight by representative and paradisal things; the former from the celestial and spiritual things of the Lords love or mercy, and the latter from the rays of light thence derived.
 It has been show me by wonderful experience that the Word has been inspired not only as to each of its words, but also as to the little letters of each word, and thus exactly as is said, as to the smallest jot; for in every jot there is something from that affection and life which is common to the whole expression, and which therefore has been insinuated in a correspondent manner into its smallest particulars. But this can by no means be explained to the understanding without a previous knowledge of many other things.
AC 1871. How the Word of the Lord appears before the angels cannot be described, but some idea can be formed by those who have seen in museums the optical cylinders in which beautiful images are represented from things roughly projected. Although the things which are round about in the projection appear to have no form, series, or order, and to be merely confused projections, still when they are concentrated toward the cylinder, they there present a lovely image. So it is with the Word of the Lord, especially with the prophetic Word of the Old Testament. In the literal sense there is scarcely anything that does not appear destitute of order, but when it is being read by a man, and especially by a little boy or girl, it becomes more beautiful and delightful by degrees as it ascends, and at last it is presented before the Lord as the image of a human being, in which and by which heaven is represented in its whole complex, not as it is, but as the Lord wills it to be, namely, a likeness of Himself.
AC 1872. There appeared to me a beautiful girl with a radiant face, passing quickly upward toward the right, and making some haste. In age she seemed to be in the first bloom--not a child nor yet a young woman--becomingly clothed with a dress of shining black; so she was hastening on with gladness from light to light. It was said that the interiors of the Word are such in their first ascent; the black dress was the Word in the letter. Afterwards the young girl Sew to my right cheek, but was perceivable only by the interior sight. It was said that such are the things from the internal sense of the Word which do not come to the comprehension.
AC 1873. Spirits spoke respecting the internal sense of the Word; and in order that the nature of it might be presented to the understanding, it was illustrated by the example, What is the fruit of faith? And it was said that good works are the fruit of faith in the external sense or that of the letter, but that these good works have no life unless they proceed from charity; and that thus the fruit of faith in the proximate interior sense is charity. But as charity or love toward the neighbor ought to proceed from love to the Lord, this love is the fruit of faith in the internal sense; and as all love is from the Lord, it is the Lord Himself. For thus in the good work is charity; in charity is love to the Lord; and in love to the Lord is the Lord Himself.
AC 1874. In conversation with good spirits, I said that in the Word many things, even more than one can believe, are said according to appearances and according to the fallacies of the senses, as that Jehovah is in anger, wrath, and fury against the wicked; that He takes pleasure in bringing them to ruin and destruction, and even that He kills them. But these things have been said in order that persuasions and cupidities might not be broken, but that they might be bent; for to speak otherwise than as man apprehends (that is, from appearances, fallacies, and persuasions) would have been to sow seed in the waters, and to say that which would be at once rejected. Nevertheless such forms of speech are able to serve as general vessels in which spiritual and celestial things may be contained, for into them it may be insinuated that all things are from the Lord; then that the Lord permits, but that evil is wholly from diabolical spirits; afterwards that the Lord provides and disposes that evils should be turned into goods and at last that nothing but good is from the Lord. Thus the sense of the letter perishes as it ascends and becomes spiritual, then celestial, and at last Divine.
AC 1875. It was granted me to have a perception of angelic ideas about these words in the Lords Prayer: "Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil."Temptation and evil were rejected by the nearest good spirits, by a certain idea perceptible within me, and this even until what is purely angelic, namely, Good, remained, without any idea of temptation and evil; the literal sense thus perishing altogether. In the first rejection innumerable ideas were being formed respecting this Good--how good may come from mans affliction while the affliction still is from the man and his evil, in which there is punishment, and this with a kind of indignation joined with it that it should be thought that temptation and its evil come from any other source, and that any one should have any thought of evil in thinking of the Lord. These ideas were purified in the degree of their ascent. The ascents were represented by rejections (n. 1393), which were made with a rapidity and in a manner that were inexpressible, until they passed into the shade of my thought. They were then in heaven, where there are only ineffable angelic ideas concerning the Lords good.
AC 1876. The names of men, of kingdoms, and of cities, that occur in the Word, like the words of human speech, perish at the very threshold of the ascent; for these are earthly, corporeal, and material; and the souls that come into the other life successively put these things off, and those who come into heaven do so altogether. The angels retain not even the least of an idea of any person, nor consequently of his name. what Abram is, what Isaac, and Jacob, they no longer know. They form an idea for themselves from the things which are represented and signified by them in the Word. Names and words are to them like dust, or like scales, which fall off when they enter heaven. Hence it may be seen that by the names in the Word nothing is signified except actual things. I have frequently spoken with angels about these matters, and have been fully instructed by them concerning the truth. The speech of spirits with one another is not a speech of words, but of ideas, such as are those of human thought without words, on which account it is the universal of all languages. But when they speak with a man, their speech falls into the words of the mans language (n. 1635, 1637, 1639).
 then I have spoken with spirits about this, it has been given me to say that when they are conversing with one another, they cannot utter even one single word of human language, still less any name. Some of them, wondering at this, retired and tried; but returning they said that they were not able to pronounce them because the words were so grossly material that they were below their sphere, as they were formed from the sound of air, made articulate by the bodily organs, or by influx into such organs by an internal way leading to the organ of hearing. From this it may likewise be clearly seen that no part of a word that is in the Word can pass to spirits, still less to angelic spirits, whose speech is still more universal (n. 1642), and least of all to the angels (n. 1643), with whom remains nothing of the first ideas of spirits, but in place of them spiritual truths and celestial goods, which are varied in an ineffable manner in the least forms, continued and connected in a unanimous series, with the originaries of representatives that are most pleasant and beautiful from the happiness of mutual love, and that are happy from pleasantnesses and beauties, because they are inspired with the life of the Lord.
AC 1877. The souls or spirits who are in the world of spirits, especially the wicked, retain at first the things which they had in their life of the body, that is, things earthly, corporeal, and worldly, and with them the principles which they had taken up. Among these spirits are those who are not willing to hear anything concerning the internal sense of the Word, but only concerning the literal sense, which they carry so far as to believe that the twelve apostles are to sit upon twelve thrones and to judge the twelve tribes of Israel; and also that none but the poor, the miserable, and they that have suffered persecutions can enter into heaven; when yet both the rich and the powerful who have lived in charity and in faith in the Lord are there. As such persons claim heaven for themselves on account of their merits, I have seen them running hither and thither, and wherever they went they derided the things which are of the internal sense of the Word, for the reason that these are contrary to their persuasions and cupidities, in that they desire to merit heaven and to be preferred before all others. But they are like the corrupt and noxious things that flow into the blood, and pervade the veins and arteries, and pollute the mass of the blood.
AC 1878. There are also those who in the life of the body had despised the Word; and there are those who had abused the things that are in the Word to give point to a joke. There are those who had supposed that the Word was of no account, but that it might serve to keep the common people in some restraint. There are those who had blasphemed the Word; and there are those who had profaned it. The lot in the other life of all these persons is miserable, in accordance with the quality and degree of their contempt, derision, blasphemy, and profanation. For, as before said, the Word is so holy in the heavens that it is itself as it were heaven to those who are there and as there exists there a communion of the thoughts of all, such spirits cannot possibly be with them, but are separated.
AC 1879. On one occasion while in bed I was told that evil spirits were conspiring against me with the intention of suffocating me, but as I was safe and felt secure under the Lords keeping, I disregarded the threats and went to sleep. But awaking in the middle of the night, I felt that I was not breathing of myself, but from heaven, for there was nothing of my own respiration, as I plainly perceived. It was then said that the band of conspirators was present, and that it was composed of those who hold in hatred the interior things of the Word (that is, the very truths of faith, for these are the interiors of the Word), and who thus hate them because they are contrary to their fallacies, persuasions, and cupidities, which the sense of the letter might be brought to support.
 After their attempt had failed, their leaders tried to enter into the viscera of my body, and to penetrate even to the heart, and to this also they were admitted. This was all the time perceived by manifest sensation, for one to whom the interiors of the spirit are opened, gets at the same time a sensible perception of such things. But I was then introduced into a kind of celestial state, which was that I made no effort to repel these visitors, still less to avenge the injury. They then said that there was peace; but soon they were as if deprived of rationality, breathing out vengeance, and striving to carry out their purpose, but in vain. They afterwards dispersed of themselves.
AC 1880. As regards spirits and angels in general, who all are human souls living after the death of the body, I may say here that they have much more exquisite senses than men--that is, sight, hearing, smell, and touch--but not taste. Spirits however are not able, and angels are still less able, to see anything that is in the world by their own sight, that is, by the sight of the spirit; for the light of the world or of the sun is to them as thick darkness; just in the same way as man by his sight, that is, by the sight of the body, cannot see anything that is in the other life for the light of heaven, or the Lords heavenly light, is to man as thick darkness.
 But still when the Lord pleases, spirits and angels can see the things in this world through the eyes of a man. But the Lord does not grant this except in the case of one whom He enables to speak with spirits and angels, and to be together with them. Spirits and angels have been permitted to see the things in this world through my eyes as plainly as I could see them myself, and also to hear men talking with me. It has sometimes happened that to their great astonishment, some through me have seen their friends whom they had in the life of the body, just as they had seen them before. Some have also seen their married partners, and their children, and have desired me to tell them that they were close by and saw them, and to give an account of their state in the other life, but I had been forbidden to tell them or reveal to them that they were seen in this way, and this partly for the reason that they would have called me insane, or would have thought such things to be delirious fancies of the mind; for I was well aware that although they would acknowledge it with the lips, they did not believe in heart in the existence of spirits, or that the dead are risen.
 When my interior sight was first opened, and through my eyes spirits and angels saw the world and the things that are in it, they were so amazed that they called it the miracle of miracles; and they were affected with a new joy, in that in this way communication was opened of earth with heaven, and of heaven with earth. This delight lasted for months, but afterwards it became familiar, and now they do not wonder at all. I have been instructed that the spirits and angels who are present with other men do not in the slightest degree see the things of this world, but only perceive the thoughts and affections of those with whom they are.
 These things have shown that man was so created that while living on earth among men, he might at the same time also live in heaven among angels, and the converse; so that heaven and earth might be together, and might act as a one, and that men might know what is going on in heaven, and angels what in the world; and therefore that when men depart this life they would pass from the Lords kingdom on earth into the Lords kingdom in the heavens, not as into another kingdom, but as into the same as that in which they had been when living in the body. But in consequence of mans becoming so corporeal, he has closed heaven against himself.
AC 1881. Spirits are exceedingly indignant, indeed are angry, when told that men do not believe that they see, that they hear, that they feel by the touch. They have said that surely men ought to know that without sense there is no life, and that the more exquisite the sense the more excellent the life; also that the objects of their sense are suited to the excellence of their senses, and that the representatives which are from the Lord are real, for all the things that are in nature and the world are derived from them (n. 1632). The words in which they express their indignation are that they perceive by the senses much better and more excellently than men do.
AC 1882. There are two kinds of visions that are not of the ordinary kind, into which I have been let solely that I might know their nature, and what is meant by its being said in the Word that men were "withdrawn from the body," and that they were "carried by the spirit into another place."
AC 1883. As regards the first, namely, being withdrawn from the body, the case is this. The man is brought into a certain state that is midway between sleep and wakefulness, and when he is in this state he cannot know but that he is wholly awake. All his senses are as fully awake as in the highest wakefulness of the body: the sight, the hearing, and, wonderful to say, the touch, which is then more exquisite than it can ever be in the wakefulness of the body. In this state also spirits and angels have been seen to the very life, and also heard, and, wonderful to say, have been touched, and almost nothing of the body then intervened. This is the state of which it is said that they are "withdrawn from the body," and that they "do not know whether they are in the body or out of it." I have been let into this state only three or four times, merely that I might know how the case is with it, and that spirits and angels are in the enjoyment of every sense, even touch in a form more delicate and more exquisite than that of the body.
AC 1884. As regards the other kind of vision--being carried away by the spirit into another place--it has been shown me by living experience what it is, and how it is done, but only two or three times. One single experience I may mention. Walking through the streets of a city and through the country, and being at the same time also in conversation with spirits, I did not know but that I was wide awake and saw as at other times, so that I walked on without mistake, and all the time being in vision, seeing groves, rivers, palaces, houses, men, and many other things. But after I had thus walked for hours, suddenly I was in the sight of the body, and became aware that I was in another place. Greatly amazed at this, I perceived that I had been in such a state as they were in of whom it is said that they were "led away by the spirit into another place;" for while this state lasts there is no reflection concerning the way, even if it be many miles; nor is there reflection concerning the time, even if it be many hours or days; nor is there any feeling of fatigue. Moreover the person is led through ways of which he has no knowledge, even to the appointed place. This took place that I might know that a man can be led by the Lord without his knowing whence and whither.
AC 1885. These two kinds of visions, however, are extraordinary, and were shown me merely to the end that I might know their nature. But the things I have habitually "seen" (as mentioned in the title to this work) are all those which of the Lords Divine mercy you may see related in this First Part, and which are placed at the beginning and end of the several chapters. These are not visions, but things seen in the highest wakefulness of the body, and this for several years.
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