HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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Preface to GENESIS Chapter 16

Fifteen chapters of Genesis have been explained, and the things contained in the internal sense have been stated; and to each chapter there have been added things that of the Lord‘s Divine mercy I have been permitted to see and hear in the world of spirits and in the heaven of angels. Similar things will be added to the several following chapters. To this sixteenth chapter will be appended such as relate to Visions and Dreams, including those of a prophetical character found in the Word. I know that few will believe that any one can see things that exist in the other life, and bring therefrom any report respecting the state of souls after death, for few believe in the resurrection, and fewer of the learned do so than of the simple. With the lips indeed they say that they will rise again, because so to speak is according to the doctrine of their faith, but still they deny it in heart.

[2] Some go so far as to say openly that if any one were to rise from the dead and they were to see, hear, and touch him, then they would believe. But if this were done, it would have to be done for each individual, and still no such person as denies in heart would be persuaded by it, for thousands of objections would flow in that would harden his heart in denial. Some however say that they believe that they will rise, but on the day of the last judgment; and respecting this they have formed the opinion that all things in the visible world will then perish, and because that day has been expected in vain for so many centuries they too are in doubt. But what is meant by the last judgment spoken of in the Word shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be briefly told at the end of the seventeenth chapter.

[3] From this we may see what kind of people there are in the Christian world at this day. The Sadducees (Matt. 22:23) openly denied the resurrection, but did better than those at the present day who say they do not deny it because it is according to the doctrine of faith, as said above, and yet do deny in heart; so that they say what is contrary to what they believe, and believe what is contrary to what they say. But lest they should confirm themselves further in this false opinion, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy I have been permitted, while still in the body in this world, to be in the spirit in the other life (for a man is a spirit clothed with a body), and to speak there with souls who had risen not long after their death, in fact with nearly all with whom I have been acquainted in the life of the body, and who have died. For some years also I have been permitted to speak with spirits and angels every day, and to see amazing things there, which have never come into any one’s idea, and this without any fallacious appearance.

[4] As very many say that they will believe if any one comes to them from the other life, it will now be seen whether they will be persuaded against the hardness of their hearts. This I can aver, that they who come into the other life from the Christian world are the worst of all, hating the neighbor, hating faith, and denying the Lord (for in the other life hearts speak, not mouths), besides the fact that above all others are they addicted to adultery. And because heaven is thus beginning to be removed from those who are within the church, we can see that its last time is at hand; the truth of which I have been permitted to know with certainty. Concerning the internal sense of the Word, what it is, and what is its nature, see what has been said and shown in (n. 1-5 64-66, 167, 605, 920, 937, 1143, 1224, 1404, 1405, 1408, 1409, 1502, 1540, 1659, 1756, 1767-1777, 1869-1879, 1783, 1807); and in (n. 1886-1889).

AC GENESIS Chapter 16

AC 1886. This chapter treats of Hagar and Ishmael. But what is represented and signified in the internal sense by Hagar and Ishmael has not hitherto been known to any one, nor could be, because the world, even the learned world, has hitherto supposed the histories of the Word to be nothing but histories, and to involve nothing deeper. And although they have said that every iota is Divinely inspired, they have meant nothing further than that the historical facts have been disclosed, and that something of a doctrinal nature that could be applied to the doctrine of faith may be deduced from them and be of use to both teachers and learners; and that because these have been Divinely inspired they have Divine power in the mind, and work for good above all other history. Regarded in themselves, however, historical matters effect but little toward man‘s amendment, and nothing at all for his eternal life, since in the other life they are forgotten. For what would it amount to there to know respecting the maid Hagar that she was given by Sarai to Abram? Or to know about Ishmael, or even about Abram? Nothing but what belongs to the Lord and is from the Lord is necessary to souls in order that they may enter into heaven and enjoy its happiness, that is, eternal life. It is for the sake of these things that the Word exists, and these are the things that are contained in its interiors.

AC 1887. Inspiration implies that in every particular of the Word (as well in the historicals as in the other parts) there are celestial things which are of love or good, and spiritual things which are of faith or truth, thus Divine things. For that which is inspired by the Lord descends from Him, and does so through the angelic heaven, and so through the world of spirits down to man, with whom it is presented such as it is in the letter; but in its first origin it is altogether different. In heaven there is never any worldly history, but all is representative of Divine things, and there is no perception there of anything else, as may also be known from the fact that the things which are there are unutterable. Unless therefore the historicals were representative of Divine things, and in this way were heavenly, they could not possibly be Divinely inspired. The Word as it exists in the heavens can be known solely from the internal sense, for the internal sense is the Word of the Lord in the heavens.

AC 1888. That the sense of the letter of the Word is representative of Divine arcana, and that it is the receptacle and thus the repository of the Lord’s celestial and spiritual things, may be illustrated by two examples first, that by "David" is not meant David, but the Lord; second, that the names signify nothing but actual things, and therefore it must be the same with all the rest of the Word. Concerning David it is said in Ezekiel:--

My servant David shall be king over them, and they shall all have one shepherd; they shall dwell upon the land, they and their sons and their sons‘, even to eternity and David My servant shall be their prince to eternity (Ezekiel 37:24, 25).

And in Hosea:--

The sons of Israel shall return, and shall seek Jehovah their God, and David their king (Hosea 3:5).

These things were written by the prophets after the time of David, and yet it is plainly said that he shall be their king and prince, from which all may see that in the internal sense it is the Lord who is meant by "David." And the case is the same in all other passages, even those which are historical, where David is named.

[2] That the names of kingdoms, regions, cities, and men, signify actual things, may be clearly seen in the Prophets. Take merely this example in Isaiah:--

Thus said the Lord, Jehovih Zebaoth, O My people, thou inhabitant of Zion, be not afraid of Asshur he shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff upon thee in the way of Egypt. Jehovah of Armies shall stir up a scourge for him according to the plague of Midian at the rock of Horeb and as His rod was upon the sea, so shall He lift it up in the way of Egypt. He shall come against Aiath, He shall pass over to Migron, at Michmash shall He command His arms; they shall pass over Mabarah; Geba is a lodging-place for us; Ramah shall tremble; Gibeah of Saul shall flee; cry aloud with thy voice, O daughter of Gallim; hearken, O Laish; O thou poor Anathoth; Madmenah shall wander; the inhabitants of Gebim shall gather themselves together as yet there is a day for a stand at Nob the mountain of the daughter of Zion, the hill of Jerusalem, shall shake her hand He shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a magnificent one (Isaiah 10:24, 26-34).

[3] Here there is almost nothing but names, from which no sense would appear unless all the names signified actual things and if the mind were to abide in the names, this would never be acknowledged to be the Word of the Lord. But who will believe that in the internal sense they all contain arcana of heaven? and that by them is described the state of those who are endeavoring to enter into the mysteries of faith by reasonings from memory-knowledges (scientifica)? some special thing belonging to that state being described by each name; and that the meaning is that these reasonings are dispersed by the Lord by means of the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith. That the reasoning here treated of is signified by "Asshur," may be clearly seen from what has been already shown concerning Asshur (n. 119, 1186); also that memory-knowledges are signified by "Egypt" (n. 1164, 1165, 1462); which see and examine. The case is the same with all other names, and also with all the several words.

AC 1889. In this chapter it is the same with the names Abram, Sarai, Hagar, and Ishmael; and what they involve may be seen from the CONTENTS, and further on from the explication of each name in its place. But these matters are of a nature that does not admit of easy explication, for the subject treated of in connection with these names is the Lord’s rational, and how it was conceived and born, and what its quality was before it was united to the Lord‘s Internal, which was Jehovah. The reason why this subject is not of easy explication, is that at this day it is not known what the internal man is, what the interior, and what the exterior. When the rational is spoken of, or the rational man, some idea can be formed of it; but when it is said that the rational is the intermediate between the internal and the external, few if any comprehend it. Yet as the subject here treated of in the internal sense is the Lord’s Rational Man, and how it was conceived and born by the influx of the internal man into the external, and as it is these very matters that are involved in the historical facts stated concerning Abram, Hagar, and Ishmael, therefore in order to prevent what we have to say in the following explication from being utterly unintelligible, be it known that in every man there is an internal man, a rational man which is intermediate, and an external man, and that these are most distinct from one another. (n. 978).

GENESIS 16:1-16

1. And Sarai, Abram‘s wife, did not hear unto him; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, and her name was Hagar.

2. And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing; go in I pray unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be built up by her. And Abram harkened to the voice of Sarai.

3. And Sarai, Abram’s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after ten years of Abram‘s dwelling in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram, her man, for a woman to him.

4. And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and she saw that she had conceived, and her mistress was despised in her eyes.

5. And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee; I gave my handmaid unto thy bosom; and she saw that she conceived, and I am despised in her eyes; Jehovah judge between me and thee.

6. And Abram said unto Sarai, Behold thy handmaid is in thy hand, do to her that which is good in thine eyes; and Sarai humbled her, and she fled from her face.

7. And the Angel of Jehovah found her by a fountain of waters in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.

8. And he said, Hagar, Sarai’s handmaid, whence comest thou? and whither goest thou? And she said, From the face of Sarai, my mistress, am I fleeing.

9. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and humble thyself under her hands.

10. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, In multiplying I will multiply thy seed, and it shall not be numbered for multitude.

11. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Ishmael; because Jehovah hath heard thine affliction.

12. And he will be a wild-ass man; his hand against all, and the hand of all against him and he shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren.

13. And she called the name of Jehovah that was speaking unto her, Thou God seest me for she said, Have I also here seen after Him that seeth me?

14. Therefore she called the fountain, The fountain of the Living One who seeth me; behold it is between Kadesh and Bared.

15. And Hagar bare Abram a son; and Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael.

16. And Abram was a son of eighty years and six years, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram.

THE CONTENTS

AC 1890. The subject treated of in this chapter is the Lord‘s first rational, which was conceived by the influx of the internal man into the affection of memory-knowledges (scientiae) of the external. The internal man is "Abram;" the affection of memory-knowledges in the external is "Hagar the Egyptian handmaid;" the rational thence derived is "Ishmael." The nature of this rational is here described; and it is afterwards said (chapter 21); that it was expelled from the house, after the Lord’s Divine rational, represented by Isaac, had been born.

AC 1891. The Lord‘s first rational was conceived according to order by the influx or conjunction of the internal man with the life of the affection of memory-knowledges belonging to the external (verses 1 to 3). But as this affection was of the external man, its nature was such that it held intellectual truth in low esteem (verse 4). On which account the Lord thought concerning the subjugation of it (verses 5 to 9), and that when subjugated, it would become spiritual and celestial (verses 10, 11). What it would be if not subjugated, is described (verse 12); the Lord’s insight into the cause from His interior man (verses 13, 14). The rational is thus described in respect to its quality; also the Lord‘s state when it originated (verses 15, 16).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 1892. Verse 1. And Sarai, Abram’s wife, did not bear unto him; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, and her name was Hagar. "Sarai, Abram‘s wife, did not bear unto him," signifies that as yet there was no rational man; " Sarai" is truth adjoined to good; "Abram" is the Lord’s internal man, which was Jehovah. "And she had a handmaid, an Egyptian," signifies the affection of memory-knowledges; "and her name was Hagar," signifies the life of the exterior or natural man.

AC 1893. Sarai, Abram‘s wife, did not bear unto him. That this signifies that the rational man was not yet, will be evident from what follows, where Isaac is treated of. For, as has been said, there are in every man an internal man, a rational man that is intermediate, and an external, which is properly called the natural man. With the Lord these were represented by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; the internal man by Abraham, the rational by Isaac, and the natural by Jacob. The internal man in the Lord was Jehovah Himself, for He was conceived of Jehovah; on this account He so often called Him His "Father," and in the Word He is called the "Only-begotten of God," and the only "Son of God." The rational man is not born with man, but only the capacity for becoming rational, as all may see from the fact that new-born infants are not endowed with any reason, but become rational in process of time by means of things of sense external and internal, as they are imbued with knowledges (scientiae et cognitiones). In children indeed there is an appearance of rationality, yet it is not rationality, but is only a kind of rudiment of it, which is known from the fact that reason belongs to adults and men of years.

[2] The rational man in the Lord is treated of in this chapter. The Divine Rational itself is represented by Isaac; but the first rational before it was made Divine, by Ishmael; and therefore that "Sarai, Abram’s wife, did not bear unto him" here signifies that hitherto there was no Divine rational. As before said, the Lord was born as are other men, and as regards all that He drew from Mary the mother He was like other men; and as the rational is formed by means of knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones), which enter through things of the external senses, or those of the external man, therefore His first rational was born as with any other man; but as by His own power He made Divine all the human things that appertained to Him, so did He also make the rational Divine. His first rational is described in this chapter, and also in chapter 21, where Hagar and Ishmael are likewise treated of (Genesis 21:9-21), and it is said that Ishmael was expelled when Isaac grew up, by whom is represented the Divine rational.

AC 1894. That Sarai is truth adjoined to good, has been said and shown before (n. 1468), as also that Abram is the Lord‘s internal man, which is Jehovah. The Lord’s internal man, which is Jehovah, is called Man, because no one is man except Jehovah alone; for man, in the genuine sense, signifies that Esse from which man is. The Esse itself from which man is, is the Divine, consequently the celestial and the spiritual. Without the Divine celestial and spiritual, there is nothing human in man, but only a sort of animal nature, such as there is in beasts. It is from the Esse of Jehovah, or of the Lord, that every man is man; and from this also he is called man. The celestial which makes the man is that he loves the Lord and loves the neighbor; in this way is he man, because he is an image of the Lord, and because he has this from the Lord; otherwise he is a wild beast.

[2] That Jehovah or the Lord is the only Man, and that men have it from Him that they are called men, also that one is more man than another, may be seen above (n. 49, 288, 477, 565); and the same may also be seen from the fact that Jehovah, or the Lord, appeared as Man to the fathers of the Most Ancient Church, and afterwards also to Abraham and to the prophets; and on this account also the Lord, after there was no man any longer on the earth, or no longer anything celestial and spiritual among men, deigned to assume the human nature by being born as are other men, and to make that nature Divine; and in this way also He is the only Man. Besides, the universal heaven presents before the Lord the image of a man, because it presents Himself. From this, heaven is called the Grand Man, and this especially from the fact that the Lord there is all in all.

AC 1895. And she had a handmaid, an Egyptian. That this signifies the affection of memory-knowledges (scientiae), is evident from the signification of a "handmaid," and from the signification of "Egypt." Sarai, who was the mistress or lady, represents and signifies truth adjoined to good, as already said. Truth adjoined to good is intellectual truth in the genuine sense, but rational truth is beneath this and therefore is lower; and this rational truth is born from knowledges (scientiae et cognitiones) vivified by the affection that corresponds to them, and this affection, being of the exterior man, ought to serve the intellectual truth that appertains to the inmost man, as a handmaid serves her lady, or a household servant her mistress; and therefore this affection is what is represented and signified by the "handmaid Hagar."

[2] How these things stand cannot well be stated to the apprehension, for it must first be known what intellectual truth in the genuine sense is, and also how the rational is born, namely, from the internal man as a father, and from the exterior or natural man as a mother, for without the conjunction of these two nothing rational can possibly come forth. The rational is not born (as is supposed) of knowledges (scientiae et cognitiones), but of the affection of these knowledges, as may be seen from the mere fact that no one can ever become rational unless some delight or affection of these knowledges aspires thereto. The affection is the maternal life itself; and the celestial and spiritual itself, in the affection, is the paternal life; therefore in proportion to the affection, and in accordance with the quality of the affection, in the same proportion, and in the same quality, does the man become rational. In themselves these knowledges are nothing but dead things, or instrumental causes, which are vivified by the life of affection; and such is the conception of the rational man in everyone. The reason why the handmaid was an Egyptian, and the reason why this fact is stated, is that "Egypt" signifies memory-knowledges (scientiae) (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462).

AC 1896. And her name was Hagar. That this signifies the life of the exterior or natural man, may be seen from what has been said, and also from the meaning of "Hagar," which is "a stranger" or "sojourner." Strangers represented those who were to be instructed, and sojourning represented instruction and also principles of life (vitae instituta) (n. 1463). When any one‘s name is stated in the Word, as here that "her name was Hagar," it signifies that something is involved in the name to which attention should be given, for to "call by name" means to know a person’s quality (n. 144, 145, 340). No syllable in the Word is there without a cause, or without a signification in the internal sense of some actual thing.

AC 1897. Verse 2. And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing; go in I pray unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be built up by her; and Abram harkened to the voice of Sarai. "Sarai said unto Abram," signifies that it was so perceived; "Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing," signifies the state before the interior or Divine rational man was born; "go in I pray unto my handmaid," signifies conjunction with the exterior man; "it may be that I shall be built up by her," signifies that in this way the rational could be born. "And Abram harkened to the voice of Sarai," signifies that it could not be done in any other way.

AC 1898. Sarai said unto Abram. That this signifies that it was so perceived, is evident from the signification of "Sarai" and of "Abram," namely, that " Sarai" is truth adjoined to good, and "Abram" is the internal man; and therefore that "Sarai said to Abram," in the internal sense cannot signify any conversation, but perception. The Lord‘s perception at that time was from truth adjoined to good, which dictated to Him how the case was. There is something similar with a celestial man who receives perception for there is something of truth adjoined to good which dictates afterwards there is good from which or through which the truth is perceived. (That "to say," in the internal sense, signifies to perceive, may be seen above, n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822).

AC 1899. Behold I pray, Jehovah hath shut me up from bearing. That this signifies the state before the interior or Divine rational man was born, is evident from what has been already said about the conception and birth of the rational man, namely, that the Lord’s Divine rational man is represented by Isaac, but His first rational man, which was to become Divine, by Ishmael. In order that these things might be represented, Sarai remained so long barren, even until Ishmael had become a lad (spoken of in chapter 21) on which account it is here said that "Jehovah shut her up from bearing."

AC 1900. Go in I pray unto my handmaid. That this signifies conjunction with the exterior man, is also evident from what has been said before, namely, that man‘s rational is conceived and born of the internal man as a father, and of the exterior man as a mother. Man’s very life is from the internal man, which cannot have communication with the external, except a most obscure communication, until the receiving vessels that are of the memory have been formed, which is effected by means of knowledges (cognitiones et scientiae).

[2] The influx of the internal man goes into the knowledges of the exterior man; affection being the means. Meanwhile, before there are these knowledges, there is indeed a communication, but through affections alone, by which the external man is governed; but from this there exist only the most general motions, and certain appetites, also certain blind inclinations, such as show themselves in infants. But this life becomes by degrees more distinct in proportion as the vessels of the memory are formed by means of knowledges, and the vessels of the interior memory by means of rational things. As these vessels are formed, and are arranged in series--and indeed in such series that they mutually regard each other, comparatively like relationships by blood and by marriage, or like societies and families--thereby is perfected the correspondence of the external man with the internal, and still better is this done by means of rational things, which are intermediate.

[3] But still there is a want of congruity unless the knowledges by which the vessels are formed are truths for the celestial and spiritual things of the internal man find no correspondence for themselves except in truths. These are the genuine vessels in the organic forms of each memory, and to which the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith can be fitted in; for they are there arranged by the Lord according to the idea and image of the societies of heaven, or of His kingdom, insomuch that the man becomes, in least form, a heaven, or a kingdom of the Lord, as also the minds of those who are in the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith are called in the Word. But these things have been said for those who love to think more deeply.

AC 1901. It may be that I shall be built up by her. That this signifies that in this way the rational could be born, may be seen from the signification of being "built up," when predicated of generation, and thus without explication. By "Sarai," as has been said, is signified intellectual truth which has been adjoined as a wife to good. Intellectual truth, which appertains to the inmost, is altogether barren, or like a childless mother, when as yet there is not any rational into which and through which it may inflow; for without the rational as a medium intellectual truth cannot inflow with any truth into the exterior man, as may be seen from the case of little children, who can know nothing whatever of truth until they have been imbued with knowledges; but, as before said, the better and more perfectly they are imbued with knowledges, so much the better and more perfectly can intellectual truth which appertains to the inmost, or to good, be communicated.

[2] This intellectual truth, represented by Sarai, is the spiritual itself which flows in through heaven, and this by an internal way, and with every man; and it continually meets the knowledges that are instituted by means of the things of sense, and are implanted in the memory. Man is not aware of this intellectual truth because it is too pure to be perceived by a general idea. It is like a kind of light that illuminates the mind, and confers the faculty of knowing, thinking, and understanding. As the rational cannot come into existence except by means of the influx of the intellectual truth represented by Sarai, it stands related to this truth as a son. When the rational is being formed from truths that have been adjoined to good, and still more when it is being formed from the goods from which are truths, it is then a genuine son. Before this it is indeed acknowledged as a son, yet not as a genuine son, but as coming from a handmaid; and still it is adopted, which is the reason why it is here said that she might be built up by her.

AC 1902. And Abram harkened to the voice of Sarai. That this signifies that it could not be done in any other way, may be seen from the connection in the internal sense, and from the necessity that exists for the rational to be born in this way. If man were imbued with no hereditary evil, the rational would then be born immediately, from the marriage of the celestial things of the internal man with its spiritual things, and the faculty of knowing would be born through the rational, so that on coming into the world a man would at once have in himself all the faculty of reason and of knowing, for this would be in accordance with the order of influx, as may be inferred from the fact that all animals whatever are born into all the faculty of knowing that is necessary and helpful in securing food, safety, habitation, and procreation, because their nature is in accordance with order. Why then is man not born into it, except for the reason that order has been destroyed in him, for he alone is born into no knowledge?

[2] The cause of his being so born is evil inherited from his father and mother. By reason of this all his faculties are turned in a contrary direction in regard to truths and goods, and therefore cannot be reduced into correspondent forms by the immediate influx of what is celestial and spiritual from the Lord. This is the reason why man‘s rational must be formed by an altogether different process, that is, in a different way, namely, by means of knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones) introduced throw the senses, thus flowing in by an external way, and so in inverted order. Man is thus made rational by the Lord in a miraculous manner. This is meant by "going in unto the handmaid," by which is signified the conjunction of the internal man with the exterior man; and also by "Abram’s hearkening to the voice of Sarai," which signifies that it could not be done in any other way.

[3] The Lord, being born as are other men, and because He had a nature inherited from the mother, was like other men also in respect to the miraculous formation of the rational by means of knowledges, to the end that by combats of temptations and by victories He might reduce all things into order. Therefore was His rational conceived and born in the same way as with other men, but with the difference that inmostly in all things that were His, in both general and particular, there was the Divine, or Jehovah, and thus the life of love toward the whole human race, for whom and for whose salvation He fought in all His temptations.

AC 1903. Verse 3. And Sarai, Abram‘s wife, took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after ten years of Abram’s dwelling in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram, her man, for a woman to him. "Sarai, Abram‘s wife, took," signifies the affection of truth, which in the genuine sense is "Sarai the wife;" "Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid," signifies the life of the exterior man, and the affection of memory-knowledges; "after ten years of Abram’s dwelling in the land of Canaan," signifies the remains of good and of the derivative truth which the Lord procured to Himself, and by means of which that rational was conceived; "and gave her to Abram, her man, for a woman to him," signifies conjunction through the incitation of the affection of truth.

AC 1904. Sarai, Abram‘s wife, took. That this signifies the affection of truth, which in the genuine sense is "Sarai the wife," is evident from the signification of "Sarai," as being truth adjoined to good, and from the signification of a "wife," as being affection (n. 915, 1468). There are two affections distinct from each other,--affection of good, and affection of truth. When a man is being regenerated the affection of truth has the lead, for he is affected with truth for the sake of good; but when he has been regenerated the affection of good has the lead, and from good he is affected with truth. The affection of good is of the will; the affection of truth is of the understanding. Between these two affections the most ancient people instituted as it were a marriage. Good, or the love of good, they called man as a husband; truth, or the love of truth, they called man as a wife. The comparison of good and truth with marriage has its origin in the heavenly marriage.

[2] Regarded in themselves, good and truth have no life, but they derive their life from love or affection. They are only instrumentalities of life; and such as is the love that affects the good and truth, such is the life; for the whole of life is of love, or affection. Hence it is that Sarai the wife," in the genuine sense, signifies the affection of truth. And because in the case before us the intellectual desired the rational as an offspring, and because that which she speaks is of this desire or affection, it is therefore expressly said in this verse, "Sarai, Abram’s wife, gave to Abram, her man," which there would have been no need of repeating if it did not involve such things in the internal sense, for in themselves these words would be superfluous.

[3] Intellectual truth is distinguished from rational truth, and this from truth in the form of memory-knowledge, as are what is internal, what is intermediate, and what is external. Intellectual truth is internal, rational truth is intermediate, truth of memory-knowledge is external. These are most distinct from each other, because one is more internal than another. With any man whatever, intellectual truth, which is internal, or in his inmost, is not the man‘s, but is the Lord’s with the man. From this the Lord flows into the rational, where truth first appears as belonging to man; and through the rational into the memory-knowledge; from which it is evident that man cannot possibly think as of himself from intellectual truth, but only from rational truth and truth of memory-knowledge, because these appear as if they were his.

[4] The Lord alone, when He lived in the world, thought from intellectual truth, for this was His Divine truth in conjunction with Good, or the Divine spiritual in conjunction with the Divine celestial, and herein was the Lord distinguished from every other man. To think from what is Divine as from himself is never possible to man, nor in man, but only in Him who was conceived of Jehovah. Because He thought from intellectual truth, that is, from the love or affection of intellectual truth, from it also He desired the rational, and this is why it is here said that "Sarai, Abram‘s wife" (by whom is meant the affection of intellectual truth) "took Hagar the Egyptian, and gave her to Abram her husband, for a woman to him."

[5] The rest of the arcana that are herein cannot be unfolded and explained to the apprehension, because man is in the greatest obscurity, and in fact has no idea at all of the internal things within him, for he makes both the rational and the intellectual to consist in memory-knowledge, and is not aware that these are distinct from each other, so distinct indeed that the intellectual can exist apart from the rational, and also the rational that is derived from the intellectual, apart from the memory-knowledge. This cannot but seem a paradox to those who are in memory-knowledges, but still it is the truth. It is however impossible for any one to be in the truth that is in the form of memory-knowledge (that is, in the affection of this and the belief in it), unless he is in rational truth, into which and through which the Lord inflows from the intellectual. These arcana do not open to man except in the other life.

AC 1905. Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid. That this signifies the life of the exterior man, and the affection of memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of "Hagar," (n. 1895, 1896); and from the signification of an "Egyptian," and also of a "handmaid," likewise explained there.

AC 1906. After ten years of Abram’s dwelling in the land of Canaan. That this signifies the remains of good and of the derivative truth which the Lord procured to Himself, and by means of which that rational was conceived, is evident from the signification of "ten," as being remains, spoken of before (n. 576). What remains are, has been stated and shown above (n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 661, 798, 1050), namely, that they are all the states of the affection of good and truth with which a man is gifted by the Lord, from earliest infancy even to the end of life; which states are stored up for him for the use of his life after death; for in the other life all the states of his life return in succession, and are then tempered by the states of good and truth with which he has been gifted by the Lord. The more remains therefore that a man has received in the life of the body, that is, the more of good and truth, the more delightful and beautiful do the rest of his states appear when they return. That this is really so may be evident to every one, if he will consider. When a man is born he has not a particle of good of himself, but is wholly defiled throughout with hereditary evil, and all that is good flows in, such as his love for his parents, his nurses, his companions; and this from innocence. Such are the things that flow in from the Lord through the heaven of innocence and peace, which is the inmost heaven, and thus is man imbued with them in his infancy.

[2] Afterwards, when he grows up, this good, innocent, and peaceful state of infancy recedes little by little and so far as he is introduced into the world, he comes into its pleasures, and into cupidities, and thus into evils and so far the celestial or good things of the age of infancy begin to disappear; but still they remain, and the states which the man afterwards puts on or acquires are tempered by them. Without them a man can never be a man, for the states of the cupidities, or of evil, if not tempered by states of the affection of good, would be more atrocious than those of any animal. These states of good are what are called remains, given by the Lord and implanted in one‘s natural disposition, and this when the man is not aware of it.

[3] In after life he is also gifted with new states; but these are not so much states of good as states of truth, for as he is growing up he is imbued with truths, and these are in like manner stored up in him in his interior man. By these remains, which are those of truth, born of the influx of spiritual things from the Lord, man has the ability to think, and also to understand what the good and the truth of civic and moral life are, and also to receive spiritual truth or faith; but he cannot do this except by means of the remains of good that he had received in infancy. That there are remains, and that they are stored up in a man in his interior rational, is wholly unknown to man; and this because he supposes that nothing flows in, but that everything is natural to him, and born with him, thus that it is all in him when an infant, when yet the real case is altogether different. Remains are treated of in many parts of the Word, and by them are signified those states by which man becomes a man, and this from the Lord alone.

[4] But the remains that appertained to the Lord were all the Divine states which He procured for Himself, and by which He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence. These cannot be compared to the remains that pertain to man, for the latter are not Divine, but human. It is the remains appertaining to the Lord that are signified by the "ten years in which Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan." When angels hear the Word, they do not know what the number ten is, but as soon as it is named by man the idea of remains occurs to them; for by "ten" and "tenths" in the Word are signified remains, as is evident from what was shown above (n. 576, 1738); and when a perception comes to them based on the idea of the end of the ten years that Abram dwelt in the land of Canaan, the idea of the Lord comes to them, and at the same time innumerable things that are signified by the remains in the Lord during the time that He was in the world.

AC 1907. And gave her to Abram her man for a woman to him. That this signifies conjunction through the incitation of the affection of truth, is evident from what has already been said concerning Sarai, the wife of Abram, as being the affection of truth in the genuine sense; and from what has been said respecting the conjunction of the internal man with the life and affection of the exterior man, whence comes the rational. Hagar was not given to Abram for a wife, but for a woman; and this because it is according to a law of Divine order that it is not marriage unless it is that of one man and one wife. Conjugial love can never be divided. The love that is divided among a number is not conjugial love, but is that of lasciviousness, on which subject, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 1908. Verse 4. And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and she saw that she had conceived, and her mistress was despised in her eyes. "He went in unto Hagar," signifies the conjunction of the internal man with the life which is of the affection of memory-knowledges; "and she conceived," signifies the first life of the rational; "and she saw that she had conceived, and her mistress was despised in her eyes," signifies that this rational at its conception lightly esteemed the truth itself that was adjoined to good.

AC 1909. He went in unto Hagar. That this signifies the conjunction of the internal man with the life which is of the affection of memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of "Hagar," as being the life of the exterior or natural man (explained above at verse 1) and that this life is the life of the affection of memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of the "Egyptian handmaid". There are many affections belonging to the exterior man, all dedicated to their uses; but the affection of knowledges (cognitiones et scientiae) stands pre-eminent above them all, when it has for its end that we may become truly rational, for thus it has good and truth for its end. The very life of the internal man flows into all the affections of the natural man, but is varied there according to the ends when it flows into affections which have the world for their end, this end is vivified by that life, and there results worldly life; when into affections which have self for their end, this end is vivified by that life, and there results corporeal life; and so in all other cases. It is from this that cupidities and phantasies live, but a life contrary to the affection of good and truth.

[2] The inflowing life is applied to no other object than the end, because with every one his end is his love, and it is the love alone that lives. All other objects are only derivations from this, and they all draw their life from the end. Every one may see what kind of life he has, if he will only search out what his end is; not what all his ends are--for he has numberless ones, as many as intentions, and almost as many as judgments and conclusions of thoughts, which are only intermediate ends, variously derived from the principal one, or tending to it--but let him search out the end he prefers to all the rest, and in respect to which all others are as nothing. If he has for his end himself and the world, let him know that his life is infernal; but if he has for his end the good of his neighbor, the common good, the Lord‘s kingdom, and especially the Lord Himself, let him know that his life is heavenly.

AC 1910. And she conceived. That this signifies the first life of the rational, is evident from the signification of "conception," as being the first life. As regards the rational, it receives its life, as before said, from the life of the internal man flowing into the life of the affection of knowledges (cognitiones et scientiae) in the exterior man. The life of the affection of these knowledges gives a sort of body to the rational, or clothes the life of the internal man as the body clothes the soul for this is precisely the case with these knowledges. In everything appertaining to man, in everything of his affection and in everything of his thought, there is the idea or likeness of soul and body, for there is nothing, however simple it may appear, that is not composite, and that does not come forth from what is prior to itself.

AC 1911. And she saw that she had conceived, and her mistress was despised in her eyes. That this signifies that this rational at its conception, lightly esteemed the truth itself that was adjoined to good, is evident from the signification of the "mistress," or Sarai, as being truth adjoined to good. The rational is conceived cannot acknowledge intellectual or spiritual truth as truth, because there adhere to this rational many fallacies from the memory-knowledges drawn from the world and from nature, and many appearances from the knowledges taken from the literal sense of the Word, and these are not truths.

[2] For example: it is an intellectual truth that all life is from the Lord; but the rational first conceived does not apprehend this, and supposes that if it did not live from itself it would have no life; nay, it is indignant if the contrary is said, as has been many times perceived from the spirits who still cling to the fallacies of the senses.

[3] It is an intellectual truth that all good and truth are from the Lord; but the rational first conceived does not apprehend this, because it has the feeling that they are as from itself; and it also supposes that if good and truth were not from itself, it could have no thought of good and truth, and still less do anything good and true; and that if they are from another it should let itself go, and wait all the time for influx.

[4] It is an intellectual truth that nothing but good is from the Lord, and not even the least of evil; and this too the rational first conceived does not believe, but supposes that because the Lord governs everything, evil also is from Him; and that because He is omnipotent and omnipresent, and is good itself, and does not take away the punishments of the evil in hell, He wills the evil of punishment; when yet He does evil to no one, nor does He will that any one should be punished.

[5] It is an intellectual truth that the celestial man has from the Lord a perception of good and truth; but the first rational either denies the existence of perception altogether, or supposes that if a man were to perceive from another, and not from himself, he would be as if inanimate, or devoid of life. In fact the more the rational thinks from memory-knowledges that originate from sensuous things and from philosophical reasonings, the less does it apprehend the foregoing and all other intellectual truths, for the fallacies therefrom are involved in so much the darker shades. Hence it is that the learned believe less than others.

[6] Since the rational first conceived is such, it is evident that it despises its mistress, that is, it lightly esteems intellectual truth. Intellectual truth does not become manifest, that is, is not acknowledged, except in so far as fallacies and appearances are dispersed, and these are not dispersed so long as the man reasons about truths themselves from things of sense and from memory-knowledges, but it for the first time becomes manifest when he believes from a simple heart that it is truth because so said by the Lord. Then the shades of fallacies are dispersed, and then nothing in him prevents him from apprehending it.

[7] In the Lord however there were no fallacies, but when His rational was first conceived there were appearances of truth that in themselves were not truths, as is evident from what has been already said (n. 1661). Hence also His rational at its first conception lightly esteemed intellectual truth; but gradually, as His rational was made Divine, the clouds of the appearances were dispersed, and intellectual truths lay open to Him in their light and this is represented and signified by Ishmael being expelled from the house when Isaac grew up. That the Lord did not lightly esteem intellectual truth, but that He perceived and saw that His new rational did so, will be seen from what follows (n. 1914).

AC 1912. Verse 5. And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong be upon thee; I gave any handmaid into thy bosom, and she saw that she conceived, and I am despised in her eyes; Jehovah judge between me and thee. "Sarai said unto Abram," signifies that the affection of truth so perceived; "My wrong be upon thee; I gave my handmaid into thy bosom," signifies unwillingness to take blame to itself; "and she saw that she conceived," signifies the first life of the rational; "and I am despised in her eyes," signifies here as before that this rational at its conception lightly esteemed truth adjoined to good; "Jehovah judge between me and thee," signifies the Lord’s indignation.

AC 1913. Sarai said unto Abram. That this signifies that the affection of truth so perceived, is evident from the signification of "Sarai," as being the affection of truth (n. 1904); and of saying, as being in the internal sense perceiving-- as before said (n. 1898) where the same words occur.

AC 1914. My wrong be upon thee; I gave my handmaid into thy bosom. That this signifies unwillingness to take blame upon itself, is evident without explication. In the internal sense there is involved in these words that the Lord perceived this first rational to be such as to lightly esteem intellectual truth, on which account He rebuked it. For the Lord thought from intellectual truth, as before said (n. 1904); and because this truth is above the rational, it could perceive and see the quality of this rational, namely, that it held that truth in low esteem.

[2] That the Lord could perceive and see from the interior man what was the quality of the new rational in Himself, may be seen from the fact that the interior can perceive what takes place in the exterior, or what is the same, that the higher can see what is in the lower; but not the reverse. Moreover they who have conscience can do this and are accustomed to do it, for when anything contrary to the truth of conscience flows into the thought, or into the endeavor of the will, they not only perceive it, but also find fault with it; and it even grieves them to be of such a character. Still more can those do this who have perception, as perception is more interior in the rational. What then could not the Lord do, who had Divine celestial perception, and thought from the affection of intellectual truth, which is above the rational! Therefore He could not but be indignant, knowing that nothing of evil and falsity was from Himself, and that from the affection of truth He took the greatest pains that His rational should be pure. This shows that the Lord did not lightly esteem intellectual truth, but that He perceived the first rational in Himself to be thinking lightly of it.

[3] What it is to think from intellectual truth cannot be explained to the apprehension, and the less so because no one but the Lord ever thought from this affection and from this truth. He who thinks therefrom is above the angelic heaven, for even the angels of the third heaven do not think from intellectual truth, but from the interior of the rational. But so far as the Lord united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence, He thought from the Divine good itself, that is, from Jehovah.

[4] The fathers of the Most Ancient Church who had perception, thought from the interior rational. The fathers of the Ancient Church, who had not perception but conscience, thought from the exterior or natural rational. But all who are without conscience do not think at all from the rational, since they have not the rational, although they appear to have it; but they think from the sensuous and corporeal natural. The reason why they who have no conscience cannot think from the rational, is that they have no rational, as just said. The rational man is he who thinks the good and truth of faith, and by no means he who thinks contrary thereto. They who think evil and falsity are insane in their thought, and therefore the rational can by no means be predicated of them.

AC 1915. And she saw that she conceived. That this signifies the first life of the rational, is evident from the signification of " conception,‘ as being the first life (n. 1910).

AC 1916. I am devised in her eyes. That this signifies that this rational at its conception lightly esteemed the truth itself that was adjoined to good, is evident from what was said just above (n. 1911, 1914).

AC 1917. Jehovah judge between me and thee. That this signifies the Lords indignation, is evident from what has just been said, and thus without explication. No further idea of these things can be had, except by those who have been in the combats of temptations. In temptations there are vastations and desolations, and there are states of despair, and of consequent grief and indignation, besides other interior painful emotions and this with variety and alternation, according to the states of evil and falsity which are excited by evil genii and spirits, and against which the combat is being waged. The diabolical spirits desire nothing more than to find some falsity, in fact it is common with them to induce a falsity from themselves, and then at the same time to make it the subject of accusation. Hence the Lord’s indignation was so great, in whose first rational there was no falsity, but an appearance of truth that in itself was not true (n. 1661, 1911).

AC 1918. Verse 6. And Abram said unto Sarai, Behold thy handmaid is in thy hand, do to her that which is good in thine eyes; and Sarai humbled her, and she fled from her face. "Abram said unto Sarai," signifies perception; "Behold thy handmaid is in thy hand," signifies that the rational that was conceived was in the power of truth adjoined to good "do to her that which is good in thine eyes," signifies absolute control; "and Sarai humbled her," signifies subjugation; "and she fled from her face," signifies the indignation of this rational that was first conceived.

AC 1919. Abram said unto Sarai. That this signifies perception, is evident from what was said above (n. 1898). The Lord‘s perception was represented and is here signified by this which Abram said to Sarai; but His thought from the perception, by that which Sarai said to Abram. The thought was from the perception. They who are in perception think from nothing else; but still perception is one thing and thought another. To show that this is the case, take conscience as an illustration.

[2] Conscience is a kind of general dictate, and thus an obscure one, of the things that flow in through the heavens from the Lord. Those which flow in present themselves in the interior rational man and are there as in a cloud, which cloud is from appearances and fallacies concerning the truths and goods of faith. But thought is distinct from conscience, and yet it flows from conscience; for they who have conscience think and speak according to it, and the thought is little else than an unfolding of the things which are of conscience, and thereby the partition of them into ideas and then into words. Hence it is that they who have conscience are kept by the Lord in good thoughts respecting the neighbor, and are withheld from thinking evil; and therefore conscience can have no place except with those who love their neighbor as themselves, and think well concerning the truths of faith. From what has been advanced we may see what the difference is between conscience and thought; and from this we may know what the difference is between perception and thought.

[3] The Lord’s perception was immediately from Jehovah, and thus from the Divine good; but His thought was from intellectual truth and the affection of it, as before said (n. 1904, 1914). The Lord‘s Divine perception cannot he apprehended by any idea, not even of angels, and therefore it cannot be described. The perception of the angels (n. 1384, 1394, 1395) is scarcely anything in comparison with the perception which the Lord had. The Lord’s perception, being Divine, was a perception of all things in the heavens, and therefore also of all things on earth, for such is the order, connection, and influx, that he who is in the perception of the former is also in the perception of the latter.

[4] But after the Lord‘s Human Essence had been united to His Divine Essence, and at the same time had become Jehovah, the Lord was then above that which is called perception, because He was above the order that is in the heavens and thence on the earth. It is Jehovah who is the source of order, and hence it may be said that Jehovah is Order itself, for He from Himself governs order; not as is supposed in the universal only, but also in the veriest singulars, for the universal comes from these. To speak of the universal, and to separate from it the singulars, could be nothing else than to speak of a whole in which there are no parts, and therefore to speak of a something in which there is nothing. So that to say that the Lord’s Providence is universal, and is not a Providence of the veriest singulars, is to say what is utterly false, and is what is called an ens rationis (that is, a figment of the imagination). For to provide and govern in the universal, and not in the veriest singulars, is to provide and govern absolutely nothing. This is true philosophically, and yet wonderful to say, philosophers themselves, even those who soar the highest, apprehend the matter differently, and think differently.

AC 1920. Behold thy handmaid is in thy hand. That this signifies that the rational that was conceived was in the power of the affection of truth that is adjoined to good, is evident from the signification of the "hand," as being power (n. 878); and from the signification of "Hagar the Egyptian," as being the affection of memory-knowledges. After the rational had been conceived by the influx of the internal man into the life of the affection of memory-knowledges of the exterior man, then by the "handmaid" is also meant that tender rational which was in the womb, but which when born and grown, is represented by Ishmael, who is treated of in what follows. That the Lord had sovereign control over the rational that was in Him, and that He subjugated it by His own power, will be seen from what will be said presently.

AC 1921. Do to her that which is good in thine eyes. That this signifies absolute control, is evident without explication. In the internal sense these words represent and signify that the Lord, from His own power, conquered, subjugated, and expelled the evil which from His hereditary nature had insinuated itself also into this first rational, for as has been said the rational was conceived of the internal man, which was Jehovah, as a father, and was born of the exterior man as a mother. Whatever was born from the exterior man had the hereditary nature with it, and therefore it had evil with it. It was this that the Lord conquered, subjugated, and expelled, and at let made Divine (His rational) by His own power. That it was by His own power is evident from everything contained in this verse, as from its being said, "Thy handmaid is in thy hand," by which is signified that rational was in His sovereign power; and now, "Do to her that which is good in thine eyes," by which is signified absolute control over it; and then, "Sarai humbled her," by which is signified subjugation.

[2] The words now under consideration were said to Sarai, by whom is represented the intellectual truth that belonged to the Lord Himself, and from which He thought (n. 1904, 1914), and from which He had absolute control over the rational and also over the natural that was of the exterior man. He who thinks from intellectual truth, and perceives from Divine good-which good also was His, because the Father‘s, for the Father was His soul and He had no other-cannot do otherwise than act from His own power. And therefore, because by His own power He subdued and cast out the evil of His hereditary nature, He also by His own power united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, for the one is a consequence of the other.

[3] He who is conceived of Jehovah has no other internal, that is no other soul, than Jehovah; and therefore as to His veriest life the Lord was Jehovah Himself. Jehovah, or the Divine Essence, cannot be divided, as can the soul of a human father, from which offspring is conceived. So far as this offspring recedes from the likeness of the father, so far it recedes from the father, and this it does more and more as age advances. It is from this that a father’s love for his children diminishes with their advance in age. It was not so with the Lord; as age advanced He did not recede as to the Human Essence, but continually drew nearer, even to perfect union. Hence it is evident that He is the same as Jehovah the Father, as He also clearly teaches (John 14:6, 8-11).

AC 1922. And she humbled her. That this signifies subjugation, follows from what has been said.

AC 1923. And she fled from her face. That this signifies the indignation of this rational that was first conceived, is also evident without explication, for to flee from any one‘s face is nothing else than not to endure his presence, and pertains to indignation. Here is described the indignation of this rational against intellectual truth, because intellectual truth, or the Lord, willed to humble or subjugate it. When the rational rises up against the intellectual, an intestine combat arises together with indignation on the part of that which is being subjugated, as is the case in temptations, which are nothing but intestine combats, being disputes and contentions about sovereign power and control, between evils on the one side and goods on the other.

AC 1924. Verse 7. And the Angel of Jehovah found her by a fountain of waters in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. "The Angel of Jehovah found her," signifies the thought of the interior man; "the Angel of Jehovah" is here the interior thought from the Lord’s internal; "by a fountain of waters in the wilderness," signifies natural truth that had not as yet attained to life; "by the fountain in the way to Shur," signifies that truth was from those things which proceed from memory-knowledges.

AC 1925. The Angel of Jehovah found her. That this signifies the thought of the interior man, namely, in the Lord, may be seen from the representation and signification of "the Angel of Jehovah." "The Angel of Jehovah" is occasionally mentioned in the Word, and everywhere, when in a good sense, represents and signifies some essential in the Lord and from the Lord; but what he represents and signifies may be seen from the connection. They were angels who were sent to men, and who spoke through the prophets; yet what they spoke was not from the angels, but through them, for the state of the latter was then such that they knew not but that they were Jehovah, that is, the Lord; but as soon as they had done speaking, they returned into their former state, and spoke as from themselves.

[2] This was the case with the angels who spoke the Word of the Lord, as has been given me to know from much similar experience in the other life, concerning which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy hereafter. This is the reason why the angels were sometimes called "Jehovah;" as is very evident from the angel who appeared to Moses in the bush, of whom it is written:--

And the Angel of Jehovah appeared unto Moses in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush. Jehovah saw that he turned aside to see, and God called unto him out of the midst of the bush. God said unto Moses, I am that I am. And God said moreover to Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel Jehovah, the God of your fathers hath sent me unto you (Exod. 3:2, 4, 11, 15)

from which it is evident that it was an angel who appeared to Moses as a flame in the bush, and that he spoke as Jehovah because the Lord or Jehovah spoke through him.

[3] For in order that the speaking may come to man by words of articulate sound and in ultimate nature, the Lord makes use of the ministry of angels, filling them with the Divine, and lulling the things which are their own; so that at the time they do not know but that they themselves are Jehovah. In this way the Divine of Jehovah, which is in the highest things, passes down into the lowest of nature, in which lowest is man in respect to sight and hearing. 80 it was with the angel who spoke to Gideon, of whom it is thus said in the book of Judges:--

The Angel of Jehovah appeared unto Gideon, and said unto him, Jehovah is with thee, thou mighty man of strength. And Gideon said unto him, In me, my Lord; why then is all this befallen us? And Jehovah looked upon him, and said, Go in thy might; and Jehovah said unto him, Surely I will be with thee (Judges 6:12, 14, 16)

and it is afterwards said:--

And Gideon saw that he was the Angel of Jehovah, and Gideon said, Ah, Lord Jehovah, forasmuch as I have seen the Angel of Jehovah face to face. And Jehovah said unto him, peace be unto thee; fear not (Judges 6:22, 23).

In this case also it was an angel, but he was then in such a state that he did not know otherwise than that he was Jehovah or the Lord.

[4] So in another place in the book of Judges:--

The Angel of Jehovah went up from Gilgal to Bochim, and he said, I made you to go up out of Egypt, and have brought you into the land which I sware unto your fathers, and I said, I will not make void My covenant with you to eternity (Judges 2:1)

where in like manner an angel speaks in the name of Jehovah, saying that he had led them up out of the land of Egypt, when yet the angel did not lead them out, but Jehovah, as is declared many times elsewhere. From all this we may see how angels spoke through the prophets, namely, that Jehovah Himself spoke, but through angels, and the angels spoke nothing from themselves. That the Word is from the Lord, is evident from many passages, as in Matthew:--

That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son (Matthew 1:22, 23),

besides other passages. As when the Lord speaks with men He speaks through angels, therefore sometimes in the Word the Lord is also called an "Angel," and then by "Angel," as already said, there is signified some essential thing in the Lord and from the Lord; as, in the present case, the Lord’s interior thought; and therefore also the angel is called in this chapter "Jehovah" and also "God," as in (verse 13): "and Hagar called the name of Jehovah that was speaking unto her, Thou God seest me."

[5] In other places likewise some special attribute of the Lord is signified by "angels." As in John:--

The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches (Rev. 1:20).

There are no angels of churches, but by the "angels" is signified that which is of the church, thus that which is of the Lord in respect to the churches. And again:--

I saw the wall of the Holy Jerusalem great and high, having twelve gates, and upon the gates twelve angels, and names written which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel (Rev. 21:12)

where by the "twelve angels" the same is signified as by the "twelve tribes," namely, all things of faith, and thus the Lord, from whom is faith and all that is of faith. And again:--

And I saw another angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the eternal gospel (Rev. 14:6)

where by the "angel" is signified the gospel, which is the Lord‘s alone.

[6] In Isaiah:--

The Angel of His faces saved them in His love and in His pity He redeemed them and He bare them and carried them all the days of eternity (Isaiah 63:9)

where by "the Angel of His faces" is meant the Lord’s mercy toward the whole human race, in redeeming them. So too it was said by Jacob when he blessed the sons of Joseph:--

The Angel who redeemed me from all evil bless the lads (Gen. 48:16)

where also redemption, which is the Lord‘s, is signified by the "Angel." In Malachi:--

The Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Angel of the covenant whom ye desire (Malachi 3:1)

it is here plainly evident that the Lord is signified by the "Angel," since He is called "the Angel of the covenant" on account of His advent. And even more plainly does it appear that the Lord is signified by an "Angel" in Exodus:--

Behold, I send an Angel before thee, to keep thee by the way, and to bring thee to the place which I have prepared. He will not endure your transgression, for My name is in the midst of him (Exodus 23:20, 21).

Hence now it is evident that by "Angel" in the Word is meant the Lord; but what of the Lord, appears from the series and connection in the internal sense.

AC 1926. That in the passage before us "the Angel of Jehovah" denotes the interior thought that came from the Lord’s Internal, is evident, as before said, from the connection. By that which is "interior" is here meant that in the Lord which was united to Jehovah, or to His Internal. The unition was not effected all at once and by a single alternation, but successively from His earliest childhood to the end of His life in the world, and this chiefly by means of temptations and victories. Each temptation and victory effected union, and in proportion as He united Himself with His Internal or Jehovah, in the same proportion His thought became interior, and in the same proportion intellectual truth was united to Divine good. This is the thought that is here meant by the interior thought which was from the Lord‘s Internal, and which is properly and peculiarly represented and signified in the present case by "the Angel of Jehovah."

AC 1927. By a fountain of waters in the wilderness. That this signifies natural truth that had not as yet attained to life, is evident from the signification of "a fountain of waters," as being truth; and from the signification of "the wilderness," as being that which as yet has but little vitality. Such also is the signification of this term in the internal sense in Luke, where the Lord is treated of

The child (John) grew, and waxed strong in spirit and was in the wilderness until the day of his showing unto Israel (Luke 1:80).

That "a fountain of waters" and "the wilderness" signify these things, may be confirmed by very many passages from the Word; but as mention is very often made of "fountains" in what follows, and also of the " wilderness," where their signification is the same as here, of the Lord’s Divine mercy the proof will there be given. What it is for truth not yet to have attained to life, will be evident from what is to be said presently.

AC 1928. By the fountain in the way to Shur. That this signifies that truth was from those things which proceed from memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of a "fountain," also of a "way," and likewise of Shur." A "fountain," as before said, signifies truth. A "way" signifies that which leads to truth and which proceeds from truth (n. 627). But "Shur" signifies such memory-knowledge as is still as it were in the wilderness, that is, which has not yet attained to life. Truths that come from memory-knowledges are said to attain to life, when they join or associate themselves with the truths into which flows the celestial of love, for the very life of truth comes thence. There are conjunctions of actual things, thus of truths, like those of the societies in heaven, to which also they correspond for a man as to his interiors is a kind of little heaven. The actual things, or truths, that have not been conjoined in accordance with the form of the heavenly societies, have not yet attained to life; for before this the celestial of love from the Lord cannot flow in with adaptation. They first receive life when the form is similar on both sides, or when the man‘s little heaven is a correspondent image of the Grand Heaven; previous to this, no one can be called a heavenly man.

[2] The Lord, who was to govern the universal heaven from Himself, did when in the world reduce the truths and goods in His external man, or in His Human Essence, into such order; but as He perceived that His rational that was first conceived was not of this character (verses 4 and 5), He thought out the cause, and perceived that the natural truths that sprung from memory-knowledges had not as yet attained to life, that is, were not as yet reduced into that heavenly order. And besides, the truths of faith have no life at all, unless the man lives in charity, for all the truths of faith flow from charity and are in charity; and when they are in charity and from charity, then they have life. In charity there is life, but never in truths apart from charity.

[3] That "Shur" signifies memory-knowledge that has not yet attained to life, is evident from its meaning, for Shur was a wilderness not far from the Red Sea, thus toward Egypt, as is evident in Moses:--

Moses made Israel to journey from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water (Exod. 15:22).

That it was toward Egypt is evident also in Moses, where the posterity of Ishmael are spoken of:--

They dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is toward the faces of Egypt (Gen. 25:18).

Also in 1 Samuel:--

Saul smote Amalek from Havilah, as thou comest to Shur, that is toward the faces of Egypt (1 Sam. 15:7).

And again:--

David made a raid against the Geshurite, and the Gizrite, and the Amalekite, for they were the inhabitants of the land who were of old, as thou goest to Shur, even to the land of Egypt (1 Sam. 27:8).

From these passages it may be seen that by " Shur" is signified the first memory-knowledge, and in fact such as is still in the wilderness, or that is not as yet conjoined with the rest in accordance with the order of heavenly association; for by "Egypt," before which it was, is signified memory-knowledge in every sense has before shown, (n. 1164, 1165, 1156, 1462).

AC 1929. That these things are signified by "the Angel of Jehovah finding Hagar at a fountain of waters in the wilderness, at the fountain in the way to Shur," can by no means appear from the literal sense, and the less so seeing that it is historical; for this sense seems very remote from signifying such things. But still this is the meaning that comes into the ideas of the angels when these things are read by man, for the angels have no idea of Hagar, nor of a fountain of waters, nor of a wilderness, nor of a way, nor of Shur. None of these things penetrate to the angels, but perish at the first threshold. But what is signified by "Hagar," by "a fountain," by "a wilderness," by "a way," and by "Shur," this they understand, and thereby form heavenly ideas, and in this way they perceive the Lord’s Word for the internal sense is the Word to them.

AC 1930. Verse 8. And he said, Hagar, Sarai‘s handmaid, when comest thou? and whither goest thou? And she said, From the face of Sarai, my mistress, am I fleeing. "He said, Hagar, Sarai’s handmaid," signifies information; "whence comest thou, and whither goest thou?" signifies respecting the state; "and she said, From the face of Sarai, my mistress, am I fleeing," signifies response and indignation.

AC 1931. He said, Hagar, Sarai‘s handmaid. That this signifies information, is evident from the series, for Hagar is addressed by the angel as if he were to be informed. It is a common thing in the Word for Jehovah to question a man, and for men to reply, although Jehovah knew all before, not only what is done, but also the causes and the ends, and thus all the least and inmost things. But as man is not aware of this, and believes that no one can possibly know what he does in secret when no one sees it, and still less what he thinks, therefore the matter takes place according to the man’s belief. But still it is really true that even ordinary spirits perceive a man‘s thoughts better than does the man himself; angelic spirits still more interior things of his thoughts and angels things even more interior, namely, the causes and the ends, of which the man knows but little. It has been given me to know this by much and continual experience lasting many years. As spirits and angels perceive these things, what must be the case with the Lord, or Jehovah, who is infinite, and who gives to all their ability to perceive.

AC 1932. Whence comest thou? and whither goest thou? That this signifies information respecting the state, is evident from the words themselves.

AC 1933. And she said, From the face of Sarai, my mistress, am I fleeing. That this signifies response and indignation is evident from what has been said. Respecting the indignation see above at (verse 6), where the same words occur. As the "face" signifies the interiors (n. 358), so it signifies indignation and other things.

AC 1934. Verse 9. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and humble thyself under her hands. "The Angel of Jehovah said," signifies the response of the Lord’s interior man; " Return to thy mistress," signifies that it was observed that it ought not to trust to itself, but to interior truth and to the affection of it; "and humble thyself under her hands," signifies that it ought to compel itself to be under its sovereign power.

AC 1935. The Angel of Jehovah said. That this signifies the response of the Lord‘s interior man, is evident from the signification of "the Angel of Jehovah," as being the Lord’s interior thought (n. 1925) and because it is thought, it is also response. The Lord‘s interior thought was from the section of intellectual truth, and this affection was from the Divine good itself. Such thought, as before said, never exists in any man, nor can do so. In man also there is interior thought that flows in from the Lord through his internal man into the interior rational, with those who have conscience’. as may be seen from the fact that they can observe the evil and falsity in their external man that is in conflict with the good and truth in the interior man. This thought is much lower and is not in any way to be compared to that of the Lord, which was from the affection of intellectual truth and was proper and peculiar to Him. But they who have not conscience cannot have interior thought, and therefore there is no conflict, the reason of which is that their rational acts as one and the same with the corporeal sensual; and though there is in them also a continual influx of good and truth from the Lord, yet they have no perception of it, because they forthwith extinguish and suffocate it, and this is why they do not believe any truth of faith.

AC 1936. Return to thy mistress. That this signifies that it was observed that it ought not to trust to itself, but to interior truth and the affection of it, is evident from the signification of her "mistress," as being the affection of interior truth. But what is specially signified by " Sarai" (by Sarai as a "wife," and by Sarai as a mistress"‘) cannot be described, for it can be grasped by no idea; the things signified are, as before said, above the understanding, even that which is angelic. It is only suggested here how the Lord thought concerning the appearances that had engaged the attention of His first rational, namely, that they were not to be trusted, but Divine truths themselves, however incredible these might appear in the view of that rational. For such is the case with all truths Divine if the rational be consulted respecting them, they cannot possibly be believed, for they surpass all its comprehension. For example: that no man, spirit, or angel, lives from himself, but the Lord only; and that the life of a man, spirit, or angel is an appearance of life in him this is repugnant to the rational, which judges from fallacies, but still it is to be believed because it is the truth.

[2] It is a truth Divine that in every expression of the Word, which appears so simple and rude to man, there are things illimitable, nay, more than the universal heaven; and that the arcana which are therein may be presented before the angels by the Lord with perpetual variety to eternity. This is so incredible to the rational that it is unwilling to give it any credence at all; but still it is true.

[3] It is a truth Divine that no one is ever rewarded in the other life for good deeds, if he placed merit in them, or if he did them for the sake of gain, honor, and reputation; also that no one is ever punished for evil deeds if he acted from a truly good end; the ends being what are regarded, and from them the deeds. This too cannot be believed by the rational; but as it is true, the rational is not to be trusted, for it does not form its conclusions from internal things, but from external things.

[4] It is a truth Divine that he who aspires to the least joy in the other life, receives from the Lord the greatest, and that he who aspires to the greatest has the least, also that in heavenly joy there is never anything connected with being pre-eminent to others, and that in proportion as there is this, there is hell; also that in heavenly glory there is nothing whatever of worldly glory. These things also are repugnant to the rational, but still are to be believed, because they are true.

[5] It is also a truth Divine that the more any one believes nothing of wisdom to be from himself, the wiser he is; and that the more he believes it to be from himself, and thus the more he attributes prudence to himself, the more insane he is. This also the rational denies, because it supposes that what is not from itself is nothing. There are innumerable such things. From these few examples it may be seen that the rational is not to be trusted; for the rational is in fallacies and appearances, and it therefore rejects truths that are stripped of fallacies and appearances; and it does this the more, the more it is in the love of self and its cupidities, and the more it is in reasonings, and also in false principles respecting faith. See also the examples adduced above, (n. 1911).

AC 1937. Humble thyself under her hands. That this signifies that it ought to compel itself to be under its sovereign power, is evident without explication. "To humble, one’s self" is expressed in the‘ original tongue by a word which signifies "to afflict." That "to afflict one’s self" is, in the internal sense, to compel one‘s self, may be seen from very many passages in the Word, and will be treated of in what follows. That man ought to compel himself to do what is good, to obey the things commanded by the Lord, and to speak truths, which is to "humble himself under’ the Lord‘s hands, or to submit himself to the sovereign power of the Divine good and truth, involves more arcana than can be explained in a few words.

[2] There are certain spirits who during their life in the world, because they had been told that all good is from the Lord, and that a man can do nothing of himself, had held it as a principle not to compel themselves in anything, but to cease from all effort, thinking that as the case was so, all effort would be in vain; and therefore they had waited for immediate influx into the effort of their will, and did not compel themselves to do anything good, going so far that when anything evil crept in, as they felt no resistance from within, they resigned themselves to it also, supposing that it was permissible to do so. But these spirits are as it were devoid of what is their own, so that they have no determination to anything, and are therefore among the more useless, for they suffer themselves to be led alike by the evil and by the good, and suffer much from the evil.

[3] But they who have compelled themselves to resist what is evil and false- although at first they supposed that this was from themselves or from their own power, but were afterwards enlightened to see that their effort was from the Lord, even to the least of all the particulars of the effort - these in the other life cannot be led by evil spirits, but are among the happy. Thus we may see that a man ought to compel himself to do what is good and to speak what is true. The arcanum herein contained is that a man is thus gifted by the Lord with a heavenly Own, for this heavenly Own of man is formed in the effort of his thought; and if he does not maintain this effort by compelling himself (as the appearance is), he certainly does not maintain it by not compelling himself.

[4] That we may see how this is, let it be observed that in all self-compulsion to what is good there is a certain freedom, which is not discerned as such while the man is engaged in this self-compulsion, but still it is within. For instance, in one who is willing to undergo the risk of death for the sake of a certain end, or in one who is willing to suffer bodily pain for the sake of health, there is a willingness and thus a certain freedom from which the man acts, although the dangers and the pains, while he is in them, take away his perception of this willingness or freedom; and such is the case also with those who compel themselves to do what is good: there is a willingness within, and thus a freedom, from which and for the sake of which they compel themselves, that is to say, they do so for the sake of obedience to what the Lord has commanded, and for the sake of the salvation of their souls after death, within which although the man is not aware of it, there is still more interiorly a regard for the Lord’s kingdom, and even for the Lord Himself.

[5] This is the case most of all during temptations, for in these-when the man compels himself to resist the evil and falsity which are infused and suggested by evil spirits there is more of freedom than is possible in any state out of temptations-although at the time the man cannot comprehend this-for there is an interior freedom, from which he wills to subjugate evil, and which is so great as to equal the force and strength of the evil that is assailing him, for otherwise he could not possibly wage the combat. This freedom is from the Lord, who insinuates it into the man‘s conscience, and by means of it causes him to overcome the evil as from what is his own. Through this freedom man acquires an Own in which the Lord can work what is good. Without an Own acquired, that is, given, through freedom, no man can possibly be reformed, because he cannot receive the new will, which is conscience. The freedom thus given is the very plane into which there is an influx of good and truth from the Lord. Hence it is that they who in temptations do not resist from their own will, or in freedom, give way.

[6] In all freedom there is man’s life, because there is his love. Whatever a man does from love appears to him free. But in this freedom, when the man is compelling himself to resist what is evil and false, and to do what is good, there is heavenly love, which the Lord then insinuates, and through which He creates the man‘s Own; and therefore the Lord wills that it should appear to the man as his, although it is not his. This Own which man during his bodily life thus receives through what is apparently compulsory, is filled by the Lord in the other life with illimitable delights and happinesses. Such persons are also by degrees enlightened to see and even to be confirmed in the truth, that of themselves they have not compelled themselves one atom, but that all things of the effort of their will, even the smallest, had been from the Lord; and that the reason why it had appeared as if it was of themselves was in order that a new will might be given them by the Lord as their own, and that in this way the life of heavenly love might be appropriated to them. For the Lord wills to communicate to every one what is His, and therefore He wills to communicate what is heavenly, so that it may appear as the man’s, and in him, although it is not his. The angels are in such an Own; and in proportion as they are in the truth that all good and truth are from the Lord, they are in the delight and happiness of this Own.

[7] But they who despise and reject all good and truth, and who are willing to believe nothing that is repugnant to their cupidities and reasonings, cannot compel themselves; and thus cannot receive this Own of conscience, or new will. From what has been said above it is also evident that to compel one‘s self is not to be compelled; for no good ever comes from compulsion, as when a man is compelled by another man to do what is good; but it is evident that in the case we are now considering the self-compulsion comes from a certain freedom that is unknown to the man, since from the Lord there is never any compulsion. Hence it is a universal law that all that which is good and true is inseminated in freedom, for otherwise the ground cannot possibly receive and cherish that which is good, and in fact there is no ground in which the seed can grow.

AC 1938. Verse 10. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, In multiplying I will multiply thy seed, and it shall not be numbered for multitude. "The Angel of Jehovah said," signifies the thought of the interior man; "In multiplying I will multiply thy seed," signifies the fruitfulness of the rational man when it submits itself to the sovereign control of intellectual truth which is adjoined to good; "and it shall not be numbered for multitude," signifies multiplication beyond measure.

AC 1939. The Angel of Jehovah said. That this signifies the thought of the interior man, is evident from the preceding verse, where the same words occur.

AC 1940. In multiplying I will multiply thy seed. That this signifies the fruitfulness of the rational man when it submits itself to the sovereign control of the interior man when this is adjoined to good, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being love and faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610), but in the present case by "multiplying seed" is signified the fruitfulness of the celestial things of love in the rational, when the rational has submitted itself to interior or Divine truth. "Multiplication" is predicated of truth, and "fruitfulness" of good, as may be seen from what has already been said and shown (n. 43, 55, 913, 983). But as the Lord is here treated of, "multiplying" signifies becoming fruitful, because all the truth in His rational was made good, and thereby Divine, as is here declared concerning Him. It is otherwise in man, whose rational is formed by the Lord from truth or the affection of truth. This affection is his good, from which he acts.

[2] How the case is with man’s rational in regard to multiplication and fruitfulness cannot be understood unless we know how the case is with influx, of which it may be said in a general way that in every one there is an internal man, a rational man which is intermediate, and an external man, as before said. It is the internal man that is his inmost from which he is man, and by which he is distinguished from brute animals, which have not such an inmost; and it is as it were the door or entrance for the Lord, that is, for what is celestial and spiritual from the Lord, into man. What is going on there cannot be comprehended by the man, because it is above all his rational, from which he thinks. That rational which appears as man‘s own is subject to this inmost, or to this internal man, and into this rational through the internal man there inflow from the Lord the heavenly things of love and of faith, and through this rational they inflow into the memory-knowledges that are in the external man; but the things that inflow are received in accordance with the state of each person.

[3] Now unless the rational submits itself to the Lord’s goods and truths, it either suffocates, or rejects, or perverts the things that flow in; and this is still more the case when they flow into the sensuous knowledges of the memory. This is what is meant by seed falling on a highway, or upon a rocky place, or among thorns, as the Lord teaches (Matt. 13:3-7; Mark 4:3-7; Luke 8:5-7). But when the rational submits itself and believes the Lord, that is, His Word, the rational is then like good ground or earth, into which the seed falls and bears much fruit.

AC 1941. And it shall not be numbered for multitude. That this signifies multiplication beyond measure, is evident without explication. By these words is signified the truth that, from good, will thus grow multitudinously. In the case of the Lord- who in the internal sense is here treated of-these things cannot be fully expressed in words, because in Him all things are Divine and Infinite, and therefore in order that we may form some idea of how the case is with the multiplication of truth from good, we must speak concerning man. With a man who is in good, that is, in love and charity, the seed that comes from the Lord is made fruitful and multiplied to such an extent that it cannot he numbered for multitude; not so much while he is living in the body, but in the other life to an incredible degree; for so long as a man is living in the body the seed is in corporeal ground, and is there in the midst of jungles and thickets, which are memory-knowledges and pleasures, and also cares and anxieties; but when these are put off, which is done when he passes into the other life, the seed is freed from them and grows, just as the seed of a tree uprising from the ground grows into a sapling, then into a great tree, which is afterwards multiplied into a garden of trees. For all knowledge (scientia), intelligence, and wisdom, together with their delights and happiness, are thus made fruitful and multiplied, and thereby increase to eternity, and this from the smallest seed, as the Lord teaches respecting the grain of mustard-seed (Matt. 13:31). This may be seen very clearly from the knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom of the angels, which while they were men had been to them unutterable.

AC 1942. Verse 11. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and thou shalt call his name Ishmael: because Jehovah hath hearkened to thine affliction. "The Angel of Jehovah said unto her," signifies the thought of the interior man; "Behold, thou art with child," signifies the life of the rational man; "and shalt bear a son," signifies the truth of the same; "and thou shalt call his name lshmael," signifies the state of its life "because Jehovah hath hearkened to thine affliction," signifies while it was submitting itself.

AC 1943. The Angel of Jehovah said. That this signifies the thought of the interior man, is evident from what is said above at (verses 7, 9, and 10).

AC 1944. Behold, thou art with child. That this signifies the life of the rational man, is evident from what is said above concerning the conception of this and from what follows concerning Ishmael, namely, that by him is signified the first rational in the Lord. It is to be known concerning the rational man in general that it is said to receive life, to be in the womb, and to be born, when the man begins to think that the evil and falsity in himself is that which contradicts and is opposed to truth and good, and still more is this the case when he wills to remove and subjugate this evil and falsity. Unless he can perceive and become sensible of this, he has no rational, however much he may imagine that he has. For the rational is the medium that unites the internal man with the external, and thereby perceives from the Lord what is going on in the external man, and reduces the external man to obedience, nay, elevates it from the corporeal and earthly things in which it immerses itself, and causes the man to be man, and to look to heaven to which he belongs by birth; and not, as do brute animals, solely to the earth in which he is merely a sojourner, still less to hell. These are the offices of the rational, and therefore a man cannot be said to have any rational unless he is such that he can think in this manner; and whether the rational is coming into existence is known from his life in his use or function.

[2] To reason against good and truth, while they are denied at heart, and only known by hearing about them, is not to have a rational, for many can do this who openly rush without any restraint into all wickedness. The only difference is that those who suppose that they have a rational and have it not, maintain a certain decorum in their discourse and act from a pretended honorableness, in which they are held by external bonds, such as fear of the law, of the loss of property, of honor, of reputation, and of life. If these bonds, which are external, were to be taken away, some of these men would rave more insanely than those who rush into wickedness without restraint, so that no one can be said to have a rational merely because he can reason. The fact is that those who have no rational usually discourse from the things of sense and of memory-knowledge much more skillfully than those who have it.

[3] This is very clearly evident from evil spirits in the other life, who although accounted as being preeminently rational while they have lived in the body, yet when the external bonds which caused their decorum of discourse and their pretended honorableness of life are taken away, as is usual with all in the other life, they are more insane than those who in this world are openly so, for they rush into all wickedness without horror, fear, or shame. Not so those who while they lived in this world had been rational, for when the external bonds are taken away from them, they are still more sane, because they have had internal bonds-bonds of conscience-by which the Lord kept their thoughts bound to the laws of truth and good, which were their rational principles.

AC 1945. And shalt bear a son. That this signifies the truth, namely, of the rational here referred to, and which is signified by "Ishmael," is evident from the signification of a "son," as being truth (n. 264, 489, 491, 533, 1147). This truth is described in the next verse.

AC 1946. And thou shalt call his name Ishmael. This signifies the state of the life. In ancient times names were bestowed on sons and daughters that were significant of the state in which the parents were, especially the mothers when they conceived, or while they were with child, or when they brought forth; or the state in which the infants were when born, so that the names were significative. From what Ishmael had his name is here explained, namely, "because Jehovah hearkened to the affliction referring to his mother‘s state. But what Ishmael represents is described in the verse following.

AC 1947. Because Jehovah hath hearkened to thine affliction. That this signifies while it was submitting itself, is evident (n. 1937), in that to "humble and afflict one’s self" denotes to submit to the sovereign control of the internal man, which submission was there treated of, and it is shown that this is to compel one‘s self; also that in compelling one’s self there is freedom, that is, what is spontaneous and voluntary, by which compelling one‘s self is distinguished from being compelled. It was also shown that without this freedom, that is, spontaneity or willingness, man cannot possibly be reformed and receive any heavenly Own; and further that there is more of freedom in temptations than out of them, although the contrary appears to be the case, for the freedom is then stronger in proportion to the assaults of evils and falsities, and is strengthened by the Lord in order that a heavenly Own may be conferred upon the man; and for this reason the Lord is more present with us while we are in temptations. It was shown further that the Lord never compels any one; for he who is compelled to think what is true and do what is good is not reformed, but thinks falsity and wills evil all the more. All compulsion has this effect, as we may see from the records and examples of life, for from them we know these two things: that consciences do not suffer themselves to be compelled, and that we strive after what is forbidden. Moreover every one desires to pass from non-freedom into freedom, for this belongs to man’s life.

[2] Hence it is evident that anything which is not from freedom, that is, which is not from what is spontaneous or voluntary, is not acceptable to the Lord; for when any one worships the Lord from what is not free, he worships from nothing that is his own, and in this case it is the external which moves, that is, which is moved, from being compelled, while the internal is null, or resistant, or is even contradictory to it. While man is being regenerated, he, from the freedom with which he is gifted by the Lord, exercises self-compulsion, and humbles and even afflicts his rational, in order that it may submit itself, and thereby he receives a heavenly Own, which is afterwards gradually perfected by the Lord, and is made more and more free, so that it becomes the affection of good and thence of truth, and has delight, and in both the freedom and the delight there is happiness like that of angels. This freedom is what the Lord speaks of in John:--

The truth shall make you free; if the Son made you free, he shall be free indeed (John 8:32, 36).

[3] The nature of this freedom is utterly unknown to those who do not possess conscience, for they make freedom consist in doing as they please and in the license of thinking and speaking what is false, of willing and doing what is evil, and of not compelling and humbling, still less of afflicting such desires; when yet the very reverse is the case, as the Lord also teaches in the same gospel:--

Every one that committeth sin is the servant of sin (John 8:34).

This slavish freedom they receive from the infernal spirits who are with them and who infuse it, and when they are in the life of these spirits they are also in their loves and cupidities, and an impure and excrementitious delight breathes upon them, and when they are being as it were carried away by the torrent, they suppose themselves to be in freedom, but it is infernal freedom. The difference between this infernal freedom and heavenly freedom is that the one is that of death, and drags them down to hell, while the other, or heavenly freedom, is of life and uplifts them to heaven.

[4] That all true internal worship comes from freedom, and none from compulsion, and that if worship is not from freedom it is not internal worship, is evident from the Word, as from the sacrifices that were freewill offerings or vows, or offerings of peace or of thanksgiving; which were called "gifts" and "offerings" (Num. 15:3; Deut. 12:6; 16:10, 11; 23:23, 24). So in David:

With a free-will offering will I sacrifice unto Thee I will confess to Thy name, O Jehovah, for it is good (Ps. 54:6).

So again from the contribution or collection which they were to make for the Tabernacle, and for the garments of holiness, spoken of in Moses:--

Speak unto the sons of Israel, and let them take for Me an offering; from every man whom his heart impels willingly ye shall take My offering (Exod. 25:2).

And again:--

Whosoever is of a willing heart let him bring it, Jehovah‘s offering (Exod. 35:5).

[5] Moreover the humiliation of the rational man, or its affliction (from freedom, as before said), was also represented by the affliction of souls on days of solemnity, as mentioned in Moses:--

It shall be a statute of eternity unto you; in the seventh month, on the tenth of the month, ye shall afflict your souls (Lev. 16:29).

And again:--

On the tenth of the seventh month, this is the day of expiations; there shall be a holy convocation unto you, and ye shall afflict your souls; even soul that shall not have afflicted itself in that same day, shall be cut off from his peoples (Lev. 23:27, 29).

It was for this reason that the unleavened bread, in which there was nothing fermented, is called the "bread of affliction," (Deut. 16:2, 3).

[6] "Affliction" is thus spoken of in David:--

Jehovah, who shall sojourn in Thy tent? who shall dwell in the mountain of Thy holiness? He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteousness; he that sweareth to afflict himself, and changeth not (Ps. 15:1, 2, 4).

That "affliction" denotes the mastering and subjugation of the Evils and falsities that rise up from the external man into the rational, may be seen from what has been said. Thus "affliction" does not mean that we should plunge ourselves into poverty and wretchedness, or that we should renounce all bodily delights, for in this way evil is not mastered and subjugated; and moreover some other evil may be aroused, namely, a sense of merit on account of the renunciation; and besides, man’s freedom suffers, in which alone, as in ground, the good and truth of faith can be inseminated. Concerning "affliction" as denoting also temptation, (n. 1846).

AC 1948. Verse 12. And he shall be a wild-ass man; his hand against all, and the hand of all against him and he shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren. "He shall be a wild-ass man," signifies rational truth, which is described; "his hand against all," signifies that it will wage war upon whatever is not true; "and the hand of all against him," signifies that falsities will fight back; "and he shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren," signifies that there will be continual contentions about matters of faith; but that nevertheless it will be a conqueror.

AC 1949. He shall be a wild-ass (onager) man. That this signifies rational truth, which is described, is evident from the signification of "a wild-ass," as being rational truth. In the Word there is frequent mention of horses, horsemen, mules, and asses; and as yet no one has known that these signify things of the intellect, of the reason, and of memory-knowledge. That these animals and their riders have such a signification will of the Lords Divine mercy be fully confirmed in the proper places. Of the same class is the "onager," for this is the mule of the wilderness or wild-ass, and it signifies man‘s rational; not however the rational in its whole complex, but only rational truth. The rational consists of good and truth, that is, of things belonging to charity and of things belonging to faith, and it is rational truth that is signified by the "wild-ass." This then is what is represented by Ishmael, and is what is described in this verse.

[2] It seems incredible that rational truth when separated from good should be of such a character, neither should I have known this to be the case unless I had been instructed by living experience. Whether you say rational truth; or the man whose rational is of this kind, amounts to the same. The man whose rational is of such a character that he is solely in truth - even though it be the truth of faith-and who is not at the same time in the good of charity, is altogether of such a character. He is a morose man, will bear nothing, is against all, regards everybody as being in falsity, is ready to rebuke, to chastise, and to punish; has no pity, and does not apply or adapt himself to others and study to bend their minds; for he looks at everything from truth, and at nothing from good. Hence it is that Ishmael was driven out, and afterwards dwelt in the wilderness, and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt (Gen. 21:9-21) all of which things are representative of one who is endowed with such a rational.

[3] Mention is made of "wild-asses" in the prophetical parts of the Word, as in Isaiah:--

The, palace shall be forsaken, the multitude of the city shall be deserted; the high place and the watch-tower shall be for dens, even forever a joy of wild-asses, a pasture of flocks (Isaiah 32:14)

where the devastation of intellectual things is treated of, which, when laid waste as regards truths, are called "a joy of wild asses;" and when as regards goods, "a pasture of flocks;" so that there is no rational. In Jeremiah:--

The wild-asses stood upon the hills, they snuffed up the wind like whales, their eyes perished because there was no herbage (Jeremiah 14:6)

where the subject treated of is drought, that is, the absence of what is good and true. It is said of the wild-asses that they "snuff up the wind," when empty things are seized on instead of real things, which are truths " their eyes perished" means that there is no apprehension of what truth is.

[4] In Hosea:--

For they have gone up to Assyria, a wild-ass alone by himself Ephraim hath sought loves with a harlot’s hire (Hosea 8:9).

Here "Israel," or the spiritual church, is treated of; "Ephraim" denotes its intellectual; "going up into Assyria," reasoning about truth, as to whether it is truth; the "solitary wild-ass," the rational thus destitute of truths. In the same:--

For he shall be among his brethren as a wild-ass; an east wind shall come, the wind of Jehovah coming up from the wilderness; and his spring shall become dry, and his fountain shall be dried up; he shall make a spoil of the treasure of all vessels of desire (Hosea 13:15),

speaking of Ephraim, by whom is signified the intellectual of the spiritual church, whose rational is "as a wild-ass;" and the destruction of which is here treated of. In David:--

Jehovah God shall send forth springs into rivers, they shall run among the mountains they shall supply drink to every beast of the fields; the wild-asses shall quench their thirst (Ps. 104:10, 11).

"Springs" denote knowledges; the "beasts of the fields,‘ goods; the "wild-asses," the truths of reason.

AC 1950. His hand against all. That this signifies that it will wage war upon whatever is not true, and that "the hand of all against him" signifies that falsities will fight back, is evident from the fact that by "Ishmael," as before said, is signified rational truth separated from good; and when it is said of this truth that "its hand is against all, and the hand of all against it," it is evident that such is the signification of these words. It was stated above that by Abram is represented the Lord’s internal man, or what is the same, His Divine celestial and spiritual by Isaac the Lord‘s interior man, or His Divine rational; and by Jacob the Lords exterior man, or His Divine natural. The words before us treat of the rational as it would be if not united to the internal, that is, to the Divine celestial and spiritual. Because this rational had its nature from the life of affection of memory-knowledges, that is, from Hagar the Egyptian, Sarai’s handmaid, and because this life pertained to the external man, which had an hereditary nature from the Lord‘s mother that was to be fought against and expelled, therefore the rational is here described such as it would be if devoid of rational good. But after the Lord had humbled, that is, had afflicted and subjugated that hereditary nature by means of the combats of temptations and by victories, and had vivified His rational itself with Divine good, it then became "Isaac," that is, it is represented by Isaac; Ishmael, together with Hagar his mother, being cast out of the house.

[2] All the genuine rational consists of good and truth, that is, of the celestial and the spiritual. Good, or the celestial, is its very soul or life; truth, or the spiritual, is what receives its life from this. Without life from celestial good, the rational is such as is here described, that is, it fights against all, and all fight against it. Rational good never fights, however it is assailed’ because it is mild and gentle, patient and yielding; for its character is that of love and mercy. Yet although it does not fight, it conquers all, nor does it ever think about combat, or glory on account of victory; and this because it is Divine, and is safe of itself. For no evil can attack good it cannot even continue to exist in the sphere where good is, for when this merely approaches, evil withdraws and falls back of itself; for evil is infernal, and good is heavenly. Very similar is the case with the celestial spiritual, that is, with truth from a celestial origin, or with truth which is from good, for this truth is truth that is formed by good, so that it may be called the form of good.

[3] But truth separated from good,- which is here represented by Ishmael and is described in this verse, is altogether different, being like a wild-ass, and fighting against all, and all against it; in fact it thinks of and breathes scarcely anything but combats; its general delectation, or reigning affection, is to conquer, and when it conquers it glories in the victory on which account it is described as an " onager," or mule of the wilderness, that is, the wild-ass, which cannot be with others. Such a life is a life of truth without good, yea, a life of faith without charity, and therefore when a man is being regenerated, this is indeed effected by means of the truth of faith, but still at the same time by means of a life of charity, which the Lord insinuates in accordance with the increments of the truth of faith.

AC 1951. He shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren. That this signifies that there will be continual contentions about matters of faith, but that nevertheless it will be a conqueror, is evident from what has just been said; which is yet more fully described where the Word tells of the posterity of Ishmael, in these words:--

They dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is toward the faces of Egypt, as one comes to Asshur, (his lot) fell toward the faces of all his brethren (Gen. 25:18),

of which words the internal sense is evident from the signification of Havilah, Shur, Egypt, and Assyria. "Havilah" signifies that which is of intelligence (n. 115); "Shur" signifies truth proceeding from memory-knowledges (n. 1928); "Egypt," all that is of memory-knowledge (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); and "Assyria," that which belongs to reason (n. 119, 1186) from the significations of all which, when reduced into one general meaning, it is evident that by Ishmael is represented such a rational. This very kind of truth is represented in the other life in various ways, and always as what is strong, powerful, and hard; insomuch that it cannot be resisted at all. When spirits merely think of such truth, something of terror comes over them, because it is its nature not to yield, and thus not to recede; from which also we may see what is meant by "dwelling against the faces of all his brethren." Any one may know that an arcanum lies hidden in this description, but of what nature has hitherto been unknown.

AC 1952. Verses 13, 14. And she called the name of Jehovah who was speaking unto her, Thou God seest me; for she said, Have I also here seen after Him that seeth me? Therefore she called the fountain, The fountain of the Living One who seeth me; behold it is between Kadesh and Bared. " And she called the name of Jehovah who was speaking unto her," signifies the state of the Lord‘s interior man when it thought about these things. "Thou God seest me," signifies influx; "for she said, Have I also here seen after Him that seeth me?" signifies influx into the life of the exterior man without the rational as a medium "therefore she called the fountain," signifies the derivative state of’ truth; "the fountain of the Living One who seeth me," signifies truth thus clearly seen; "behold it is between Kadesh and Bared,"‘ signifies its quality.

AC 1953. And she called the name of Jehovah who was speaking unto her. That this signifies the state of the Lord’s interior man when it thought about these things, is evident from what precedes and what follows, and also from the signification of "calling a name," which is to know what is the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754). This state is described in regard to its quality, or the state in which the Lord was when He thus thought about the rational. The rational could not think this, but the interior or higher man could (n. 1926). For the rational can by no means think about itself in regard to its quality, for nothing can look into itself; but it must be something more internal or higher that thinks about it, for this can look into it. For example: the ear cannot know, and still less perceive the speech that it receives into itself: this is done by a more interior hearing. The ear merely discerns articulate sounds or words: it is the interior hearing that apprehends what is said, and then it is an interior sight or mental view that perceives it, and in this way there is through the hearing a perception of the meaning of the speech. The case is similar with the things of sight: the first ideas received from the objects of sight are material, as they are also called; but there is a sight still more interior that views the objects mentally, and thereby thinks. And such is the case with man‘s rational. The rational can by no means look into itself, still less explore its own quality: there must be something more internal that does this; and therefore when a man is able to do it-that is, perceive anything false in his rational, or any truth that shines there, and especially if he is able to perceive anything that is battling and overcoming-he may know that his ability to do this comes from the Lord’s influx through the internal man. The Lord‘s interior man, spoken of above (n. 1926) and meant here, was that which had been conjoined with His internal man, which was Jehovah, and was therefore far above that rational. From that interior man, as in celestial light, He saw and perceived of what quality the rational would become if it were in truth alone, and not in good.

AC 1954. Thou God seest me. That this signifies influx, is evident from what has just been said. Mental view from the higher into the lower, or what is the same, from the interior into the exterior, is termed influx, for it takes place by influx; just as in the case of man’s interior sight: unless this continually inflowed into his outer sight, which is that of the eye, this latter could not possibly apprehend and discern any object; for it is the interior sight which, through the eye, apprehends the things which the eye sees; and by no means is it the eye, although it so appears. From all this we may also see how much that man is in the fallacies of the senses who believes that the eye sees; when in fact it is the sight of his spirit, which is the interior sight, that sees through the eye.

[2] Spirits who were with me have seen through my eyes things in the world as well as I did (n. 1880); yet some of them who were still in the fallacies of the senses supposed that they had seen through their own eyes; but they were shown that it was not so, for when my eyes were closed they saw nothing in this atmospheric world. It is the very same with man: it is his spirit that sees, not his eye: the spirit sees through the eye. The same thing may be seen from dreams, in which a man sometimes sees as in the day. The case is the very same in regard to this interior sight, or that of the spirit this again does not see from itself, but from a still more interior sight, or that of man‘s rational. Nay, neither does this see of itself, but does so from a still more internal sight, which is that of the internal man (n. 1940). And even this does not see of itself, for it is the Lord who sees through the internal man, and He is the Only One who sees because He is the Only One who lives, and He it is who gives man the ability to see, and this in such a manner that it appears to him as if he saw of himself. Such is the case with influx.

AC 1955. For she said, Have I also here seen after Him who seeth me? That this signifies influx into the life of the exterior man without the rational as a medium, is evident from the signification of "seeing after Him that seeth." "To see after Him that seeth" is to see from what is interior, or higher, for in the internal sense that which is within or above is expressed in the sense of the letter by "after," when that which is within or above appears in that which is without or below. It is Hagar who speaks here; and by Hagar, as before shown, is signified the life of memory-knowledges, which belongs to the exterior man. As the first rational originated from this life, the Lord saw the reason for its so doing, and He saw it from His interior man in His exterior man, and did so without the rational as a medium. That the words before us involve arcana, every one can see from the single consideration that no one can know what it is to "see after Him that seeth me," except from an internal sense, in which also there must be such things as cannot be explained to the apprehension, except by means of ideas like those of angels, which do not fall into words, but only into the sense of the words; and this quite apart from the material ideas out of which come the ideas of the sense of the words. Concerning the things before us, which appear so obscure to man, the angels have ideas so clear and distinct, and enriched with so many representations, that were only a small part of them described, they would fill a volume.

AC 1956. Therefore she called the fountain. That this signifies the derivative state of truth, is evident from what has been said; and also from the signification of a fountain," as being truth (explained above, n. 1927). As this truth was not seen in the rational, but below the rational, the word in the original language that is here rendered "fountain" is a different word from that rendered "fountain" above, and from the common word for fountain.

AC 1957. The fountain of the Living One who seeth me. That this signifies truth thus clearly seen, is also evident from what has been already said, namely, that the Lord clearly saw how the case was with the truth of this rational-that it was not good. The Lord’s interior man, from which He saw this, is called "The Living One who seeth," because it was conjoined with the internal man, which was Jehovah, who alone lives and alone sees (n. 1954).

AC 1958. Behold it is between Kadesh and Bared. That this signifies the quality that is that He saw of what quality this truth was, and thus what the quality of the rational was-is evident from the signification of "Kadesh" and of "Bared." That "Kadesh" signifies truth, and also contentions about truths, has been shown before (n. 1678) but "Bared" signifies what is below, and thus truth in the form of memory-knowledge, from which also comes the rational. (That names in the Word signify actual things, may be seen above, (n. 1876, 1888, 1889, 1224, 1264).

AC 1959. Verse 15. And Hagar bare Abram a son; and Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael. "Hagar bare Abram a son," signifies the rational man born from this conjunction and conception; "and Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael," signifies the quality of it.

AC 1960. Hagar bare Abram a son. That this signifies the rational man born from this conception and conjunction, is evident from the representation and signification of "Hagar," of "Abram," and of "a son." That "Hagar" signifies the life of the affection of memory-knowledges in the exterior man, has been said above (n. 1895, 1896); also that "Abram" signifies the Lord‘s internal man (n. 1893, 1950); and that "a son" signifies truth, and thus the truth that was of this rational (n. 264, 489, 491, 533, 1147). Hence that "Hagar bare a son to Abram," signifies the rational man that was born from this conception and conjunction. Into this sense is the sense of the letter changed when it reaches the angels, or is in the presence of the angels.

AC 1961. And Abram called the name of his son that Hagar bare, Ishmael. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being to know what is the quality of the thing in question (n. 144, 145, 1754); and also from the representation and signification of "Ishmael," as being rational truth, which is described it, (verses 11 and 12) in the words: "Thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because Jehovah hath heard thine affliction; and he will be a wild-ass man his land against all, and the hand of all against him; and he shall dwell against the faces of all his brethren;" and for the meaning of these words, see the explication of the verses that contain them. It is the quality of this rational that is there described.

AC 1962. Verse 16. And Abram was a son of eighty years and six years, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram. "Abram was a son of eighty years and six years," signifies the Lord’s state in respect to the celestial good acquired by combats of temptations; "when Hagar bare Ishmael," signifies when the life of the affection of memory-knowledges brought forth the rational.

AC 1963. Abram was a son of eighty years and six years. That this signifies the Lord‘s state in respect to the celestial good acquired by means of the combats of temptations, is evident from the signification of "eighty," in which number is involved much the same as in "forty;" and that these numbers signify temptations has been already shown (n. 730, 862); and from the signification of "six," as being combat, also explained before (n. 720, 737, 900); and further from the signification of "ten," as being remains (n. 576); which remains in the Lord’s case were the possessions of celestial goods by which He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence (n. 1906, at the end). These three numbers are components of the number eighty-six, in which such things are involved, and which thus signifies the Lord‘s state in regard to the celestial good acquired by means of the combats of temptations; for all numbers in the Word signify actual things (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813). As in this case the numbers mentioned are numbers of years, and as they are also mentioned in historical connection with Abram, it appears as if they were not significative of such things. But there is nothing written in the Word which does not pass into a spiritual and a celestial sense when it passes over to the angels; for angels are in none other than spiritual and celestial ideas, and when the Word is being read by a man, the angels neither know nor perceive what "eighty-six" is, nor do they care of what age Abram was when Hagar bare Ishmael to him; but from such a number, when read, the things involved in the numbers immediately come to them; and the same is the case with all the other expressions, as they have been explained in the internal sense.

AC 1964. When Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram. That this signifies when the life of the affection of memory-knowledges brought forth the rational, is evident from the signification of "Hagar" as being the life of the affection of memory-knowledges; and from the signification of "Ishmael," as being the rational first conceived, treated of above. As in this chapter the subject treated of is man’s rational, and as there is described the quality of the rational when constituted solely of truths, and also when of goods and of truths derived from goods, be it known that the rational cannot possibly be conceived and born, that is, formed, apart from knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones) but these knowledges must have use as their end, and when they have use, they have life as their end, for all life belongs to uses, because it belongs to ends, and therefore unless knowledges are learned for the sake of a life of uses, they are of no moment, because of no use.

[2] From these knowledges alone, without a life of use, the rational becomes as here described, resembling a wild-ass, morose, pugnacious, and characterized by a parched and dry life, from a kind of love of truth that is defiled with the love of self. But when these knowledges have use as their end, they receive life from uses, yet life of such a quality as is that of the uses. They who learn knowledges in order that they may be perfected in the faith of love-for true and real faith is love to the Lord and toward the neighbor-are in the use of all uses, and receive spiritual and celestial life from the Lord; and when they are in this life, they have a capacity to perceive all things of the Lord‘s kingdom. In this life are all angels; and because they are in this life they are in intelligence itself and wisdom itself.

AC 1965. This then is the internal sense of the things contained in this chapter concerning Abram, Hagar, and Ishmael. But how copious this sense is, that is, what illimitable things it contains, may be seen from the mere consideration that as in the internal sense all things in the Word both in general and in particular regard the Lord, and treat of the Lord-for the life of the Word, because the Word itself, is from this-they also, in the internal sense, treat at the same time of His kingdom in the heavens, and of His kingdom on earth, which is the church; and in the same way they treat of every one in whom is the Lord’s kingdom; and besides this they treat in general of all that is celestial and spiritual, for all these are from the Lord. Hence it is that by Abram is also represented the celestial church, the celestial man, and the celestial itself, and so on. But to extend the explication to all these would make it too tedious

CONCERNING VISIONS AND DREAMS, INCLUDING THE PROPHETIC ONES CONTAINED IN THE WORD

AC 1966. Few know how the case is with visions, and what visions are genuine; but as for some years I have been almost continually with those who are in the other life and have there seen amazing things, I have in this way been informed by experience itself in regard to visions and dreams, concerning which I may relate what follows.

AC 1967. Much has been said about the visions of certain persons who have declared that they have seen many things, and who did see them, but in phantasy. I have been instructed about them, and it was likewise shown how they take place. There are spirits who by means of phantasies induce appearances that seem to be real. For example, if anything is seen in shadow, or in moonlight, or even in daylight, if the object be in a dark place, these spirits keep the mind of the beholder fixedly and continually in the thought of some one thing, be it an animal, a monster, a forest, or any other thing; and so long as the mind is held in this thought, the phantasy is increased, and it grows to such a degree that the person is persuaded, and sees just as if the things themselves were there, whereas they are nothing but illusions. Such things befall those who indulge much in fancies, and are subject to infirmity of mind, and have thereby become credulous. These are visionaries.

AC 1968. Enthusiastic spirits are similar, but these have visions about things to be believed, of which they are persuaded and persuade others so strongly as to be ready to swear that what is false is true, and that a fallacy is a reality. Concerning this nature of spirits, many things might be related from experience; but of the Lord‘s Divine mercy they will be treated of specifically. They have contracted this nature from persuasions and false principles, while they lived in the world.

AC 1969. Evil spirits in the other life are scarcely anything but cupidities and phantasies. They have acquired to themselves no other life. Their phantasies are such that they have no perception whatever but that the case is so. Men’s phantasies cannot be compared with theirs, for their state surpasses that of men even in regard to such things. Such phantasies are perpetual with the infernals, among whom one miserably torments another by means of phantasies.

AC 1970. By genuine visions are meant visions or sights of such things in the other life as have real existence, and are nothing but actual things that can be seen by the eyes of the spirit and not by the eyes of the body, and that appear to a man when his interior sight is opened by the Lord (that is, the sight which his spirit has), and into which he comes when, separated from the body, he passes into the other life; for a man is a spirit clothed with a body. Such were the visions of the prophets. When this sight is opened, then those things which have actual existence with spirits are seen in clearer day than that of noon in this world, not only the representatives, but also the spirits themselves, together with a perception of who they are, also what they are, where they are, whence they come, whither they I are going; also of what affection, what persuasion, nay. of what faith they are (n. 1388, 1394), all confirmed by living speech, I exactly as if it were human speech, and this free from all fallacy.

AC 1971. The visions that come forth before good spirits are representatives of the things that are in heaven; for when that which exists in heaven before the angels passes down into the world of spirits, it is turned into representatives, from which and in which it may be plainly seen what they signify. Such things are perpetual with good spirits, and are attended with a beauty and pleasantness than can hardly be expressed.

AC 1972. As regards the visions, or rather sights, that appear before the eyes of the spirit, not before the eyes of the body, they are more and more interior. Those which I have seen in the world of spirits I have seen in clear light, but those in the heaven of angelic spirits I have seen more obscurely, and still more obscurely those in the heaven of angels, for the sight of my spirit has rarely been opened to me so far, but it has been given me to know what they were saying, by a certain perception, the nature of which cannot be described, and frequently through intermediate spirits; the things which are there have sometimes appeared in the shade of the light of heaven, which is not like the shade of the light of the world, for it is light growing thin and faint from its incomprehensibility equally as discerned by the understanding and by the sight.

AC 1973. To describe all the kinds of visions would be too tedious, for there are many. For the sake of illustration, I may describe two visions, from which their character may be seen; and also at the same time how spirits are affected by the things which they see, and how evil spirits are tormented when the ability to see the things that others are seeing and hearing is stolen away from them, for they cannot bear to have any such thing taken away from them; for spirits have not the sense of taste, but in place of it they have a desire, or a kind of appetite, for knowing and learning. This is as it were their food by which they are nourished (n. 1480). The nature of their distress, therefore, when this food is taken away may be seen from the example that follows.

AC 1974. After a troubled sleep, about the first watch, a very pleasant sight was presented. There were wreaths as of laurel, quite fresh, in most beautiful order, with motion as if alive: of such form and elegance of arrangement that description fails to express their beauty and harmony, and the affection of bliss that flowed forth from them. They were in a double series, at a little distance from each other, and running on together to a considerable length, and constantly varying the state of their beauty. This was plainly seen by spirits, even by evil ones. This was afterwards followed by another sight still more beautiful, in which there was heavenly happiness, but it was only dimly visible: there were infants in their heavenly sports, that affected the mind in a manner inexpressible.

[2] I afterwards spoke with spirits concerning these sights, who confessed that they saw the first as much as I did, but the second only so dimly that they could not tell what it was. This caused them to feel indignation, and afterwards by degrees envy, from the fact that it was said that angels and little children had seen it; and this envy of theirs it was given me to perceive sensibly, so that nothing escaped me so far as concerned my instruction. The envy was of such a nature as to cause in them not merely the utmost annoyance, but also a feeling of anguish and interior pain and this merely because they did not see the second vision also, and the consequence was that they were led through varieties of envy until they were in pain in the region of the heart.

[3] While they were in this state I spoke with them about the envy, telling them that they might be content with having seen the first vision, and that they would have been able to see the second also if they had been good; but this excited in them a feeling of indignation which intensified their envy, causing it to increase further to such a degree that they could not afterwards bear the least recollection of the matter without being affected with pain. The states and progressions of the envy, together with its degrees, aggravations, and varied and mingled distresses of mind and heart, cannot be described. It was thus shown how much the wicked are tormented by envy merely, when they see from afar the blessedness of the good, and even when they merely think of it.

AC 1975. As regards dreams, it is known that the Lord revealed the arcana of heaven to the prophets, not only by visions, but also by dreams, and that the dreams were as fully representative and significative as the visions, being almost of the same class; and that to others also as well as the prophets things to come were disclosed by dreams; as by the dreams of Joseph, and of those who were in prison with him, and by those of Pharaoh, of Nebuchadnezzar, and others, from which it may be seen that dreams of this kind, equally with visions, flow in from heaven; with this difference, that dreams occur when the corporeal is asleep, and visions when it is not asleep. How prophetic dreams, and such as are found in the Word, flow in, nay, descend from heaven, has been shown me to the life; concerning which I may relate the following particulars, from experience.

AC 1976. There are three kinds of dreams. The first kind come from the Lord mediately through heaven; such were the prophetic dreams that are treated of in the Word. The second kind come through angelic spirits, especially those who are in front above at the right, where there are paradisal scenes; from this source the men of the Most Ancient Church had their dreams, which were instructive (n. 1122). The third kind come through the spirits who are near when man is sleeping, which are likewise significative. But fantastic dreams come from a different source.

AC 1977. In order that I might fully know how dreams flow in, I was put to sleep, and I dreamed that a ship came laden with delicacies and savory food of every kind. The things in the ship were not seen, but were stowed away. Upon the ship stood two armed guards, besides a third who was its captain. The ship passed into a kind of arched dock. So I awoke and thought about the dream. The angelic spirits, who were above in front to the right, then addressed me, and told me that they had introduced this dream; and in order that I might know with certainty that it was from them, I was put into a state as of sleep and at the same time of wakefulness; and they introduced in the same way various things that were pleasant and delightful; for instance, an unknown little animal which was dispersed in a likeness of blackish and shining rays, that darted with marvelous quickness into my left eye. They also presented men and also little children adorned in various ways; and other things besides, with inexpressible pleasantness, about which I also spoke with them. This was done, not once, but many times, and each time I was instructed by them with the living voice.

[2] The angelic spirits who are at the entrance to the paradisal scenes, are they who insinuate such dreams; and to them is also intrusted the duty of watching over certain men when they sleep, lest they should then be infested by evil spirits. They perform this duty with the greatest delight, so that there is rivalry among them as to who shall be present, and they love to affect the man with the enjoyable and delightful things which they see in his affection and genius. They who have become angelic spirits are from those who in the life of the body had delighted and had loved in every way and with the utmost pains, to make the life of others delightful. When the hearing is opened sufficiently far, there is heard from them, as from a distance, a sweetly modulated sound, as it were of singing. They said that they do not know whence such things, and representatives so beautiful and pleasant, come to them in a moment; but it was said that it was from heaven. They belong to the province of the cerebellum; for, as I have been informed, the cerebellum is awake in time of sleep, when the cerebrum sleeps. From this source the men of the Most Ancient Church had their dreams, together with a perception of what they signified; from whom in great part came the representatives and significatives of the ancients, under which were set forth things that are deeply hidden.

AC 1978. Moreover there are other spirits, who belong to the province of the left side of the chest, by whom they are often interfered with; as well as by others whom they disregard.

AC 1979. After such dreams I have very frequently been permitted to speak with the spirits and angels who had introduced them; and they told what they had introduced, and I what I had seen. But it would be too tedious to relate all my experience of these matters.

AC 1980. It is worthy of mention that when after waking I related what I had seen in a dream, and this in a long series, certain angelic spirits (not of those spoken of above) then said that what I related wholly coincided, and was identical, with the subjects they had been conversing about, and that there was absolutely no difference; but still that they were not the very things they had discoursed about, but were representatives of the same things, into which their ideas were thus turned and changed in the world of spirits; for in the world of spirits the ideas of the angels are turned into representatives; and therefore each and all things they had conversed about were so represented in the dream. They said, further, that the same discourse could be turned into other representatives, nay, into both similar and dissimilar ones, with unlimited variety. The reason they were turned into such as have been described, was that it took place in accordance with the state of the spirits around me, and thus in accordance with my own state at the time. In a word, very many dissimilar dreams might come down and be presented from the same discourse, and thus from one origin; because, as has been said, the things that are in a man‘s memory and affection are recipient vessels, in which ideas are varied and received representatively in accordance with their variations of form and changes of state.

AC 1981. I may relate one more instance of’ a similar kind. I dreamed a dream, but a common one. When I awoke, I related it all from beginning to end. The angels said that it coincided exactly with what they had spoken of together; not that the things seen in the dream were the same, for they were wholly different, being things into which the thoughts of their conversation were turned, but in such a way that they were representative and correspondent; and this in every particular, so that nothing was wanting. I then spoke with them about influx, as to how such things flow in and are varied. There was a person of whom I had the idea that he was in natural truth, which idea I had gathered from the acts of his life. There was a conversation among the angels about natural truth, and on this account that person was represented to me; I and the things he said to me, and did, in my dream, followed in order representatively and correspondently from the discourse of the angels with one another. But still there was nothing precisely alike, or the same.

AC 1982. Some souls recently from the world who long to see the glory of the Lord before they are qualified to be admitted, are lulled in regard to the exterior senses and lower faculties in a kind of sweet sleep, and then their interior senses and faculties are aroused into a high degree of wakefulness, and thereby they are admitted into the glory of heaven, but when wakefulness is restored to their exterior senses and faculties, they return into their former state.

AC 1983. Evil spirits most vehemently desire and burn to infest and attack man when he is sleeping, but man is then especially guarded by the Lord, for love does not sleep. The spirits who infest are miserably punished. I have heard their punishments oftener than I can tell; they consist in rendings (n. 829, 957, 959), under the heel of the left foot, and this sometimes for hours together. Sirens, who are interior enchantresses, are they who are especially insidious in the night time, and then try to insinuate themselves into a man‘s interior thoughts and affections, but are as often driven away by the Lord by means of angels, and are at last deterred by the severest punishments. They have also spoken with others in the night time, exactly as if they spoke from me, and as it were with my speech, so like that it could not be distinguished, pouring in filthy things, and persuading false ones.

[2] I was once in a very sweet sleep, in which I had nothing but soft repose. When I awoke, some good spirits began to chide me for having (as they said) infested them so atrociously that they supposed they were in hell--throwing the blame upon me. I answered them that I knew nothing whatever about the matter, but had been sleeping most quietly, so that by no possibility could I have been troublesome to them. Astonished at this, they at last had a perception that it had been done by the magic arts of sirens. The like was also shown afterwards, in order that I might know the quality of the crew of sirens.

[3] They are chiefly of the female sex, who in the life of the body had studied to allure male companions to themselves by interior artifices insinuating themselves by means of outward things, captivating their lower minds in every possible way, entering into each one’s affections and delights, but with an evil end, especially that of exercising command. Hence they have such a nature in the other life that they seem able of themselves to do all things, imbibing and inventing various arts, which thy absorb as easily as sponges do waters, whether clean or filthy. So do they imbibe and put into act things profane as well as holy, with the end, as before said, of exercising command. It has been granted me to perceive their interiors, and to see how foul they are, being defiled by adulteries and hatreds. It has also been granted me to perceive how powerful in its effects is their sphere. They reduce their interiors into a state of persuasion, in order that these may conspire with their exteriors toward such things as they intend. They thus compel and violently draw spirits to think exactly as they do.

[4] No reasonings appear in connection with them, but they make use of a kind of simultaneous rush of reasonings that are breathed into the person‘s evil affections and so they work by applying themselves to the natural inclinations, and thereby they get into the lower minds of others, whom they lead on, and by persuasion either overwhelm or captivate them. They study nothing more than to destroy the conscience, and when it is destroyed they get possession of men’s interiors, and even obsess the men, although these are ignorant of it. At this day there are not as formerly external obsessions, but there are internal ones, by spirits of this class. They who have no conscience have become obsessed in this way. The interiors of their thoughts are insane in a manner not unlike this, but are concealed and veiled over by an external decorum and a pretended honorableness, for the sake of their own honor, gain, and reputation. And this such men may know, if they pay attention to their thoughts.


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