HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

Back | Next | Index | Home


AC GENESIS Chapter 17

AC 1984. Few persons can bring themselves to believe that the Word has within it an internal sense that from the letter is not apparent, because it is so remote from the sense of the letter that it is as it were distant from it as heaven is from earth. But that the sense of the letter contains such things within itself, and that it is representative and significative of arcana no one sees except the Lord, and angels from Him. The sense of the letter bears a relation to the internal sense like that of the human body to the soul. While a man is in the body, and thinks from bodily things, he knows almost nothing about the soul; for the functions of the body are different from those of the soul, so different that if the functions of the soul were disclosed, they would not be acknowledged as such. The case is the same with the internals of the Word: its soul, that is, its life, is in its internals, and these have regard solely to the Lord, His kingdom, the church, and to those things in man that belong to His kingdom and church; and when these are regarded, it is the Word of the Lord, for in this case there is life itself therein. That this is really the case has been confirmed by many things in the first Part, and has been given me to know as a certainty; for no ideas concerning bodily and worldly things can by any possibility pass to the angels, but they are put off and altogether removed at the first threshold, as they leave man; as may be seen in the first Part, from experience itself (n. 1769-1772), and also how they are changed (n. 1872-1876).

[2] This may also be sufficiently evident from very many things in the Word that are not at all intelligible in the sense of the letter, and that would not be acknowledged as the Word of the Lord if there were not such a soul and life in them; nor would they appear as Divine to any one who has not been imbued from infancy with the belief that the Word is inspired and thereby holy. Who would know from the sense of the letter what those things signify which Jacob spoke to his sons just before his death:--

That Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an adder upon the path, biting the horse‘s heels, and his rider shall fall backward (Gen. 49:17)

that a troop shall ravage Gad, and he shall ravage the heel (Gen. 49:19) that Naphtali is a hind let loose, giving discourses of elegance (Gen. 49:21) that Judah shall bind his young ass to the vine, and the son of his she-ass to the noble vine he shall wash his garment in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes; his eyes are redder than wine, and his teeth are whiter than milk (Gen. 49:11, 12); and the case is the same with very many passages in the Prophets. But what these things signify cannot possibly appear except in the internal sense, in which all things both in general and in particular are coherent in the most beauty order.

[3] The case is the same again with all that the Lord said concerning the last times:--

In the consummation of the age, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fail from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man, and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail (Matt. 24:29, 30).

These words by no means signify the darkening of the sun and moon, nor the falling of the stars from heaven, nor the wailing of the tribes; but they signify charity and faith, for in the internal sense these are "the sun and the moon," and these will he darkened; and they also signify the knowledges of good and truth, for these are "the stars," which are here called "the powers of the heavens," and which will thus fall down and vanish; and that so also will all things of faith, which are "the tribes of the earth." This was shown in (n. 31, 32, 1053, 1529-1531, 1808). From these few things the nature of the internal sense of the Word may be seen, and also that it is remote, and in some places very remote, from the sense of the letter. But still the sense of the letter represents truths; and sets forth appearances of truth, in which a man can be when not in the light of truth.

GENESIS 17:1-27

1. And Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years and Jehovah appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am God Shaddai; walk thou before Me, and be thou perfect.

2. And I will give My covenant between Me and thee, and will multiply thee very exceedingly.

3. And Abram fell upon his faces; and God spake with him saying:

4. I, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations.

5. And thy name shall no more be called Abram; and thy name shall be Abraham, for a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee.

6. And I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly, and I will make thee nations, and kings shall go forth from thee.

7. And I will set up My covenant between Me and thee and thy seed after thee, unto their generations, for an eternal covenant, to be to thee for God, and to thy seed after thee.

5. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession; and I will be to them for God.

9. And God said unto Abraham, And thou shalt keep My covenant, thou and thy seed after thee, unto their generations.

10. This is My covenant, which ye shall keep, between Me and you and thy seed after thee, that every male be circumcised unto you.

11. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you.

12. And a son of eight days shall be circumcised unto you, every male in your generations, he that is born in the house, and he that is bought with silver from every son that is a stranger, who is not of thy seed.

13. Circumcising he shall be circumcised that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy silver; and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an eternal covenant.

14. And the uncircumcised male, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his peoples, he hath made vain My covenant.

15. And God said unto Abraham, Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai for Sarah is her name.

16. And I will bless her, and will also give thee a son from her; and I will bless her, and she shall be for nations; kings of peoples shall be from her.

17. And Abraham fell upon his faces, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall there be born to a son of a hundred years? And shall Sarah, that is a daughter of ninety years, bear?

18. And Abraham said unto God, Would that Ishmael might live before Thee!

19. And God said, Truly Sarah, thy wife, shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name Isaac; and I will set up My covenant with him for an eternal covenant, to his seed after him.

20. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee; behold I will bless him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him very exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation.

21. And My covenant will I set up with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the following year.

22. And He left off speaking with him; and God went up from over Abraham.

23. And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his silver, every male among the men of Abraham’s house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God spake with him.

24. And Abraham was a son of ninety and nine years, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

25. And Ishmael his son was a son of thirteen years, when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

26. In the self-same day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son.

27. And all the men of his house, he that was born in the house, and he that was bought with silver from the stranger, were circumcised with him.

THE CONTENTS

AC 1985. The subject here treated of is the union of the Lord‘s Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; and also the conjunction of the Lord, through the Human Essence, with the human race.

AC 1986. Jehovah was manifested to the Lord in His Human (verse 1). Foretelling the union (verses 2, 3); namely, of the Divine with the Human, and of the Human with the Divine (verses 4, 5). And that all good and truth is from Him (verse 6). The conjunction of the Divine with the human race would thus be effected through Him (verse 7). And the heavenly kingdom would be His, which He would give to those who should have faith in Him (verses 8, 9). But man must first remove his loves and their foul cupidities, and so be purified; this is what was represented and is signified by circumcision (verses 10, 11). Thus conjunction would be effected, both with those who are within the church, and with those who are without it (verse 12).

[2] Purification must by all means precede; otherwise there is no conjunction, but condemnation; and yet after all the conjunction cannot take place except in man’s impurity (verses 13, 14). The union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, or of truth with good, is foretold (verses 15 to 17). Also conjunction with those who are in the truths of faith, namely, as with those who are of the celestial church, so with those who are of the spiritual church (verses 18, 19). And that the latter also would be imbued with the goods of faith (verse 20). In conclusion, these things will be effected through the union in the Lord of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence (verse 21). The end of the prediction (verse 22). It was so to be done, and it was so done (verses 23 to 27).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 1987. Verse 1. And Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years; and Jehovah appeared unto Abram, and said unto him, I am God Shaddai; walk thou before Me and be thou perfect (integer). "Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years," signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational; "Abram" signifies the Lord in that state and in that age; "and Jehovah appeared to Abram," signifies manifestation; "and said unto him," signifies perception; "I am God Shaddai," in the sense of the letter signifies the name of Abram‘s God, by which name the Lord was first represented before them; "walk thou before Me," signifies the truth of faith; "and be thou perfect," signifies good.

AC 1988. Abram was a son of ninety years and nine years. That this signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational, is evident from the signification of "nine" when regarded as coming before ten; or what is the same, of "ninety-nine" before a hundred, for Abram was a hundred years old when Isaac was born to him. The nature of the internal sense of the Word may be seen in an especial manner from the numbers, as well as from the names, that occur in the Word; for the numbers therein, whatever they may be, signify actual things, as do the names also; for there is absolutely nothing in the Word that has not what is Divine within it, or that does not possess an internal sense; and how remote this is from the sense of the letter is especially manifest from the numbers and the names for in heaven no attention is given to these, but to the things that are signified by them. For example, whenever the number "seven" occurs, instead of seven there at once comes to the angels what is holy, for "seven" signifies what is holy, and this from the fact that the celestial man is the "seventh day," or " Sabbath," and thus the Lord’s "rest" (n. 84-87, 395, 433, 716, 881). The case is similar with the other numbers, as for example with twelve. Whenever "twelve" occurs, there comes to the angels the idea of all things that belong to faith, for the reason that these were signified by the "twelve tribes" (n. 577). That in the Word numbers signify actual things, see (n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 893).

[2] The case is the same with the number "ninety-nine;" and that this number signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational, is evident from the signification of a "hundred years," which was Abram‘s age when Isaac was born to him; for by Isaac is represented and signified the Lord’s rational man that is conjoined with His internal man, that is, with the Divine. In the Word, a "hundred" signifies the same as "ten," for it is formed by the multiplication of ten into ten and "ten" signifies remains (n. 576). What the remains in man are, may be seen above (n. 468, 530, 561, 660, 1050) also what the remains in the Lord were (n. 1906). These arcana cannot be set forth further, but every one may form a conclusion on the subject after he has first made himself acquainted with what remains are (for what they are is at this day unknown), provided it be known that in the Lord‘s case remains mean the Divine goods that He procured for Himself by His own power, and by means of which He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence.

[3] From all this we may see what is signified by "ninety-nine," for this number, because it precedes a hundred, signifies the time before the Lord had fully conjoined the internal man with the rational. In the Lord’s case, the first rational was represented by Ishmael; and the nature of this rational has been sufficiently shown above (in the preceding chapter 16). But by Isaac is represented the Lord‘s Divine rational, as will appear in what follows. From Abram’s staying so long in the land of Canaan (now twenty-four years, that is, ten years before Ishmael was born, and thirteen years after that) without his as yet having a son by his wife Sarai, and from the promise of a son being first given when he was ninety-nine years old, every one can see that some arcanum is involved. The arcanum was, that he might thereby represent the union of the Lord‘s Divine Essence with His Human Essence; and in fact the union of His internal man, which is Jehovah, with His rational.

AC 1989. That "Abram" signifies the Lord in that state and at that age, is evident from what has already been said concerning Abram. In the internal sense Abram represents the Lord, for when he is mentioned in the Word no other Abram is understood in heaven. Those who have been born within the church, and have heard about Abram from the Word, on their entrance into the other life do indeed have some knowledge of him; but as he is like any other man, and cannot render them any aid, they no longer care about him; and they are informed that by "Abram" in the Word there is meant no other than the Lord. But the angels, who are in heavenly ideas and do not fix them on any man, know nothing about Abram; and therefore when the Word is being read by man and Abram is mentioned they perceive no other than the Lord and when the words now before us are read, they perceive the Lord in that state and at that age; for Jehovah here speaks with Abram, that is, with the Lord.

AC 1990. Jehovah appeared unto Abram. That this signifies manifestation, is evident without explication, for as before said the Lord is represented by Abram. No man in the whole world has seen Jehovah, the Father of the Lord; but the Lord alone saw Him, as He Himself has said in John:--

No one hath seen God at any time; the Only-Begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18).

Again:--

Ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).

And again:--

Not that any one hath seen the Father save He that is with the Father; He hath seen the Father (John 6:46).

[2] The Infinite Itself, which is above all the heavens, and is over the inmost things that appertain to man, cannot be made manifest, except through the Divine Human which appertains to the Lord alone. No communication of the Infinite with those who are finite is possible from any other source, and this is also the reason that when Jehovah appeared to the men of the Most Ancient Church, and afterwards to the Ancient Church that was after the flood, and then again to Abraham and the prophets, He was manifested to them as a man. That this was the Lord, He teaches openly in John:--

Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day, and he saw it, and was glad verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am (John 8:56, 58).

Also in the Prophets--as in Daniel, by whom He was seen as the Son of man (Daniel 7:13).

[3] From these passages it may be seen that the Infinite Esse, which is Jehovah, could not possibly be manifested to man except through the Human Essence, thus except through the Lord; and therefore that it has been manifested to no one save the Lord alone. That He might also be present and be conjoined with man, after man had completely removed himself from the Divine, and had immersed himself in foul cupidities, and thereby in mere bodily and earthly things, He assumed in actuality the Human Essence itself by birth, that so He might still adjoin the Infinite Divine to man now so far removed; otherwise men would have perished to eternity with the death of the damned. The other arcana concerning the manifestation of Jehovah in the Lord’s Human, when He was in a state of humiliation, before He had fully united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, and had glorified it, will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be set forth in what follows, so far as they can be comprehended.

AC 1991. And said unto him. That this signifies perception, is evident from the Lord’s perception, which was from Jehovah, spoken of before (n. 1919) also because in the internal sense "Jehovah‘s saying," or "God’s saying," signifies to perceive (n. 1602, 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822).

AC 1992. I am God Shaddai. That in the sense of the letter this signifies the name of Abram‘s God, by which name the Lord was first represented before them, is evident from the things contained in the Word concerning Abram, and concerning the house of his father, in that they adored other gods. In Syria, whence Abram came, there still existed remains of the Ancient Church, and many families there retained its worship--as is evident from Eber who was of that country, from whom came the Hebrew nation-- and they in like manner retained the name "Jehovah," (n. 1343), and also from the case of Balaam, who was from Syria and offered sacrifices and called Jehovah his God. That Balaam was from Syria may be seen in (Numbers 23:7); that he offered sacrifices (Num. 22:39, 40; 23:1-3, 14, 29); that he called Jehovah his God (Num. 22:8, 13, 18, 31; 23:8, 12, 16).

[2] But this was not the case with the house of Terah, the father of Abram and Nahor, for this was one of the families of the nations there that had not only lost the name "Jehovah" but had also served other gods, and instead of Jehovah had worshiped Shaddai, whom they called their god. That they had lost the name "Jehovah," is evident from (n. 1343). And that they served other gods is openly stated in Joshua:--

Joshua said unto all the people, Thus hath said Jehovah, the God of Israel, Your fathers dwelt of old time beyond the River, Terah the father of Abraham and the father of Nahor, and they served other gods; now fear Jehovah, and serve Him in entirety and in truth and put away the gods that your fathers served beyond the River, and in Egypt, and serve ye Jehovah. And if it be evil in your eyes to serve Jehovah, choose ye this day whom ye will serve, whether the gods that your fathers served that were beyond the River, or the gods of the Amorites (Joshua 24:2, 14, 15).

That Nahor also, the brother of Abram, and the nation descended from him, served other gods, is evident from Laban the Syrian, who was in the city of Nahor and worshiped images or teraphim, which Rachel carried away (Gen. 24:10; 31:19, 26, 32, 34), (n. 1356). That instead of Jehovah they worshiped Shaddai, whom they called their god, is distinctly stated in Moses:--

I (Jehovah) appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, as God Shaddai and by My name Jehovah was I not known to them (Exod. 6:3).

[3] From all this we may see that in his early manhood, Abram, like other Gentiles, was an idolater, and that up to this time, while living in the land of Canaan, he had not rejected from his mind the god Shaddai by which is meant in the sense of the letter the name of Abram’s god and that by this name the Lord was first represented before them (that is, before Abram, Isaac, and Jacob), as is evident from the passage just quoted.

[4] The reason why the Lord was willing to be first represented before them by the name " Shaddai" is that the Lord by no means desires to destroy suddenly (still less in a single moment) the worship that has been inseminated in any one from his infancy; for this would be to tear up the root, and thereby destroy the holy state of adoration and of worship that has been deeply implanted, and which the Lord never breaks, but bends. The holy state of worship, that has been rooted in from infancy is of such a nature that it cannot endure violence, but only a gentle and kindly bending. The case is the same with those Gentiles who in their bodily life had worshiped idols, and yet had lived in mutual charity. As the holy state of their worship has been inrooted from their infancy, in the other life it is not taken away in a moment, but successively; for in those who have lived in mutual charity, the goods and truths of faith can be easily implanted, and they receive them afterwards with joy; for charity is the very soil. And such also was the case with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in that the Lord suffered them to retain the name "God Shaddai," insomuch that He said He was God Shaddai; and this from the meaning of the name.

[5] Some translators render Shaddai "the Almighty;" others, "the Thunderer;" but it properly signifies "the Tempter" or "Tester," and "the Benefactor after the temptations" or "trials," as is evident from the book of Job, which mentions "Shaddai" so frequently because Job was in trials or temptations; as may be seen from the following passages:--

Behold, happy is the man whom God chastiseth; and reject not thou the chastening of Shaddai (Job 5:17).

The arrows of Shaddai are with me, the terrors of God do set themselves in array against me (Job 6:14).

He shall forsake the fear of Shaddai (Job 6:14).

I will speak to Shaddai, and I desire to contend with God (Job 13:3).

He hath stretched out his hand against God, and strengtheneth himself against Shaddai (Job 15:25).

His eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink of the fury of Shaddai (Job 21:20).

Shaddai, thou shalt not find Him out He is great in power, and in judgment, and in the greatness of righteousness. He will not afflict (Job 37:23).

Also in Joel:--

Alas for the day for the day of Jehovah is near, and as devastation from Shaddai shall it come (Joel 1:15).

The same may also be seen from the word shaddai itself, which signifies vastation, and thus temptation, for temptation is a kind of vastation. But as this name took its rise from nations in Syria, He is not called "Elohim Shaddai," but "El Shaddai;" and in Job simply "Shaddai," and "El" or "God" is named separately.

[6] As after temptations there is consolation, those people also attributed the good resulting from them to the same Shaddai (Job 22:17, 23, 25, 26); as well as the understanding of truth, which also results from temptations (Job 32:8; 33:4). And as Shaddai was thus esteemed as the god of truth--for vastation, temptation, chastening, and rebuking, are not of good, but of truth--and because the Lord was represented by him before Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the name was retained even in the Prophets; but in them by "Shaddai" is meant truth. As in Ezekiel:--

I heard the voice of the wings of the cherubim, like the voice of many waters, like the voice of many waters, when they went; the voice of tumult, like the voice of a camp (Ezekiel 1:24).

And again:--

The court was filled with the brightness of the glory of Jehovah and the voice of the wings of the cherubim was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Shaddai when He speaketh (Ezekiel 10:4, 5);

where "Jehovah" denotes good, and "Shaddai" truth. In the internal sense of the Word "wings" in like manner signify things that belong to truth.

[7] Moreover Isaac and Jacob also make mention of the God Shaddai in a similar sense, that is, as of one who tempts, and delivers from temptation, and afterwards confers benefits. When Jacob was fleeing because of Esau, Isaac said to him,

God Shaddai bless thee, and make thee fruitful and multiply thee (Gen. 28:3).

And when the sons of Jacob were about to go into Egypt to buy corn, and when they feared Joseph so greatly, Jacob said to them,

God Shaddai give you mercies before the man, that he may release unto you your other brother, and Benjamin (Gen. 43:14).

Jacob, then called Israel, blessing Joseph, who had been in the evils of temptations, or trials, more than his brethren, and had been delivered from them, said,

By the God of thy father, and He shall help thee, and with Shaddai, and he shall bless thee (Gen. 49:25).

All this shows why the Lord was at first willing to be represented by the god Shaddai whom Abram worshiped, and why He said "I am God Shaddai;" as in like manner He afterwards said to Jacob, "I am God Shaddai; be fruitful and multiply" (Gen. 35:11); and a further reason was that in what goes before, temptations were treated of in the internal sense.

[8] The worship of Shaddai among those people originated from the fact that, as was the case with a certain nation that of the Lord‘s Divine mercy will be spoken of in what follows, so with those who were of the Ancient Church, there were often heard spirits who reproved them and who also afterwards comforted them. The spirits who reproved them were perceived at the left side, beneath the arm. Angels were present at such times, at the head, who governed the spirits and moderated the reproof. And as there was nothing that was said to them by the spirits which they did not regard as Divine, they named the reproving spirit "Shaddai;" and because he afterwards administered consolation, they called him "the god Shaddai." The men at that time, as also the Jews, because they did not understand the internal sense of the Word, were in the religious belief that all evil and thus all temptation, like all good and thus all consolation, come from God; but that it is not so, may be seen in (n. 245, 592, 696, 1093, 1874, 1875).

AC 1993. Walk thou before Me. That this signifies the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of "walking," as being to live according to the truth of faith (n. 519); and also from the signification of a "way" in relation to which walking is predicated, as being truth (n. 627).

AC 1994. And be thou perfect. That this signifies the good of charity, is evident from the signification of "being perfect" (integer), which is from truth to do what is good, that is, to do what is good from a conscience of truth, and thus from charity, for charity makes conscience, concerning which signification (n. 612). But as the Lord is here treated of in the internal sense, by "perfect" is signified the good of charity, for good proceeds from charity, insomuch that the truth which is derived from charity is itself good.

AC 1995. Verse 2. And I will give My covenant between Me and thee, and will multiply thee very exceedingly. "I will give My covenant between Me and thee," signifies the union of the internal man, which was Jehovah, with the interior man; "and will multiply thee very exceedingly," signifies the fruitfulness to infinity of the affection of truth.

AC 1996. I will give My covenant between Me and thee. That this signifies the union of the internal man, which was Jehovah, with the interior man, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction; for whenever a covenant between Jehovah and man is mentioned in the Word, in the internal sense nothing else is signified by the "covenant" than the conjunction of the Lord with man. The covenants so often made between Jehovah and the descendants of Jacob represented nothing else; but as this was confirmed in (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864), it would be superfluous to confirm it again here. The Lord’s internal man was Jehovah, because conceived of Him; but the interior man is here represented by Abram; and therefore the "covenant between Me and thee" signifies the union of the internal man, or Jehovah, with the interior man, and thus with the Lord‘s Human Essence.

AC 1997. I will multiply thee very exceedingly. That this signifies the fruitfulness to infinity of the affection of truth, may be seen from the signification of "to be multiplied," as being predicated of truth (n. 43, 55, 913, 983); and as the Lord is treated of, it signifies the fruitfulness to infinity of the truth that is from good (n. 1940). There are two affections, namely, the affection of good, and the affection of truth. The affection of good is to do what is good from the love of good, and the affection of truth is to do what is good from the love of truth. At the first view these two affections appear to be the same; but in reality they are distinct from each other both as to essence and as to origin. The affection of good, or doing what is good from the love of good, is properly of the will; but the affection of truth, or doing what is good from the love of truth, is properly of the understanding. Thus these two affections are distinct from each other in the same way as are the will and the understanding. The affection of good is from celestial love, but the affection of truth is from spiritual love.

[2] The affection of good can be predicated solely of the celestial man, but the affection of truth, of the spiritual man. What the celestial or the celestial man is, and what the spiritual or the spiritual man, has been sufficiently shown before. The Most Ancient Church, which existed before the flood, was in the affection of good; but the Ancient Church, which existed after the flood, was in the affection of truth; for the former was a celestial church, but the latter a spiritual church. All the angels in the heavens are distinguished into the celestial and the spiritual. The celestial are they who are in the affection of good, the spiritual are they who are in the affection of truth; to the former the Lord appears as a sun, but to the latter as a moon (n. 1529-1531, 1838). This latter affection, of truth, the Lord united to the affection of good, which is to do what is good from the love of good, when He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence. Hence by "multiplying very exceedingly," is signified the fruitfulness to infinity of the truth that is from good.

AC 1998. Verse 3. And Abram fell upon his faces, and God spake with him, saying. "Abram fell upon his faces," signifies adoration; "and God spake with him, saying," signifies a degree of perception; the expression "God" is used for the reason that the Lord is represented by the God Shaddai whom Abram worshiped; also because truth is treated of, which was to be united to good.

AC 1999. Abram fell upon his faces. That this signifies adoration, is evident without explication. To fall upon the face was a rite of adoration in the Most Ancient Church, and thence in that of the Ancients, for the reason that the face signified the interiors, and the state of their humiliation was represented by falling upon the face; hence in the Jewish representative church it became a customary ceremonial. True adoration, or humiliation of heart, carries with it prostration to the earth upon the face before the Lord, as a gesture naturally flowing from it. For in humiliation of heart there is the acknowledgment of self as being nothing but filthiness, and at the same time the acknowledgment of the Lord’s infinite mercy toward that which is such; and when the mind is kept in these two acknowledgments, the very mind droops in lowliness toward hell, and prostrates the body; nor does it uplift itself until it is uplifted by the Lord. This takes place in all true humiliation, with a perception of being uplifted by the Lord‘s mercy. Such was the humiliation of the men of the Most Ancient Church; but very different is the case with that adoration which comes not from humiliation of the heart. (n. 1153).

[2] That the Lord adored and prayed to Jehovah His Father, is known from the Word of the Gospels; and also that He did so as if to one different from Himself, although Jehovah was in Him. But the state in which the Lord was at these times was His state of humiliation, that He was then in the infirm human that was from the mother; but in so far as He put this off, and put on the Divine, He was in another state, which is called His state of glorification. In the former state He adored Jehovah as one different from Himself, although in Himself; for, as has been said, His internal was Jehovah; but in the latter, that is, in His state of glorification, He spoke with Jehovah as with Himself, for He was Jehovah Himself.

[3] But how the case is with these matters cannot be apprehended unless it is known what the internal is, and how the internal acts into the external; and further, in what manner the internal and the external are distinct from each other, and yet are conjoined. This however may be illustrated by something that is similar, namely, by the internal in man, and by its influx and operation into the external. That man has an internal, an interior or rational, and an external, may be seen above (n. 1889, 1940). Man’s internal is that from which he is man, and by which he is distinguished from brute animals. By means of this internal he lives after death, and to eternity a man, and by means of it he can be uplifted by the Lord among the angels. This internal is the very first form from which a man becomes and is man, and by means of it the Lord is united to man. The very heaven that is nearest the Lord is composed of these human internals; but this is above even the inmost angelic heaven, and therefore these internals belong to the Lord Himself. By this means the whole human race is most present under the Lord‘s eyes, for there is no distance in heaven, such as appears in the sublunary world, and still less is there any distance above heaven. (n. 1275, 1277).

[4] These internals of men have no life in themselves, but are forms recipient of the Lord’s life. In so far therefore as a man is in evil, whether actual or hereditary, so far has he been as it were separated from this internal which is the Lord‘s and with the Lord, and thereby so far has he been separated from the Lord; for although this internal has been adjoined to man, and is inseparable from him, nevertheless in so far as he recedes from the Lord, so far he as it were separates himself from it. (n. 1594). But the separation is not an absolute sundering from it, for then the man could no longer live after death; but it is a dissent and disagreement on the part of those faculties of his which are below, that is, of his rational and of his external man. In so far as there is dissent and disagreement, there is disjunction from the Lord; but in so far as there is not dissent and disagreement, the man is conjoined with the Lord through the internal, which takes place in so far as the man is in love and charity, for love and charity conjoin. Such is the case with man.

[5] But the Lord’s internal was Jehovah Himself, because He was conceived from Jehovah, who cannot be divided and become another‘s, as is the case with a son who is conceived from a human father; for the Divine is not divisible, like the human, but is and remains one and the same. To this internal the Lord united the Human Essence; and because the Lord’s internal was Jehovah, it was not a form recipient of life, like the internal of man, but was life itself. His Human Essence also in like manner was made life by the unition, on which account the Lord so often said that He is Life, as in John:--

As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26);

besides other passages in the same gospel (John 1:4; 5:21; 6:33, 35, 48; 11:25). In so far therefore as the Lord was in the human which He received by inheritance from the mother, so far did He appear distinct from Jehovah and adore Jehovah as one different from Himself. But in so far as the Lord put off this human, He was not distinct from Jehovah, but was one with Him. The former state, as before said, was the Lord‘s state of humiliation; but the latter was His state of glorification.

AC 2000. And God spake with him, saying. That this signifies a degree of perception, is evident from the signification of Jehovah’s "saying," which is to perceive (n. 1898, 1899). Here it signifies a degree of perception, because He was in a state of humiliation or of adoration, in which He was conjoined and united to Jehovah in proportion to the degree of the humiliation for humiliation carries this with it. Perceptions are more and more interior (n. 1616).

AC 2001. That the expression "God" is used for the reason that the Lord is represented by the God Shaddai whom Abram worshiped and also because truth is treated of, which was to be united to good, is evident from what has been said before. In the Word the Lord is sometimes called "Jehovah," sometimes "Jehovah God," also the "Lord Jehovih," and sometimes God," and always for a secret reason in the internal sense. Where love or good; and the celestial church, are treated of, He is called "JEHOVAH;" but when faith or truth, and the spiritual church, are treated of, He is called "God," and this constantly; and the reason is, that the Lord‘s very Being itself is of love, and the Being thence derived is of faith (n. 709, 732). Here therefore the Lord is called "God," because the truth which is to be united to good is treated of. Another reason is that the Lord willed to be represented by the God Shaddai that Abram worshiped, on which account the name God is retained in what follows; for in this chapter He is called "Jehovah" only once, and "God" several times (verses 7, 8, 15, 18, 19, 22, 23).

AC 2002. Verse 4. I, behold, My covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations. "I, behold, My covenant is with thee," signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence; "and thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations," signifies the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; "father" signifies that it would be from the Lord Himself; "a multitude" signifies truth; "of nations" signifies the good thence derived.

AC 2003. I, behold, My covenant is with thee. That this signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038). That here "covenant" signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, is evident from this signification, and also from the internal sense of what precedes, consequently from the very words, "My covenant is with thee."

AC 2004. And thou shalt be for a father of a multitude of nations. That this signifies the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, cannot be seen so well from an unfolding of the several words in the internal sense, unless they are viewed in a kind of general idea, by which this sense is presented, for such is sometimes the nature of the internal sense, and when it is so, it may be called more universal, because more remote. From the explication of the several words there results this proximate sense: that all truth and all good come from the Lord, for, as we shall see presently, the expression "father" here signifies from Him, that is, from the Lord; "multitude" signifies truth; and "of nations" signifies the good thence derived. But because these--that is, truths and goods--are the means through which the Lord united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, there arises from this that more universal and more remote sense. The angels perceive these words in this way, and have at the same time a perception of reciprocal union, namely, that of the Lord’s Divine Essence with the Human Essence and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; for, as before said, "I, My covenant is with thee" signifies the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence; and consequently the words now under consideration signify the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence.

[2] That the union was effected reciprocally, is an arcanum which has not yet been disclosed, and it is such an arcanum as can scarcely be explained to the apprehension; for as yet no one knows what influx is, and without a knowledge of influx no idea can possibly be formed in regard to what is reciprocal union. Yet this may in some measure be illustrated from the influx in the case of man, for with man too there is a reciprocal conjunction. From the Lord, through man‘s internal (n. 1999), life continually flows into man’s rational, and through this into his external, and in fact into his knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones), and this life not only adapts them to receive the life, but also disposes them into order, and so enables the man to think, and finally to be rational. Such is the conjunction of the Lord with man, without which man could not think at all, still less be rational, as every one can see from the fact that there are in man‘s thoughts numberless arcana of science and analytical art-- too numerous to render their exploration possible to all eternity--and which do by no means flow in through the senses or through the external man, but through the internal. Man however, on his part, by means of knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones), advances to meet this life which is from the Lord, and thereby reciprocally conjoins himself.

[3] But as regards the union of the Lord’s Divine Essence with His Human Essence, and of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence, this infinitely transcends the reciprocal conjunction between man and the Lord, for the Lord‘s internal was Jehovah Himself and therefore was life itself; whereas man’s internal is not the Lord, and therefore is not life but a recipient of life. Between the Lord and Jehovah there was union, but between man and the Lord there is not union, but conjunction. The Lord united Himself to Jehovah by His own power, and He therefore also became Righteousness; whereas man by no means conjoins himself by his own power, but by the power of the Lord; so that the Lord conjoins man with Himself. It is this reciprocal union that is meant by the Lord, where He attributes what is His own to the Father, and what is the Father‘s to Himself, as in John:--

Jesus said, He that believeth on Me, believeth not on Me, but on Him that sent Me: I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth in Me may not abide in the darkness (John 12:44-46),

in which words lie hidden the deepest arcana,--arcana concerning the union of good with truth, and of truth with good; or what is the same, concerning the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence; and therefore the Lord says, "He that believeth on Me, believeth not on Me, but on Him that sent Me;" and then almost immediately adds, "He that believeth on Me;" with words between that refer to this union, namely, "he that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me."

[4] Again in the same gospel:--

The words that I speak unto you I speak not from Myself; the Father that abideth in Me, He doeth the works. Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me. Verily I say unto you, He that believeth in Me, the works that I do shall he do also (John 14:10-12).

In these words are contained the same arcana, namely, those concerning the union of good with truth, and of truth with good; or what is the same, of the Lord’s Divine Essence with His Human Essence, and of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence; and He therefore says, "The words that I speak unto you I speak not from Myself; the Father who is in Me doeth the works;" and then He almost immediately adds, "the works that I do;" and here, as before, there are intervening words concerning the union, which declare, "I am in the Father, and the Father in Me." This is the mystical union of which many speak.

[5] From all this it is evident that the Lord was not another than the Father, although He spoke of the Father as of another, and this on account of the reciprocal unition that was to be effected and that was effected; for He so many times openly says that He is one with the Father, as in the passages just cited: "He that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me" (John 12:45) also, "The Father that abideth in Me; believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me" (John 14:10, 11); and in the same, "If ye had known Me, ye would have known My Father also" (John 8:19); and again,

"If ye have known Me, ye have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye have known Him, and have seen Him; Philip saith unto Him, Lord, show us the Father; Jesus saith unto him, Am I so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; how sayest thou then, Show us the Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me?" (John 14:7-10)

and again,

" I and the Father are one" (John 10:30).

Hence it is that in heaven they know no other Father than the Lord, because the Father is in Him, and He is one with the Father; and when they see Him, they see the Father, as He Himself says (n. 15).

AC 2005. That "father" signifies that it would be from the Lord Himself, is evident from the signification of "father," as just explained, namely, that whatever was from the Father was from Him, because they were one. Every man‘s internal is from his father, and his external from his mother; or what is the same thing, the soul itself is from the father, and the body with which the soul is clothed is from the mother. The soul together with the body, although two, make a one; for the soul is the body’s, and the body is the soul‘s; and therefore they are inseparable. The Lord’s internal was from the Father, and therefore was the Father Himself, and hence it is that the Lord says that "the Father is in Him;" also, "I am in the Father and the Father in Me;" also, "He that seeth Me seeth the Father; I and the Father are one;" as may be seen in the passages cited above. In the Word of the Old Testament also the Lord is called "the Father," as in Isaiah:--

Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, the Father of Eternity, the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6).

It is evident to every one that the "Child" born to us and the "Son" given to us is the Lord, who is called the Father of Eternity." Again in Isaiah:--

Thou art our Father, for Abraham knoweth us not, and Israel doth not acknowledge us. Thou, O Jehovah, art our Father, our Redeemer, from eternity is Thy name (Isaiah 63:16);

where also it is the Lord who is called "Jehovah our Father," for there is no other "Redeemer." In Malachi:--

Have we not all one Father? Hath not one God created us? (Malachi 2:10).

To "create" denotes to regenerate (n. 16, 88, 472). Besides that everywhere in the Word of the Old Testament, by "Jehovah" is meant the Lord, because all the rites of the church represented Him; and in the internal sense all things in the Word regard Him.

AC 2006. That "a multitude" signifies truth, is evident from the signification of "multitude" as being truth (n. 1941); and from the signification of "being multiplied," which is predicated of truth (n. 43, 55, 913, 983).

AC 2007. Of nations. That this signifies the good thence derived, is evident from the signification of "nations" as being good (n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849).

AC 2008. Verse 5. And thy name shall no more be called Abram and thy name shall be Abraham, for a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee. "Thy name shall no more be called Abram," signifies that He will put of the human; "and thy name shall be Abraham," signifies that He will put on the Divine; "for a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee," signifies here, as before, that all truth and the good thence derived come from Him.

AC 2009. Thy name shall no more be called Abram, and thy name shall be Abraham. That "thy name shall no more be called Abram," signifies that He will put off the human; and that "thy name shall be Abraham," signifies that He will put on the Divine, is evident from the signification of "name;" also from the signification of "Abram;" and, afterwards, of "Abraham." The expression "this shall be thy name," when used in the Word, signifies the quality, that is, that the person will be of such a quality, is evident from what has been adduced in (n. 144, 145, 1754). And as the "name" signifies the quality, the name comprehends in one complex whatever is in the man. For in heaven no attention is paid to any one‘s name; but when any one is named, or when the word name is spoken, there is presented the idea of the person’s quality, that is, of all things that are his, that are connected with him, and that are in him; hence in the Word "name" signifies quality. That this may be evident to the understanding we may adduce from the Word a number of additional confirmatory passages. As in the Benediction in Moses:--

Jehovah bless thee, and keep thee; Jehovah make His faces to shine upon thee and have compassion on thee; Jehovah lift up His faces upon thee and give thee peace. So shall they put My name upon the sons of Israel (Num. 6:24-27).

From this it is evident what is denoted by "name," and by "putting the name" of Jehovah upon the sons of Israel, namely, that Jehovah blesses, guards, enlightens, is pitiful, gives peace; and thus that Jehovah or the Lord is such.

[2] In the Decalogue:--

Thou shalt not take the name of thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless who taketh His name in vain (Exod. 20:7; Deut. 5:11);

where to "take the name of God in vain" does not signify the name, but all things in general and particular that are from Him, and therefore all things in general and particular that belong to the worship of Him, none of which are to be despised, still less blasphemed and contaminated with what is filthy. In the Lord‘s Prayer:--

Hallowed be Thy name; Thy kingdom come Thy will be done, as in heaven so also in the earth (Luke 11:2);

where also by "name" is not meant the name, but all things of love and faith; for these are God’s or the Lord‘s, and are from Him and as these are holy, the Lord’s kingdom comes and His will is done on earth as in the heavens when they are held to be so.

[3] That "name" signifies such things is evident from all the passages in the Word of the Old and of the New Testament where "name" is mentioned. As in Isaiah:--

In that day shall ye say, Confess to Jehovah, call upon His name, make known His works among the peoples, make mention that His name is exalted (Isaiah 12:4);

where to "call upon the name of Jehovah," and to "make mention that His name is exalted," does not at all mean to place worship in the name, or to believe that Jehovah is invoked by using His name, but by knowing His quality, and thus by means of all things in general and particular that are from Him. In the same:--

Therefore honor ye Jehovah in the Urim the name of Jehovah the God of Israel in the isles of the sea (Isa. 24:15);

where to "honor Jehovah in the Urim," is to honor Him from the holy things of love; and to "honor the name of Jehovah the God of Israel in the isles of the sea," is to honor Him from the holy things of faith.

[4] In the same:--

O Jehovah our God, only in Thee will we make mention of Thy name (Isa. 26:13).

I will raise up one from the north, and he shall come; from the rising of the sun, he shall call upon My name (Isa. 41:25);

where to "make mention of the name of Jehovah," and to "call upon His name," means to worship from the goods of love and the truths of faith. They who are from the north are they who are outside the church and ignorant of the name of Jehovah, who nevertheless "call upon His name" when they live in mutual charity and adore as the Deity the Creator of the universe; for the "calling upon Jehovah" consists in worship and the quality of it, and not in the name. The Lord is present with the Gentiles, (n. 932, 1032, 1059).

[5] In the same:--

The nations shall see thy righteousness, and all kings thy glory and thou shalt be called by a new name which the mouth of Jehovah shall name (Isa. 62:2);

where "thou shalt be called by a new name," denotes to become another person, that is, to be created anew or regenerated, and thus to be such. In Micah:--

All the peoples will walk every one in the name of his god, and we will walk in the name of Jehovah our God forever and to eternity (Micah 4:5);

to "walk in the name of his god," plainly denotes profane worship; and to "walk in the name of Jehovah," true worship. In Malachi:--

From the rising of the sun and even to its going down, My name shall be great among the nations; and in every place incense is offered unto My name, and a clean offering for My name shall be great among the nations (Malachi 1:11);

where by "name" is not signified the name, but the worship; which is the quality of Jehovah or the Lord, by reason of which He wills to be adored.

[6] In Moses:--

The place which Jehovah your God shall choose out of all the tribes to put His name there, and to cause His name to dwell there, thither shall ye bring all that I command you (Deut. 12:5, 11, 14; 16:2, 6, 11);

where also by "putting His name," and "making His name dwell there," is not signified the name, but the worship, and thus the quality of Jehovah or the Lord by reason of which He is to be worshiped. His quality is the good of love and the truth of faith; and "the name of Jehovah dwells" with those who are in these. In Jeremiah:--

Go ye unto My place which was in Shiloh, where I caused My name to dwell in the beginning (Jeremiah 7:12);

where in like manner "name" denotes worship, and thereby the doctrine of true faith. Every one can see that Jehovah does not dwell with him who merely knows and speaks His name, for the name alone, without any idea, knowledge, or faith concerning His quality is a mere word. Hence it is evident that the "name" is the quality, and the knowledge of the quality.

[7] In Moses:--

At that time Jehovah separated the tribe of Levi, to minister unto Him, and to bless in His name (Deut. 10:8);

where to "bless in the name" of Jehovah is not to do so through the name, but by means of the things which appertain to the name of Jehovah, spoken of above. In Jeremiah:--

This is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jeremiah 23:6);

where the "name" denotes righteousness, which is the quality of the Lord, of whom these words are said. In Isaiah:--

Jehovah hath called Me from the womb, from the bowels of My mother hath He made mention of My name (Isaiah 49:1);

also said of the Lord; to "make mention of His name," is to instruct in respect to His quality.

[8] That "name" signifies quality, is still more clearly evident in John, in the Apocalypse:--

Thou hast a few names in Sardis that did not defile their garments and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy. He that overcometh shall be clothed in white raiment, and I will not blot his name out of the book of life; and I will confess his name before My Father and before the angels. He that overcometh, I will write upon him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, the New Jerusalem, which cometh down out of heaven from My God, and My new name (Apoc. 3:4, 5, 12);

where that the "name" is not the name, but the quality, is plainly evident; the "name in the book of life" is nothing else; and the quality is also meant by "confessing his name before the Father," and by "writing upon him the name of God, and of the city, and the new name;" and the same is true of the names which are said elsewhere to be written in the book of life, and in heaven (Rev. 13:8; 17:8; Luke 10:20).

[9] In heaven it is solely by the quality that any one is known from another; and in the sense of the letter this is expressed by the name, as every one can see from the consideration that on earth whoever is named is presented in the listener‘s idea in accordance with his quality, and it is by this idea that he is known and distinguished from others. In the other life the ideas remain, but the names perish; and this is still more the case among the angels. Hence it is that in the internal sense the "name" is the quality, or to know the quality. Again:--

Upon the head of Him who sat upon the white horse were many diadems; and He hath a name written which no one knoweth but He Himself. He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood;and His name is called the Word of God (Rev. 19:12, 13);

where that the "name" is the Word of God, and thus is the quality of Him who sat upon the white horse, is said in plain words.

[10] That the "name of Jehovah" is to know His quality, namely, that He is all the good of love and all the truth of faith, is clearly evident from these words of the Lord:--

O righteous Father I have known Thee, and these also have known that Thou hast sent Me for I have made known unto them Thy name, and will make it known; that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them (John 17:25, 26).

[11] And that the "name of God" or of the Lord is all the doctrine of faith concerning love and charity, which is signified by "believing in His name," is evident from these words in the same gospel:--

As many as received Him, to them gave He the power (potestas) to be sons of God, to them that believe in His name (John 1:12).

If ye shall ask anything in My name, I will do it. If ye love Me, keep My commandments (John 14:13-15).

Whatsoever ye shall ask of the Father in My name, He giveth you. These things I command you, that ye love one another (John 15:16, 17).

In Matthew:--

Where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them (Matthew 18:20).

By those who are "gathered together in the name of the Lord," are here signified those who are in the doctrine of faith concerning love and charity, and thus who are in love and charity. Again Ye shall be hated of all nations for My name’s sake (Matt. 10:22; 24:9, 10; Mark 13:10); where "for My names sake" plainly means for the sake of His doctrine.

[12] That the name itself effects nothing, but that everything is effected by that which the name involves, namely, everything of charity and faith, is clearly evident from these words in Matthew:--

Have we not prophesied by Thy name, and by Thy name cast out demons, and in Thy name done many mighty works? But then will I profess unto them, I never dew you; depart from Me, ye that work iniquity (Matthew 7:22, 23);

from which it is evident that they who place worship in a name, as did the Jews in the name of Jehovah, and as do Christians in the name of the Lord, are not on that account the more worthy, because the name avails nothing; but that which does avail is that they be of such a character as the Lord has commanded; for this is to "believe in His name;" and further, that its being said that there is no salvation in any other name than the Lord‘s, means that there is none in any other doctrine, that is, in no other than mutual love, which is the true doctrine of faith, and thus in no other than the Lord, because all love and the derivative faith are from Him alone.

AC 2010. Since therefore the "name" signifies the quality and to know what the quality is, we can see what is signified by the words in this verse, "thy name shall no more be called Abram, and thy name shall be Abraham;" to wit, that he was not to be such in quality as in the past, but such as he was about to be. That Abram served other gods, and worshiped the god Shaddai, was shown above (n. 1992); but because he was to represent the Lord, and in fact His internal man, and thus the Celestial of His Love, his former quality was to be blotted out, that is, the name "Abram" was to be so changed in character that the Lord could be represented by it. Therefore the letter H was taken from the name of Jehovah--which letter is the only one in the name "Jehovah" that involves the Divine, and which signifies I AM or BEING (Esse)--and was inserted in his name, and he was called "Abraham." The case is similar with "Sarai," spoken of in what follows; to whose name the same letter was also added, and she was called "Sarah." From this also we can see that in the internal sense of the Word Abraham represents Jehovah or the Lord.

[2] Be it known however that in representations it matters not what a man’s quality is, for in them no attention is paid to the person, but to the thing which he represents (n. 665, 1097, 1361). Therefore in the internal sense the signification of these words is that the Lord will put off the human, and will put on the Divine; which also is in a series with what goes before, and likewise with what follows; for a promise is now made concerning the son Isaac, by whom was to be represented the Lord‘s Divine rational.

AC 2011. For a father of a multitude of nations have I made thee. That this signifies, here as before, that all truth and the good thence derived come from Him, is evident from the signification of his being "a father," as denoting that they are from Him; from the signification of "a multitude," as being truth; and also from that of "nations," as being the good thence derived (n. 2005-2007). That in a more universal or more remote sense these same words signify the union of the Lord’s Human Essence with His Divine Essence, may be seen above (n. 2004); for the union of the Lord‘s Human Essence with His Divine Essence is circumstanced as is that of truth with good; and the union of His Divine Essence with His Human Essence as is that of good with truth, which is reciprocal. Nay, in the Lord it was Truth itself that united itself to Good, and Good that united itself to Truth; for the Infinite Divine can be spoken of in no other way than as being Good itself and Truth itself, and therefore the human mind is in no fallacy when it thinks that the Lord is Good itself and Truth itself.

AC 2012. Verse 6. And I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly, and I will make thee nations, and kings shall go forth from thee. "I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly," signifies the fruitfulness of good to infinitude; "and I will make thee nations," signifies that all good is from Him; "and kings shall go forth from thee," signifies that from Him is all truth.

AC 2013. I will make thee fruitful very exceedingly. That this signifies the fruitfulness of good to infinitude, is evident from the signification of being "made fruitful," as being predicated of good (n. 43, 55, 913, 983); and because it is said "very exceedingly," and the Lord is treated of, it signifies fruitfulness to infinitude.

AC 2014. I will make thee nations. That this signifies that all good is from Him, is evident from the signification of "nations" in its genuine and primitive sense, as being good (n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 1849).

AC 2015. Kings shall go forth from thee. That this signifies that all truth is from Him, is evident from the signification of a "king," in both the historical and the prophetic Word, as being truth (n. 1672), but not yet fully shown. From the signification of "nations" as being goods, and from the signification of "kings" as being truths, we can see the nature of the internal sense of the Word, and also how remote it is from the sense of the letter. He who reads the Word, especially the historical portion, has no other belief than that the nations there are nations, and the kings, and thus that nations and kings are treated of in the very Word itself. But the idea of nations, as well as that of kings, altogether perishes when it is received by the angels, and in their place there succeed good and truth. This cannot but appear as strange and indeed as a paradox, but still it is really so, and the truth of it may appear to every one from considering that if, in the Word, nations were signified by "nations," and kings by "kings," then the Word of the Lord would involve scarcely anything more than any other history, or any other writing, and thus would be a merely worldly affair, when yet there is nothing in the Word that is not Divine, and therefore celestial and spiritual.

[2] Take as a single instance what is said in this verse, that Abraham should be made fruitful and should be made nations, and that kings should go forth from him- what is this but a merely worldly matter, and in no respect heavenly? For in these things there is only the glory of the world, which is nothing at all in heaven; but if this is the Word of the Lord, there must be in it the glory of heaven, and none of the world’s glory. Therefore the sense of the letter is altogether obliterated and vanishes when it passes into heaven; and it is so purified that nothing that is worldly is intermingled. For by "Abraham" is not meant Abraham, but the Lord; by his being "made fruitful" is not meant that his posterity should increase exceedingly, but that the good of the Lord‘s Human Essence should increase to infinitude; by the "nations" are not meant nations, but goods; and by the "kings," not kings but truths. Still the history according to the sense of the letter remains true; for it is true that it was so said to Abraham; also that he was made fruitful, and that nations and kings came from him.

[3] That "kings" signify truths, may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

The sons of strangers shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee; thou shalt suck the milk of the nations, and the breast of kings shalt thou suck (Isaiah 60:10, 16);

what it is to "suck the milk of nations" and "the breast of kings," is by no means plain from the letter, but it is from the internal sense, in which it signifies to be gifted with goods, and instructed in truths. In Jeremiah:--

There shall enter in by the gates of this city kings and princes sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariots and on horses (Jeremiah 17:25; 22:4);

to "ride in chariots and on horses" is a prophetical saying which signifies an abundance of intellectual things, as may appear from very many passages in the Prophets; and thus by "kings entering in by the gates of the city" is signified in the internal sense that they should be imbued with truths of faith. This is the heavenly sense of the Word, into which the worldly literal sense passes.

[4] Again, in the same Prophet:--

Jehovah hath despised in the indignation of His anger the king and the priest; the gates of Zion have sunk into the earth; He hath destroyed and broken her bars; her king and her princes are among the nations; the law is not (Lam. 2:6, 9);

"the king" here denotes the truth of faith; "the priest" the good of charity; Zion" the church which is being destroyed, and whose bars are being broken; hence "the king and the princes are among the nations," that is, truth and the things which are of truth will be banished to such an extent that there will be no "law," that is, nothing of the doctrine of faith. In Isaiah:--

Before the child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the ground shall be forsaken, which thou loathest in the presence of her two kings (Isaiah 7:16);

where the Lord’s coming is treated of; the "ground which shall be forsaken" denotes faith, of which there would then he none, and the truths of which are the "kings that would be loathed."

[5] In the same Prophet:--

I will lift up My hand to the nations, and raise up My ensign to the peoples and they shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and thy daughters shall be carried upon the shoulder; and kings shall be thy nourishers, and their queens those that give thee suck (Isa. 49:22, 23)

"the nations" and "the daughters" denote goods; and "the peoples" and "the sons" truths. "Nations" denote goods, (n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 1849); and "daughters" have a similar signification, (n. 489-491); also "peoples" denote truths, (n. 1259, 1260); and "sons" likewise, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147). "Kings" therefore denote truths in general, by which they will be nourished, and their "queens" the goods from which they will be "suckled." Whether you say goods and truths, or those who are in goods and truths, it is the same.

[6] Again in the same Prophet:--

He shall sprinkle many nations, upon him kings shall shut their mouth--for that which was (not) told them have they seen; and that which they did not hear have they understood (Isa. 52:15),

where the Lord‘s coming is spoken of; the "nations" denote those who are affected by goods, and "kings" those who are affected by truths. In David:--

Now, O ye kings, be intelligent; be instructed, ye judges of the earth; serve Jehovah with fear, and exult with trembling. Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, and ye perish in the way (Ps. 2:10-12).

"Kings" denote those who are in truths; who also from their truths are often called "king’s sons;" "the Son" here denotes the Lord, who is here called "the Son" because He is the truth itself, and because all truth is from Him.

[7] In John:--

They shall sing a new song, Worthy art Thou who takest the book, and openest the seals thereof Thou hast made us unto our God kings and priests, that we may reign upon the earth (Rev. 5:9, 10);

where they who are in truths are called "kings." The Lord also calls such persons "the sons of the kingdom," in Matthew:--

He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; the field is the world; the seed is the sons of the kingdom, and the tares are the sons of the evil one (Matthew 13:37, 38).

In John:--

The sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the Kings that are from the sun-rising might be prepared (Rev. 16:12).

That by the "Euphrates" is not meant the Euphrates, nor by "the kings from the sun-rising" any kings therefrom, is evident (what is meant by the "Euphrates" (n. 120, 1585, 1866); so that "the way of the kings that are from the sunrising" means the truths of faith that are from the goods of love.

[8] In the same:--

The nations that are saved shall walk in the light of it, and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory and honor into it (Rev. 21:24);

where "the nations" denote those who are in goods, and "the kings of the earth" those who are in truths, as may be inferred from the fact that these words are prophetic, and not historical. In the same:--

With the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters the kings of the earth have committed whoredom, and have been made drunken with the wine of her whoredom (Rev. 17:1, 2).

And again:--

Babylon hath made all the nations drink of the wine of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her (Rev. 18:3, 9);

where in like manner it is evident that kings are not meant by "the kings of the earth;" for the falsification and adulteration of the doctrine of faith, that is, of truth, is treated of, and this is the "whoredom;" " the kings of the earth" denote the truths that are falsified and adulterated.

[9] In the same:--

The ten horns which thou sawest are ten kings, that have received no kingdom as yet, but they receive authority (potestas) as kings with the beast for one hour. These shall have one mind, and shall give their power and authority to the beast (Rev. 17:12, 13);

that these "kings" are not kings, is evident to every one; for if so it would he wholly unintelligible that the ten kings should receive authority as kings one hour. So too in another passage:--

I saw the beast and the kings of the earth and their armies gathered together to make war with him that sat upon the horse, and with his army (Rev. 19:19);

that "he that sat upon the horse" is "the Word of God," is openly stated in (Rev. 19:13); and it is against this that the kings of the earth are said to have been gathered together. "The beast" denotes the goods of love, profaned; and "the kings" denote the truths of faith, adulterated; these are called "the kings of the earth," because they are within the church. "The earth" is the church (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262). The "white horse" denotes the understanding of truth; and "he that sat upon the horse," the Word. This meaning is still more manifest in Daniel 11, where the war between "the king of the south" and "the king of the north" is treated of; by which terms are signified the truths and falsities that had fought, the combats being described here also in an historical manner by this "war."

[10] As "a king" signifies truth, it may be seen what is meant in the internal sense when the Lord is called a King and also a Priest; and also what it was in the Lord that was represented by kings, and what by priests. Kings represented His Divine truth, and priests His Divine good. All the laws of order by which the Lord governs the universe as King, are truths; but all the laws by which He governs the universe as Priest, and by which also He rules truths themselves, are goods; for government from truths alone would condemn every one to hell; but government from goods lifts every one out thence and uplifts him‘ into heaven (n. 1728). Because in the Lord’s case these two are conjoined, they were anciently represented by kingship conjoined with priesthood; as with Melchizedek, who was king of Salem and at the same time priest to God Most High (Gen. 14:18); and afterwards with the Jews, among whom the representative church was instituted in its own form, by judges and priests, and afterwards by kings.

[11] But as the kings represented truths, which ought not to have command, for the reason, as before said, that they condemn, therefore the desire to have kings was so displeasing as to call for rebuke, and the nature of truth as regarded in itself was describe by the rights (jus) of the king (1 Sam. 8:11-18); and at an earlier day it was commanded by Moses (Deut. 17:14-18) that they should choose genuine truth which is from good, and not spurious; and that they should not defile it by reasonings and memory-knowledges (scientifica). This is what is involved in the directions concerning a king. given in Moses in the place just cited; which no one can possibly see from the sense of the letter, but yet is evident from the several points contained in the internal sense; so that "king" and "kingship" evidently represented and signified nothing else than truth.

AC 2016. As regards the fact that all good and the derivative truth are from the Lord: this is a constant verity. The angels are in the perception of it to such a degree that they perceive that in so far as anything is from the Lord, it is good and true, and that in so far as it is from themselves, it is evil and false. They also confess this before novitiate souls, and before spirits who are in doubt of it, nay, they go so far as to say that it is by the Lord that they are withheld from the evil and falsity that come from what is their own, and are kept in good and truth. Moreover the very withholding and the very influx are perceptible to them (n. 1614). But as to man‘s supposing that he does good from himself and thinks truth from himself, this is an appearance, because he is in a state of no perception, and in a state of the greatest obscurity in respect to influx; and therefore he infers this from the appearance, nay, from the fallacy, from which he by no means suffers himself to be withdrawn so long as he has belief in nothing but the senses, and so long as he reasons from them whether it be so. But although the case is as stated, man nevertheless ought to do good and to think truth as from himself; for in no other way can he be reformed and regenerated (n. 1937 1947).

[2] The verse now before us treats of the Lord’s Human Essence that was to be united to the Divine Essence; and that all good and truth would thereby come to man from His Divine Essence through His Human Essence, is a Divine arcanum which few believe, because they do not apprehend it, for they suppose that the Divine good is able to reach to man without the Lord‘s Human united to the Divine; but that this cannot be done, has been already shown in a few words (n. 1676, 1990), to this effect, that man has removed himself so far from the Supreme Divine, by the cupidities in which he has immersed himself and by the falsities with which he has blinded himself, that there could not possibly be any influx of the Divine into the rational part of his mind except through the Human which the Lord united in Himself to the Divine. Through His Human, communication has been effected; for thereby the Supreme Divine has been able to come to man. This the Lord says openly in many places, for He says that He is "the way," and that "no one cometh to the Father but by Him." This then is what is here armed: that from Him, namely, from the Human united to the Divine, is all good and all truth.

AC 2017. Verse 7. And I will set up My covenant between Me and thee and thy seed after thee unto their generation, for an eternal covenant, to be to thee for God, and to thy seed after thee. "I will set up My covenant between Me and thee," signifies union; "and thy seed after thee," signifies conjunction with those who have faith in Him; "unto their generations," signifies those things which are of faith; "for an eternal covenant," signifies conjunction with these; "to be to thee for God," signifies the Lord’s Divine in Himself; "and to thy seed after thee," signifies the Divine thence derived with those who have faith in Him.

AC 2018. I will set up My covenant between Me and thee. That this signifies union, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being union (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038); which union has been treated of in this chapter, and many times before; and it has been shown that Jehovah, who here speaks, was in the Lord, because He was one with Him from first conception and from birth; for the Lord was conceived from Jehovah, and hence His internal was Jehovah. This has been further illustrated by what is similar in man (n. 1999), namely, that his soul is one with his body, or his internal with his external, although they are distinct from each other, and sometimes so distinct that the one fights with the other, as is wont to be the case in temptations, in which the internal reproves the external and desires to reject the evil that is in it; and still they are conjoined, or are a one, because both soul and body belong to the same man. Take for example one whose thought differs from what he shows in his looks, speaks with his mouth, and acts by his gesture. There is in him an interior which is at variance with the external, but still they are one; for the thought is the man‘s as much as are the external looks, mouth, and gestures; but there is a union when the look, the speech of the lips, and the gestures accord with the thought. So much for illustration.

AC 2019. And thy seed after thee. That this signifies conjunction with those who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610); and also from the signification of "after thee," as being to follow. To "walk after" some one is an expression that is often made use of in the Word (Jer. 7:6; 8:2; Ezek. 20:16; Mark 8:34; Luke 9:23; 14:27). In this passage therefore "thy seed after thee," signifies those who are in faith and follow Him; in the internal sense, who are born of Him.

AC 2020. Unto their generations. That this signifies the things that are of faith, is evident from the signification of "generations," as being the things which are generated and born of charity, that is, all the things of faith, or what is the same, all who are regenerated by the Lord, and thus in whom there is the faith of charity; concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter. That in the internal sense "generations," and also "births," are such things (n. 613, 1041, 1145, 1330).

AC 2021. For an eternal covenant. That this signifies conjunction with these, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038) and that it is with those who are called his "seed" is evident from its immediately following, and because a "covenant" is spoken of a second time in this verse. The "covenant" first spoken of refers to the union of Jehovah with the Human Essence, and the second mention of a "covenant" refers to the conjunction with those who are the seed. In order that a more distinct idea may be formed concerning the union of the Lord‘s Divine Essence with His Human Essence, and concerning the Lord’s conjunction with the human race through the faith of charity, it may be well here and in what follows to call the former Union, but the latter Conjunction. Between the Lord‘s Divine Essence and His Human Essence there was a Union; but between the Lord and the human race there is a Conjunction, through the faith of charity, as is evident from the fact that Jehovah or the Lord is Life, and that His Human Essence also was made Life, as shown above, and between Life and Life there is Union. Whereas man is not Life, but a recipient of life, as also has been shown before; and when Life flows into a recipient of life, there is conjunction; for it is adapted to the recipient as is the active to the passive, or as that which is in itself alive to that which is in itself dead, and which lives therefrom. The principal and the instrumental--as they are termed--do indeed appear to be conjoined together as if they were a one, but still they are not a one; for the former is by itself, and the latter is by itself. Man does not live from himself, but the Lord in mercy adjoins man to Himself and thereby causes him to live to eternity; and because the Lord and man are thus distinct, it is called conjunction.

AC 2022. To be to thee for God. That this signifies the Lord’s Divine in Himself, is evident from what has been said above respecting the Lord‘s Divine Essence, that it was in Himself.

AC 2023. And to thy seed after thee. That this signifies the Divine thence derived with those who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity (n. 1025, 1447, 1610); and also from the signification of "after thee," as being to follow Him (n. 2019). The Divine with those who have faith in the Lord is love and charity. By Love is meant love to the Lord; by Charity, love toward the neighbor. Love to the Lord cannot possibly be separated from love toward the neighbor; for the Lord’s love is toward the universal human race, which He wills to save eternally and to adjoin wholly to Himself, so that not one of them may perish. He therefore who has love to the Lord, has the Lord‘s love, and thereby can do no otherwise than love his neighbor.

[2] But they who are in love toward the neighbor are not all for that reason in love to the Lord, as for example the well-disposed Gentiles who are in ignorance respecting the Lord, but with whom the Lord is nevertheless present in charity (n. 1032, 1059), and also others within the church; for love to the Lord is in a higher degree. They who have love to the Lord are celestial men, but they who have love toward the neighbor, or charity, are spiritual men. The Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood, and was celestial, was in love to the Lord but the Ancient Church, which was after the flood, and was spiritual, was in love toward the neighbor, or in charity. This distinction between Love and Charity will be observed when they are mentioned hereafter.

AC 2024. Verse 8. And I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings, all the land of Canaan, for an eternal possession; and I will be to them for God. "I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings," signifies that the Lord acquired to Himself all things by His own forces or powers, which are "the land of the sojournings;" "I will give unto thee," signifies that the things which are in the heavens and on the earth are His; "and to thy seed after thee," signifies that He would give them to those who should have faith in Him; "all the lad of Canaan," signifies the celestial or heavenly kingdom; "for an eternal possession," signifies to eternity; "and I will be to them for God," signifies that God is one.

AC 2025. I will give unto thee, and to thy seed after thee, the land of thy sojournings. That this signifies that the Lord acquired to Himself all things by His own forces or powers, which are "the lad of the sojournings," is evident from the signification of "sojourning," as being to be instructed (n. 1463). And as a man acquires life to himself especially by means of instruction in memory-knowledges, doctrinal matters, and the knowledges of faith, therefore "sojourning," signifies the life so acquired. As applied to the Lord, "sojourning" signifies the life which He procured to Himself by means of knowledges, combats of temptations, and victories therein; and as He procured for Himself that life by His own forces, this is here signified by "the land of the sojournings."

[2] That the Lord procured all things to Himself by His own forces, and by His own forces united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, and the Divine Essence to the Human Essence; and that He alone thus became righteousness, is clearly evident in the Prophets. As in Isaiah:--

Who is this that cometh from Edom, marching in the multitude of his strength? I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the peoples there was none with Me; I looked around, and there was no one helping; and I was amazed, and there was no one upholding; therefore Mine arm brought salvation unto Me (Isaiah 63:1, 3, 5)

"Edom" denotes the Lord’s Human Essence; "strength," and "arm," power that this was from what was His own is clearly said, in that "there was no one helping," "no one upholding," and that "His own arm brought salvation unto Him."

[3] In the same Prophet:--

He saw that there was not any one, and He was amazed that there was none to intercede; and His arm achieved salvation unto Him, and His righteousness supported Him; and He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, and a helmet of salvation upon His head (Isa. 59:16, 17)

meaning in like manner by His own power, and that thereby He became righteousness. That the Lord is righteousness is stated in Daniel:--

Seventy weeks are decreed to expiate iniquity, and to bring in the righteousness of the ages, and to seal up vision and prophet, and to anoint the holy of holies (Daniel 9:24).

And in Jeremiah:--

I will raise unto David a righteous offshoot, and He shall reign as King, and shall act intelligently, and shall do judgment and righteousness in the land. In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell in confidence; and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our righteousness (Jeremiah 23:5, 6; 33:15, 16).

For this reason He is also called "the Habitation of righteousness," in (Jeremiah 31:23; 50:7); and in (Isaiah 9:6), "Wonderful," and "Hero."

[4] The reason why the Lord so often attributes to the Father that which is His own (n. 1999, 2004); for Jehovah was in Him, and consequently in everything that was His. This can be illustrated by what is similar, though not equal, in man. A man‘s soul is in him; and as it is in him, it is in the veriest singulars of him, that is in the veriest singulars of his thought, and of his action. Whatever has not his soul in it, is not his. The Lord’s soul was Life itself, or Being (Esse) itself, which is Jehovah, for He was conceived from Jehovah; and consequently Jehovah or Life itself was in His veriest singulars; and as Life itself, or Being itself, which is Jehovah, was His, as the soul is man‘s, so that which was Jehovah’s was His, which is what the Lord says: that He "is in the bosom of the Father" (John 1:18), and that "all things whatsoever that the Father hath are His" (John 16:15; 17:10, 11).

[5] From good, which is Jehovah‘s, He united the Divine Essence to the Human Essence; and from truth He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence; thus He did all things both in general and in particular from Himself; in fact His Human was left to itself, in order that He might fight of Himself against all the hells, and overcome them; and as He had life in Himself that was His own-as already said-He overcame them by His own power and by His own forces, as is also clearly stated in the Prophets, in the passages that have been cited. Consequently, as He acquired all things for Himself by His own forces, He became righteousness, emancipated the world of spirits from infernal genii and spirits, and thereby delivered the human race from destruction-for the human race is ruled by means of spirits-and so redeemed it. For this reason He is so often called in the Word of the Old Testament the Deliverer and the Redeemer, and the Saviour, which is the meaning of His name Jesus.

AC 2026. That by "1 will give unto thee" is meant that the things which are in the heavens and on the earth are His, follows from what has just been said. In the sense of the letter, the words "I will give unto thee" mean that God or Jehovah would give to the Lord; just as it is said in the Word of the Evangelists that the Father gave unto Him all things that are in heaven and on the earth. But in the internal sense, in which the truth itself is presented in its purity, it means that the Lord acquired them for Himself, because Jehovah was in Him, and in everything belonging to Him, as before said. This may be further illustrated by that which is like it; for it is as if the interior or rational man, or the thought, should say that the corporeal would have rest or tranquillity if it would desist from doing this or that: in this case he that speaks is the same man as he that is spoken to, for both the rational and the corporeal belong to the man, and therefore when mention is made of the former, the latter also is understood.

[2] Moreover that the things in the heavens and on the earth are the Lord’s, is evident from very many passages in the Word, both in the Old Testament, and also in the Evangelists (Matt. 11:27; Luke 10:22; John 3:34, 35; 17:2; Matt. 28:18); and (n. 458, 551, 552, 1607). And as the Lord rules the universal heaven, He also rules all things on earth; for they have been so connected together that He who rules the one rules all things; for on the heaven of angels depends the heaven of angelic spirits, on this the world of spirits, and on this again the human race. And in like manner on the heavens depend all things that are in the world and in nature, for without influx from the Lord through the heavens, nothing that is in nature and its three Kingdoms would come forth and endure (n. 1632).

AC 2027. That "to thy seed after thee" signifies that He would give all these things to those who should have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610), and in fact the faith of charity (n. 379, 389, 654, 724, 809, 916, 1017, 1162, 1176, 1258). They who place merit in the actions of their lives have not the faith of charity, and therefore are not the seed here meant; for thereby they desire to be saved, not because of the Lord‘s righteousness, but because of their own. That there is no faith of charity in them, that is, no charity, is evident from the fact, that they set themselves before others, and thus regard themselves and not others, except in so far as they are of service to them; and they either despise or hate those who are not willing to render them service. Thus by the love of self they dissociate, and never associate; and thus destroy what is heavenly, namely, mutual love, which gives heaven its stability; for heaven itself is in it, and all its consociation and unanimity subsist and consist in it; for in the other life whatever destroys unanimity is contrary to the order of heaven itself, and thus conspires to the destruction of the whole. Such are they who place merit in the actions of their lives, and claim righteousness for themselves. Of these there are many in the other life.

[2] They sometimes shine in the face like little torches, but from an illusive fire that proceeds from self-justification, and in fact they are cold. They are sometimes seen running about and confirming self-merit from the literal sense of the Word, for they hate the truths which are of the internal sense (n. 1877). Their sphere is a sphere of self-regard, and is thus destructive of all ideas that do not regard self as a kind of deity. The sphere of many of this sort together is so conflicting that there is nothing there but enmity and hostility; for when every one desires the same thing, namely, to be served, he murders others in his heart.

[3] Some of them are among those who say that they have labored in the Lord’s vineyard, whereas they have at the same time continually had in mind their own pre-eminence, glory, and honors, as well as gain; and even that they might become the greatest in heaven and be served by the angels, in heart despising others in comparison with themselves, and thus being imbued with no mutual love, in which heaven consists, but with the love of self, in which they place heaven; for they know not what heaven is. (Respecting such see above, n. 450-452, 1594, 1679). These are of those who desire to be first, but become last (Matt. 19:30; 20:16; Mark 10:31); and who say that they have prophesied by the name of the Lord, and have done many wonderful works; but to whom it is said, "I know you not" (Matt. 7:22, 23).

[4] Very different is the case with those who from simplicity of heart have supposed that they merit heaven, and have lived in charity; these have looked upon meriting heaven as something that is promised, and they easily acknowledge it to be of the Lord‘s mercy; for the life of charity is attended with this, because true charity loves all truth.

AC 2028. All the land of Canaan. That this signifies the heavenly kingdom, is evident from the signification of the "land of Canaan," as being the heavenly kingdom, (n. 1413, 1437, 1607).

AC 2029. For an eternal possession. That this signifies what is eternal, is evident without explication. They are called "possessors," and also " heirs," not from merit, but from mercy.

AC 2030. And I will be to them for God. That this signifies that God is one, is evident from the fact that the subject here treated of is the Lord’s Human Essence that was to be united to His Divine Essence, and thereby itself likewise become God. Thus "I will be to them for God," signifies in the internal sense that God is one.

AC 2031. Verse 9. And God said unto Abraham, And thou shalt keep My covenant, thou and thy seed after thee, unto their generations. "God said unto Abraham," signifies perception; "and thou shalt keep My covenant," signifies still closer union; "thou and thy seed after thee," signifies that from Him there is conjunction with all who have faith in Him; "unto their generations," signifies the things which are of faith.

AC 2032. God said unto Abraham. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of "God said," in the historic Word as being to perceive (n. 1602, 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822).

AC 2033. Thou shalt keep My covenant. That this signifies still closer union, is evident from the signification of a " covenant," as being union and conjunction (verses 2, 4, 7); (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038). The repeated mention here of " covenant," so frequently mentioned before, denotes a closer union. In the historical sense, which relates to Abraham, nothing else can be said than that he is to keep the covenant; but in the internal sense, in which the Lord is treated of, what is historical vanishes, and the things that can be predicated of Him succeed in its place, which relate to a closer union. The unition of the Lord‘s Human Essence with His Divine Essence was not effected all at once, but through the whole course of His life, from infancy to the last of His life in the world. Thus He ascended continuously to glorification, that is, to union; according to what is said in John:--

Jesus said, Father glorify Thy name; there came a voice from heaven: I have both glorified and will glorify it again (John 12:28),

(n. 1690, 1864).

AC 2034. Thou and thy seed after thee. That this signifies that from Him there is conjunction with all who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being faith, spoken of several times before; and from the signification of "after thee," as being to follow Him (n. 2019). The union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, has already been treated of; and the subject here treated of is the conjunction of the Lord with those who believe in Him, and therefore there is a repetition of the word "thou;" for it is said, " Thou shalt keep My covenant, thou and thy seed;" and from this repetition of the words in connection with "seed" it is evident that in the internal sense conjunction is signified, and in fact with those who are the seed, by which is signified the faith of charity, as shown above (n. 1025, 1447, 1510); and that faith is charity itself may be seen in (n. 30-38, 379, 389, 654, 724, 809, 916, 1017, 1076, 1077, 1162, 1176, 1258, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844).

[2] Moreover when speaking of His union with the Father, the Lord speaks immediately and without a break of His conjunction with the human race; because this was the cause of the union, as is evident in John:--

That they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me, and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us the glory which Thou hast given Me I have given them, that they may be one, even as we are one, I in them, and Thou in Me, for I have made known unto them Thy name, and will make it known, that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them (John 17:21, 22, 26)

from which it is evident that in the union of Himself with the Father the Lord had in view the conjunction of Himself with the human race, and that He had this at heart, because it was His love; for all conjunction is effected by means of love, love being conjunction itself.

[3] Again in the same gospel:--

Because I live, ye shall live also in that day ye shall know that I am in the Father, and ye in Me, and I in you; he that hath My commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth Me (John 14:19-21);

from which in like manner it is evident that in the union of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence the Lord had in view the conjunction of Himself with the human race, and that this was His end, and this His love, which was such that the salvation of the human race, as beheld in the union of Himself with His Father, was to Him the inmost joy. There is also here described that which unites, namely, to have and to do His commandments, and thereby to love the Lord.

[4] Again:--

Father, glorify Thy name; there came therefore a voice from heaven, I have both glorified and will glorify it again. Jesus said, This voice hath not come for My sake, but for your sakes. But I, when I shall be lifted up from the earth, will draw all after Me (John 12:28, 30, 32)

by "glorification" is meant union, as before said; and that in the union of Himself with the Father He regarded the conjunction of Himself with the human race, is openly said in the words, "when I shall be lifted up, I will draw all after Me."

[5] That conjunction of the Infinite or Supreme Divine with the human race was effected through the Lord’s Human made Divine, and that this conjunction was the cause of the Lord‘s coming into the world, is an arcanum into which many inquire in their own minds, and because they do not comprehend, they do not believe it; and as they do not believe for the reason that they do not comprehend, it becomes a scandal or stumbling block to them. That this is so, I have learned from much experience from those who come into the other life. Very many of these-almost the greater part of those who had been men of talent in the world-when they merely think that the Lord became a man, and in external form was like other men, that He suffered, and that nevertheless He rules the universe, at once fill the sphere with scandals, because this had been a scandal or stumbling block to them in the life of the body; although at that time they had divulged nothing about it, and had adored Him with outward sanctity. For in the other life the interiors are open, and are made manifest by the sphere diffused from them (n. 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504). In this way it is plainly perceived of what faith they had been, and what they had thought concerning the Lord.

[6] Seeing that such is the case, it may be well to explain the matter a little further. After all the celestial in man had perished, that is, all love to God, so that there was no longer any will of good, the human race had then been separated from the Divine; for nothing effects conjunction except love, and when this had been annihilated, there was disjunction; and when there is disjunction, then destruction and extirpation follow. Therefore the promise was then made respecting the Lord’s coming into the world, who should unite the Human to the Divine, and by this union should effect in Himself the conjunction of the human race by means of the faith of love and of charity.

[7] From the time of the first promise (Gen. 3:15) the faith of love in the Lord who was to come effected conjunction. But when there was no longer any faith of love remaining in the whole world, then the Lord came and united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, so that they were altogether one, as He Himself clearly says; and at the same time He taught the way of truth, that every one who should believe in Him-that is, who should love Him and the things that are His, and who should be in His love which is love toward the universal human race, thus in love toward the neighbor-should be conjoined and saved.

[8] When, in the Lord, the Human was made Divine, and the Divine Human, the result was an influx of the Infinite or Supreme Divine with man that otherwise could not possibly have existed; and an additional result was the dispersion of the direful persuasions of falsity and the direful cupidities of evil with which the world of spirits was brimful, and with which it was continually being filled full from the souls arriving from the world; and they who were in those persuasions and cupidities were cast into hell, and thereby were separated. Unless this had been done, the human race would have perished, for the Lord rules the human race by means of spirits. Nor could they have been dispersed in any other way, for no operation of the Divine was possible through man‘s rational things into those of internal sense, because these are far below the Supreme Divine when not so united not to mention still deeper arcana that cannot be explained to the apprehension of any man (n. 1676, 1990), that in the heaven of the celestial angels the Lord appears as a sun, and in the heaven of the spiritual angels as a moon; and that the Sun is the celestial of His love, and the Moon the spiritual of His love (n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531), and that all things both in general and in particular are under His view (n. 1274, 1277).

AC 2035. Unto their generations. That this signifies the things which are of faith, is evident from the signification of " generations," and of "births," as being the things that are of faith (n. 613, 1145, 1255, 1330); and that those which are of love and faith are related as by blood and marriage (n. 685, 917).

AC 2036. Verse 10. This is My covenant, which ye shall keep between Me and you, and thy seed after thee, that every male be circumcised unto you. "This is My covenant which ye shall keep between Me and you," signifies a token of the conjunction of all with the Lord; "and thy seed after thee," signifies those who have faith in Him; "that every male be circumcised unto you," signifies purity.

AC 2037. This is My covenant, which ye shall keep between Me and you. That this signifies a token of the conjunction of all with the Lord, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction, as explained before. That it is here the token of conjunction, is evident from the next verse, where it is called "a sign of a covenant:" "Ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you." All the external rites of the church were signs of the covenant, and were to be sacredly observed, because internal things were signified by them. Circumcision-which is treated of here-was nothing but a representative and significative rite, and as such is explained in what follows; nevertheless in various passages of the Word such rites are called the " covenant," for the reason that external things represented and thereby signified internal things. The internal things are what belong to the covenant, because they are effective of conjunction, and the external things are not so except by means of the internal ones. The external things were merely signs of the covenant, or tokens of he conjunction, by means of which they might call to mind the internal things and thereby be conjoined by means of these. Respecting the signs of the covenant, (n. 1308). All the internal things that belong to the covenant, or that are effective of conjunction, relate to love and charity, and proceed from love and charity; for on these two things, namely, loving God more than one’s self, and loving the neighbor as one‘s self, hang all the law and the prophets," that is, the universal doctrine of faith (Matt. 22:34-39; Mark 12:28-35).

AC 2038. And thy seed after thee. That this signifies those who have faith in Him, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity, concerning which above.

AC 2039. That every male be circumcised. That this signifies purity, is evident from the representation and derivative signification in the internal sense of " circumcising." Circumcision, or the cutting off of the foreskin, signified the removal and wiping away of those things that were impeding and defiling celestial love, and which are the evils of cupidities (especially the evils of the cupidities of the love of self) and the derivative falsities. The reason of this signification is that the organs of generation, in both sexes, represent celestial love. There are loves of three kinds that constitute the celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom, namely, conjugial love, love for infants, and the love for society, or mutual love. Conjugial love is the principal love of all, because it has within it the end of greatest use, namely, the propagation of the human race, and thereby of the Lord‘s kingdom, of which it is the seminary. Love toward infants follows next, being derived from conjugial love; and then comes the love for society, or mutual love. Whatever covers up, obstructs, and defiles these loves, is signified by the foreskin; and the cutting off of this, or circumcision, was therefore made representative; for in so far as the evils of cupidities, and the falsities derived from them are removed, in so far the man is purified; and in so far celestial love can appear. How contrary to celestial love, and how filthy, is the love of self, has been stated and shown above (n. 760, 1307, 1308, 1321, 1594, 2045, 2057). From what has now been said, it is clear that in the internal sense "circumcision" signifies purity.

[2] That circumcision is only a sign of covenant, or of conjunction, may be plainly seen from considering that the circumcision of the foreskin amounts to nothing at all without the circumcision of the heart; and that it is the circumcision of the heart, or purification from the filthy loves above referred to that is signified by it, as is plainly evident from the following passages in the Word. In Moses:--

Jehovah thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love Jehovah thy God in thy whole heart, and in thy whole soul, that thou mayest live (Deut. 30:6)

from which it is evident that to " circumcise the heart" is to be purified from filthy loves, in order that Jehovah God, or the Lord, may be loved with all the heart and with all the soul.

[3] In Jeremiah:--

Break up your fallow ground, and sow not among thorns; circumcise yourselves unto Jehovah, and take away the foreskin of your heart, O man of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem (Jeremiah 4:3, 4);

to " circumcise one’s self to Jehovah, and remove the foreskin of the heart," is to remove such things as obstruct heavenly love; all which shows that the circumcision of the heart is an interior thing that is signified by the circumcision of the foreskin. In Moses:--

Ye shall circumcise the foreskin of your heart, and shall no longer harden your neck, doing the judgment of the orphan and the widow, and loving the stranger to give him bread and raiment (Deut. 10:16, 18)

where also it is clear that to " circumcise the foreskin of the heart" is to be purified from the evils of filthy loves and from the falsities derived from them. The celestial things of love are described by these works of charity, namely, "doing the judgment of the orphan and the widow," and "loving the stranger to give him bread and raiment."

[4] In Jeremiah:--

Behold, the days come in which I will visit upon every one that is circumcised in the foreskin, upon Egypt, and upon Judah, and upon Edom, and upon the sons of Ammon, and upon Moab, and upon all that are cut off at the comer, that dwell in the wilderness for all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart (Jeremiah 9:25, 26)

where it is evident that circumcision is significative of purification, for they are called the " circumcised in the foreskin," but still are reckoned among the uncircumcised nations, as are even the Jews; and Israel is said to be "uncircumcised in heart." And it is the same in Moses:--

If then their uncircumcised heart be humbled (Lev. 26:41).

[5] That by the "foreskin" and by "one that is uncircumcised" is signified uncleanness, is evident in Isaiah:--

Awake, awake, put on thy strength, 0 Zion put on the garments of thy beauty, 0 Jerusalem, the city of holiness for henceforth there shall no more come into thee the uncircumcised and the unclean (Isaiah 52:1).

By Zion" is meant the celestial church, and by "Jerusalem" the spiritual church, into which what is "uncircumcised," that is, the "unclean," shall not enter.

[6] That circumcision is a sign of a covenant, or a token of conjunction, is clearly evident from the fact that the like was represented by means of the fruits of trees, which also were to be circumcised, concerning which in Moses:--

When ye shall have come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees of food, ye shall circumcise the foreskin thereof, its fruit; three years shall they be unto you as uncircumcised, it shall not be eaten and in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holiness for praises unto Jehovah (Lev. 19:23, 24)

"fruits," like the "heart," represent and signify charity, as may be seen from many passages in the Word; and thus their "foreskin" signifies the uncleanness which obstructs and contaminates charity.

[7] Wonderful to say, when the angels who are in heaven have the idea of purification from natural defilements, with the utmost rapidity there is represented in the world of spirits something like circumcision; for the angelic ideas pass over into representatives in the world of spirits. In the Jewish Church some of the representative rites originated in this source, and some did not. Those with whom that quick circumcision was represented in the world of spirits, were in the desire to be admitted into heaven; and before they were admitted, there was this representation. This shows why Joshua was commanded to circumcise the people, when, having passed over Jordan, they were entering the land of Canaan; for the entrance of the people into the land of Canaan represented this very admission of the faithful into heaven.

[8] For this reason circumcision was commanded a second time, concerning which in Joshua:--Jehovah said unto Joshua, Make thee swords of rocks, and circumcise the sons of Israel the second time and Joshua made him swords of rocks, and circumcised the sons of Israel at the hill of the foreskins and Jehovah said unto Joshua, This day have I rolled away the reproach of Egypt from off you; and he called the name of that place Gilgal (Rolling-off) (Joshua 5:2, 3, 9); the " swords of rocks" signify the truths with which they were to be imbued, in order that thereby they might castigate and disperse filthy loves; for without the knowledges of truth no purification is possible. (That a "stone" or "rock" signifies truths (n. 643, 1298); and that a "sword" is predicated of the truths by which evils may be castigated, is evident from the Word).

AC 2040. Verse 11. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you. "Ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin," signifies the removal of the love of self and of the world; "and it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you," signifies a representative and significative of purity.

AC 2041. Ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin. That this signifies the removal of the love of self and of the world, is evident from the representation and signification of "circumcision," as being purification from filthy loves (n. 2039); and from the signification of "flesh," as being what is man‘s own (n. 999). That which is man’s own is nothing but the love of self and of the world, thus is all the derivative cupidity; and how filthy this is has been shown in (n. 141, 150, 154, 210, 215, 694, 731, 874-876, 987, 1047). As this Own of man which is to be removed is signified, the expression "flesh of the foreskin" is made use of.

[2] There are two so-called loves and their cupidities that obstruct the influx of heavenly love from the Lord; for when these loves reign in the interior and in the external man, and take possession thereof, they either reject or suffocate, and also pervert and contaminate, the inflowing heavenly love; for they are utterly contrary to heavenly love, as will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be shown hereafter. But in so far as these loves are removed, so far the heavenly love flowing in from the Lord begins to appear, nay, to give light in the interior man; and so far he begins to see that he is in evil and falsity; next that he is actually in uncleanness and filthiness; and finally that this has been his Own. They who are becoming regenerate are those with whom these loves are being removed.

[3] Observation of this removal is possible also with the unregenerate, for when the cupidities of these loves are quiescent in them, as sometimes occurs when they are in holy meditation, or when the cupidities are lulled, as happens when they are in misfortunes, in sicknesses, and diseases, and especially at the moment of death, then, because bodily and worldly things are lulled and as it were dead, they observe something of heavenly light and the consequent comfort. But with these persons there is not removal of the cupidities in question, but only a lulling of them, for when they return into their former state, they at once relapse into the same cupidities.

[4] With the evil also, bodily and worldly things can be lulled, and they can then be as it were uplifted into a kind of heavenliness, as sometimes takes place with souls in the other life, especially those newly arrived, who intensely desire to see the glory of the Lord, because they had heard so much about heaven while they lived in the world. The external things above referred to are then lulled in them, and in this way they are carried into the first heaven and enjoy their desire. But they cannot remain long, because there is only a quiescence of the bodily and worldly things, and not a removal of them, as with the angels (n. 541, 542). Be it known that heavenly love is continually inflowing into man from the Lord, and that nothing else obstructs and impedes it, and causes its reception by the man impossible, except the cupidities of those loves and the falsities derived from them.

AC 2042. And it shall be for a sign of a covenant between Me and you. That this signifies a representative and significative of purity, is evident from what has been shown just above (n. 2039), namely, that circumcision was nothing but a representative of purification from filthy loves. And as it was only an external rite which represented and signified something internal, it was not a covenant, but a sign of a covenant.

AC 2043. Verse 12. And a son of eight days shall be circumcised unto you, every male in your generations, he that is born in the house, and he that is bought with silver from every son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed. "A son of eight days," signifies any beginning of purification whatever; "shall be circumcised unto you," signifies the purification; " every male," signifies those who are in the truth of faith "in your generations," signifies the things which are of faith; "he that is born in the house," signifies those who are celestial; "he that is bought with silver," signifies those who are spiritual, who are within the church; "from every son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed," signifies those who are outside the church.

AC 2044. And a son of eight days. That this signifies any beginning of purification whatever, is evident from the signification of "the eighth day." A "week," which is seven days, signifies an entire period of any state or time, as of reformation, of regeneration, of temptation, whether of man in particular, or of the church in general thus a period is called a "week," whether it be one of a thousand years, of a hundred, of ten, or of as many days, hours, minutes, and so on (n. 728). And as the eighth day is the first day of a new week, it signifies any beginning whatever. This shows also that, as circumcision was itself a representative of purification, so also was the time of it, namely, the eighth day; not that they then entered into a purer state, and were purified on that account, but for the reason that, as circumcision" signified purification, so "the eighth day" signified that this ought to be effected at all times, and thus always, as from a new beginning.

AC 2045. Shall be circumcised unto you. That this signifies purification, is evident from the representation and signification of "circumcision," as being purification from filthy loves (n. 2039). They who are in the loves of self and of the world cannot possibly believe that they are in things so filthy and unclean as they actually are in, for there is a certain pleasure and delight that soothes, favors, and allures, and causes them to love that life, to prefer it to all other life, and thereby to suppose that there is nothing of evil in it; for whatever favors any one’s love and the life thence derived is believed to be good. Hence also the rational consents, and suggests falsities which confirm and cause such blindness that they see nothing of the nature of heavenly love; and if they were to see it they would say in their hearts that it is a wretched affair, or a thing of naught, or something of the nature of a phantasy that takes hold of the mind, as in sickness.

[2] But that the life of the love of self and of the world, together with its pleasures and delights, is filthy and unclean, may be seen by every one who is willing to think from the rational faculty with which he is gifted. The love of self is the source of all the evils that destroy civic society. From it as from an unclean pit spring all hatreds, all revenges, all cruelties, nay, all adulteries for he who loves himself, despises, vituperates, or hates, all others who do not serve him, or do him honor, or favor him; and when he hates, he breathes nothing but revenges and cruelties, and this in proportion to the degree in which he loves himself, so that this love is destructive of society and of the human race. That such is its nature may be seen from what is said of it in (n. 693, 694, 760, 1307, 1308, 1321, 1506, 1594, 1691, 1862). That in the other life the love of self is most filthy, and that it is diametrically opposite to the mutual love in which heaven consists, shall of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be told in what follows.

[3] And as the love of self is the source of hatreds, revenges, cruelties, and adulteries, it is the source of all things that are called sins, wickednesses, abominations, and profanations, and therefore when this love is in the rational part of man, and is in the cupidities and phantasies of his external man, the influx of heavenly love from the Lord is continually repelled, perverted, and contaminated. It is like foul excrement, which dissipates, nay, defiles, all sweet odor; it is like an object that turns the continually inflowing rays of light into dark and repulsive colors; and it is like a tiger, or a serpent, which repels all fondling, and kills with bite and poison those who offer it food; or like a vicious man who turns even the best intentions of others, and their very kindnesses, into what is blameworthy and malicious. Hence it is evident that these loves-of self and of the world-are what are represented and signified by the foreskins that were to be cut off.

AC 2046. Every male. That this signifies those who are in the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of a "male," as being truth (n. 672, 749). The "male:" by which is signified the truth of faith, is named here because no one can be purified from those filthy loves except one who is in truth. From truth he knows (cognoscit) what is pure and what impure, and what is holy and what profane. Before he has learned this, there are no mediums into which and through which the heavenly love continually flowing in from the Lord can operate, as this cannot be received except in truths; and therefore man is reformed and regenerated by means of the knowledges of truth, and this not until he has been imbued with them. Conscience itself is formed by means of the truths of faith; for the conscience with which the regenerate man is gifted is a conscience of what is true and right (n. 977, 986, 1033, 1076, 1077). This also is the reason why knives of stone, or "swords of rocks," as they are called, were employed in circumcising. That these signify truths (n. 2039).

AC 2047. Throughout your generations. That this signifies the things which are of faith, is evident from the signification of "generations" and of "births," as being the things that are of faith (n. 613, 1145, 1255, 2020, 2035).

AC 2048. That "he that is born in the house" signifies those who are celestial, and that "he that is bought with silver’ signifies those who are spiritual, and that they thus signify those who are within the church, is evident from the signification of one "born in the house," as being those who are within the house. A "house," in the Word, signifies what is celestial, because this is the inmost; whence by the "house of God" in a universal sense is signified the Lord‘s kingdom; in a sense less universal, His church; and in a particular sense, the man himself in whom there is the Lord’s kingdom or church. When man is called a "house," the celestial of faith in him is signified; and when he is called a "temple," the truth of faith in him is signified; thus here by one "born in the house" those who are celestial are signified. But that "he that is bought with silver" signifies those who are spiritual, is evident from the signification of "silver," as being truth, thus the spiritual of faith (n. 1551).

[2] Those are called celestial who are in love to the Lord; and as the Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood, was in this love, it was a celestial church. Those are called spiritual who are in love toward the neighbor and thereby in the truth of faith, as was the Ancient Church, which was after the flood. The distinction between the celestial and the spiritual has been treated of many times in before. Every one can see that there are heavenly arcana in what is here said, namely, that those born in the house were to be circumcised, and those bought with silver, and also the sons that were strangers; and also from their being repeatedly mentioned (verses 13, 23, 27); which arcana do not appear except from the internal sense, which shows that by those born in the house and those bought with silver are signified the celestial and the spiritual, the those who are within the church; and that by "a son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed" are signified those who are outside the church.

AC 2049. From every son that is a stranger who is not of thy seed. That this signifies those who are outside the church, is evident from the signification of "son that is a stranger," as being those who are not born within the church, thus are not in the goods and truths of faith, because not in the knowledges of them. " Sons that are strangers" also signify those who are in external worship (n. 1097); but when this is the meaning, those who are within the church are treated of, whereas in the passage before us the Lord‘s church in the universal is treated of, and therefore "sons that are strangers" signify those who are not born within the church, as is the case with the Gentiles. Gentiles, who are outside the church, may be in truths, but not in the truths of faith. Their truths, like the precepts of the decalogue, are that parents are to be honored, that men are not to kill, steal, commit adultery, or covet things that belong to others; also that the Deity is to be worshiped. But the truths of faith are all doctrinal things concerning eternal life, the Lord’s kingdom, and the Lord Himself, which cannot be known to the Gentiles because they have not the Word.

[2] These are they who are signified by "sons that are strangers who are not of thy seed," and yet were to be circumcised, that is purified, together with them. This shows that they can be purified, equally with those within the church; as was represented by their being circumcised. They are purified when they reject filthy loves, and live with one another in charity; for then they live in truths, since all truths are of charity; but in the truths already mentioned. They who live in these truths readily imbibe the truths of faith, if not in the life of the body, yet in the other life, because the truths of faith are the interior truths of charity, and they then love nothing more than to be admitted into the interior truths of charity. The interior truths of charity are those in which the Lord‘s kingdom consists (n. 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328, 1366)

[3] In the other life a memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith is of no avail, for the worst, nay, the infernals, can be in the memory-knowledge of them, sometimes more than others; but that which avails is a life according to the knowledges, for all knowledges have life as their end. Unless knowledges were learned for the sake of life, they would be of no use except that men might talk about them, and thereby be esteemed learned in the world, be exalted to honors, and gain reputation and wealth. From this it is evident that a life of the knowledges of faith is no other than a life of charity; for the Law and the Prophets, that is, the universal doctrine of faith together with all its knowledges, consists in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor; as is manifest to all from the Lord’s words in (Matthew 22:34-39; Mark 12:28-35);

[4] but still doctrinal things, that is, the knowledges of faith, are most necessary for forming the life of charity, which cannot be formed without them. This is the life that saves after death, and by no means any life of faith without it; for without charity there cannot be any life of faith. They who are in the life of love and charity are in the Lord‘s life, and by no other life can any one be conjoined with Him. Hence also it is evident that the truths of faith can never be acknowledged as truths, that is, the acknowledgment of them so much talked of is impossible, except outwardly, and by the mouth, unless they are implanted in charity; for inwardly or in the heart they are denied, since, as already said, they all have charity as their end; and if this is not within them they are inwardly rejected. When the exteriors are taken away-as is done in the other life-the interiors are manifest in their true character, in that they are utterly contrary to all the truths of faith. When men have had no life of charity-that is, no mutual love-during their bodily life, it is utterly impossible to receive it in the other life, because they are averse to and hate it, for after death the same life remains with us that we have lived here. When such persons merely approach a society where there is the life of mutual love, they tremble, shudder, and feel torture.

[5] Such persons, although born within the church, are called "sons that are strangers, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh," who are not to be admitted into the sanctuary, that is, into the Lord’s kingdom; and who are also meant in Ezekiel:--

No son that is a stranger, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh, shall enter into My sanctuary (Ezekiel 44:7, 9).

Again:--

To whom art thou thus become like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? and thou shalt be brought down with the trees of Eden into the lower earth, thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised with them that are slain by the sword (Ezekiel 31:18)

where Pharaoh is treated of, by whom are signified memory-knowledges in general (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); by "the trees of Laden" with which they should go down into the lower earth, are also signified memory-knowledges, but those of the knowledges of faith. All this shows what "the uncircumcised" is in the internal sense, namely, one who is in filthy loves and the life of them.

AC 2050. Verse 13. Circumcising he shall be circumcised that is born in thy house, and he that is bought with thy silver; and My covenant shall be in your flesh for an eternal covenant. "Circumcising he shall be circumcised,‘ signifies that they must wholly remove from themselves the loves of self and of the world; "that is born in thy house, and that is bought with thy silver," signifies those within the church, of both kinds; "and My covenant shall be in your flesh," signifies the conjunction of the Lord with man in his impurity, and also a significative rite; "for an eternal covenant," signifies conjunction.

AC 2051. Circumcising he shall be circumcised. That this signifies that they must wholly remove from themselves the loves of self and of the world, that is, that they must do this who are within the church and who are signified by him "that is born in the house," and by him "that is bought with silver," is evident from the representation of circumcision," as being purification from the loves of self and of the world (n. 2039). It is here repeated that they are to be circumcised, and it is said, "circumcising he shall be circumcised," by which is expressed the necessity, that is, for their being wholly purified from those loves. And as those are signified who are within the church, the "sons that are strangers" are not mentioned here, because by them (n. 2049) are signified those who are outside the church.

[2] From the repetition of what was said in the preceding verse concerning those born in the house and those bought with silver, every one can see that there is a Divine arcanum which is not seen from the sense of the letter. The arcanum is, that purification from those filthy loves is necessary most of all within the church, and this for the reason that they who are within the church are able to render holy things themselves impure, which they who are outside the church- that is, the Gentiles cannot do; so that the danger of damnation is greater in the case of the former. Moreover those who are within the church are able to form principles of falsity contrary to the very truths of faith, and to become imbued with them; whereas those who are outside the church cannot do this, because they are ignorant of these truths. Thus the former can profane holy truths, but not the latter (n. 1059, 1327, 1328).

AC 2052. That is born in thy house, and that is bought with thy silver. That this signifies those who are within the church, of both kinds,-that is, the celestial, meant by "him that is born in the house," and the spiritual, meant by "him that is bought with silver," (n. 2048).

AC 2053. My covenant shall be in your flesh. That this signifies the conjunction of the Lord with man in his impurity, is evident from the signification of a " covenant," as being conjunction; and from the signification of "flesh," as being what is man’s own (n. 2041): how impure what is man‘s own is was also stated there, and was shown in (n. 141, 150, 154, 210, 215, 694, 731, 874-876, 987, 1047). As regards the words "my covenant in your flesh" denoting the conjunction of the Lord with man in his impurity, the case is this: With man there is no pure intellectual truth, that is, truth Divine; for the truths of faith appertaining to man are appearances of truth, to which fallacies of the senses adjoin themselves, and to these the falsities that belong to the cupidities of the love of self and of the world. Such are the truths appertaining to man. How impure these are may be seen from the fact that such things are adjoined to them.

[2] But still the Lord conjoins Himself with man in these impure truths, for He animates and vivifies them with innocence and charity, and thereby forms conscience. The truths of conscience are various, that is, they are according to each person’s religion; and these truths, provided they are not contrary to the goods of faith, the Lord will not do violence to, because the man has been imbued with them, and has regarded them as holy. The Lord breaks no one, but bends him, as may be seen from the fact that in every dogma within the church there are some who are being gifted with conscience, which conscience is a better one in proportion as its truths approach more closely to the genuine truths of faith. As conscience is formed from truths of faith of this kind, it is evident that it has been formed in the intellectual part of man, for it is the intellectual part that receives these truths and therefore the Lord has miraculously separated this part from the will part-an arcanum not previously known, and concerning which see (n. 863, 875, 895, 927, 1023). That a "covenant in your flesh" also denotes what is significative, namely, of purification, is evident from what has been shown in respect to circumcision in (n. 2039).

AC 2054. For an eternal covenant. That this signifies conjunction, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction, explained before. As those are here treated of who are within the church, the "covenant" is again spoken of; and it is here called an eternal covenant, both because it is most especially necessary for those within the church to be "circumcised," that is, purified from the loves of self and of the world (n. 2051); and also because with them there is the nearest conjunction of the Lord and His heaven, since this is effected by means of the goods and truths of faith. There is indeed a conjunction with those also who are outside of the church, but a more remote one, because they are not in the goods and truths of faith (n. 2049). The church, in the Lord‘s kingdom, is circumstanced as are the heart and lungs in man. Man’s interior things are conjoined with his external things by means of the heart and lungs, and from these live all the surrounding viscera. Such also is the case with the human race: the conjunction of the Lord and His heaven is nearest with the church, but more remote with those who are outside of the church, who are circumstanced as are the organs that live by means of the heart and lungs. The celestial are like the heart, and the spiritual are like the lungs. Because of the necessity for the purification of both of these, they who are within the church are here treated of specifically, and the "covenant" is stated twice.

AC 2055. Verse 14. And the uncircumcised male, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that soul shall be cut off from his peoples; he hath made vain My covenant. "The uncircumcised male," signifies one who is not in the truth of faith; "who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin," signifies who is in the love of self and of the world; "that soul shall be cut off from his peoples," signifies eternal death; "he hath made vain My covenant," signifies that he cannot be conjoined.

AC 2056. And the uncircumcised male. That this signifies one who is not in the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of a "male," as being the truth of faith (n. 2046); the "uncircumcised male" therefore here signifies one who is not in the truth of faith, and who is thereby in what is false. That is said to be "uncircumcised" which obstructs and defiles, as before said. When said of the "male," it is that which obstructs and defiles truth; and in like manner when it is said of any other subject, it signifies the darkening and contamination of that subject. Thus an "uncircumcised ear" is mentioned in Jeremiah:--

Upon whom shall I speak and testify, and they will hear? Behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken behold the Word of Jehovah is become unto them a reproach they do not desire it (Jeremiah 6:10)

their "ear being uncircumcised" means that there was no hearkening, and that the Word was a reproach unto them.

[2] Moreover the verse before us treats of those who are within the church, and who are not only in falsity, but also in the impurity of the loves of self and of the world; for these things are said in continuation of what was said before. It is therefore said "the uncircumcised male, who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin," and thus the meaning is falsity conjoined with impurity of life. How great a danger of eternal damnation these are incurring may be seen from what was said above (n. 2051). These words especially signify those within the church who profane the goods and truths of faith, of whom it is said, "that soul shall be cut off from his peoples‘ for these can commit profanation, but not those who are out side the church (n. 593, 1008, 1010, 1059).

AC 2057. Who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. That this signifies who is in the love of self, is evident from what was said above in regard to the signification of being "circumcised," and of the "foreskin" (n. 2039, 2049, at the end), also as to the signification of "flesh" (n. 2041). The "flesh of the foreskin" here signifies the love of self. Those within the church who are in falsity, and at the same time are in the love of self, are most especially those who profane holy things; but they who are in any other love whatever not so much, for the love of self is the most foul of all, because it is destructive of society, and thus of the human race, as before shown (n. 2045). That it is also diametrically opposed to mutual love, in which heaven consists, and thus is destructive of heavenly order itself, may be seen from the evil spirits and genii in the other life; and also from the hells, in which nothing reigns but the love of self; and because the love of self reigns there, so do all kinds of hatreds, revenges, and cruelties, because these are derived from it.

[2] Mutual love in heaven consists in the fact that they love the neighbor more than themselves, the effect of which is that the whole heaven represents as it were one man; for by means of mutual love all are so consociated by the Lord, and hence it is that the happinesses of all are communicated to each one, and those of each one to all. Consequently the heavenly form is such that every one is as it were a kind of center, thus a center of communications, and consequently of happinesses, from all; and this in accordance with all the differences of mutual love, which are innumerable. And because those who are in that love perceive the highest happiness in being able to communicate to others that which flows into them, and this from the heart, the communication becomes perpetual and eternal and on this account, as the Lord’s kingdom increases, so the happiness of each angel increases. As the angels are in distinct societies and abodes, they do not think of this; but the Lord thus disposes all things both in general and in particular. Such is the kingdom of the Lord in the heavens.

[3] Nothing else endeavors to destroy this form and this order than the love of self, and therefore all in the other life who are in the love of self are more deeply infernal than others, for the love of self communicates nothing to others, but extinguishes and suffocates their delights and happinesses. Whatever delight flows into them from others, they receive to themselves, concentrate it within themselves, turn it into the filthiness of self, prevent its going any further, and thus destroy all that tends to unanimity and consociation. From this comes disunion, and consequently destruction. And as every such person desires to be served, courted, and adored by others, and loves no one but himself, hence comes dissociation, which is determined and puts itself forth into lamentable states, so that they perceive nothing to be more delightful than to torture others, in direful modes and by phantasies, from hatred, revenge, and cruelty. When such persons come to any society where mutual love resides, they are cast down of their own accord, like impure and dead weights in a pure and living aura, because all the influent delight is terminated in themselves; and because they exhale a foul idea of self, their delight is there turned into a cadaverous stench, by which they are made sensible of the hell of self, besides being seized with terrible anguish.

[4] From this we can see that it is the nature of the love of self to be destructive not only of the human race (n. 2045), but also of heavenly order; and thus that there is nothing in it but impurity, filthiness, profaneness, and hell itself; however little this may appear to those who are in it. They are in the love of self who despise others in comparison with themselves, and hate those who do not favor, serve, and pay a kind of worship to them; and who find a cruel delight in revenge, and in depriving others of honor, reputation, wealth, and life. They who are in the love of self are in these evils; and they who are in these evils may know that they are in the love of self.

AC 2058. That soul shall be cut off from his peoples. That this signifies eternal death, is evident from the signification of "soul," as being life (n. 1000, 1040, 1742); and from the signification of "peoples," as being truths (n. 1259, 1260). Thus "peoples" are they who live in truths, that is, angels; and for a "soul to be cut off" from these, is to be damned, or to perish in eternal death.

AC 2059. He hath made vain My covenant. That this signifies that he cannot be conjoined, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction, explained before. Thus to "make the covenant vain," is to disjoin himself to such an extent that he cannot be conjoined.

AC 2060. Verse 15. And God said unto Abraham, Sarai, thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, for Sarah is her name. "God said unto Abraham," signifies perception; " Sarai thy wife," signifies here as before truth conjoined with good; "thou shalt not call her name Sarai," signifies that He will put off the human; "for Sarah is her name," signifies that He will put on the Divine.

AC 2061. God said unto Abraham. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of "God‘s saying," in the historical sense, as being in the internal sense to perceive (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919). As another subject here begins to be treated of, namely, that signified by "Sarai" and "Sarah," and also that signified by the promise of a "son" from Sarah, and by Ishmael’s becoming a "great nation," it is introduced by a new perception of the Lord, which is expressed by "God said unto Abraham," as in other places.

AC 2062. Sarai thy wife. That hereby is signified truth conjoined with good, is evident from the signification of " Sarai," as being intellectual truth; and as "wife" is here added, the meaning is, this truth conjoined with good. "Sarai," and " Sarai the wife," signify truth conjoined with good, (n. 1468, 1901).

AC 2063. Thou shalt not call her name Sarai, for Sarah is her name. That this signifies that He will put off the human, and will put on the Divine, is evident from what was said of Abraham above (verse 5), where occur the words, "thy name shall no more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham," by which in like manner there is signified that He will put off the human, and will put on the Divine (n. 2009). For the letter H which was added to the name "Sarah," was taken from the name "Jehovah," so that Sarah, like Abraham, should represent the Lord‘s Divine; and that thus should be represented the Divine marriage of Good with Truth in the Lord-Abraham representing the Divine Good, and Sarah the Divine Truth-from which should be born the Divine Rational, which is Isaac.

[2] The Divine Good, which is Love, and which in regard to the whole human race is Mercy, was the Lord’s Internal, that is, Jehovah, who is Good itself: this is represented by Abraham. The truth that was to be conjoined with the Divine Good was represented by Sarai; and this truth when also made Divine is represented by Sarah; for the Lord advanced to union with Jehovah successively, as already said. The truth not yet Divine represented by Sarai, was such when it was not yet so united to good as to be truth from good. But when it was so united to good as to proceed from good, it was then Divine; and the truth itself was then also good, because it was the truth of good. The truth which tends to good in order that it may be united to good, is one thing; and that which is so united to good as to proceed wholly from good, is another. The truth which is tending to good still derives something from the human; but that which is wholly united to good has put off all that is human, and has put on the Divine.

[3] This may be illustrated as before, by what is similar with man. When a man is being regenerated, that is, when he is to be conjoined with the Lord, he proceeds to the conjunction by means of truth, that is, by means of the truths of faith; for no one can be regenerated except by means of the knowledges of faith, which are the truths by means of which he proceeds to conjunction. The Lord goes to meet these by means of good, that is, by means of charity, and adjusts and fits this in to the knowledges of faith, that is, to its truths; for all truths are recipient vessels of good, and therefore the more genuine the truths are, and the more they are multiplied, the more abundantly can good accept them as vessels, reduce them to order, and finally manifest itself; so that at last the truths do not appear, except in so far as good shines through them. In this way truth becomes the celestial spiritual. As the Lord is present solely in the good which is of charity, the man is in this way conjoined with the Lord, and by means of good, that is, by means of charity, is gifted with conscience, from which he afterwards thinks what is true and does what is right; but this conscience is in accordance with the truths and right things into which the good or charity is adjusted and fitted.

AC 2064. Verse 16. And I will bless her, and I will give thee a son from her also; and I will bless her, and she shall be for nations; kings of peoples shall be from her. "I will bless her," signifies the multiplication of truth; "and I will give thee a son from her also," signifies the rational; "and I will bless her," signifies its multiplication; "and she shall be for nations," signifies the goods thence derived; "kings of peoples shall be from her," signifies truths from the conjoined truths and goods, which are the "kings of peoples."

AC 2065. I will bless her. That this signifies the multiplication of truth, is evident from the signification of "being blessed," which is to be enriched with all good and truth (n. 981, 1096, 1420, 1422). As it is here said to Sarah that God would bless her, the enrichment or multiplication of truth is signified; for by Sarah, as before shown, is represented and signified the truth of good, which is intellectual truth; and this truth and its multiplication are here treated of. What intellectual truth is see (n. 1904).

AC 2066. And I will give thee a son from her also. That this signifies the rational, is evident from the signification of a " son," as being truth (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147); and as all that is rational begins from truth, the rational is here signified by a "son." The Lord‘s first rational was represented and signified by Ishmael, born of Hagar the handmaid treated of in the preceding chapter 16. The second rational, treated of here, is represented and signified by Isaac who was to be born from Sarah. The former, that is, the rational represented by Ishmael, was the rational that was afterwards expelled from the house; but this second rational, represented by Isaac, is that which remained in the house, because it was Divine. But concerning this rational, of the Lord’s Divine mercy we shall speak in the following chapter, where Isaac is treated of.

AC 2067. And I will bless her. That this signifies its multiplication, that is,- the multiplication of the rational meant by the "son," is evident from the signification of being "blessed," which is to be enriched with all good and truth.

AC 2068. And she shall be for nations. That this signifies the goods thence derived, is evident from the signification of "nations," as being goods (n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 1849).

AC 2069. Kings of peoples shall be from her. That this signifies truths from the conjoined truths and goods, which are the "kings of peoples," is evident from the signification of "kings," as being in general all truths (n. 2015); and from the signification of "peoples," as also being truths, and in general all things spiritual; for "kings" are predicated of peoples, and not of nations except when nations signify evils (n. 1259, 1260). In the prophetic Word there is frequent mention of "kings" and "peoples;" but by these are never meant kings and peoples; for in the very Word itself, which is the internal sense, kings and peoples are not treated of at all, but the celestial and spiritual things which belong to the Lord‘s kingdom, thus goods and truths. The sense of the letter simply furnishes objective forms (as is done by human words) for causing its meaning to be understood.

[2] As it is here said of Sarah that "kings of peoples shall be from her," and as by "Sarah" is signified the Divine truth which the Lord had, it is evident that by "kings of peoples" are signified truths from the conjoined truths and goods, which are all truths of the internal church, or the interior truths of faith. These truths, being from the Lord, are called "kings" in various passages of the Word, and also "king’s sons," as shown above (n. 2015).

[3] Every one can see that some internal Divine thing lies hidden in the words that "kings of peoples shall be from her"-for in this verse Isaac is treated of, and in reference to him it is said, "I will bless her and she shall be for nations;" but of Sarah, that "kings and peoples shall be from her"-and also in nearly the same thing being said of Abraham (verse 6), in that "kings should come forth" from him; but it is not said of him as of Sarah, that "kings of peoples" should be from him. The arcanum that is herein lies too deeply hidden to be unfolded and described in a few words. From the representation and signification of Abraham as being the Divine Good, and from the representation and signification of Sarah as being the Divine Truth, the arcanum is in some measure evident to the effect that all celestial truth will go forth and will be from the Lord‘s Divine Good, meant by "Abraham;" and that all spiritual truth will go forth and will be from the Lord’s Divine Truth, meant by "Sarah." Celestial truth is that which is with the celestial angels, and spiritual truth is that which is with the spiritual angels; or what is the same thing, celestial truth is that which was with the men of the Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood, and which was a celestial church; and spiritual truth is that which was with the men of the Ancient Church, which was after the flood, and which was a spiritual church. For angels, as well as men of the church, are distinguished into the celestial and the spiritual. The celestial are distinguished from the spiritual by love to the Lord; and the spiritual are distinguished from the celestial by love toward the neighbor.

[4] But concerning celestial truth and spiritual truth no more can be said until it is known what the distinction is between the celestial and the spiritual, or what is the same, between the celestial church and the spiritual church (n. 202, 337, 1577; also what was the quality of the Most Ancient Church, and what that of the Ancient Church, (n. 597, 607, 640, 765, 1114-1125), and in many other places; and that to have love to the Lord is celestial, and to have love toward the neighbor is spiritual, (n. 2023).

[5] These considerations will suffice to open the arcanum that by the "kings" who should go forth from Abraham, spoken of in the sixth verse, are signified the celestial truths that inflow from the Lord‘s Divine Good; and that by the "kings of peoples" who should be from Sarah, spoken of in the present verse, are signified the spiritual truths that inflow from the Lord’s Divine Truth. For the Lord‘s Divine good cannot inflow except with the celestial man, because it inflows into the will part, as it did in the case of the Most Ancient Church; but the Lord’s Divine truth inflows with the spiritual man, because it inflows solely into his intellectual part, which in him has been separated from his will part (n. 2053, at the end) or what is the same, celestial good inflows with the celestial man, and spiritual good with the spiritual man; and on this account the Lord appears to the celestial angels as a Sun, but to the spiritual as a Moon (n. 1529, 1530).

AC 2070. Verse 17. And Abraham fell upon his faces, and laughed, and said in his heart, Shall there be born to a son of a hundred years? and shall Sarah that is a daughter of ninety years bear? "Abraham fell upon his faces," signifies adoration; "and laughed," signifies the affection of truth; "and said in his heart," signifies that He so thought; "shall there be born to a son of a hundred years?" signifies that the rational of the Lord‘s Human Essence should then be united to His Divine Essence; "and shall Sarah that is a daughter of ninety years hear?" signifies that truth conjoined with good will do this.

AC 2071. Abraham fell upon his faces. That this signifies adoration, is evident from the signification of "falling upon the faces," as being to adore (n. 1999).

AC 2072. And laughed. That this signifies the affection of truth, may be seen from the origin and essence of laughter, for its origin is nothing but the affection of truth, or else the affection of what is false, from which come the gladness and merriment that in laughter display themselves in the face, which shows that the essence of laughter is nothing else. Laughter is indeed an external thing that belongs to the body because to the face; but in the Word interior things are expressed and signified by exterior things; just as all the interior affections of the mind are expressed and signified by means of the face, interior hearing and obedience being signified by the ear, interior sight or understanding by the eye, power and strength by the hand and arm, and so on, and in the same way the affection of truth by laughter.

[2] In man’s rational there is truth, which is its chief characteristic, and there is also the affection of good, but this is in the very affection of truth as its soul. The affection of good which is in the rational does not display itself by means of laughter, but by means of a certain joy and consequent pleasurable delight which does not laugh; for in laughter there is usually something that is not so good. The reason why truth is the chief characteristic in man‘s rational, is that the rational is formed by means of the knowledges of truth, for by no other means can any one ever become rational. The knowledges of good are truths, equally as much as are the knowledges of truth.

[3] That "laughter" here signifies the affection of truth, may be seen from its being related that Abraham laughed; and in like manner Sarah, both before Isaac was born, and afterwards; and also from Isaac’s being named from "laughter," for the word "Isaac" means "laughter." That Abraham laughed when he heard about Isaac, is evident from this verse, for it is said that Abraham laughed when he heard about a son from Sarah. That Sarah also laughed before Isaac‘s birth, when she heard from Jehovah that she should bear a son, is told in the words, "When Sarah heard at the door of the tent, Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am grown old shall I have pleasure? and my lord old? And Jehovah said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I of a surety bear a child, and I am become old? Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for she was, afraid. And He said, Nay, but thou didst laugh" (Gen. 18:12, 13, 15). And later, when Isaac had been born, "Abraham called the name of his son Isaac" (meaning "laughter"); and Sarah said, "God hath made laughter for me; every one that heareth shall laugh with me" (Gen. 21:3, 6). Unless "laughing" and the name "Isaac," meaning "laughter," involved such things, these matters would never have been related.

AC 2073. And said in his heart. That this signifies that he so thought, is evident without explication.

AC 2074. Shall there be born to a son of a hundred years? That this signifies that the rational of the Lord’s Human Essence should then be united to the Divine Essence, is evident from the signification of "a hundred" (n. 1988).

AC 2075. And shall Sarah that is a daughter of ninety years bear? That this signifies that truth conjoined with good will do this, is evident from the representation and signification of "Sarah," as being truth conjoined with good, that is, truth Divine; and from the signification of the number "ninety," or what is the same, of "nine." One cannot but wonder that the number "a hundred years," which was Abraham‘s age, signifies that the rational of the Lord’s Human Essence should be united to His Divine Essence; and that the number "ninety years," which was Sarah‘s age, signifies that truth conjoined with good would do this. But as there is nothing in the Lord’s Word which is not heavenly and Divine, so must it be with the very numbers contained in it. It was shown that in the Word all numbers whatever signify actual things, equally as do all the names (n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 893, 1988).

[2] Now that the number "nine" signifies conjunction, and still more the number "ninety," which is the product of the multiplication of nine into ten (for "ten" signifies the remains by which conjunction is effected, as is evident from what was said above, n. 1988, at the end), may also be seen from the representatives and significatives which now follow. It was commanded that on the tenth day of the seventh month there should be a day of expiations, and that this should be a Sabbath of a Sabbath; and on the ninth day of the seventh month at evening, from evening even to evening, they should celebrate a Sabbath (Lev. 23:27, 32).

[3] In the internal sense these things signify conjunction by means of remains - "nine" signifying conjunction, and "ten" signifying remains. That a Divine arcanum lies hidden in these numbers, is clearly evident from the months and the days of the year that were to be held holy; as that every seventh day there was a Sabbath; and that every seventh month, as just stated, there should be a Sabbath of a Sabbath; in like manner the seventh year; and also that on the seven times seventh year the jubilee should commence. The case is the same with all other numbers in the Word; as with "three," the signification of which is nearly the same as that of "seven;" and with "twelve," which signifies all things of faith; and with "ten," which signifies the same as "tenths," that is, remains (n. 576); and so on. Thus in the passage here quoted from Leviticus, unless the number "ten" and the number "nine" involved arcana, it would by no means have been commanded that this Sabbath of a Sabbath should be on the tenth day of the seventh month, and that on the ninth of the month they should celebrate it. Such is the Word of the Lord in the internal sense, although in the historical sense nothing of the kind appears.

[4] In the same way it is related of Jerusalem that it was besieged by Nebuchadnezzar in the ninth year of Zedekiah, and that a breach was made in the eleventh year, on the ninth day of the month; concerning which we read as follows in the second book of Kings:--

It came to pass in the ninth year of the reign of Zedekiah, in the tenth month, in the tenth of the month, came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon against Jerusalem, and the city was besieged until the eleventh year of king Zedekiah on the ninth of the month the famine prevailed in the city, and there was no bread for the people of the land, and a breach was made in the city (2 Kings 25:1, 3, 4).

By the "ninth year" and the "tenth month," and by the "eleventh year" and the "ninth of the month," when the famine prevailed in the city and there was no bread for the people of the land, is signified in the internal sense that there was no longer any conjunction by means of the things of faith and of charity; "famine in the city and no bread for the people of the land," signifies that there was nothing of faith and nothing of charity left. This is the internal sense of these words, which does not at all appear in the letter; and such things shine forth from the historical portions of the Word still less than from the prophetical, because the histories so captivate the mind that it is scarcely believed that anything deeper lies hidden within; when yet all things are representative, and the words themselves are everywhere significative. These things are hard to believe, but still they are true (n. 1769-1772).

AC 2076. Verse 18. And Abraham said unto God, Would that Ishmael might live before Thee! "Abraham said unto God," signifies the Lord‘s perception from love; "Would that Ishmael might live before Thee," signifies that others who are rational from truth should not perish.

AC 2077. Abraham said unto God. That this signifies the Lord’s perception from love, is evident from the signification of "saying unto God," as being to perceive, which has often been explained before. That "Abraham" here signifies the Lord in such a state and at such an age, has been stated above (n. 1989). That the Lord said this from love, is evident, for the affection of love shines forth from the very words when it is said, "Would that Ishmael might live before Thee!" The Lord‘s affection or love was Divine, being toward the universal human race, which He willed to completely adjoin to Himself, and to save to eternity, by means of the union of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence, concerning which love, (n. 1735). From this love the Lord continually fought against the hells, (n. 1690, 1789, 1812); also in the union of His Human with His Divine, He regarded nothing but the conjunction of the Divine with the human race, (n. 2034).

[2] Love such as the Lord had transcends all human understanding, and is in the highest degree incredible to those who do not know what the heavenly love is in which the angels are. To save a soul from hell, the angels would regard death as nothing, nay, if it were possible they would undergo hell for that soul. Hence it is the inmost of their joy to translate into heaven one who is rising from the dead. But they confess that this love is not one whit from themselves, but that all things of it both in general and in particular are from the Lord alone; nay, they manifest irritation if any one thinks otherwise.

AC 2078. Would that Ishmael might live before Thee! That this signifies that others who are rational from truth should not perish, is evident from the representation and consequent signification of "Ishmael," as being the rational (explained in the foregoing chapter, where Ishmael is treated of). There are two kinds of men within the church; the spiritual, and the celestial. The spiritual become rational from truth, but the celestial from good. What the distinction between them is may be seen above (n. 2069). The spiritual, who become rational by means of truth, are here meant by "Ishmael;" for "Ishmael" denotes rational truth in its genuine sense, as before shown (n. 1893, 1950, 1951). When this rational truth is being adopted and desired by good, as here by the Lord who is meant by "Abraham," it signifies what is spiritual, thus the spiritual man, or what is the same, the spiritual church, the salvation of which was desired by the Lord from Divine love (n. 2077). This is expressed by the words, "would that Ishmael might live before Thee."

AC 2079. Verse 19. And God said, Truly Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name Isaac, and I will set up My covenant with him for an eternal covenant, to his seed after him. "God said," signifies an answer perceived; "truly Sarah thy wife," signifies the Divine truth conjoined with good; "shall bear thee a son," signifies that the rational is from this; "and thou shalt call his name Isaac," signifies the Divine rational; "and I will set up My covenant with him," signifies union; "for an eternal covenant," signifies an eternal union; "to his seed after him," signifies those who should have faith in the Lord.

AC 2080. God said. That this signifies an answer perceived, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (n. 2077). And as in the preceding verse we read that "Abraham said," and this signified perception, and as here we read that " God said," or answered, it follows that this signifies an answer perceived, or an answer of perception. In all perception whatever there is both a propounding and a reply. The perception of both of these is here expressed in the historical sense by the words "Abraham said unto God," and "God said." (That "God said" denotes to perceive, may be seen above, (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919); and also in this chapter repeatedly).

AC 2081. Truly Sarah thy wife. That this signifies Divine truth conjoined with good, is evident from the representation and the consequent signification of "Sarah," as being Divine truth conjoined with good (n. 2063).

AC 2082. Shall bear thee a son. That this signifies that the rational will be from this conjunction of Divine truth with Divine good, is evident from the signification of a "son," as being truth, here rational truth (n. 2066).

AC 2083. And thou shalt call his name Isaac. That this signifies the Divine rational, is evident from the representation of Isaac, and also from the signification of his "name" in the internal sense. First, from the representation of Isaac: Abraham, as said in various places before, represents the Lord’s internal man, but Isaac His rational man, and Jacob His natural man. The Lord‘s internal man was Jehovah Himself. His rational man, because conceived from the influx of His internal man into the affection of memory-knowledges in the external man (n. 1896, 1902, 1910), was from the Divine thus conjoined with the Human. Hence the first rational, represented by Ishmael, was human; but it was made Divine by the Lord, and then is represented by Isaac. Secondly, from the signification of his " name:" Isaac was named from "laughter;" and as in the internal sense "laughter" signifies the affection of truth, which affection belongs to the rational, as Was shown above (n. 2072), "laughter" here signifies the Divine rational.

[2] The Lord from His own power made Divine all that was human with Him; thus not only the rational, but also the interior and the exterior sensuous part, and thereby the body itself. He thus united the Human to the Divine. That not only the rational, but also the sensuous part, and thus the whole body also, was made Divine and Jehovah, has been already shown, and may be seen by every one from the fact that He alone rose from the dead as to the body, and sits at the right hand of the Divine power both as to all the Divine and as to all the human. To sit at the right hand of the Divine power, signifies to have all sovereign power in heaven and in earth.

AC 2084. And I will set up My covenant with him for an eternal covenant. That this signifies union, and in fact eternal union, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being conjunction; and when it is predicated of the Lord, as being the union of His Divine Essence with His Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence. A "covenant" signifies these things (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864)

AC 2085. To his seed after him. That this signifies those who should have faith in the Lord, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 2034). Those are here signified by "seed" who have the faith of love, that is, who have love to the Lord; consequently the celestial, or those who are of the celestial church; for the seed from Isaac is treated of. But they who have the faith of charity, that is, who have charity toward the neighbor- consequently the spiritual, or those who are of the spiritual church-are signified by "Ishmael," who is treated of in the verse that now follows. (What the distinction is between the celestial and the spiritual, may be seen above, (n. 2069, 2078); and also what the distinction is between having love to the Lord and having charity toward the neighbor, (n. 2023).

AC 2086. Verse 20. And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee: behold I will bless him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him very exceedingly; twelve princes shall he beget, and I will make him a great nation. "As for Ishmael, I have heard thee," signifies those who are rational from truth, that they are to be saved; "behold I will bless him," signifies that they would be imbued and gifted; "I will make him fruitful," signifies with the goods of faith; "and will multiply him," signifies with the truths thence derived; "very exceedingly," signifies beyond measure; "twelve princes shall he beget," signifies the primary precepts of the faith which is of charity; "and I will make him a great nation," signifies the fruition of goods and their increase.

AC 2087. As for Ishmael, I have heard thee. That this signifies those who are rational from truth, that they are to be saved, is evident from the representation of Ishmael in this place, as being those who are rational from truth, or the spiritual (n. 2078); and that they are to be saved, is evident from the signification of "hearing thee," as may be seen without explication.

AC 2088. Behold I will bless him; and will make him fruitful very exceedingly. That this signifies that they should be imbued and gifted with the goods of faith and with the derivative truths beyond measure, is evident from the signification of being "blessed," of being "fruitful," and of being "multiplied." To be "blessed" signifies to be gifted with all goods (n. 981, 1096, 1420, 1422). To be "fruitful" denotes the goods of faith with which they should be gifted; and to be "multiplied" denotes the truths thence derived (n. 43, 55, 913, 983).

[2] Who the celestial are, and who the spiritual, it would be too tedious to describe here, and they have been described already (n. 81, 597, 607, 765, 2069, 2078, and in many other places). In general, the celestial are those who have love to the Lord, and the spiritual those who have charity toward the neighbor. (What the distinction is between having love to the Lord, and having charity toward the neighbor, may be seen above, n. 2023). The celestial are those who are in the affection of good from good; but the spiritual are those who are in the affection of good from truth. In the beginning all were celestial, because they were in love to the Lord; and hence they received perception, by which they perceived good, not from truth, but from the affection of good.

[3] But afterwards, when love to the Lord was no longer such as it had been, spiritual men followed, those men being called spiritual who were in love toward the neighbor, or in charity. But love toward the neighbor, or charity, was implanted by means of truth; and thereby they received conscience, and acted in accordance with it, not from the affection of good, but from the affection of truth. Charity, with the spiritual, appears like the affection of good; but it is the affection of truth. From this appearance, charity is still called good; but it is the good of their faith. These are they who are meant by the Lord in John: I am the door; by Me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and go out, and shall find pasture I am the good shepherd and I know Mine own, and am known of Mine and other sheep I have which are not of this fold them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one flock, and one shepherd (John 10:9, 14, 16).

AC 2089. Twelve princes shall he beget. That this signifies the primary precepts which are of charity, is evident from the signification of "twelve," as being all things of faith; and from the signification of "princes," as being primary things. "King" and "princes" are mentioned in various parts of the Word; but in the internal sense they never signify king or princes, but the primary things of the matter in connection with which they are mentioned. (That "kings" signify truths in one complex has been already shown, (n. 2015); also that "princes" are the primaries of truth, which are precepts, (n. 1482). Hence the angels in fact the spiritual angels-are called "principalities," because they are in truths. The term "princes" is predicated from the truths which are of charity; for, as before said (n. 1832), the spiritual, by means of the truths that appear to them as truths receive charity from the Lord, and through this, conscience.

[2] That "twelve" signifies all the things of faith, has been hitherto unknown to the world; and yet whenever the number "twelve" occurs in the Word, whether in the historic or the prophetic part, it signifies nothing else. By the "twelve sons" of Jacob, and derivatively by the "twelve tribes" named from them, the same is signified; and also by the "twelve disciples" of the Lord. Each son of Jacob, and each of the twelve disciples, represented an essential and primary of faith. (What was represented by each son of Jacob, and so by each tribe, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told in what follows, where the sons of Jacob are treated of, Gen. 29 and 30).

AC 2090. And I will make him a great nation. That this signifies the fruition of goods and their increase, is evident from the signification of "nations," as being goods (n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849); and therefore to "make a great nation," here signifies both the fruition and the increase of goods.

AC 2091. Verse 21. And My covenant will I set up with Isaac, whom Sarah shall bear unto thee at this set time in the following year. "My covenant will I set up with Isaac," signifies union with the Divine rational; "whom Sarah shall bear unto thee," signifies the Divine truth conjoined with Good, from which it will come forth; "at this set time in the following year," signifies a state of union then.

AC 2092. My covenant will I set up with Isaac. That this signifies union with the Divine rational, is evident from the signification of a "covenant," as being union (explained before); and from the representation of "Isaac," as being the Divine rational (n. 2083).

AC 2093. Whom Sarah shall bear unto thee. That this signifies the Divine truth conjoined with the Divine good, from which it will come forth, is evident from the representation of " Sarah," as being the Divine truth (n. 2063, 2081); and from the representation of "Abraham," as being the Divine good (n. 2063).

[2] How the Lord‘s first rational was conceived and born, has been stated in the foregoing chapter, where "Ishmael" is treated of, by whom that rational was represented. But here, and also in the following chapter, that rational is treated of which was made Divine by the Lord, and this by the conjunction, as by marriage, of the Divine good with the Divine truth. The first rational cannot be conceived otherwise than by the influx of the internal man into the affection of memory-knowledges in the external man; nor can it be born otherwise than from the affection of memory-knowledges, which was represented by Hagar, Sarah’s handmaid (n. 1896, 1902, 1910).

[3] But the second or Divine rational is not conceived and born in this way, but by means of the conjunction of the truth of the internal man with the good of the same, and the influx thence derived. With the Lord this was effected of His own proper power from the Divine itself, that is, from Jehovah As has been repeatedly stated above, His internal man was Jehovah; and the good itself that was represented by Abraham belonged to His internal man, as also did the truth itself that was represented by Sarah, and therefore both were Divine. From this source therefore was the Lord‘s Divine rational conceived and born; and in fact from the influx of the good into the truth, and thus by means of the truth; for the chief characteristic of the rational is truth (n. 2072). On this account it is here said, "whom Sarah shall bear unto thee," which signifies Divine truth conjoined with Good, from which that Divine rational will come forth; and above (verse 17) it was said that Sarah was a "daughter of ninety years," which signifies that the truth conjoined with good shall do this.

[4] With every man whatever because he has been created in the likeness and image of God, the like, but not the equal of this takes place, that is to say, his first rational is also conceived and born by means of the influx of his internal man into the life of the affection of memory-knowledges in his external man; but his second rational, from the influx of the good and truth from the Lord through his internal man. This second rational he receives from the Lord when he is being regenerated, for he then perceives in his rational what the good and the truth of faith are. In man the internal man is above his rational, and is the Lord’s (n. 1889, 1940).

AC 2094. In the preceding chapter, and up to this point in the present one, the subject has been the conception and birth of the rational that appertained to the Lord; and how it was made Divine is also treated of in what follows. But some may suppose that to know these things does not conduce much to faith, provided it is known that the Lord‘s Human Essence was made Divine, and that the Lord is God as to both the Human Essence and the Divine Essence. But the case is this: They who in simplicity believe this to be so, do not need to know how it was effected, for knowing how it was effected is simply for the end that they may believe it to be so.

[2] But at the present day there are many who believe nothing unless they know from reason that it is so, as may be clearly seen from the fact that few believe in the Lord, although they confess Him with the lips because this is according to the doctrine of faith. Yet still they say to themselves and to one another that if they knew it could be so they would believe. The reason why they do not believe and yet say this, is that the Lord was born as are other men, and in the external form was like others. These persons cannot possibly receive any faith unless they first comprehend in some measure how it can be so, and this is why these things have been explained. They who believe the Word in simplicity have no need to know all these things, for they are already in the end to which the others just described cannot come except by a knowledge (cognitio) of such things.

[3] Moreover these are the things that are contained in the internal sense, and the internal sense is the Word of the Lord in the heavens, and is so perceived by those who are there. When a man is in the truth, that is, in the internal sense, he can make one as to thought with those in heaven, even though he may be in a relatively very general and obscure idea. The celestial in heaven, who are in faith itself, look at these things from good, and see that they are so; but the spiritual look at them from truth and are also confirmed, and thus perfected, by such things as are contained in the internal sense; but this by thousands of interior reasons which cannot flow perceptibly into man’s idea.

AC 2095. At this set time in the following year. That this signifies a state of union then, is evident from what has been said concerning the age of Abraham, in that he was a "son of a hundred years;" and concerning that of Sarah, in that she was a "daughter of ninety years," when Isaac was to be born; by which was signified that the rational of the Lord‘s Human Essence would then be united to His Divine Essence, and that truth conjoined with good would effect this (n. 1988, 2074, 2075). So that the "following year" is a state of union.

AC 2096. Verse 22. And He left off speaking with him; and God went up from over Abraham. "He left off speaking with him," signifies the end of this perception; "and God went up from over Abraham," signifies the Lord’s entrance into the former state.

AC 2097. He left off speaking with him. That this signifies the end of this perception, is evident from the signification of " speaking" and "saying," as being in the internal sense to perceive; and therefore to "leave off speaking" is to be no longer in such perception.

AC 2098. And God went up from over Abraham. That this signifies the Lord‘s entrance into the former state, follows from what has been said, and therefore without explication. That during His life in the world the Lord had two states, one of humiliation, and the other of glorification, has been shown before (n. 1603, 2033); and as He had two states, it is evident that He had two states of perception. He was in a state of glorification, that is, of union of the Human with the Divine, when He perceived the things that are contained in the internal sense of this chapter up to this point; but that He was no longer in such perception is expressed by the words, "He left off speaking with him, and God went up from over Abraham."

AC 2099. Verse 23. And Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his silver, every male among the men of Abraham’s house, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in the selfsame day, as God spake with him. "Abraham took Ishmael his son," signifies those who are truly rational; "and all that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his silver, and every male among the men of Abraham‘s house," signifies here as before those who are within the church, with whom the truths of faith are being conjoined with goods; "and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin," signifies their purification and righteousness from the Lord; "in the selfsame day," signifies the state that has been spoken of; "as God spake with him," signifies in accordance with the perception.

AC 2100. Abraham took Ishmael his son. That this signifies those who are truly rational, is evident from the signification of "Ishmael," as being those who are rational from truth, that is, the spiritual (n. 2078, 2087, 2088).

AC 2101. All that were born in his house, and all that were bought with his silver, every male among the men of Abraham’s house. That this signifies those who are within the church, with whom the truths of faith are conjoined with goods, is evident from the signification of "those born in the house," as being the celestial; from the signification of "those bought with silver," as being the spiritual; and from these being within the church, as explained above (n. 2048, 2051, 2052); and also from the signification of a "male," as being those who are in the truth of faith (n. 2046), from all which it is evident that they are meant who are within the church, with whom the truths of faith are conjoined with goods.

AC 2102. And circumcised the flesh of their foreskin. That this signifies their purification and righteousness from the Lord, is evident from the signification of being "circumcised," as being to be purified from the loves of self and of the world (n. 2039); also from the signification of "circumcising the flesh of the foreskin," as being the removal of these loves (n. 2041, 2053, 2057); where it was further shown that those loves are the sole obstacle to the influx and operation of the good and truth from the Lord, and consequently to the application of the Lord‘s righteousness to man).

[2] This whole chapter has treated of the union of the Lord’s Divine Essence with His Human Essence; and concerning the conjunction of the Lord with man by means of His Human Essence made Divine; and also concerning circumcision, that is, purification from the filthy things in man. All these things are in one series, and follow one from another; for the union of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence in the Lord was effected to the end that the Divine might be conjoined with man; and the conjunction of the Divine with man cannot be effected unless man is purified from those loves; but as soon as he is being purified from them, the Lord‘s Divine Human flows in, and thus conjoins man with itself. This shows the nature of the Word, namely, that when what is signified in the internal sense is understood, the Word is all connected together in a becoming and beautiful series.

AC 2103. In the selfsame day. That this signifies the state - that has been spoken of, is evident from the signification of "day," as being in the internal sense state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893).

AC 2104. As God spake with him. That this signifies in accordance with the perception, is evident from the signification of "God saying" and "speaking," as being to perceive (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2097).

AC 2105. Verses 24-26. And Abraham was a son of ninety and nine years when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. And Ishmael his son was a son of thirteen years when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. In the selfsame day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son. "Abraham was a son of ninety and nine years," signifies the state and time before the union of the Lord’s Divine Essence with His Human Essence; "when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin," signifies when He utterly expelled the evils of the external man; "and Ishmael his son," signifies those who by virtue of the truths of faith are made rational by the Lord; "a son of thirteen years," signifies holy remains; "when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin," signifies, as before, purification; "in the selfsame day," signifies that it was then; "was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son," signifies that when the Lord conjoined His Human Essence with His Divine Essence, He also conjoined with Himself all others who become rational from truth, and saved them.

AC 2106. Abraham was a son of ninety and nine years. That this signifies the state and time before the union of the Lord‘s Divine Essence with His Human Essence, is evident from the signification of "ninety-nine years," as being the time before the Lord fully conjoined the internal man with the rational (n. 1988). The Lord’s internal man, as already shown, was Jehovah Himself, that is, the Divine itself; which, when it was united to the Human, was united to the rational; for the human begins in the inmost of the rational, and extends itself thence to man‘s external.

AC 2107. When he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. That this signifies when He utterly expelled the evils of His external man, is evident from the signification of "being circumcised," as being to be purified from the loves of self and of the world, or what is the same, from evils; for all evils come from these loves (n. 2039, 2041, 2053, 2057); and that the Lord expelled the evils by His own power, and thereby made His Human Essence Divine, has been abundantly shown, and now just above (n. 2025).

AC 2108. Ishmael his son. That this signifies those who become rational from the truths of faith, is evident from the representation of Ishmael here, as being those who become rational from truth, that is, who become spiritual (n. 2078, 2087, 2088).

AC 2109. A son of thirteen years. That this signifies holy remains, may be seen from the signification of "ten," as being remains (n. 576, 1988); and from the signification of "three," as being what is holy (n. 720, 901). Thus the number "thirteen," being composed of ten and three, signifies holy remains. That numbers in the Word signify actual things (n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 893). What the remains with man are (n. 468, 530, 561, 660, 1050, 1906).

AC 2110. When he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. That this signifies purification, is evident from the signification of "being circumcised," as being to be purified from the loves of self and of the world (n. 2039); and from the signification of "circumcising the flesh of the foreskin," as being the removal of those loves (n. 2041, 2053, 2057).

AC 2111. In the selfsame day. That this signifies that it was then, is evident from the signification of "day," as being time and state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893).

AC 2112. Was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son. That this signifies that when the Lord conjoined His Human Essence with His Divine Essence, He also conjoined with Himself all others who become rational from truth and saved them, is evident from the representation of Abraham in this chapter, as being the Lord in that state and at that age (n. 1989); and from the representation of Ishmael here, as being those who become rational from truth (n. 2078, 2087, 2088); and also from the signification of "being circumcised," as being to be purified (n. 2039), and when predicated of the Lord, to be glorified, and thus to put off the human and to put on the Divine. That to be glorified is to put on the Divine (n. 2033); and that the Lord then conjoined with Himself those who become rational from truth, that is, the spiritual (n. 2034, 2078, 2088).

AC 2113. Verse 27. And all the men of his house, he that was born in the house, and he that was bought with silver, from the son that is a stranger, were circumcised with him. "All the men of his house, he that was born in the house, and he that was bought with silver," signifies all those who are within the church; "from the son that is a stranger," signifies all who are rational outside the church; "were circumcised by him," signifies that they were justified by the Lord.

AC 2114. All the men of his house, he that was born in the house, and he that was bought with silver. That this signifies all those who are within the church, is evident from the signification of "him that was born in the house," as being the celestial; and from the signification of "those bought with silver," as being the spiritual (n. 2048, 2051, 2052); and also that these are they who are within the church, for all who are within the church, that is, all who constitute the church, are either celestial or spiritual; but who the celestial and who the spiritual are, may be seen above (n. 2088). In this last verse of this chapter there is a summary of all that has been said above, namely, that they who have been purified from the loves of self and of the world, both those within the church and those outside the church, are justified by the Lord. Both these classes are called the "men of the house;" for in the internal sense "the house" signifies the Lord’s kingdom (n. 2048).

AC 2115. From the son that is a stranger. That this signifies all who are rational outside the church, is evident from the signification of a "stranger," as being those who are outside the church (n. 2049), and thus the Gentiles who have not the Word and therefore have learned nothing about the Lord; and the these when rational are just as much saved, that is, when they live together in charity or mutual love, and have gained something of conscience in accordance with their own religion (n. 593, 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328).

AC 2116. That they "were circumcised by (ab) him" signifies that they are justified by the Lord, may be seen from the representation and thence the signification of "being circumcised," as being to be purified (n. 2039). Their "being circumcised by him," that is, by Abraham, was also representative, namely, that they are purified and thereby justified by the Lord. But in regard to justification, the case is not as is commonly supposed, namely, that all evils and sins are wiped away and utterly blotted out when men, as they imagine, believe - even if it were their last and dying hour - however they may have lived in evils and in misdeeds during the entire course of their lives; for I have been fully instructed that not the smallest evil which a man during his bodily life has thought and has carried out into act is wiped away and utterly blotted out; but that it all remains, even to the very least of it.

[2] The truth is that with those who have meditated and practised acts of hatred, of revenge, of cruelty, and of adultery, and who thereby have lived in no charity, the life thence contracted awaits them after death, nay, so do all things of that life both in general and in particular, which return in succession; and from this comes their torment in hell. But with those who have lived in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, their evils of life also all remain, but they are tempered by the goods which during their life in the world they have received from the Lord by means of a life of charity; and thereby they are uplifted into heaven, nay, are withheld from the evils which they have appertaining to them, so that these do not appear. They who in the other life doubt their having evils with them, because the evils do not appear, are let into them until they know that the case is really so, and then are again uplifted into heaven.

[3] This then is what is meant by being justified; for in this way men come to acknowledge not their own righteousness, but that of the Lord. As to its being said that those are saved who have faith - this is true; but in the Word by "faith" nothing else is meant than love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, and thus a life from these loves. The doctrine things and dogmas of faith are not faith, but belong to faith; for they are one and all for the sake of the end that a man may become such as they teach him to be, as may be clearly seen from the Lord‘s words that in love to God and love toward the neighbor consist all the law and the prophets, that is, the universal doctrine of faith (Matt. 22:34-39; Mark. 12:28-35). That there cannot possibly be any other faith that is faith (n. 30-38, 379, 389, 724, 809, 896, 904, 916, 989, 1017, 1076, 1077, 1121, 1158, 1162, 1176, 1258, 1285, 1316, 1608, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1843, 1844); and also that heaven itself consists in love to the Lord and in mutual love, (n. 537, 547, 553, 1112, 2057).

CONCERNING THE LAST JUDGMENT

AC 2117. Few at this day know what the Last Judgment is. They suppose that it will come together with the destruction of the world; and this gives rise to the notion that the whole globe will perish by fire, together with all things in the visible world; and that then for the first time the dead will rise again and will be brought to judgment, the evil being cast into hell, and the good ascending into heaven. These conjectures originate in the prophetical statements of the Word - where mention is made of a new heaven and a new earth, and also of the New Jerusalem - those who make them not being aware that in the internal sense such prophetical statements have a totally different meaning from that which appears in the sense of the letter; and that by "heaven" is not meant the sky, nor by "earth" the earth, but the Lord’s church in general, and with every one in particular.

AC 2118. By the Last Judgment is meant the last time of a church, and also the last state of each person‘s life. As regards the last time of the church, it was the Last Judgment of the Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood, when their posterity perished; whose destruction is described by the flood The Last Judgment of the Ancient Church, which was after the flood, was when almost all who were of that church became idolators, and were dispersed. The Last Judgment of the Representative Church, which succeeded among the posterity of Jacob, was when the ten tribes were carried away into captivity, and were dispersed among the nations; and when later, after the Lord’s coming, the Jews were driven out of the land of Canaan, and were scattered throughout the world. The Last Judgment of the present church, which is called the Christian Church, is what is meant by John in the Apocalypse by the "New Heaven and the New Earth."

AC 2119. That the last state of each person‘s life when he dies, is his Last Judgment, is not hidden from some, but still few believe it; when yet it is a constant truth that every man after death rises again into the other life, and is brought to judgment. But this Judgment takes place as follows. As soon as man’s corporeals grow cold, which takes place after a few days, he is resuscitated by the Lord, by means of the celestial angels, who at first are with him. But if the man is such that he cannot remain with those angels, he is received by the spiritual angels; and afterwards in succession by good spirits, for all who come into the other life are without exception welcome and accepted guests. But as every one‘s desires follow with him, he who had led an evil life cannot stay long with the angels and good spirits, but separates himself from them in succession, until at last he comes to spirits of a life similar in nature to that which he had in the world. It then appears to him as if he were in the life of his body, and in fact it is in itself a continuation of that life. With this life his judgment begins. After periods of delay they who have lived an evil life go down into hell; while they who have lived a good life are by degrees uplifted by the Lord into heaven. Such is the last judgment of each person, as has been shown from experience.

AC 2120. As to what the Lord said concerning the last times, that then the sea and the billows shall roar, the sun be darkened, the moon not give her light, the stars fall from heaven, nation rise up against nation and kingdom against kingdom, and more (Matt. 24:7, 29; Luke 21:25)-these things both in general and in particular signify the state of the church, such as it would be at the time of its Last Judgment. And by the "roaring of the sea" and the "billows" nothing else is signified than that heresies and controversies within the church in general, and in every one in particular, will be thus in uproar. By the "sun" is meant nothing else than love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor; by the "moon," faith; and by the "stars," the knowledges of faith; all of which, in the last times, will be thus darkened, will not give light, and will fall from heaven, that is, will vanish away. The like is said by the Lord also in (Isaiah 13:10). So too by "nation against nation, and kingdom against kingdom," nothing else is meant than evils against evils, and falsities against falsities and so on. There were many secret reasons why the Lord spoke in this way. That the "seas" "sun," "moon," "stars," "nations," and "kingdoms" have such a signification, I know with certainty.

AC 2121. That a Last Judgment is at hand, cannot be so evident on the earth and within the church as in the other life, whither all souls arrive, and flock together. At this day the world of spirits is full of evil genii and evil spirits, mostly from the Christian world, among whom there reign nothing but hatreds, revenges, cruelties, obscenities, and deceitful machinations. Nor is this the case only with the world of spirits, where souls fresh from the world first arrive, but also with the interior sphere of that world, where those are who have been interiorly evil in respect to their intentions and ends. This likewise is at the present day so crowded that I have wondered there ever could be so great an abundance. For all are not instantly cast down into the hells, because it is according to the laws of order that every such person should return into his life which he had had in the body, and should in this way be brought down by degrees into hell. The Lord casts no one into hell, but every one casts himself there. The result is that these Worlds of spirits are thronged with a crowd of such spirits, who gather and stay there for a time. By their means the souls who come from the world are frightfully infested. Moreover the spirits who are with man (for every man is governed by the Lord through spirits and angels) are more stirred up than heretofore to bring malign influences to bear upon man, and this to such a degree that the angels who are with him can scarcely avert them, but are compelled to inflow into man from a greater distance. In the other life it is from all this very evident that the last time is at hand.

AC 2122. As to what further regards the souls newly arriving from the world, those coming from the Christian world think and plan for scarcely anything else than to become the greatest, and to possess all things; so that all are devoured with the love of self and of the world, which loves are utterly contrary to heavenly order (n. 2057); besides that very many think of nothing but filthy, obscene, and profane things, and among themselves speak of nothing else. They also make nothing of and utterly despise all things that are of charity and faith; and do not acknowledge the Lord Himself; nay, they hate all who confess Him; for in the other life thoughts and hearts speak. besides all this, on account of the infamous life of parents, hereditary evils are becoming more malignant, and like inward fires fostered in secret, stimulate man to greater profanation of what is honorable and pious than heretofore. At the present day such persons flock in crowds into the other life, and fill to repletion the exterior and interior spheres of the world of spirits, as already said. When evil thus begins to prevail, and the equilibrium begins to incline to the side of evil, it is thereby clearly perceived that the last time is at hand, and that the equilibrium is going to be restored by the rejection of those who are within the church, and the reception of others who are outside.

AC 2123. That the last time is at hand may also be seen from this fact in the other life, that all the good which flows in from the Lord through heaven into the world of spirits, is there turned in a moment into what is evil, obscene, and profane, and that all the truth is turned in a moment into falsity; thus mutual love is turned into hatred, sincerity into deceit, and so on; so that those who are there are no longer capable of perceiving anything of what is good and true; and the like redounds upon man, who is governed through spirits with whom those who are in the world of spirits have communication. The certainty of this I have learned by much experience, which, if all advanced, would fill many pages. I have very frequently been permitted to perceive and hear how what is good and true from heaven is turned into what is evil and false, together with the amount and the nature of the change.

AC 2124. I have been told that the good of the will (bonum voluntarium) that existed in the men of the Most Ancient Church, was destroyed in the antediluvians; and that at the present day, with the men of the Christian Church, the good of the intellect (bonum intellectuale) is beginning to perish, insomuch that there is but little of it left; the cause of which is, that they believe nothing except what they apprehend by the senses; and that at this day men not only reason from the senses, but also, by means of a philosophy unknown to the ancients, reason concerning Divine arcana; whereby intellectual light is altogether darkened; a darkening that is becoming so dense as scarcely to admit of being dispelled.

AC 2125. The present quality of the men of the Christian Church was exhibited to my view by means of representations. In a dark cloud there appeared spirits so black that I shuddered, and afterwards others not so horrible; and it was signified to me that I was about to see something. First, there appeared children who were being combed by their mothers so cruelly that the blood ran down; by which was represented that such is the bringing up of little children at this day. Afterwards there appeared a tree which seemed as if it were the tree of knowledge, into which there was seen to climb a great viper, such as to strike one with horror; it appeared to extend all along the trunk of the tree. When the tree with the viper vanished, there appeared a dog; and then a door was opened into an apartment where there was a yellow light as from coals, and there were two women there; it was perceived to be a kitchen, but I am not at liberty to mention what I saw therein. I was told that the tree into which the viper climbed represented the state of the men of the church as they are at this day, in that in place of love and charity they have deadly hatreds that are beset with pretenses of what is honorable, and with deceits, together with wicked thoughts concerning all matters that belong to the faith. But what was seen in the kitchen represented the same hatreds and thoughts in their further developments.

AC 2126. It was further represented how opposed are those now within the church to innocence itself. There appeared a beautiful and innocent little child, at the sight of whom the external bonds by which evil genii and spirits are withheld from abominable deeds were slightly relaxed; and they then began to treat the little child in the most shocking manner - to trample on him, and to will the killing of him, one in one way, and another in another; for in the other life innocence is represented by infants. I remarked that during their bodily life such things do not appear in connection with these men, but it was answered that such are their interiors, and that if the civil laws did not hinder, and also other external bonds, such as the fear of the loss of property, of honor, of reputation, and of their life, they would rush insanely in the same way against all who are innocent. When they heard this answer, they made sport of it also. From what has been said we may see what is the quality of the men of the present day, and also that the last times are at hand.

AC 2127. In the other life there sometimes appears a kind of Last Judgment to the evil when their societies are being broken up; and to the good, when they are being admitted into heaven. Concerning both of these I may relate some things from experience.

AC 2128. The idea of a Last Judgment as presented to the evil, which I have seen two or three times, was as follows. When the spirits around me had combined into mischievous societies, so as to exercise predominance, and did not suffer themselves to be so governed by the law of equilibrium according to order as not to annoy other societies in an excessive manner, and to begin inflicting injury upon them by their overpowering force, there then appeared a band of spirits of considerable magnitude, coming from the quarter in front, a little to the right and above, at the approach of which there was heard a hubbub that as it were rose and fell with a loud roar; and as soon as the spirits heard it they were seized with consternation and terror, the result of which was a confusion; and then the spirits who were in those societies were dispersed, one this way and another that, so that they dissolved away from one another, and no one knew where his companion was. While this lasted, it appeared to the spirits just as if it were the Last Judgment with the destruction of all things. Some uttered lamentations; some from fright as it were lost all heart; in a word, a sense of danger as of a final crisis seized on all.

[2] The sound of those advancing from the quarter in front was heard by them variously; by some as the sound of armed horsemen, and by others otherwise, according to their state of fear and the phantasy it excited. It was perceived by me as a continuous murmur, with undulations rising and falling, and indeed as of many together. I was instructed by those near me that such bands come from that quarter when societies have been evilly combined in this way, and that they know how to dissociate and dissever the one from the other, and at the same time to strike terror, so that nothing is thought of but flight; and that by means of such disjunctions and dispersions all are at last reduced by the Lord into order. I was also told that this is what is signified in the Word by the "east wind."

AC 2129. There are likewise other kinds of tumults, or rather of conflicts, which also present the idea of a Last Judgment, and by which societies that have been evilly combined in respect to their interiors are dissolved, concerning which I may relate what follows. Such spirits are driven into a state in which they do not think in society or communion in the usual way, but each one for himself. From their thoughts thus at variance, and the confused sound of their jarring speech, an uproar is heard, as of many waters, and a conflict among them, such as cannot be described, that arises from the confusion of opinions concerning fixed and certain truths which are then the subjects of their thoughts and speech, and which uproar is of such a character that it may be called a spiritual chaos.

[2] The sound of the conflicting and confused roarings was threefold. One sound flowed in around the head, and was said to be that of the thoughts. Another sound flowed in toward the left temple, and was said to be the conflict of their reasonings about certain truths in which they were not willing to have faith. The third sound flowed in from above at the right, and was a gnashing one, but not so confused, and the gnashing was turned this way and that, and it was said that this was because the truths that were being turned in this manner this way and that by their reasonings, were in conflict. While these conflicts were going on there were other spirits besides who spoke to me and told me what each thing signified, and their speech penetrated distinctly through those sounds.

[3] The subjects of the reasonings were especially these: whether it is to be understood according to the letter that the twelve apostles are to sit upon twelve thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel; also, whether any others are to be admitted into heaven than those who have suffered persecutions and miseries. Each one reasoned according to his phantasy which he had caught in the life of the body. But some of them who had been brought back into communion and order, were afterwards instructed that the statement concerning the apostles is to be understood in an entirely different manner; namely, by the "apostles" are not meant apostles, nor by "thrones," thrones, nor by "tribes," tribes, nor in fact by "twelve," twelve; but by all these terms - "apostles," "thrones," "tribes," and also by "twelve," are signified the primary things of faith (n. 2089); and it is from these and according to them that judgment is effected upon every one. It was further shown that the apostles cannot judge even one man, but that all judgment is of the Lord alone.

[4] And as regards the other subject of reasoning, neither is this to be understood as meaning that those only are to come into heaven who have suffered persecutions and miseries; but that the rich will enter heaven just as much as the poor, those posted in dignity just as much as those in low condition; and that the Lord has mercy on all, especially on those who have been in spiritual miseries and temptations, which are persecutions by the evil-thus on those who acknowledge that of themselves they are wretched, and who believe that it is solely of the Lord’s mercy that they are saved.

AC 2130. In regard to the second subject, namely, the idea of a Last Judgment as presented to the good when they are being intromitted into heaven, I may relate how the case is. It is said in the Word that the door was shut, so that they could no longer be admitted; and that they had no oil, and came too late, and therefore were not admitted; by which things also there is signified the state of the Let Judgment. How these batters are and are to be understood, has been shown me.

[2] I heard societies of spirits, one after another,- saying in a clear voice that the wolf had wanted to carry them off, but that the Lord rescued them, and that so they were restored to the Lord, in consequence of which they rejoiced from the inmost heart, for they had been in despair, and thus in fear, that the door had been shut, and that they had come too late to be admitted. Such thought had been infused into them by those who are called "wolves " but it vanished on their being admitted, that is, on their being received by angelic societies, for intromission into heaven is nothing else. The intromission was seen by me as though it were made and continued with one society after another up to twelve, and that the twelfth society was intromitted (that is, received) with more difficulty than the eleven that had preceded it There were afterwards admitted eight additional quasi societies that I was told were of the female sex. When I had seen these things, it was said that this process of admission (that is, of reception) into the heavenly societies presents this appearance, and this continuously, in order, from one place to another; and also that heaven can never to eternity be filled, still less is the door shut; but the more there come thither, the more blessed and happy are those who are in heaven; because the harmoniousness is so much the stronger.

[3] After these had been admitted, it appeared as if heaven were shut; for there were a number more who desired to be intromitted (that is, received) next. But they were answered that they could not be received as yet; which is signified by those who came too late, by the door being shut, by their knocking, and by their lacking oil in their lamps. Their not being admitted was because they were not yet prepared to be capable of being among the angelic societies, where there is mutual love, for, as before said (n. 2119), they who in this world have lived in charity toward the neighbor are by degrees raised into heaven by the Lord.

[4] There were also other spirits who were ignorant of what heaven is, that it is mutual love, who also desired to be then admitted, supposing that admission is everything; but they were answered that it was not yet their time, but that they would be admitted at another time, when they were ready. The reason that the societies appeared to be twelve, was that by "twelve" are signified all things of the faith, as before said (n. 2129).

AC 2131. Individuals who are being intromitted are received by the angelic societies with inmost charity and its joy, and all love and friendship are shown them. But when they do not willingly desire to be in the societies to which they first come, they are received by other societies, and this successively until they come to that society with which they are in agreement, in accordance with the life of mutual love which they have; and they remain there until the time when they go forth still more perfect, and are then elevated and exalted thereby into greater happiness-and this from the Lord‘s mercy, in accordance with the life of love and charity which they had received in the world. But the transference from one society into another never takes place by their being rejected by the society where they are, but by a certain willingness in themselves, in accordance with a longing that is insinuated into them by the Lord; and because it takes place in accordance with their longings, there is nothing that is not done from freedom.

AC 2132. As to its being said in the Word that there entered also one who was not clothed in a wedding garment (Matt. 22:11-13), and that he was cast out, it was shown how the case is with this also. There are some persons who during their bodily life have been imbued with the deceit of being able to feign themselves angels of light; and in the other life, when in this hypocritical state, they are also able to insinuate themselves into the nearest heavenly societies. But they do not remain there long, for the moment they perceive the sphere of mutual love there, they are seized with fear and horror, and cast themselves down (and it then appears in the world of spirits as if they had been cast down), some toward the lake, some toward Gehenna, and some into some other hell.

AC 2133. Of the Lord’s Divine mercy heaven has on two or three occasions been so far opened to me that I have heard a general glorification of the Lord, which is of such a nature that a number of societies glorified the Lord together and with one mind, and yet each society did so by itself, with distinct affections and the derivative ideas. It was a heavenly voice, heard far and wide, to an extent so immense that the hearing failed to reach its end (as fails the sight when it beholds the universe), and this was attended with inmost joy and inmost happiness. A glorification of the Lord has also been sometimes perceived like an irradiation flowing down and affecting the interiors of the mind. This glorification takes place when the angels are in a state of tranquillity and peace, for it then flows from their inmost joys, and from their happinesses themselves.

AC 2134. At the end of the following chapter the state of little children in the other life will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be treated of.


Back | Next | Index | Home

This is the end of the Arcana Coelestia as presented on the Internet.