HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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PREFACE TO THE EIGHTEENTH CHAPTER

AC 2135a. At the end of the preceding chapter, the subject of the Last Judgment was treated of, and it was shown what is signified hereby, namely, not the destruction of the world, but the last time of the church. When this is at hand, the Lord says that He "will come in the clouds of the heavens, with power and glory" (Matt. 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 21:27). Hitherto no one has known what is meant by the "clouds of the heavens." But it has been disclosed to me that nothing else is meant than the literal sense of the Word; and by "power and glory" the internal sense of the Word, for in the internal sense of the Word there is glory, since whatever is there is concerning the Lord and His kingdom (n. 1769-1772).

[2] Similar is the signification of the "cloud" which encompassed Peter, James, and John, when the Lord appeared to them in glory; of which it is said in Luke:--

A voice came out of the cloud, saying, This is My beloved Son, hear ye Him; but when the voice had passed, Jesus was found alone (Luke 9:35, 36),

where by "Moses and Elias" who spake with the Lord, was represented the Word of the Old Testament, which is also called "Moses and the Prophets" (by "Moses," his books together with the other historical books, and by "Elias" the prophet, all the books of the Prophets); but by "Peter, James, and John," as in all other places where they are named in the books of the Evangelists, were represented faith, charity, and the good of charity. That they only were present signifies that no others can see the glory of the Lord which is in His Word than those who are in faith, in its charity, and in the good of charity. Others are indeed able to see, but still do not see, because they do not believe. This is the internal sense in regard to the foregoing two passages; and in various places in the Prophets also, a "cloud" signifies the Word in its letter, and "glory" the Word in its life.

[3] The nature and quality of the internal sense of the Word has already been frequently stated, and has been shown in the explication word by word. It was those skilled in the Law in the Lord‘s time who least of all believed that there was anything written in the Word concerning the Lord. At the present day, those skilled in the Law know indeed, but it may be that they will believe least of all that there is any other glory in the Word than that which appears in the letter; when yet this is the cloud in which is the glory.

AC GENESIS Chapter 18

AC 2135b. From this chapter we may see, in an especial manner, what is the nature of the internal sense of the Word, and how the angels perceive it when it is being read by man. From the historical sense of the letter we can understand nothing else than that Jehovah appeared to Abraham under the form of three men; and that Sarah, Abraham, and his lad prepared food for them, namely, cakes made of the meal of fine flour, a "son of an ox," and also butter and milk; which things, though they are true historicals describing what really took place, are still not so perceived by the angels; but the things which they represent and signify are what are perceived, altogether abstractedly from the letter, in accordance with the explication given in the CONTENTS. Thus, instead of the things historically related in this chapter, the angels perceive the state of the Lord’s perception in the Human, and the communication with the Divine at that time, before the perfect union of His Divine Essence with the Human Essence, and of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, which state is also that concerning which the Lord thus speaks:--

No one hath seen God at any time; the Only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18).

[2] And by the various kinds of food here mentioned, the angels perceive nothing but celestial and spiritual goods, concerning which see the explication. Moreover by what is afterwards said concerning the son that Sarah should bear at the set time of another year, they perceive nothing else than that the Lord‘s human rational should be made Divine. Lastly, by the things which Abraham spake with Jehovah concerning the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah, the angels perceive nothing else than the Lord’s intercession for the human race; and by five, forty-five, forty, thirty, twenty, and ten, they perceive His intercession for those with whom truths should be adjoined to goods, and who should have goods by means of temptations and combats, or by means of other states. So it is with all other things in the Word, as may be more clearly seen from the explication word by word, where it is shown that in each word similar things are involved in the Word, both Historic and Prophetic.

[3] That there is such an internal sense everywhere in the Word, which treats solely of the Lord, of His kingdom in the heavens, of His church on earth and in particular with every man, thus treating of the goods of love and truths of faith, may also be seen by every one from the passages cited by the Evangelists from the Old Testament. As in Matthew:--

The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on My right hand, until I made thine enemies thy footstool (Matthew 22:44; Ps. 110:1).

That these words treat of the Lord, cannot be apparent in the literal sense of the passage cited, as found in David; but yet that no other than the Lord is meant, He Himself here teaches in Matthew.

[4] Again:--

Thou Bethlehem, the land of Judah, art in no wise least among the leaders of Judah; for out of thee shall come forth a Leader, who shall feed My people Israel (Matthew 2:6; Micah 5:2).

They who abide in the literal sense, as do the Jews, know indeed from this passage that the Lord should be born there; but as they are expecting a leader and a king who will bring them back into the land of Canaan, they therefore explain the words found here according to the letter; that is, by the "land of Judah" they understand the land of Canaan; by "Israel" they understand Israel, although they know not where Israel now is; and by a "Leader" they still understand their Messiah; when yet other things are meant by "Judah" and "Israel;" namely, by "Judah" those who are celestial, by "Israel," those who are spiritual, in heaven and on earth; and by the "Leader" the Lord.

[5] Again in the same:--

A voice was heard in Ramah, lamentation, a cry, and great wailing; Rachel weeping for her children, and she would not be comforted, because they are not (Matthew 2:18; Jer. 31:15).

They who abide in the literal sense of these words cannot possibly gather from it what is the internal sense; and yet that there is an internal sense is evident in the Evangelist. Again:--

Out of Egypt have I called My Son (Matt. 2:15; Hos. 11:1).

In Hosea it is said:--

When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called My son out of Egypt. They called them, so they went from their faces, and I made Ephraim to go (Hosea 11:1-3).

They who know not that there is an internal sense, cannot know otherwise than that Jacob is here meant when he entered into Egypt, and his posterity when they went out from it, and that by Ephraim is meant the tribe of Ephraim, thus the same things that are in the historicals of the Word nevertheless it is evident from the Word of the Evangelist that they signify the Lord. But what the several particulars signify could not possibly be known unless it were disclosed by means of the internal sense.

GENESIS 18:1-33

1. And Jehovah appeared unto him in the oak-groves of Mamre, and he was sitting at the door of the tent, as the day was growing hot.

2. And he lifted up his eyes and saw, and behold three men standing over him; and he saw, and ran to meet them from the door of the tent, and bowed himself toward the earth.

3. And he said, My Lord, if I pray I have found grace in thine eyes, pass not I pray from over thy servant.

4. Let I pray a little water be taken, and wash ye your feet, and lie down under the tree.

5. And I will take a piece of bread, and support ye your heart; afterwards ye may pass on; for therefore have ye passed over unto your servant. And they said, So do as thou hast spoken.

6. And Abraham hastened toward the tent unto Sarah, and said, Make ready quickly three measures of meal of fine flour, knead, and make cakes.

7. And Abraham ran unto the herd and took a son of an ox, tender and good, and gave it to the lad, and he hasted to make it.

8. And he took butter and milk, and the son of an ox that he had made, and set before them; and he stood before them under the tree, and they did eat.

9. And they said unto him, Where is Sarah thy wife? And he said, Behold in the tent.

10. And he said, Returning I will return unto thee about this time of life, and behold Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard at the door of the tent, and it was behind him.

11. And Abraham and Sarah were old, entering into days it had ceased to be with Sarah in the way as of women.

12. And Sarah laughed within herself, saying, After I am grown old shall I have pleasure? and my lord old?

13. And Jehovah said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I indeed truly bear, and I am become old?

14. Shall anything be wonderful for Jehovah? At the same time I will return unto thee, about this time of life, and Sarah shall have a son.

15. And Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for she was afraid. And He said, Nay, for thou didst laugh.

16. And the men rose up thence, and looked toward the faces of Sodom; and Abraham went with them, to send them away.

17. And Jehovah said, Shall I hide from Abraham that which I do?

18. And Abraham shall surely be for a nation great and numerous, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him.

19. For I know him, because he will command his sons, and his house after him, and they will keep the way of Jehovah, to do righteousness and judgment; that Jehovah may bring upon Abraham that which He hath spoken concerning him.

20. And Jehovah said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah has become great, and because their sin has become very grievous.

21. I will go down I pray, and I will see whether they have made a consummation according to the cry thereof which is come unto Me, and if not I will know.

22. And the men looked forth thence, and went toward Sodom; and Abraham as yet he was standing before Jehovah.

23. And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt Thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked?

24. Peradventure there be fifty righteous in the midst of the city; wilt Thou also destroy and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are in the midst of it?

25. Be it far from Thee to do according to this thing, to cause the righteous to die with the wicked, that so the righteous be as the wicked; be it far from Thee; shall not the Judge of all the earth do judgment?

26. And Jehovah said, If I find in Sodom fifty righteous in the midst of the city, I will spare all the place for their sake.

27. And Abraham answered and said, Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord, and I am dust and ashes.

25. Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt Thou destroy all the city for five? and He said, I will not destroy it, if I find there forty and five.

29. And he added yet to speak unto Him, and said, Peradventure forty shall be found there; and He said, I will not do it for forty‘s sake.

30. And he said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak: peradventure thirty shall be found there; and He said, I will not do it if I find thirty there.

31. And he said, Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord: peradventure twenty shall be found there; and He said, I will not destroy it for twenty’s sake.

32. And he said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak but this once: peradventure ten shall be found there; and He said, I will not destroy it for ten‘s sake.

33. And Jehovah went when He had completed His speaking unto Abraham; and Abraham returned unto his place.

THE CONTENTS

AC 2136. In the first place, this chapter treats concerning the Lord’s state of perception in the Human and concerning the communication with the Divine at that time, before the perfect union of His Human Essence with the Divine Essence, which state is also that in regard to which the Lord says,

"No one hath seen God at any time, the Only-begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father" (John 1:18).

AC 2137. The Lord‘s state of perception in the Human at that time is signified by the "oak-groves of Mamre" (verse 1); and that in this state He perceived the Divine which was manifesting itself before His Human (verse 2); at which He rejoiced (verse 3); and desired that the Divine should draw nearer to His Human by putting on something natural (verse 4), and His Human nearer to the Divine by putting on the celestial (verse 5). The celestial and the derivative spiritual, which He put on, are signified by the "three measures of meal of fine flour" of which the cakes were made (verse 6); and that He also put on a conforming natural, is signified by the "son of an ox" (verse 7); the result being conformation, and a communication of the Divine with the Human, and of the Human with the Divine (verse 8).

AC 2138. In the second place, this chapter treats concerning the Lord’s perception in that state respecting the rational with Him, in that it would put off the Human, and be made Divine.

AC 2139. That the rational would be made Divine, is signified by the "son" whom Sarah was to bear (verse 10). That the human rational truth that was with the Lord did not perceive this, and thus did not believe it, is signified by Sarah‘s "laughing" at the door of the tent that was behind him (verses 10-13, 15). It is confirmed that the Lord would put off this also, and would put on in its place truth Divine (verse 14).

AC 2140. In the third place, the chapter treats concerning the Lord’s grief and anxiety over the human race, because men were so greatly imbued with the love of self, and from this with the cupidity of exercising command over others from what is evil and false, for whom in that state He interceded, and obtained that those should be saved with whom there should be goods and truths; and who these are, is recounted in order.

AC 2141. The Lord‘s perception concerning the human race, that it was in evil and falsity, "Sodom" being the love of self and the derivative cupidity of exercising command from what is evil, and "Gomorrah" being the same from what is false (verses 16, 20). That this could not be concealed from the Lord in that state, because by Him and from Him is all salvation (verses 17 to 19); that is to say, they were to be visited when their wickedness reached its height (verses 20, 21). That when He was in this perception (verse 22), He interceded for them; first for those with whom there should be truths, and these truths full of goods, who are signified by the "fifty" (verses 23 to 26); also for those with whom there should be less of good, but this good nevertheless conjoined with truths, who are signified by the "forty-five" (verses 27, 28); next for those who have been in temptations, who are signified by the "forty" (verse 29); as likewise for those who have been in some combats against evils, who are signified by the "thirty" (verse 30); afterwards for those with whom there should be states of the affection of good from any other source, who are signified by the "twenty" (verse 31); lastly for those with whom there should be states of the affection of truth, who are signified by the "ten" (verse 32); and the constant answer was that they should be saved (verses 26, 28 to 32). These things being accomplished, the Lord returned into His former state of perception (verse 33). These are the arcana contained in the internal sense of this chapter, which are not manifest from the letter.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 2142. Verse 1. And Jehovah appeared unto him in the oak groves of Mamre, and he was sitting at the door of the tent, as the day was growing hot. "Jehovah appeared unto him," signifies the Lord’s perception; "in the oak-groves of Mamre," signifies the quality of the perception; "he was sitting at the door of the tent," signifies the holiness which at that time appertained to Him; "as the day was growing hot," signifies from love.

AC 2143. Jehovah appeared unto him. That this signifies the Lord‘s perception, may be seen from the fact that the historicals of the Word are merely representative, and the words therein significative, of those things which are in the internal sense. In the internal sense of the passage before us the subject treated of is the Lord and His perception, which perception was represented by the appearing to Abraham of Jehovah; for such is the representative nature in the historicals of the Word of every appearing, of every discourse, and of every deed. But what they represent does not appear unless the historicals are attended to simply as objects, like those of sight, from which there is given the occasion and the opportunity for thinking about things more lofty; for instance, from gardens, as we behold them, for thinking about fruits, their uses, and also the derivative delight of life, and, still more loftily, about paradisal or heavenly happiness. When such things are thought of, the several objects of the garden are indeed seen, but so slightly that they are not attended to. The case is the very same with the historicals of the Word, for when the celestial and spiritual things that are in the internal sense of these historicals are thought of, these, together with the words themselves, are attended to just as little.

AC 2144. In the oak-groves of Mamre. That this signifies the quality of the perception, is evident from the representation and signification of "oak-groves," and also from the representation and signification of "Mamre." What "oak-groves" represented and signified in general, see (n. 1442, 1443); and what "the oak-groves of Mamre" represented and signified specifically (n. 1616), namely, perceptions, but such as are human from memory-knowledges (scientific), and from the first rational things thence derived.

[2] What perception is, is at this day utterly unknown, because at this day no one has perception like that of the ancients, especially like that of the most ancients for these latter knew from perception whether a thing was good, and consequently whether it was true. There was an influx into their rational from the Lord through heaven, whereby, when they thought about any holy thing, they instantly perceived whether it was so, or was not so. Such perception afterwards perished with man, when he began to be no longer in heavenly ideas, but solely in worldly and corporeal ones; and in place of it there succeeded conscience, which also is a kind of perception; for to act contrary to conscience and according to conscience is nothing else than to perceive from it whether a thing is so or is not so, or whether it is to be done.

[3] But the perception of conscience is not from good that flows in, but it is from the truth that from infancy has been implanted in the rational of men in accordance with the holy of their worship, and which has afterwards been confirmed, for this alone do they in such case believe to be good. Hence it is that conscience is a kind of perception, but from such truth; and when charity and innocence are insinuated into this truth by the Lord, there comes into existence the good of this conscience. From these few observations we can see what perception is. But between perception and conscience there is much difference. See what is said about perception in (n. 104, 125, 371, 483, 495, 503, 521, 536, 597, 607, 784, 865, 895, 1121, 1616); about the perception of spirits and angels, (n. 202, 203, 1008, 1383, 1384, 1390-1392, 1394, 1397, 1504); and that the learned do not know what perception is, (n. 1387).

[4] As regards the Lord when He lived in the world, all His thought was from Divine perception, because He alone was a Divine and Celestial Man; for He was the only one in whom was Jehovah Himself, from whom was His perception, see (n. 1616, 1791). His perceptions were more and more interior in proportion as He approached more nearly to union with Jehovah. Of what quality His perception was at the time here treated of, see (n. 1616); and of what quality it became when He perceived the things that are contained in this chapter, is described in what now follows.

AC 2145. He was sitting at the door of the tent. That this signifies the holy which at that time appertained to Him, namely, the holy of love,--which is signified by the day growing hot, as explained in what follows, is evident from the signification of a "tent," as being what is holy (n. 414, 1102, 1566), where also the reason of this signification of "tents" is explained. As the Lord was then in the perception which is signified by the oak-groves of Mamre, which is a lower rational perception, but yet is a perception more internal than that which is signified by the oak-grove of Moreh (n. 1442, 1443), it is here represented and therefore signified by His sitting at the door of the tent, that is, at the entrance to what is holy. How the case is with perceptions, as being less or more interior, may be illustrated by the perceptions of the most ancient people, from whom I have heard that the more they were in memory-knowledges from the things which are objects of hearing and sight, the lower were their perceptions; but that the more they were uplifted above them to the celestial things of charity and love, the more interior their perceptions were, because they were then nearer to the Lord.

AC 2146. As the day was growing hot. That this signifies from love, is evident from the signification of "heat," as being in the internal sense love; and since heat belongs either to the day or to the year, love is represented either by the heat of the day or by the heat of the year, according to what is related in the historicals. That "heat" signifies love may be seen from the fact that love is called spiritual heat, and that growing warm is predicated of all affection, even in common speech; and further from the fact that love and its affections, in man’s interiors, as also in his exteriors, and even in his very corporeals, make themselves manifest under the guise of heat; in fact heat has no other origin in connection with man when it flows forth from his interiors. Such however as is the love, such is the heat. Celestial love and spiritual love are what give genuine heat. All other heat, namely, that which is from the loves of self and of the world, and also from other filthy loves, is unclean, and in the other life sinks into what is excrementitious (n. 1773). Be it known moreover that holiness is never predicated except of love and charity; not of faith except in so far as love and charity are in the truths of faith. Except from this the truths of faith are not holy (n. 2049).

AC 2147. Verse 2. And he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and behold three men standing over him; and he saw them, and ran to meet them from the door of the tent, and bowed himself toward the earth. "He lifted up his eyes," signifies that He saw within Himself; "and behold three men standing over him," signifies the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Holy proceeding; "and he saw them," signifies when He observed this; "and ran to meet them," signifies that in thought He approached nearer to the things that were being perceived; "from the door of the tent," signifies from the holy which at that time appertained to the Lord; "and bowed himself toward the earth," signifies the effect of humiliation, from the consequent joy.

AC 2148. He lifted up his eyes. That this signifies that the Lord saw within Himself, is evident from the signification of "lifting up the eyes." By "eyes" in the Word is signified the interior sight, or the understanding, as may be seen from the passages cited above (n. 212). Hence to "lift up the eyes" means to see and perceive things which are above self. Things that are interior are expressed in the Word by those which are higher, as "looking upward," "lifting up the eyes to heaven," "thinking high things," the reason of which is that man supposes heaven to be on high, or above himself; when yet it is not on high, but is in things internal--as when a man is in the celestial things of love, his heaven is then within him (n. 450). From this it follows that to "lift up the eyes" signifies to see within one‘s self.

AC 2149. Behold three men standing over him. That this signifies the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Holy proceeding, may be seen without explication; for it is known to every one that there is a Trine, and that this Trine is a One. That it is a One is plainly evident in this chapter, to wit, in (verse 3), where it is said, "He said, My Lord, if I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes, pass Thou not, I pray," which words were addressed to the three men. And further, in (verse 10), "And he said, Returning I will return unto thee." In (verse 13), "And Jehovah said unto Abraham." In (verse 15), "He said, Nay, but thou didst laugh." In (verse 17), "And Jehovah said, Shall I hide from Abraham that which I do?" In (verse 19), "Because I have known him." In (verse 20), "And Jehovah said." In (verse 21), "I will go down, and I will see whether they have made a consummation according to the cry thereof which is come unto Me; and if not, I will know." In (verse 23), Abraham said, "Wilt Thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked?" In (verse 25), "Be it far from Thee to do according to this thing; be it far from Thee." In (verse 26), "And Jehovah said, If I find fifty righteous I will spare the whole place for their sake." In (verse 27), "I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord." In (verse 28), "Wilt Thou destroy the whole city for five? And He said, I will not destroy it, if I find there forty and five." In (verse 29), "He added yet to speak unto Him; He said, I will not do it for forty’s sake." In (verse 30), "Let not my Lord be angry; He said, I will not do it if I find thirty there." In (verse 31), "He said, I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord; He said, I will not destroy it for twenty‘s sake." In (verse 32), "Let not I pray my Lord be angry; and He said, I will not destroy it for ten’s sake." And in (verse 33), "And Jehovah went when He had left off speaking to Abraham." From all this it may be seen that by the three men who appeared to Abraham was signified the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Holy proceeding; and that this Trine is in itself a One. In the internal sense the subject here treated of is Jehovah, in that He appeared to the Lord, and that the Lord perceived this; but not by an appearing such as there was to Abraham; for it is historically true that three men were seen by Abraham, but this represents the Divine perception, or the perception from the Divine which the Lord had when in the Human, which perception is treated of in what follows.

AC 2150. And he saw them. That this signifies when the Lord observed this, is evident from the signification of "seeing" in the internal sense, as being to understand and observe, and also to be illuminated (n. 1584). Nothing is more common in the Word than for "seeing" to have this signification. The signification here is that the Lord observed a perception from the Divine to be present, as just stated.

AC 2151. And Abraham ran to meet them. That this signifies that the Lord approached nearer to the things which were perceived, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense; for the preceding verse treats of the Lord‘s perception, in which He then was; this verse treats of His observing the perception to be from the Divine, and here now His approaching nearer to it is represented and thus signified by his running to meet them.

AC 2152. From the door of the tent. That this signifies from the holy which then appertained to the Lord, is evident from the signification of a "tent," as being what is holy, and from the signification of the "door," as being the entrance into what is holy (n. 2145).

AC 2153. And bowed himself toward the earth. That this signifies the effect of the humiliation from the consequent joy, is evident from the signification of "bowing himself," as being to humble. Just as all interior affections have gestures corresponding to them in outward or bodily motions, which gestures are the effects of the affections as their effecting causes, so the action of humbling one’s self has humiliation and also prostration. That this prostration was from joy is evident, because He observed, as before said, the perception to be from the Divine. The state of the Lord‘s humiliation when He was in the Human, has already been treated of in various places, and of the Lord’s Divine mercy shall be further treated of in this chapter.

AC 2154. Verse 3. And he said, My Lord, if I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes, pass not I pray from Thy servant. "And he said," signifies that the Lord so thought; "My Lord," signifies the Trine in a One; "if I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes," signifies the deference of the Lord‘s state when He noticed that perception; "pass not I pray from Thy servant," signifies that He intensely desired that what He began to perceive should not pass away. The "servant" is the human that appertained to the Lord before it was made Divine.

AC 2155. He said. That this signifies that the Lord so thought, is evident from the signification of "saying," when found in the historical sense, as being to perceive (n. 1898, 1919, 2080).

AC 2156. My Lord. That this signifies the Trine in a One, namely, the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Holy proceeding, which Trine is in a One, is evident from its being here said "Lord," in the singular number. So too in (verses 27, 31), "Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord," and in (verses 30, 32), "Let not I pray my Lord be angry." The three men are also called "Jehovah," in (verse 13), "Jehovah said unto Abraham;" in (verse 14), "Shall anything be wonderful for Jehovah?" in (verse 22), "Abraham was yet standing before Jehovah;" and in (verse 33), "And Jehovah went when He left off speaking to Abraham." Hence it is evident that the three men (that is, the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Holy proceeding), are the same as the Lord, and the Lord the same as Jehovah. In the Christian Faith, called the Creed, the same is acknowledged, where it is said in plain words, "There are not three Uncreate, nor three Infinite, nor three Eternal, nor three Almighty, nor three Lords, but One." There are none who separate this Trine which is in a One except those who say that they acknowledge one Supreme Existence (Ens), the Creator of the Universe; which is forgiven those who are outside of the church. But they who are within the church, and say this, although they say it and sometimes think it, do not in fact acknowledge any God; still less do they acknowledge the Lord.

AC 2157. If I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes. That this signifies the deference of the Lord’s state when He observed that perception, may be seen from the affection of humiliation which there is in these very words; and also in those which directly follow--"Pass not I pray from over Thy servant"--in which likewise there is humiliation. In every particular in the Word there are both affection and subject matter. The celestial angels perceive the Word such as it is in the internal sense as to the affection; but the spiritual angels perceive it such as it is in the internal sense as to the matter. Those who perceive the Word in the internal sense as to the affection, pay no attention to the words which belong to the matter, but form for themselves ideas from the affection and its series, and this with endless variety. Here for example at the words, "If I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes, pass not I pray from over Thy servant," they perceive the Lord‘s state of humiliation in the Human, but only the affection of the humiliation. From this, in a manner, variety, and abundance inexpressible, they form for themselves celestial ideas, which can scarcely be called ideas, but rather so many lights of affections and perceptions, which follow in a continuous series, in accordance with the series of the affection of the things contained in the Word that is being read.

[2] This shows that the perception, thought, and speech of the celestial angels are more ineffable and much richer than the perception, thought, and speech of the spiritual angels, the latter being simply determined to the subject matter (rem), in accordance with the series of the expressions. That the speech of the celestial angels is of this nature, see (n. 1647). Hence it is that these words, "If I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes," in the celestial sense signify the deference of the Lord’s state when He observed that perception. Moreover to "find grace in thine eyes" was a customary mode of speech for every expression of deference; as may be seen from Laban‘s deference to Jacob:--

Laban said unto him, If I pray I have found grace in thine eyes (Gen. 30:27);

also from Jacob’s deference to Esau:--

Jacob said, Nay, I pray, if I pray I have found grace in thine eyes (Gen. 33:10).

AC 2158. Pass not I pray from over Thy servant. That this signifies that He intensely desired, appears from what has just been said, the case being much the same, namely, that here also there is deference, which is expressed in this way, and at the same time the affection of desire that what He began to perceive should not pass away.

AC 2159. That the "servant" denotes the human that appertained to the Lord, before it was made Divine, may be seen from many passages in the Prophets. The reason is--as already shown several times--that until He had put it off and made it Divine the human that appertained to the Lord was merely a servant. The human that appertained to Him was from the mother, thus was infirm, having with it from the mother an hereditary which by means of the combats of temptations He overcame and utterly expelled, insomuch that nothing was left of that which was infirm and hereditary from the mother, nay, at last there remained not anything whatever from the mother. Thus He entirely put off all that was from the mother, and therefore was no longer her son, as also He himself says in Mark:--

They said unto Him, Behold Thy mother and Thy brethren without seek for Thee: and He answered them, saying, Who is My mother, or My brethren? And looking round on them that sat about Him, He said, Behold My mother and My brethren; for whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is My brother, and My sister, and My mother (Mark 3:32-35; Matt. 12:46-49; Luke 8:20, 21).

[2] And when He had put off this human, he put on the Divine Human, from which He called Himself the "Son of man," as we find many times in the Word of the New Testament; and also the "Son of God;" and by the "Son of man" He meant the truth itself, and by the "Son of God" the good itself, which belonged to His Human Essence when this was made Divine. The former state was that of the Lord‘s humiliation, but the latter that of His glorification (n. 1999).

[3] In the former state, namely, that of humiliation, when as yet He had appertaining to Him an infirm human, He adored Jehovah as one other than Himself, and indeed like a servant; for relatively to the Divine the human is nothing else, on which account in the Word the term "servant" is predicated of that human, as in Isaiah:--

I will defend this city to save it, for Mine own sake, and for My servant David’s sake (Isaiah 37:35),

where the Assyrians are treated of, in whose camp a hundred and eighty-five thousand were smitten by an angel. "David" denotes the Lord, who, as He was to come, in respect to the human is called a "servant." In the Word "David" denotes the Lord (n. 1888).

[4] In the same Prophet:--

Behold My servant upon whom I will lean; My chosen, My soul is well pleased. I have put My spirit upon him; he shall bring forth judgment unto the nations (Isaiah 42:1),

manifestly concerning the Lord, of whom, when He was in the human, the terms "servant" and "chosen" are predicated. Again:--

Who is blind but My servant? and deaf, as the angel I will send? who is blind as the perfect one, and blind as the servant of Jehovah? (Isa. 42:19),

where also the Lord is spoken of; and of whom in like manner the terms "servant" and "angel" are predicated when He was in the human.

[5] Again:--

Ye are My witnesses, saith Jehovah, and My servant whom I have chosen; that ye may know and believe Me, and understand that I am He (Isa. 43:10).

Again:--

Said Jehovah, My Former from the womb to be His servant; to bring Jacob again unto Him, and that Israel be gathered unto Him; and He said, Thou art a slight thing that thou shouldest be My servant, to set up the tribes of Jacob I have given thee for a light of the nations to be My salvation unto the extremity of the earth (Isa. 49:5, 6),

where also the Lord and His human are manifestly treated of before He was made the "light of the nations," and "salvation unto the extremity of the earth." Again:--

Who is among you that feareth Jehovah, that heareth the voice of His servant, who walketh in darkness, and hath no brightness? let him trust in the name of Jehovah, and lean upon His God (Isa. 50:10).

"Servant" here also denotes the human that appertained to the Lord; and that He was in this human and taught the way of truth, is the "voice of the servant of Jehovah."

[6] Again:--

Jehovah goeth before you, and the God of Israel gathereth you. Behold, My servant shall act prudently, he shall be lifted up, and shall be exalted, and shall be raised up exceedingly (Isa. 52:12, 13).

It is evident that "servant" is here predicated of the Lord when He was in the human; for it is said of Him that He "shall be lifted up, exalted, and raised up." Again:--

He hath no form and no honor we saw him, but there was no appearance; He was despised, a man of sorrows, acquainted with disease. Jehovah willed to bruise him He made him infirm; if he shall make his soul guilt, he shall see seed, he shall prolong days, and the will of Jehovah shall prosper by his hand he shall see of the labor of his soul, he shall be satisfied; by his knowledge shall My righteous servant justify many; and he himself hath carried their iniquities (Isa. 53:2, 3, 10, 11).

Here, as in the whole of this chapter, the Lord‘s state of humiliation is openly treated of; and it is also said that He was then in an infirm human, namely, that He was a "man of sorrows, acquainted with disease, infirm, was in the labor of His soul," besides a number of other statements, in which state He is called "servant."

AC 2160. Verse 4. Let I pray a little water be taken, and wash ye your feet, and lie down under the tree. "Let I pray a little water be taken," signifies that they should draw near, and let themselves down from things Divine nearer to His intellectual things; "and wash ye your feet," signifies that they should put on something natural, in order that in the state in which He then was, He might the better perceive; "and lie down under the tree," signifies near to the perception of His state in which He was; "tree" is perception.

AC 2161. Let I pray a little water be taken. That this signifies that they should draw near, and let themselves down from things Divine nearer to His intellectual things, cannot be so evident from these words alone--that they should take a little water--but it is evident from the series of things in this verse, and from their connection with those which go before and those which follow. From what is said in this verse no one would ever know that the words "Let I pray a little water be taken, and wash ye your feet, and lie down under the tree" signify that the Divine should let itself down nearer to the state of perception in which the Lord then was, and should put on something natural in order that He might the better perceive; for not a trace of this arcanum is manifest in the words as understood historically; but that nevertheless such in the internal sense is their signification, and that the angels so perceive them, I know for certain.

[2] This shows what great and deep arcana lie hidden in the Word. Moreover that such is the signification, may be seen from the signification in the internal sense of the several words, namely, from the signification of "water" as being intellectual things, from the signification of "feet" as being natural things, and from the signification of a "tree" as being perception. then these things are understood, the signification in the internal sense (to wit, that which has been stated) can be seen from the series of things, and from their connection with those which precede and those which follow. That "waters" signify memory-knowledges and rational things, consequently the things of the understanding, see (n. 28, 680), and very many other passages in the Word.

AC 2162. Wash ye your feet. That this signifies that (the Divine) should put on something natural, in order that, in the state in which the Lord then was, He might the better perceive, may be seen from the signification of "feet," as being natural things, and also likewise from the series of things. That arcana here lie hidden may to some extent be seen from the fact that Abraham prayed the three men to take a little water and wash their feet, and to recline under a tree; when yet he knew that it was the Lord or Jehovah; and also from the fact that otherwise such things would not have been mentioned.

[2] That "feet" signify natural things, is evident from the representatives in the other life, and from the derivative representatives among the most ancient people, and thus in the Word. Celestial and spiritual things are represented by the head and its belongings; rational things and their belongings, by the breast and its belongings; natural things and their belongings, by the feet and their belongings. Hence it is that the "sole" and the "heel" of the foot signify the lowest natural things (n. 259); and a "shoe" the lowest things of all, which are unclean (n. 1748).

[3] Similar things are signified by the representations in the dreams and visions in the Prophets--as by the statue seen by Nebuchadnezzar, The head of which was good gold, the breast and arms of silver, the belly and thighs of brass, the legs of iron, the feet part of iron and part of clay (Dan. 2:32, 33), where the " head" signifies celestial things, which are inmost, and are "gold" (n. 113, 1551, 1552); the "breast and arms" spiritual or rational things, which are "silver" (n. 1551); but the "feet" are the lower things, which are natural, the truths of which are signified by "iron," and the goods by "clay" (argillum seu lutum). "Iron" denotes truth (n. 425, 426); also that "clay" denotes good (n. 1300); in the present case both being natural. Such is the order of succession in the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, and in the church which is the Lord‘s kingdom on earth, and also in every one who is a kingdom of the Lord.

[4] The case is similar with the vision that Daniel saw, of which it is said:--

I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold a man clothed in linen, and his loins were girded with gold of Uphaz; his body also was like the beryl (Tarshish), and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like the brightness of burnished brass (Daniel 10:5, 6).

Specifically, by these words are signified the interiors of the Word as to goods and truths; the "arms" and "feet" are its exteriors, which are the sense of the letter, because natural things are therein, for the exterior things of the Word are taken from natural things. What each part signifies besides, namely, the loins, body, face, eyes, and the many other things of man, is evident from the representatives in the other life, concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more will be said when we come to treat of the Grand Man, which is the Lord‘s heaven, and of the derivative representatives in the world of spirits.

[5] That which we read concerning Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and the seventy elders-that "they saw the God of Israel, under whose feet there was as it were a work of sapphire stone, and as it were the substance of heaven as to purity" (Exod. 24:9, 10), signifies that they saw only the externals of the church represented in natural things; and also the literal sense of the Word, in which likewise external things are represented by natural things--as before said--which are the "feet under which was as it were a work of sapphire stone, and as it were the substance of heaven." That it was the Lord who was seen by them, but only in those lower or natural things, is evident, for He is called "the God of Israel," whom all things of the church represented, and all things of the Word in the internal sense signified. For the Lord is presented to view in accordance with the things which are at the time signified--in John, as a Man upon a white horse, when He signified the Word, as is plainly said (Rev. 19:11, 13).

[6] The animals seen by Ezekiel, which were cherubs, are described as to celestial and spiritual things, among other representatives, by their faces and wings, but as to natural things, as follows:--

Their feet, a straight foot; and the sole of their feet as the sole of a calf’s foot; and they glittered like the brightness of burnished brass (Ezek. 1:7).

The feet (that is, the natural things) are said to have "glittered like burnished brass," for the reason that "brass" signifies natural good (n. 425, 1551). It was much the same with the Lord‘s appearance to John as the "Son of man:"--

Whose eyes were as a flame of fire, and His feet like unto burnished brass (Rev. 1:14, 15; 2:18).

[7] That the "feet" signify natural things, may be further evident from the passages that now follow. In John:--

I saw a strong angel coming down out of heaven, encompassed with a cloud, and a rainbow about his head, and his face as the sun, and his feet as pillars of fire and he had in his hand a little book open; and he set his right foot upon the sea, and his left upon the earth (Rev. 10:1, 2).

By this angel there is in like manner signified the Word; the quality of which in the internal sense is signified by the "rainbow about his head," and by "his face being as the sun;" but the external sense, or that of the letter, by the "feet." The "sea" denotes natural truths, the "earth" natural goods, which shows what is signified by his putting "his right foot upon the sea, and his left upon the earth."

[8] A "footstool" is mentioned in various passages of the Word; but it is not known what it signifies in the internal sense. As in Isaiah:--

Jehovah said, The heavens are My throne, and the earth is My footstool. Where is that house which ye will build unto Me? and where is that place of My rest? (Isaiah 66:1).

The "heavens" are the celestial and spiritual things (thus the inmost things) of both the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, and of the Lord‘s kingdom on the earth, that is, in the church, and also in every man who is a kingdom of the Lord or a church; thus they also denote celestial and spiritual things as regarded in themselves, which are those of love and charity and of the derivative faith; and thus are all things which are of internal worship, and in like manner all things which are of the internal sense of the Word: these are the "heavens," and are called the Lord’s "throne." But the "earth" is all lower things that correspond to these--as the lower rational and natural things, whereof also things celestial and spiritual are predicated from correspondence; such as are the things which are in the lower heavens, also those in the church and in external worship, and in the literal sense of the Word; in short, all such things as proceed from things internal and are presented in things external--these, being natural things, are called the " earth" and the Lord‘s "footstool." What "heaven and earth" denote in the internal sense, may be seen above, (n. 82, 1733); also what the "new heaven and the new earth" denote, (n. 2117, 2118); and that man is a little heaven, (n. 911, 978, 1900).

[9] In like manner in Jeremiah:--

The Lord covereth the daughter of Zion with a cloud in His anger; He hath cast down from the heavens unto the earth the beauty of Israel, and hath not remembered His footstool in the day of His anger (Lam. 2:1).

Also in David:--

Exalt ye Jehovah our God, and bow yourselves down at His footstool, Holy is He (Ps. 99:5).

And again:--

We will enter into His tabernacles, we will bow down at His footstool (Ps. 132:7).

In the Representative Church--thus among the Jews--it was supposed that the house of God and the temple were His footstool, for they knew not that external representative worship was signified by the house of God and the temple; and what the internals of the church were (which were signified by "heaven," or God’s "throne"), they were utterly ignorant of.

[10] Again:--

The saying of Jehovah unto my Lord: Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool (Ps. 110:1; Matt. 22:42-45; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42, 43).

Here in like manner a "footstool" signifies natural things both those which are sensuous, and those of memory-knowledge, and the derivative rational things of man, which are called "enemies" when they pervert worship, and do this from the literal sense of the Word, so that there is worship solely in externals, and either no internal worship, or else that which is filthy (n. 1094, 1175, 1182). When things natural and rational are thus perverted and defiled, they are called "enemies;" but because, regarded in themselves, they have reference to internal worship-when this is restored, they become as before said a "footstool," whether they are things of external worship, or of the literal sense of the Word.

[11] In Isaiah:--

The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir-tree, the pine, and the box together, to beautify the place of My sanctuary, and I will make the place of My feet honorable (Isaiah 60:13),

where the subject is the Lord‘s kingdom and church, the celestial spiritual things of which are the "glory of Lebanon" (that is, the cedars), and its celestial natural things are the "fir-tree, the pine, and the box" (as also in the Word elsewhere), and thus the things which are of external worship; of which it is said, "I will make the place of My feet honorable;" and this cannot be made honorable by the fir, the pine, and the box, but by the things which they signify.

[12] That the "feet" signify these things, is evident also from the representatives in the Jewish Church-as from Aaron and his sons washing their hands and their feet before entering into the tabernacle (Exod. 30:19, 20; 40:31, 32). No one can fail to see that arcana were thus represented, for what is the washing of the hands and feet but an external affair which is of no avail unless the internal is clean and pure? Nor can the internal be cleaned and purified by such a washing. But as all the rites of that church were significative of internal things, which are celestial and spiritual, such is the case here also: it is cleanness of external worship that is here signified, and external worship is clean when there is internal worship within it. Hence their lavers were of brass, and also that great laver that was called the brazen sea, and the ten smaller lavers of brass around the temple of Solomon (1 Kings 7:23, 38); because "brass" represented the good of external worship, which is the same as natural good, concerning which signification of "brass," see (n. 425, 1551).

[13] In like manner it was a representative that,

A man of the seed of Aaron in whom there was a fracture of the foot or a fracture of the hand, should not approach to offer the offering made by fire to Jehovah (Lev. 21:19, 21).

By those who had a "fracture" in the feet or hands were represented such as are in perverted external worship.

[14] That "feet" signify natural things, is further evident in other passages that occur in the Prophets, as in these propheticals in Moses:--

Blessed be Asher above sons; let him be accepted of his brethren, and let him dip his foot in oil; the iron and brass of thy shoe (Deut. 33:24, 25).

No one can understand these words unless it is known what " oil," the " foot," "iron," "brass," and a "shoe" signify in the internal sense. That "foot" is the natural, and "shoe" the still lower natural, such as is the corporeal sensual, may be seen above (n. 1748); also that "oil" is the celestial (n. 886), " iron" natural truth (n. 425, 426), and "brass" natural good (n. 425, 1551), which shows what these words involve.

[15] In Nahum:--

The way of Jehovah is in the storm and tempest, and the clouds are the dust of His feet (Nahum 1:3),

where the "dust of the feet" signifies the natural and corporeal things with man, whence come the "clouds." The same also is signified by these words in David:--

Jehovah bowed the heavens, and came down, and thick darkness was under His feet (Ps. 18:9).

[16] When the goods and truths of faith are perverted by means of natural light, as it is called, this is described in the Word by the "feet" and " hoofs" of a beast, whereby waters are disturbed, and food is trampled upon. As in Ezekiel:--

Thou hast come forth into the rivers, and hast troubled the waters with thy feet and trampled the streams thereof. I will destroy every beast thereof from off many waters; and the foot of man shall not trouble them any more, nor the hoof of beast (Ezekiel 32:2, 13).

Egypt is here treated of, by which are signified memory-knowledges (scientiae) (n. 1164, 1165, 1462), so that by the "feet" and "hoofs" by which the streams and eaters are troubled, are signified memory-knowledges (scientific) derived from sensuous and natural things, from which they reason about the arcana of faith; nor do they believe until these arcana are comprehended by means of such knowledges; and this is not to believe at all, for the more such persons reason, the less do they believe (n. 128-130, 215, 232, 233, 1072, 1385). From all this it is now evident that by "feet" in the Word are signified natural things but what more is signified, is evident from the series of things.

AC 2163. And lie down under the tree. That this signifies near to the perception of His state in which He then was, is evident from the signification of a "tree," as being perception (n. 103); bearing which in mind the series of things shows that the above is the real sense of the words. That "trees" signified perceptions, originated in the fact that the celestial man was compared and likened to Paradise, or the garden in Eden; from which the perceptions of celestial things with him were likened to the trees therein.

AC 2164. Verse 5. And I will take a piece of bread, and support ye your heart; afterwards ye may pass on; for therefore have ye passed over unto your servant. And they said, So do as thou hast spoken. "I will take a piece of bread," signifies something celestial adjoined; "support ye your heart," signifies as much as is meet; "afterwards ye may pass on," signifies that when He had left off perceiving He would be content therewith; "for therefore have ye passed over unto your servant," signifies that they came for this purpose; "and they said, So do as thou hast spoken," signifies that it should be so done.

AC 2165. I will take a piece of bread. That this signifies something celestial adjoined, is evident from the signification of "bread," as being what is celestial (n. 276, 680, 681, 1798). That "bread" signifies what is celestial, is because "bread" means all food in general, and thus in the internal sense all celestial food. What celestial food is, see (n. 56-58, 680, 681, 1480, 1695). That "bread" means all food in general, is evident from the following passages of the Word. We read of Joseph that, He said to him who was over his house, that he should bring the men--his brethren--home, and should slay what was to be slain, and should make ready; and afterwards, when they had made ready, and were to eat, be said, Set on bread (Gen. 43:16, 31); meaning that they should make ready the table; "bread" thus denoting all kinds of food. We read concerning Jethro that, Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel to eat bread with Moses father-in-law before God (Exod. 18:12), where also "bread" denotes all kinds of food. Concerning Manoah, in the Book of Judges:--

Manoah said unto the Angel of Jehovah, Let us I pray detain thee, and let us make ready before thee a kid of the goats. And the Angel of Jehovah said unto Manoah, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread (Judges 13:15, 16),

where "bread" denotes a kid of the goats. When Jonathan ate of the honeycomb, they told him that Saul had adjured the people, saying:--

Cursed be the man that shall eat bread this day (1 Sam. 14:27, 28),

where "bread" denotes all food. Again, concerning Saul:--

When Saul sat down to eat bread, be said unto Jonathan, Wherefore cometh not the son of Jesse to bread either yesterday or to-day? (1 Sam. 20:24, 27),

meaning to the table, where were all kinds of food. We read concerning David that he said to Mephibosheth the son of Jonathan:--

Thou shalt eat bread on my table continually (2 Sam. 9:7, 10).

So too concerning Evilmerodach, who said that,

Jehoiachin king of Judah should eat bread before him continually, all the days of his life (2 Kings 25:29).

Concerning Solomon also:--

Solomon’s bread for each day was thirty cors of fine flour, and sixty cors of meal, ten fat oxen, and twenty oxen of the pastures, and a hundred sheep, besides the hart and the wild she-goat, and the antelope, and fatted fowl (1 Kings 4:22, 23),

where "bread" plainly denotes all of these things.

[2] Now as "bread" means all kinds of food in general, it therefore signifies in the internal sense all those things which are called celestial foods, as may be still more evident from the burnt-offerings and sacrifices that were made of lambs, sheep, she goats, kids, he-goats, heifers, and oxen, which were called in one word the "bread of the offering made by fire unto Jehovah," as is clearly evident from the following passages in Moses, where the various sacrifices are treated of, of which it is said that,

The priest should burn them upon the altar, the bread of the offering made by fire unto Jehovah, for an odor of rest (Lev. 3:11, 16),

all those sacrifices and burnt-offerings being so called. Again:--

The sons of Aaron shall be holy unto their God, neither shall they profane the name of their God; because the offerings to Jehovah made by fire, the bread of their God, they do offer. Thou shalt sanctify him, because he offereth the bread of thy God. A man of the seed of Aaron in whom there shall be a blemish, shall not come nigh to offer the bread of his God (Lev. 21:6, 8, 17, 21),

where also sacrifices and burnt-offerings are the "bread." The same is true of (Leviticus 22:25). Again:--

Command the sons of Israel, and say unto them, My oblation, My bread for offerings made by fire, of an odor of rest, shall ye observe, to offer unto Me at their appointed time (Num. 28:2).

Here also "bread" denotes all the sacrifices which are there enumerated. In Malachi:--

Offering polluted bread upon Mine altar (Malachi 1:7),

where also the sacrifices are spoken of. The hallowed things of the sacrifices, which they ate, were also called "bread," as is evident from these words in Moses:--

He that toucheth an unclean thing shall not eat of the hallowed things, but he shall wash his flesh in water, and when the sun is down, he shall be clean; and afterwards he shall eat of the hallowed things, because this is his bread (Lev. 22:6, 7).

[3] The burnt-offerings and sacrifices in the Jewish Church represented nothing else than the celestial things of the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens, and of the Lord’s kingdom on earth (that is, in the church), also of the Lord‘s kingdom or church with each person, and in general all those things which are of love and charity, for these are things celestial; and each kind of sacrifice represented something special and peculiar. All these were at that time called BREAD, and therefore when sacrifices were abolished, and other things succeeded in their place for external worship, it was commanded that bread and wine should be made use of.

[4] From all this we may now see what the "bread" (in the Holy Supper) signifies, namely, all the things represented by the sacrifices, thus in the internal sense the Lord Himself. And because the "bread" signifies the Lord Himself, it signifies love itself toward the universal human race, and what belongs to love as also man’s reciprocal love to the Lord and toward the neighbor. The "bread" thus signifies all celestial things, and in the same way the "wine" signifies all spiritual things, as the Lord also teaches in plain words in John. They said,

Our fathers did eat the manna in the wilderness; as it is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven, but My Father giveth you the true bread from heaven for the bread of God is He that cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. They said unto Him, Lord, evermore give us this bread. Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of life; he that cometh to Me shall never hunger, and he that believeth on Me shall never thirst (John 6:31-35).

And again:--

Verily I say unto you, he that believeth on Me hath eternal life. I am the bread of life. Your fathers did eat the manna in the wilderness, and are dead; this is the bread that cometh down from heaven, that one may eat thereof and not die. I am the living bread that came down from heaven; if anyone eat of this bread, he shall live to eternity (John 6:47-51).

[5] Now because the "bread" is the Lord, it belongs to the celestial things which are of love, which are the Lord‘s; for the Lord is the celestial itself, because He is love itself, that is, mercy itself; and because this is so, "bread" means all the celestial, that is, all the love and charity with man, for these are from the Lord; and therefore they who are not in love and charity have not the Lord with them, and thus are not gifted with the good and happy things that in the internal sense are signified by "bread." This outward symbol was commanded because the greatest part of the human race are in external worship, and therefore without some outward symbol there would be scarcely anything holy with them. And therefore when they live in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, they nevertheless have appertaining to them what is internal, although they do not know that this love and charity is the veriest internal of worship. Thus in their external worship they are confirmed in the goods which are signified by the "bread."

[6] In the Prophets also the celestial things of love are signified by "bread" (Isa. 3:1, 7; 30:23; 33:15, 16; 55:2; 58:7, 8; Lam. 5:9; Ezek. 4:16, 17; 5:16; 14:13; Amos 4:6; 8:11; Ps. 105:16), in like manner by the "bread of faces" upon the table (Lev. 24:5-9; Exod. 25:30; 40:23; Num. 4:7; 1 Kings 7:48).

AC 2166. Support ye your heart. That this signifies as much as is meet, cannot be so evident from the proximate signification of the words in the internal sense, but yet it is evident from the series of things, for the subject treated of is the Divine perception--that this might draw nearer to the perception of the human which then appertained to the Lord, and that it might let itself down to His intellectual things, by putting on something natural and also something celestial adjoined to it, as much as was meet--which is to "support the heart." In the proximate sense, to "support the heart by bread" is to be refreshed, and thus to enjoy what little of the celestial is meet.

AC 2167. Afterwards ye may pass on. That this signifies that when He had left off perceiving He would be content therewith, is in like manner evident from the series.

AC 2168. For therefore have ye passed over unto your servant. That this signifies that they came for this purpose, is also evident without explication.

AC 2169. And they said, So do as thou hast spoken. That this signifies that it would be so done, likewise needs no explication.

AC 2170. Verse 6. And Abraham hastened toward the tent unto Sarah, and said, Make ready quickly three measures of meal of fine flour, knead, and make cakes. "Abraham hastened toward the tent unto Sarah," signifies the Lord’s rational good conjoined with His truth; "Abraham" is here the Lord in that state as to good; " Sarah," as to truth; the "tent," as to the holy of love: "and said," signifies the state of perception relatively at that time; "make ready quickly three measures of meal of fine flour, knead, and make cakes," signifies the celestial of His love in that state; "three" denotes what is holy; "meal of fine flour," is the spiritual and the celestial of the rational which were then with the Lord; "cakes" denote the same when both are conjoined.

AC 2171. Abraham hastened toward the tent unto Sarah. That this signifies the Lord‘s rational good conjoined with His truth, is evident from the representation of "Abraham," and also of "Sarah," and from the signification of a "tent," concerning which presently. As each and all things bear relation to the subject treated of in the internal sense, so do these words bear relation to the Divine perception into which the Lord came when He was in the perception of the human. But those who do not know what perception is, cannot know either how the case is with it, still less that there exists a perception that is more and more interior, namely, natural perception, then rational perception, and finally internal perception, which is Divine, and which the Lord alone had. They who are in perception, as are the angels, know very well in which perception they are; whether in natural, in rational, or in a still more interior perception which to them is Divine. What then must have been the case with the Lord, who had a perception from the Supreme and Infinite Divine, concerning which see (n. 1616, 1791), in which no angels ever are, for perception flows into them from the Lord’s Supreme or Infinite Divine through His Human Essence.

[2] The reason why the Lord‘s perception is described, is that when He was in the human, it was thus made known to Him how the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Holy proceeding were to be united in Him; then, how His rational was to be made Divine; and finally what was the quality of the human race--that it was to be saved by Him, that is, by the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence in Him; which are the subjects treated of in this chapter. On these accounts the Lord’s perception is first described, as also on account of the union itself which was to be effected.

AC 2172. That "Abraham" is here the Lord in that state as to good, is evident from the representation of Abraham. When he is speaking with Jehovah, as here, Abraham represents the Lord in the Human (n. 1989), where he represented the Lord in the state and at the age there described, because then also he spoke with Jehovah. In other cases Abraham represents the Lord‘s Divine good, and Sarah His Divine truth; hence Abraham now represents the Lord’s rational good.

AC 2173. That "Sarah" is here the Lord as to truth, is evident from the representation of Sarah, as being intellectual truth adjoined to good; here, as being rational truth, for the same reason as just now stated in regard to Abraham. That Sarah represents truth may be seen above, (n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2065). In the historicals of the Word good and truth cannot be represented otherwise than by a marriage, for this is really the case with them, for there is a Divine marriage between things celestial and spiritual, or what is the same, between those which are of love and those which are of faith, or again what is the same, between those of the will and those of the understanding. The former are of good, the latter are of truth. There is such a marriage in the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens such also in the Lord’s kingdom on the earth (that is, in the church); such a marriage in every man, in every single thing of him, nay, in the veriest singulars of all. That which is not in such a marriage does not live. Nay, from that Divine marriage there is such a marriage in universal nature, and in every particular of it, but under other form and appearance, otherwise nothing whatever would there subsist. Because there is such marriage in everything, therefore with the Prophets every matter is expressed in a twofold manner especially in Isaiah--one expression referring to what is celestial, or to good, and the other to what is spiritual, or to truth (n. 683, 793, 801). That in everything there is a resemblance of a marriage, may be seen above (n. 718, 747, 917, 1432). Hence it is that the Lord‘s good is represented by Abraham, and His truth by Sarah.

AC 2174. That a "tent" is the Lord as to the holy of love, is evident from the signification of a "tent," as being what is holy (n. 414, 1102, 1566, 2145).

AC 2175. And he said. That this signifies the state of the perception relatively at that time, is evident from the signification in the historical sense of " saying" as being to perceive (n. 1898, 1919, 2080).

AC 2176. Make ready quickly three measures of meal of fine flour, knead, and make cakes. That this signifies the celestial of His love in that state, is evident from the signification of "meal," "fine flour," and "cakes," which will be treated of in what next follows. That such things are involved, no one can believe who keeps his mind intent on the literal sense, or that of the words, still less if on the historical things described by them; for he is thinking not only about this preparation, but also about the men who came to Abraham, and not about these matters involving more secret things. This is the reason why he can still less believe that the historicals of the Word in every detail store up within them such arcana equally as do the propheticals; for the historicals draw the mind strongly to themselves, and darken the interiors. Nevertheless that there really are arcana deeply hidden in these historicals is evident from the mere fact that it is the Word of the Lord, written not only for man, but at the same time also for heaven; and this in such a manner, that when a man is reading it, the angels have heavenly ideas therefrom; so that in this way heaven is conjoined with the human race by means of the Word. What is meant in the internal sense by "meal," "fine flour," and "cakes," will now be shown.

AC 2177. That the "meal of fine flour" denotes the spiritual and the celestial which were then with the Lord, and that "cakes" denote the same when both are conjoined, is very evident from the sacrifices of the Representative Church, and from the meat-offering then made use of, which consisted of fine flour mingled with oil and made into cakes. The chief part of representative worship consisted in burnt-offerings and sacrifices. What these represented has already been stated, where bread is treated of (n. 2165), namely, the celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and of the Lord‘s kingdom on the earth (that is, in the church), and also those of the Lord’s kingdom or church with each person; and in general all the things of love and charity, because these are celestial. All these offerings and sacrifices were at that time called "bread," and to them was adjoined the meat-offering also, which, as already said, consisted of fine flour mingled with oil to which frankincense was likewise added, as well as a libation of wine.

[2] What these represented is also evident, namely, similar things as the sacrifices, but in a less degree, thus the things which are of the spiritual church, and like wise those of the external church. Every one can see that such things would never have been commanded unless they had represented Divine things, and also that each one represents something special and peculiar, for unless they had represented Divine things, they would not have differed from similar things in use among the Gentiles, among whom also there were sacrifices--meat-offerings, libations, frankincense, perpetual fires, and many other things, derived to them from the Ancient Church, and especially from the Hebrew Church. But as internal things (that is, the Divine things that were represented) were separated from these Gentile rites, they were merely idolatrous, as also they became with the Jews, who for this reason fell into all kinds of idolatry. From what has been said every one can see that there were heavenly arcana in every rite, especially in the sacrifices and all their particulars.

[3] As regards the meat-offering, the nature of it and how it was to be prepared into cakes, is described in a whole chapter in Moses (Lev. 2; Num. 15). The law of the meat-offering is described in Leviticus in these words:--

Fire shall be kept burning upon the altar continually, it shall not go out. And this is the law of the meat-offering: the sons of Aaron shall bring it before Jehovah to the faces of the altar; and he shall take therefrom his handful of the fine flour of the meat-offering, and of the oil thereof, and all the frankincense which is upon the meat-offering, and shall burn it upon the altar, an odor of rest, for a memorial unto Jehovah; and the residue thereof Aaron and his sons shall eat; unleavened shall they be eaten in a holy place in the court of the tent of meeting shall they eat it. It shall not be baked leavened; I have given it as their portion of My offerings made by fire; it is a holy of holies (Leviticus 6:13-17).

[4] The fire which must be kept burning upon the altar continually, represented the love, that is, the mercy of the Lord, perpetual and eternal. That in the Word "fire" signifies love, see (n. 934); hence "offerings made by fire for an odor of rest" signify the Lord‘s pleasure in the things which are of love and charity. That "odor" denotes what is well-pleasing, that is, what is grateful, see (n. 925, 1519). Their "taking a handful" represented that they should love with all the strength, or with all the soul; for the hand, or the palm of the hand, signifies power (n. 878), from which "handful" also signifies power. The fine flour, with the oil and the frankincense, represented all things of charity--the fine flour the spiritual, and the oil the celestial of charity, the frankincense what was in this manner grateful. That fine flour represents what is spiritual, is evident from what has just been said, and from what follows; that oil represents what is celestial, or the good of charity, may be seen above, (n. 886); and also that frankincense, from its odor, represents what is grateful and acceptable, (n. 925).

[5] Its being "unleavened," or not fermented, signifies that it should be sincere, and thus from a sincere heart, and free from uncleanness. That Aaron and his sons should eat the residue, represented man’s reciprocality and his appropriation, thus conjunction through love and charity; on which account it was commanded that they should eat it in a holy place. Hence it is called a "holy of holies." These were the things that were represented by the meat-offering; and the representatives themselves were so perceived in heaven; and when the man of the church so apprehended them, he was then in an idea similar to the perception of the angels, thus he was in the Lord‘s kingdom itself in the heavens although he was on earth.

[6] The meat-offering is further treated of, as regards what it ought to be in connection with each kind of sacrifice, and how it should be baked into cakes, also what kind should be offered by those who were being cleansed, and what on other occasions; to mention and explain all of which would be too tedious; but concerning all these matters see (Exod. 29:39-41; Lev. 5:11-13; 6:14-23; 10:12, 13; 23:10-13, 16, 17; Num. 5:15; 6:15-17, 19, 20; 7:1-89; 28:5, 7, 9, 12, 13, 20, 21, 28, 29; 29:3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30, 33, 37).

[7] Fine flour made into cakes in general represented the same as bread, namely, the celestial of love, and meal the spiritual of it, as is evident from the passages cited above. The "breads" (or loaves) that were called the "bread of faces," or the "show bread" (panis propositionis), were made of fine flour, which was prepared in cakes and placed upon the table, for a perpetual representation of the love, that is, the mercy, of the Lord toward the universal human race, and the reciprocality of man. Concerning these loaves we read as follows in Moses:--

Thou shalt take fine flour and shalt bake it into twelve cakes; of two tenths shall one cake be; and thou shalt set them in two rows, six in a row, upon the clean table, before Jehovah; and thou shalt put pure frankincense upon each row, and it shall be to the breads for a memorial, an offering made by fire unto Jehovah. On every Sabbath day he shall set it in order before Jehovah continually, from the sons of Israel in a covenant of eternity. And it shall be for Aaron and his sons, and they shall eat it in a holy place, for it is a holy of holies unto him, of the offerings made by fire unto Jehovah by a statute of eternity (Lev. 24:5-9).

Every particular in this description and all the smallest details represented the holy of love and of charity, the "fine flour" the same as the "meal of fine flour," namely, the celestial and its spiritual, and the "cake" the two conjoined.

[8] Hence it is evident what is the holiness of the Word to those who are in heavenly ideas, nay, what holiness there was in this very representative rite, on account of which it is called a holiness of holinesses; and on the contrary, how void of holiness it is to those who suppose that there is nothing heavenly in these things, and who abide solely in the externals; as do they who perceive the meal here merely as meal, the fine flour as fine flour, and the cake as a cake, and who suppose these things to have been stated without each particular involving something of the Divine. These do in like manner as do those who think the bread and wine of the Holy Supper to be nothing but a certain rite, containing nothing holy within; whereas there is such holiness that human minds are by that Supper conjoined with heavenly minds, when from internal affection they are thinking that the bread and wine signify the Lord’s love and the reciprocality of man, and are thus in holiness from interior thought and feeling.

[9] The like was involved in that the sons of Israel on their coming into the land of Canaan were to offer a cake of the first of their dough, as a heave-offering unto Jehovah (Num. 15:20). That such things are signified is also evident in the Prophets, from which we may at present adduce only this from Ezekiel:--

Thou wast decked with gold and silver; and thy raiment was fine linen and silk, and broidered work; thou didst eat fine flour, honey, and oil, and thou wast become beautiful very exceedingly, and thou wast prospered unto a kingdom (Ezekiel 16:13);

where the subject treated of is Jerusalem, by which is signified the church, that was so decked in its earliest time--that is, the Ancient Church--and which is described by the garments and other ornaments; as also its affections of truth and good by the fine flour, honey, and oil. Every one can see that all these things have a very different meaning in the internal sense from that in the sense of the letter. And so have these words which Abraham said to Sarah: "Make ready quickly three measures of the meal of fine flour, knead, and make cakes." That "three" signifies holy things has been shown before, (n. 720, 901).

AC 2178. Verse 7. And Abraham ran unto the herd, and took a son of an ox tender and good, and gave it to the lad, and he hasted to make it. "Abraham ran unto the herd," signifies natural good; "and took a son of an ox tender and good" signifies the celestial natural which is conformable, and which the rational associated to itself in order that it might conjoin itself with the perception from the Divine; "and gave it to the lad, and he hasted to make it," signifies the conjunction of this good with rational good; "the lad" is here the natural man.

AC 2179. Abraham ran unto the herd. That this signifies natural good, is evident from the signification of the oxen and bullocks of the herd--to be explained presently. The beasts of the herd and of the flock signify such things as are in man (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 719, 776), and also from what was said concerning the beasts used in the sacrifices (n. 1823). It may seem surprising that the animals named in the Word, and also those offered in the sacrifices, should signify goods and truths, or what is the same, things celestial and spiritual, but the reason of this may be briefly stated.

[2] In the world of spirits various representatives are presented to view, and withal animals are often presented before the eyes of the spirits there, such as horses variously caparisoned, oxen, sheep, lambs, with other animals of various kinds, sometimes such as are never seen on the earth, but are only representative. Such animals were also seen by the prophets, as described in the Word, and were from the same source. The animals that appear in the world of spirits are representative of affections of good and truth, and also of evil and falsity. Good spirits know perfectly well what they signify, and thus also gather from them what the angels are conversing about; for the speech of angels, passing down into the world of spirits, is sometimes presented in this way. For example, when horses appear, they know that the speech of the angels is about the things of the understanding; when oxen and bullocks, that it is about natural goods; when sheep, that it is about rational goods, and probity; when lambs, that it is about goods still more internal and about innocence; and so on.

[3] As the men of the Most Ancient Church had communication with spirits and angels, and constantly had visions and also dreams such as the prophets had, the consequence was that whenever they saw any beast, there occurred to them the idea of what it signified. Representatives and significatives originated in this way, and remained long after their times; and at length became so venerated from their antiquity that men wrote by mere representatives books not so written being held in no esteem; and those written within the church being of no sanctity. From this and other hidden causes, concerning which of the Lord‘s Divine mercy elsewhere, the books of the Word also were so written.

AC 2180. And took a son of an ox tender and good. That this signifies the celestial natural which the rational associated to itself, in order that it might conjoin itself with the perception from the Divine, is evident from the signification in the Word of a "bullock" or " son of an ox," as being natural good. And as the Lord’s rational is treated of, it is called "tender" from the celestial spiritual, or the truth of good; and "good" from the celestial itself, or good itself. In the genuine rational there is the affection of truth and the affection of good; but its chief thing (primarium) is the affection of truth (n. 2072). Hence it is first called "tender," and yet is called both "tender and good," according to the usual practice in the Word, to indicate the marriage of good and truth (n. 2173).

[2] That a "bullock," or "son of an ox," signifies the celestial natural, or what is the same, natural good, is especially evident from the sacrifices, which were the principal representatives of worship in the Hebrew Church, and afterwards in the Jewish. Their sacrifices were made either from the herd or from the flock, thus from animals of various kinds that were clean, such as oxen, bullocks, he-goats, sheep, rams, she-goats, kids, and lambs; besides turtledoves and young pigeons, all of which animals signified internal things of worship, that is, things celestial and spiritual (n. 2165, 2177); the animals taken from the herd signifying celestial natural things, and those from the flock celestial rational things; and as both the natural and the rational things are more and more interior, and are various, therefore so many kinds and species of those animals were made use of in the sacrifices; as is also evident from its being prescribed what animals should be offered--in the burnt-offerings; in the sacrifices of various kinds, as in those that were daily, those of the Sabbaths and festivals, those that were voluntary, those for thanksgiving and vows, those expiatory of guilt and sin, those of purifying and cleansing, and those of inauguration--and also from their being expressly named, and how many of them should be used in each kind of sacrifice; which would never have been done unless each had signified some special thing. This is very evident from those passages where the sacrifices are treated of (Exod. 29; Lev. 1, 3, 4, 9, 14, 23; Num. 7, 8, 15, 29). But this is not the place to set forth what each one signified. The case is similar in the Prophets where these animals are named, and from them it is evident that "bullocks" signified celestial natural things.

[3] That no other than heavenly things were signified, is also evident from the cherubs seen by Ezekiel, and from the animals before the throne seen by John. Concerning the cherubs the Prophet says:--

The likeness of their faces was the face of a man, and they four had the face of a lion on the right side, and they four had the face of an ox on the left side, and they four had the face of an eagle (Ezek. 1:10).

Concerning the four animals before the throne John says:--

Around the throne were four animals; the first animal was like a lion, the second animal like a young bullock, the third animal had a face like a man, the fourth animal was like a flying eagle saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, who was, and who is, and who is to come (Rev. 4:6-8).

Every one can see that holy things were represented by the cherubs and by these animals, and also by the oxen and young bullocks in the sacrifices. In like manner in the prophecy of Moses concerning Joseph:--

Let it come upon the head of Joseph, and upon the crown of the head of him that was a Nazirite from his brethren. The firstling of his ox, honor is his; and his horns are the horns of the unicorn, with them he shall push the peoples together, to the ends of the earth (Deut. 33:16, 17).

None can understand these things unless it is known what an ox, a unicorn, horns, and other things signify in the internal sense.

[4] As regards sacrifices in general, they were indeed enjoined through Moses on the people of Israel, but the Most Ancient Church, that existed before the flood, knew nothing whatever about sacrifices; nor did it even come into their minds to worship the Lord by slaughtering animals. The Ancient Church, that existed after the flood, was likewise unacquainted with sacrifices. This church was indeed in representatives, but not in sacrifices. In fact sacrifices were first instituted in the following church, which was called the Hebrew Church, and from this spread to the nations, and from the same source they came to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and thus to the descendants of Jacob. The nations were in a worship of sacrifices (n. 1343); and so were Jacob‘s posterity before they went out of Egypt, thus before sacrifices were commanded by Moses upon Mount Sinai, is evident from (Exodus 5:3; 10:25, 27; 18:12; 24:4, 5); and especially from their idolatrous worship before the golden calf,

[5] thus described in Moses:--Aaron built an altar before the calf, and Aaron made proclamation and said, To-morrow is the feast of Jehovah. And they rose up early on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat, and to drink, and rose up to play (Exod. 32:5, 6). This was done while Moses was upon Mount Sinai, and thus before the command concerning the altar and the sacrifices came to them. The command came on this account that the worship of sacrifices had become idolatrous with them, as it had with the Gentiles, and from this worship they could not be withdrawn, because they regarded it as the chief holy thing For what has once been implanted from infancy as holy, especially if by fathers, and thus inrooted, the Lord never breaks, but bends, unless it is contrary to order itself. This is the reason why it was directed that sacrifices should be instituted in the way described in the books of Moses.

[6] That sacrifices were by no means acceptable to Jehovah, thus were merely permitted and tolerated for the reason just stated, is very evident in the Prophets, as we read in Jeremiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah Zebaoth the God of Israel, Add your burnt-offerings to your sacrifices, and eat flesh. I spake not unto your fathers, and I commanded them not in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offering and sacrifice; but this word I commanded them, saying, Obey My voice, and I will be your God (Jeremiah 7:21-23)

In David:--

O Jehovah, sacrifice and offering Thou hast not willed, burnt-offering and sin-offering Thou hast not required. I have desired to do Thy will, O my God (Ps. 40:6, 8).

In the same:--

Thou delightest not in sacrifice, that I should give it; burnt-offering Thou dost not accept. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit (Ps. 51:16, 17).

In the same:--

I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he-goats out of thy folds; sacrifice to God confession (Ps. 50:9, 13, 14; 107:21, 22; 116:17; Deut. 23:19).

In Hosea:--

I will have mercy, and not sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than burnt-offerings (Hosea 6:6).

Samuel said to Saul:--

Hath Jehovah pleasure in burnt-offerings and sacrifices? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, to hearken than the fat of rams (1 Sam. 15:22).

In Micah:--

Wherewith shall I come before Jehovah, and bow myself to the high God? Shall I come before Him with burnt-offerings, with calves of a year old? will Jehovah be pleased with thousands of rams, with ten thousands of rivers of oil? He hath showed thee, O man, what is good; and what doth Jehovah require of thee, but to do judgment, and to love mercy, and to humble thyself in walking with thy God (Micah 6:6-8).

[7] From all this it is now evident that sacrifices were not commanded, but permitted; also that nothing else was regarded in the sacrifices than what is internal; and that it was the internal, not the external, that was acceptable. On this account also, the Lord abrogated them, as was likewise foretold by Daniel in these words:--

In the midst of the week shall He cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease (Daniel 9:27),

where the Lord’s advent is treated of. Concerning sacrifices (n. 922, 923, 1128, 1823). As regards the "son of an ox" which Abraham "made" or prepared for the three men, the case is the same as with that animal in the sacrifices. That it had a like signification is evident also from his telling Sarah to take three measures of fine flour. Concerning the fine flour to a bullock, we read in Moses:--When ye he come into the land; when thou shalt make a son of an ox a burnt-offering or a sacrifice, in pronouncing publicly a vow, or peace-offerings unto Jehovah, thou shalt offer upon the son of an ox a meat-offering of three tenths of fine flour, mingled with oil (Num. 15:8, 9), where it is in like manner "three," here "three tenths," and above, "three measures;" but to a ram there were to be only two tenths, and to a lamb one tenth (Num. 15:4-6).

AC 2181. And gave it to the lad, and he hasted to make it. That this signifies the conjunction of this good with rational good, and that the "lad" is the natural man, is evident from the signification of a "lad" as being one who ministers and administrators; and that which is ministered or done is to make- to wit, the son of an ox, by which is signified natural good, as already shown. That it may be better perceived how this is, be it known that there exist with every man an internal, a rational which is intermediate, and a natural; also that these are distinct from each other (n. 1889, 1940), and are to be made to conform‘, in order that they may make a one-thus rational good with natural good-and that without conformation and thereby conjunction there can be no Divine perception. As in these words the Lord’s Divine perception is treated of, they signify in the internal sense the conformation and conjunction of these two kinds of good.

AC 2182. Verse 8. And he took butter and milk, and the son of an ox that he had made, and set before them; and he stood before them under the tree, and they did eat. "He took butter and milk, and the son of an ox that he had made," signifies all those things thus conjoined together; "butter" is the celestial of the rational, "milk" is the derivative spiritual, a "son of an ox" is the corresponding natural; "and set before them," signifies that He so prepared Himself to receive; "and be stood before them under the tree," signifies derivative perception (the "tree," as before, is perception); "and they did eat," signifies communication in this manner.

AC 2183. He took butter and milk, and the son of an ox that he had made. That this signifies all those things thus conjoined together, is evident from the signification of "butter," of "milk," and of a "son of an ox," to be explained presently. In the verses which precede, the subject was the Lord‘s rational in that it was instructed in the celestial and the derivative spiritual, which are signified by the "meal of fine flour made into a cake" (n. 2176, 2177); and it also was the celestial natural, which is signified by the "son of an ox" (n. 2180). The same things are now expressed by other words, namely, by "butter," "milk," and also a "son of an ox," by which are signified all those things conjoined together.

[2] But these things can with difficulty be described to the ordinary understanding, because to most people it is unknown that every man has an internal, a rational, and a natural, and that these are most distinct from each other, nay, so distinct, that one of them may be dissident from another; to wit, that the rational, which is called the rational man, may be dissident from the natural, which is the natural man; nay, that the rational man can even see and perceive the evil which is in the natural man and, if it is a genuine rational, may chastise it (n. 1904). Before these two have been conjoined together, the man cannot be an entire (or perfect) man, nor can he be in the tranquillity of peace, for the one fights with the other. For the angels who are with the man rule his rational, but the evil spirits who are with him, his natural, and hence comes combat.

[3] If the rational then conquers, the natural is subjugated, and the man is thus gifted with conscience; but if the natural conquers, he can then receive nothing of conscience. If the rational conquers, his natural then becomes as if it also was rational; but if the natural conquers, the rational becomes as if it also was natural. And further, if the rational conquers, the angels then draw nearer into the man, and insinuate to him charity (which is the celestial that comes from the Lord through the angels), and the evil spirits remove themselves to a distance; but if the natural conquers, the angels then remove themselves further away (that is, more toward the man’s interiors), while the evil spirits draw nearer toward the rational, and continually attack it, and fill the lower parts of his mind with hatreds, revenges, deceits, and the like. If the rational conquers, the man then comes into the tranquillity of peace, and in the other life into the peace of heaven; but if the natural conquers, then, while the man lives he appears as if he were in tranquillity, but in the other life he comes into the unrest and torment of hell.

[4] In this way may be known what is the quality of a man‘s state as to his rational, and as to his natural; so that there is nothing else that can make a man blessed and happy but that his natural be conformed to his rational, and both be conjoined together. This is effected solely by means of charity, and charity is solely from the Lord.

AC 2184. That "butter" is the celestial of the rational; that "milk" is the derivative spiritual; and that a "son of an ox" is the corresponding natural, is evident from the signification of "butter," of "milk," and of a "son of an ox.-’ As regards butter, it signifies in the Word what is celestial, and this from its fatness. That fat denotes what is celestial was shown (n. 353); and that "oil," because fat, is the celestial itself, (n. 886). That "butter" also is the celestial, is evident in Isaiah:--

Behold, a virgin beareth a son, and shall call His name Immanuel, Butter and honey shall He eat, that He may know to refuse what is evil, and choose what is good (Isaiah 7:14, 15),

where the Lord (who is "Immanuel") is treated of; and anyone can see that butter is not signified by "butter," nor honey by "honey;" but that by "butter" is signified His celestial, and by "honey" that which is from the celestial.

[2] In the same:--

And it shall come to pass, for the multitude of the making of milk He shall eat butter; for butter and honey shall every one eat that is left in the midst of the land (Isaiah 7:22),

where the Lord‘s kingdom is treated of, and those on earth who are in the Lord’s kingdom. "Milk" here denotes spiritual good, "butter" celestial good, and "honey" the derivative happiness.

[3] In Moses:--

Jehovah alone leadeth him, and there is no strange god with him. He maketh him to ride upon the high places of the earth, and to eat the produce of the fields, and He maketh him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flint of the rock butter of the herd, and milk of the flock, with the fat of lambs, and of rams the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of the kidneys of wheat; and of the blood of the grape shalt thou drink unmixed wine (merum) (Deut. 32:12-14).

No one can understand what these things denote unless be knows the internal sense of each one. It appears like a heap of expressions such as are used by the eloquent among the wise ones of the world, and yet every expression signifies the celestial and its spiritual, and also the derivative blessedness and happiness, and all these in a well-ordered series. "Butter of the herd" is the celestial natural, " milk of the flock" is the celestial spiritual of the rational.

[4] But as regards milk, as before said, this signifies the spiritual from the celestial, that is, the celestial spiritual. What the celestial spiritual is, see (n. 1577, 1824). That "milk" is the spiritual which is from the celestial, comes from the fact that "water" signifies what is spiritual (n. 680, 739) but "milk," as there is fat in it, signifies the celestial spiritual, or what is the same, the truth of good; or what is the same, the faith of love or of charity; or what is also the same, the intellectual of the good of the will; and again the same, the affection of truth in which there is inwardly the affection of good; and yet again the same, the affection of knowledges (cognitiones et scientiae) from the affection of charity toward the neighbor, such as exists with those who love the neighbor, and confirm themselves in this love from the knowledges of faith, and also from memory-knowledges, which they love on this account. All these things are the same as the Celestial-spiritual, and are predicated according to the subject treated of.

[5] That this is signified, is evident also from the Word, as in Isaiah:--

Every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver, come ye, buy, and eat; yea come, buy wine and milk without silver, and without price. Wherefore do ye weigh silver for that which is not bread? (Isaiah 55:1, 2),

where "wine" denotes the spiritual which is of faith, and "milk" the spiritual which is of love. In Moses:--

He hath washed his garment in wine, and his clothing in the blood of grapes; his eyes are redder than wine, and his teeth are whiter than milk (Gen. 49:11, 12),

which is the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel, concerning Judah; and by Judah the Lord is here described, and by his "teeth being whiter than milk," is signified the celestial spiritual that pertained to His natural.

[6] In Joel:--

It shall be in that day that the mountains shall drop new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk; and all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters (Joel 3:18),

speaking of the Lord‘s kingdom "milk" denotes the celestial spiritual. In the Word the land of Canaan also (by which the Lord’s kingdom is represented and signified) is called a "land flowing with milk and honey" (Num. 13:27; 14:8; Deut. 26:9, 15; 27:3; Jer. 11:5; 32:22; Ezek. 20:6, 15), and in these passages nothing else is meant by "milk" than an abundance of celestial spiritual things, and by "honey" an abundance of the derivative happinesses the "land" is the celestial itself of the kingdom, from which those things come.

[7] As regards the "son of an ox," it was shown just above that thereby is signified the celestial natural (n. 2180), the celestial natural being the same as natural good, or good in the natural. The natural of man, like his rational, has its good and its truth; for there is everywhere the marriage of good and truth (n. 2173). The good of the natural is the delight which is perceived from charity, or from the friendship which is of charity; from which delight there comes forth a pleasure which is properly of the body. The truth of the natural is the memory-knowledge (scientificum) which favors that delight. Hence it is evident what the celestial natural is.

AC 2185. And set before them. That this signifies that He thus prepared Himself to receive, is evident from the signification in the internal sense of "setting before them," when the subject treated of is the preparation of the rational to receive perception from the Divine, thus without further explication.

AC 2186. And he stood before them under the tree. That this signifies the derivative perception, follows from the signification of a tree," as being perception (n. 103, 2163). It has been already stated (verse 4), that the three men who came to Abraham lay down under a tree, by which was signified that the Divine approached the perception of that state in which the Lord then was. But it is here said that Abraham stood under the tree, by which is signified that the Lord approached Divine perception, after He had prepared Himself; and this is the reciprocality. Every one can see that it is not without a cause, that mention is made of the three men and of Abraham standing under a tree, consequently that it was said for the sake of the arcana which lie hidden in these things.

AC 2187. And they did eat. That this signifies communication in this manner, is evident from the signification of "eating," as being to be communicated and to be conjoined; as is also evident from the Word. The fact that Aaron, his sons, the Levites, and also the people, ate the hallowed things of the sacrifices in the holy place, signified nothing else than communication, conjunction, and appropriation, as above said at the explication of the passage from (Leviticus 6:9, 10), (n. 2177), for it was celestial and spiritual food that was signified by the hallowed things which they ate, consequently the appropriation of it. The hallowed things were the parts of the sacrifices which were not burned upon the altar, and were eaten either by the priests, or by the people that made the offering; as is evident from many passages where the sacrifices are treated of. What should be eaten by the priests, (Exod. 29:32, 33; Lev. 6:9, 16, 18, 26; 7:6, 15, 16, 18; 8:31; 10:12, 13; Num. 18:9-11); what should be eaten by the people, (Lev. 19:5, 6; Deut. 12:27; 27:7); and that the unclean should not eat of them, (Lev. 7:19-21; 22:4-7). These feastings were made in a holy place near the altar, either at the door, or in the court of the tabernacle and they signified nothing else than the communication, conjunction, and appropriation of celestial goods; for by them were represented celestial foods, concerning which food see (n. 56, 57, 58, 680, 681, 1480, 1695), and they were all called "bread," the signification of which may be seen above (n. 2165). The like was represented by Aaron and his sons eating the showbread or "bread of faces, in a holy place (Lev. 24:9).

[2] The law given for the Nazirite-that in the days of his Naziriteship he should not eat of anything from the grape, whence wine is made, from the seeds even to the skin (Num. 6:4) - was because the Nazirite represented the celestial man, and the celestial man is such that he is not willing even to mention spiritual things (n. 202, 337, 880, 1647); and as wine and the grape, and also whatever is from the grape, signified what is spiritual, it was therefore forbidden the Nazirite to eat of them; that is, to have communication with them, to conjoin himself with them, and to appropriate them to himself.

[3] The like is meant by "eating" in Isaiah:--

Every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver, come ye, buy, and eat yea come, buy wine and milk without silver and without price. Wherefore do ye weigh silver for that which is not bread? and your labor for that which satisfieth not? Hearken diligently unto Me, and eat ye that which is good, and your soul shall be deliciated in fatness (Isaiah 55:1, 2).

As also in John:--

To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the midst of the paradise of God (Rev. 2:7).

The "tree of life" is the celestial itself, and in the supreme sense is the Lord Himself, because from Him is all the celestial, that is, all love and charity. Thus to "eat of the tree of life" is the same as to eat the Lord, and to eat the Lord is to be gifted with love and charity, and thus with those things which are of heavenly life. This the Lord Himself says in John:--

I am the living bread that came down from heaven, if anyone eat of this bread, he shall live to eternity he that eateth Me shall live by Me (John 6:51, 57).

But they said, This is a hard saying. And Jesus said, The words that I speak unto you are spirit, and are life (John 6:60, 63).

[4] Hence it is manifest what is meant by eating in the Holy Supper (Matt. 26:26-28; Mark 14:22, 23; Luke 22:19, 20); namely, to have communication, to be conjoined, and to appropriate to one‘s self. Hence also it is clear what is meant by the Lord’s saying that:--

Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Matt. 8:11),

not that they are to eat with them in the kingdom of God but that they will enjoy the celestial goods which are signified by "Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," namely, the celestial things of love; not only the inmost, which are "Abraham," but also the lower that are intermediate, as are those of the rational, which are "Isaac;" and the still lower, which are the celestial natural, such as are in the first heaven, and which are meant by "Jacob." Such is the internal sense of these words. That these things are meant by "Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," may be seen in (n. 1893), and wherever else they are treated of. For whether we speak of enjoying those celestial things, or of enjoying the Lord, who is represented by those men, it is the same thing; for all those things are from the Lord, and the Lord is the all in all of them.

AC 2188. Verse 9. And they said unto him, Where is Sarah thy wife? And he said, Behold, in the tent. "They said to him, Where is Sarah thy wife?" signifies rational truth, which did not then appear because it was in rational good; "and he said, Behold, in the tent," signifies that it was in what is holy.

AC 2189. They said unto him, Where is Sarah thy wife? That this signifies rational truth, which did not then appear because it was in rational good, is evident from the representation here of Sarah, as being rational truth (n. 2173). How the case is with these things, as also with those which follow, where the state of the rational with the Lord is treated of, which is represented by Sarah, cannot be so well explained to the understanding unless it is known what in general is the state of the rational as to good and as to truth; and with the Lord, as to the Divine and as to the Human in which He then was.

[2] The primary thing of the rational with man is truth (n. 2072), consequently it is the affection of truth, to the end that man may be reformed, and so regenerated. This is effected by means of knowledges (cognitiones et scientifica) that are of truth, which are continually being implanted in good, that is, in charity, that so the man may receive the life of charity. It is on this account that the affection of truth in man is predominant in his rational. For it is the case with the life of charity (which is the heavenly life itself) that with those who are being reformed and regenerated it is continually being born and growing up and receiving increments, and this by means of truths therefore the more of truth there is insinuated, the more is the life of charity perfected; wherefore according to the quality and quantity of truth, so is the charity with a man.

[3] From all this it may in some measure be evident how the case is with man‘s rational in truth, however, there is no life, but in good. Truth is only a recipient of life, that is, of good. Truth is as the clothing or garment of good; therefore also truths are called in the Word "clothing," and also "garments." But when good constitutes the rational, truth disappears and becomes as if it were good. Good then shines through the truth, in the same way as takes place with the angels, for when they appear clothed, it is a brightness inducing the appearance of raiment, as was the case also when angels appeared before the prophets.

[4] This then is what is meant by rational truth not then appearing because it was in rational good, and which is signified by their saying to him, "Where is Sarah thy wife?" But as the Lord’s rational good was then Divine, such as it can be with no angel, it cannot be described otherwise than by comparison, and thus by illustration from something similar, and which is not the same.

AC 2190. And he said, Behold, in the tent. That this signifies that it was in what is holy, is evident from the signification of a "tent," as being what is holy (n. 414, 1102, 1566, 2145). It is said in what is holy, because it was in good. All good is called holy from the fact that it is of love and charity, which are solely from the Lord. But such as are the goods, such are the holinesses. Goods are formed, that is, are born and grow up, by means of the truths of faith, and their quality and quantity are therefore determined by those of the truth of faith implanted in charity (n. 2189), from which it follows that goods or the holinesses differ with every one; and although in the external form they may appear to be alike, yet in the internal forms they are unlike; and this both with those who are out of the church and with those who are within the church. There are more things in the good of charity with a man than man can possibly believe. All the things of his faith are in it, and consequently they are in the holiness of his worship. The quality of the holiness of his worship appears to the angels as in clear day, although the man knows nothing beyond the fact that he is in a certain holy state. Myriads of myriads of his thoughts concerning the goods and truths of faith and of the derivative affections, are in the holiness of his state. But as to the holiness of worship, what it is in general, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy elsewhere.

AC 2191. Verse 10. And He said, Returning I will return unto thee about this time of life; and behold Sarah thy wife shall have a son. And Sarah heard at the door of the tent, and it was behind him. "And He said," signifies perception; "Returning I will return unto thee about this time of life," signifies the conjunction of the Divine with the Lord’s Human; "and behold Sarah thy wife shall have a son," signifies the rational that was to be Divine; "and Sarah heard at the door of the tent," signifies rational truth then near what is holy; "and it was behind him," signifies near the good in which the rational then was, and thus separated from it in so far as anything of the human was in it.

AC 2192. And He said. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification in the historical sense of "saying," as being perceiving (n. 1898, 1919, 2080).

AC 2193. Returning I will return unto thee, about this time of life. this signifies the conjunction of the Divine with the Human, is evident from the fact that the coming of Jehovah to Abraham represented the Divine perception, for receiving which the Lord prepared Himself, consequently it represented conjunction, as shown above; thus by "returning He would return to him," there is signified the like, namely, the conjunction of the Divine with the Human. "At this time of life," means at the same time of the following year.

AC 2194. Behold, Sarah thy wife shall have a son. That this signifies the rational that was to be Divine, is evident from the signification of a" son" and of " Sarah," and also of "Isaac" who should be born to her. Both "son" and "Sarah," and also "Isaac," signify that which is of the Lord‘s rational. That a "son" is truth may be seen above, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147); also that "Sarah" signifies rational truth, (n. 2173); and that "Isaac" signifies the Divine rational, (n. 1893, 2066, 2083). The human with every man begins in the inmost of his rational (n. 2106); and so also the Lord’s Human: that which was above it was Jehovah Himself, differently from any other man whatever. As the human begins in the inmost of the rational, and as the Lord made all the Human that was with Himself Divine, He first made the rational itself so from its inmost, which, when made Divine is represented and signified by "Isaac."

AC 2195. And Sarah heard at the door of the tent. That this signifies that rational truth was then near what is holy, is evident from the representation of Sarah, as being rational truth (n. 2173, 2194), and from the signification of a "tent," as being what is holy (n. 414, 1102, 1566, 2145); and thus from the signification of the "door of the tent," as being the entrance to what is holy, thus near what is holy (n. 2145). How the case is with these things now follows.

AC 2196. And it was behind him. That this signifies near the good in which the rational then was, and separated from it in so far as anything of the human was in it, is evident from the fact that it is said of the door where Sarah was that it was "behind him." To be "behind him" signifies not to be conjoined, but at his back. That which is separated from anyone is represented by a kind of rejection as it were to the back, as is evident from the representatives in the other life (n. 1393, 1875). This is here expressed by its being said that the door where Sarah was, was "behind him."

[2] As regards the merely human rational truth which was then with the Lord being separated from Him when He conjoined Himself with the Divine, the case is this. Human rational truth does not apprehend Divine things, because these are above the sphere of its understanding, for this truth communicates with the memory-knowledges which are in the natural man, and in so far as it looks from these at the things which are above itself, so far it does not acknowledge them. For this truth is in appearances, which it is not able to put off; and appearances are born from sensuous things, which induce a belief as if Divine things themselves also were of a like nature, when yet these are exempt from all appearances, and when they are stated, this rational truth cannot possibly believe them, because it cannot apprehend them.

[3] If for example it is stated that man has no life except what is from the Lord, the rational supposes from appearances that in that case man cannot live as of himself; whereas he for the first time truly lives when he perceives that he does so from the Lord.

[4] The rational supposes from appearances that the good which man does is from himself, and yet there is nothing of good from self, but all is from the Lord.

[5] From appearances the rational supposes that man merits salvation when he does what is good; whereas of himself man can merit nothing, but all merit is the Lord‘s.

[6] From appearances man supposes that when he is withheld from evil and is kept in good by the Lord, there is nothing with him but what is good and just, nay, holy; whereas there is nothing in man but what is evil, unjust, and profane.

[7] From appearances man supposes that when he does what is good from charity, he does it from his will; whereas it is not from his will part, but from his intellectual part, in which charity has been implanted.

[8] From appearances man supposes that there can be no glory without the glory of the world; whereas in the glory of heaven there is not a particle of the world’s glory.

[9] From appearances man supposes that no one can love his neighbor more than himself, but that all love begins from self; when yet in heavenly love there is nothing of the love of self.

[10] From appearances man supposes that there can be no light but that which is from the light of the world; whereas in the heavens there is not one whit of the light of the world, and yet the light is so great that it surpasses the world‘s noon day light a thousand times.

[11] From appearances man supposes that the Lord cannot shine before the universal heaven as a sun; when yet all the light of heaven is from Him.

[12] From appearances man cannot apprehend that in the other life there are motions forward; whereas those who are there appear to themselves to move forward just as do men on earth-in their dwellings, courts, and paradises; and still less can he apprehend if it is said that these movings forward are changes of state, which so appear.

[13] Nor can man from appearances apprehend that spirits and angels, who are invisible before our eyes, can be seen; nor that they can speak with man; when yet they appear to the internal sight, or that of the spirit, more manifestly than man does to man on earth; and their voices are heard as distinctly; besides thousands of thousands of such things, which man’s rational, from its own light, born from things of sense, and thereby darkened, cannot possibly believe. Nay, the rational is blinded in natural things themselves, not being able to apprehend, for instance, how those who dwell on the opposite side of the globe can stand on their feet and walk; and it is the same with very many other things. How blind then must the rational not be in spiritual and heavenly things, which are far above natural things?

[14] As the human rational is of such a character, it is here said of it that it was separated when the Lord in Divine perception was united to the Divine, which is signified by the standing of Sarah (who is here such rational truth) at the door of the tent, and by this being behind him.

AC 2197. Verse 11. And Abraham and Sarah were old, entering into days; it had ceased to be with Sarah in the way as of women. "Abraham and Sarah were old," signifies the Human with the Lord, that it should be put off; "entering into days," signifies that the time was come; "it had ceased to be with Sarah in the way as of women," signifies the state of rational truth, that it could no longer remain so.

AC 2198. Abraham and Sarah were old. That this signifies the Human with the Lord, that it should be put off, is evident from the representation of Abraham and of Sarah; as also from the signification of the "old," or of "old age." Abraham here represents the Lord as to rational good, and Sarah represents the Lord as to rational truth, as has been said repeatedly in this chapter; thus each here represents the Human with the Lord, for the reason, as before said, that Jehovah was now present and spake with Abraham; and Jehovah was the Lord‘s Divine itself, not separate from Him, although it is presented as separate in the historical representatives, for by means of historical things it cannot be represented otherwise. But as regards its being said that "Abraham and Sarah were old," signifying that that human should be put off-" old age" involves nothing else than the last time. "Old age" is mentioned in various places in the Word, as also that men "died;" but in the internal sense no old age, or death, such as those of the body, are ever perceived; but something else that is evident from the series of things; for in the other life old age and death are unknown. What is here meant is evident, as before said, from the series of things, namely, that the Lord was to put off the human.

AC 2199. Entering into days. That this signifies that the time was come, now follows from what has been said. A "day," in the Word, as also a "year," and indeed time in general, signifies state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893). Thus here, to "enter into days" signifies in the internal sense to enter into that state in which He should put off the Human; thus that the time was come.

AC 2200. It had ceased to be with Sarah in the way as of women. That this signifies that it could no longer so remain, is evident from what has been now said; thus without explication.

AC 2201. Verse 12. And Sarah laughed within herself, saying After I am grown old, shall I have pleasure? and my lord old? "Sarah laughed within herself," signifies the affection of that rational truth in regard to its being so done; "saying, After I am grown old, shall I have pleasure?" signifies that it was not of the affection of that truth that it should change its state; "and my lord old," signifies that the affection of truth wondered that the rational good to which truth was adjoined should also put off the human.

AC 2202. Sarah laughed within herself. That this signifies the affection of that rational truth in regard to its being so done, is evident from the signification of "laughing" or of "laughter," as being the affection of truth (n. 2072). What these things involve now follows.

AC 2203. Saying, After I am grown old, shall I have pleasure? That this signifies that it was not of the affection of that truth that it should change its state, is evident from the signification of "growing old," as being to put off the human, and thus to change the state (n. 2198); and from the signification of "shall I have pleasure;"’ as being not to desire; thus that this was not its affection. How the case is with these things is evident from what was said of Sarah above (n. 2196), that she stood at the door of the tent, and it was behind him; that is, that the human rational as to truth is of such a nature that it cannot understand what the Divine is, for the reason that that truth is in appearances; and therefore that which it cannot understand, it does not believe; and by that which it does not believe it is not affected. The appearances in which the rational is, are such as to affect it, for there is delight in the appearances themselves; and therefore if it is deprived of appearances, it supposes that there is nothing of delight left; whereas heavenly affection is not in appearances, but in good and truth itself. As rational truth is of this nature, this is pardoned, and it is permitted to be in appearances, and to have delight in them. Such truth as was in appearances is represented by Sarah, when the Lord had conjoined Himself with the Divine, and therefore it is said that she "stood at the door," and that she "laughed and said, After I am grown old, shall I have pleasure n" by which is signified that it was not of its affection that it should change its state.

AC 2204. And my lord old? That this signifies that the affection of truth wondered that the rational good to which truth was adjoined should also put off the human, is evident from the representation of Abraham, who is here "my lord," as here denoting rational good (n. 2198), also from the signification of "growing old," as being to put off the human (n. 2198). Human rational good is such as to have in itself much from worldly delights, for it is formed not only from truths, but also from the delights of sensuous things, and from many of the delights that are in the world. Into these delights (when the man is being reformed and regenerated) spiritual good is insinuated by the Lord; and thereby what is worldly is then tempered, and thus afterwards has its happiness therein. But the Lord utterly expelled from the rational all that was worldly, and so made it Divine; which is what the rational truth meant by "Sarah" wondered at.

AC 2205. Verse 13. And Jehovah said unto Abraham, Wherefore did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I indeed truly bear, and I am become old? "Jehovah said unto Abraham," signifies the Lord‘s perception from the Divine; "Wherefore did Sarah laugh?" signifies the thought of rational truth from the affection of it; "saying, Shall I indeed truly bear?" signifies that it wondered that the rational should become Divine; "and I am become old," signifies after it should be no longer of such a nature.

AC 2206. Jehovah said unto Abraham. That this signifies the Lord’s perception from the Divine, is evident from the signification of "saying" as being to perceive (n. 1898, 1919, 2080); and from the words "Jehovah said," as being to perceive from the Divine, for as already often shown, the Lord‘s internal itself was Jehovah.

AC 2207. Wherefore did Sarah laugh? That this signifies the thought of rational truth from its affection, is evident from the signification of "laughing," or of "laughter," as being the affection which is of truth (n. 2072); and from the representation of Sarah as being rational truth. This interrogation involves that the Lord perceived that in His rational there was still what was human.

AC 2208. Shall I indeed truly bear? That this signifies that it wondered that the rational was to become Divine, is evident from the signification here in the internal sense of "bearing," to wit, that as the Lord’s Divine rational is represented by Isaac, so to "bear" here signifies Isaac, that is, the rational in that it should be made Divine; which the rational truth represented by Sarah could not comprehend.

AC 2209. And I am become old. That this signifies after it should no longer be of such a nature, namely, not Divine but human, and that this latter should be put off, is evident from the signification of "becoming old," as being to put off the human (n. 2198, 2203). As regards the rational in general, when it thinks about Divine things, especially from its own truth, it cannot possibly believe that there are such things; both because it does not apprehend them, and because there adhere to it the appearances born from the fallacies of the senses by which and from which it thinks; as is evident from the examples adduced above (n. 2196); to which the following may be added for the sake of illustration.

[2] If the rational be consulted, can it believe that the Word has an internal sense, and this so remote from the literal sense as has been shown? and thus that the Word is that which conjoins heaven with earth, that is, the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens with the Lord’s kingdom on earth? Can the rational believe that souls after death speak with each other most distinctly, without the speech of words, and yet so fully as to express more in a minute than a man does by his speech in an hour? and that the angels do the same, but in a speech still more perfect, and one that is not perceivable by spirits? also, that on coming into the other life all souls know how to speak in this way, although they receive no instruction in so speaking? Can the rational believe that in one affection of man, nay, in one sigh, there are such numberless things as can never be described, and yet are perceived by angels? and that every affection of man, nay, every idea of his thought, is an image of him, being such as to contain within it in a wonderful manner all the things of his life? not to mention thousands upon thousands of such things.

[3] The rational, which is wise from sensuous things, and is imbued with their fallacies, when thinking of such things, does not believe that they can be so, because it is unable to form to itself any idea except from such things as it perceives by some sense either external or internal; and what then must be the case when it thinks about Divine celestial and spiritual things, which are still higher? For there must always be some appearances from sensuous things, upon which the thought must lean, and when these appearances are withdrawn, the idea perishes, as has also been evident to me from novitiate spirits, who take the greatest delight in the appearances which they have brought with them from the world, saying that if these should be taken away from them, they did not know whether they could think. Such is the rational as regarded in itself.

AC 2210. Verse 14. Shall anything be wonderful for Jehovah? At the set time I will return unto thee, about this time of life, and Sarah shall have a son. "Shall anything be wonderful for Jehovah?" signifies that everything is possible for Jehovah; " at the set time I will return unto thee," signifies a state that was to come; "about this time of life, and Sarah shall have a son," signifies that the Lord would then put off the human rational, and put on the Divine rational.

AC 2211. Shall anything be wonderful for Jehovah? That this signifies that everything is possible to Jehovah, is evident without explication.

AC 2212. At the set time I will return unto thee. That this signifies a state that was to come, is evident from the signification of "time," as being state (n. 2199). It is here said that Jehovah would "return at the set time," and then "at this time of life," or what is the same, at the present time of the following year. Each expression involves something peculiar, to wit, the "set time" involves the general of that state which is signified by "this time of life," and the general is that it was about to come; but how it was to be is signified by "this time of life." It is usual in the Word, especially in the Prophets, to describe states by double expressions seemingly alike; when yet the one involves the general, and the other something determinate in the general.

AC 2213. About this me of life, and Sarah shall have a son. That this signifies that the Lord would then put off the human rational, and put on the Divine rational, is evident from the signification of "returning at this time of life," or at this present time of the following year, as being the conjunction of the Lord‘s Divine with His Human (n. 2193); and from the signification of Sarah’s "son," as being the rational about to be Divine (n. 2194). This time of life, or the present time of the following year, denotes the time when Abraham should enter upon his hundredth year, by which year is signified the unition of the Lord‘s Human with His Divine and of His Divine with His Human (n. 1988). There then intervened a year, because by a "year" in the Word is not signified a year, but an entire time, and thus a whole period, whether it be of a thousand years, or of a hundred, or of ten, or of hours (n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 893); and also by a "week," (n. 2044).

AC 2214. Verse 15. And Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not, for she was afraid. And He said, Nay, for thou didst laugh. "And Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not, for she was afraid," signifies that human rational truth wished to excuse itself, because it observed that it was not such as it ought to be. "And He said, Nay, for thou didst laugh," signifies that nevertheless it was such.

AC 2215. Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not, for she was afraid. That this signifies that human rational truth wished to excuse itself, because it observed that it was not such as it ought to be, is evident without explication.

AC 2216. He said, Nay, for thou didst laugh. That this signifies that nevertheless it was such, is also evident without explication. How the case is with these things is evident from what is said above (n. 2072) concerning the signification of "laughing," or of "laughter," that it is an affection of the rational, and indeed the affection of truth or of falsity, in the rational, that is the source of all laughter. So long as there is in the rational such an affection as displays itself in laughter, so long there is in it something corporeal or worldly, and thus merely human. Celestial good and spiritual good do not laugh, but express their delight and cheerfulness in the face, the speech, and the gesture, in another way; for there are very many things in laughter, for the most part something of contempt, which, even if it does not appear, nevertheless lies concealed; and laughter is easily distinguished from cheerfulness of the mind, which also produces something similar to it. The state of the human rational with the Lord is described by Sarah’s "laughing;" and thereby is signified with what kind of affection the truth of the rational, at that time separated from good, regarded what was said: that it should be put off, and the Divine put on; not that the Lord laughed, but that He perceived from the Divine what the rational still was, and how much of the human there still was in it, and which was to be expelled. In the internal sense this is what is signified by Sarah‘s "laughing."

AC 2217. Verse 16. And the men rose up thence, and looked toward the faces of Sodom, and Abraham went with them to send them away "The men rose up thence," signifies that that perception came to an end; "and looked toward the faces of Sodom," signifies the state of the human race; "Sodom" is all evil from the love of self; "and Abraham went with them," signifies that the Lord still remained with them in perception, but concerning the human race; "to send them away," signifies that He willed to withdraw from that perception.

AC 2218. The men rose up. That this signifies that that perception came to an end, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as being to go away; and from that of the "men," described above. By the coming of the three men, or of Jehovah, to Abraham, was represented the Lord’s Divine perception, as shown above. The Lord‘s perception from the Divine at that time was first concerning the Divine Trine, which is the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Proceeding. Afterwards it was concerning His Human, that it should put on the Divine. Now follows a perception from the Divine concerning the human race, as regards its quality. These three things are what are treated of in this chapter, and they follow in order, namely, that the Divine assumed the Human, and made this Divine, in order that it might save the human race. Concerning the former two it is said that the perception came to an end, which is meant in the internal sense by the "men rising up;" but the perception concerning the human race, as regards its quality, is signified in the internal sense by their "looking to the faces of Sodom, and by Abraham going with them;" and that the Lord did not will to remain in that perception, is signified by Abraham "going with them to send them away." How the case is with these things can be better seen from the Contents which were premised, as also from the explication of what follows.

AC 2219. They looked toward the faces of Sodom. That this signifies the state of the human race, is evident from the signification of "looking to the faces," here, to the faces of Sodom. By "faces" are signified all man’s interiors, both good and evil, for the reason that they shine forth from the face (n. 358). Here therefore "faces," because predicated of Sodom, signify interior evils, which are those of the love of self, and which evils in general are meant by "Sodom," as will be evident from what now follows. That the worst evils of all originate from the love of self, is because the love of self is destructive of human society (n. 2045), and of heavenly society (n. 2057); and since the perversity of the human race is thence known, by the "faces of Sodom" is here signified the state of the human race.

[2] Moreover it has been shown in various places, what the love of self is, namely, that it is diametrically contrary to the order into which man was created. Man is distinguished above beasts by having a rational given him, to the end that every one may will well and do well to others, as in general so in particular. This is the order into which man has been created, consequently it is love to God and love toward the neighbor that should be man‘s life, and by which he should be distinguished from brute animals. This is also the order of heaven, in which it was intended man should be while he lives in the world; thus in the Lord’s kingdom; and into this kingdom he would pass when he had put off the body that had been of service to him upon the earth, and there he would rise into a state continually advancing in heavenly perfection.

[3] But the love of self is the primary and indeed the only thing that destroys all this; and not so much so the love of the world, for this is indeed opposite to the spiritual things of faith, but the love of self is diametrically opposite to the celestial things of love; for he who loves himself loves no others, but endeavors to destroy all persons whatever that do not pay reverence to him; nor does he will well and do well to anyone, except to him who is a part of himself, or can be captivated so as to be a part of himself, like something inoculated as it were with his cupidities and phantasies. Hence it is evident that from the love of self there gush forth all hatreds, all revenges and cruelties, as also all infamous simulations and deceits, and thus all heinous things against the order of human society and against the order of heavenly society.

[4] Nay, so heinous is the love of self, that when its bonds are relaxed, that is, when opportunity of free range is given it, even with those who are in the lowest condition, it so rushes on, that it not only wills to exercise dominion over neighbors and those near at hand, but also over the universe, and even over the Supreme Divine Itself. Of this the man is indeed ignorant, because he is kept in bonds not well known to him, but in so far as these bonds are slackened (as before said), so far he rushes on; and this it has been given me to know from much experience in the other life. As these things lie hidden in the love of self, they who are in the love of self, and are not endowed with the bonds of conscience, above all others hold the Lord in hatred, consequently all the truths of faith, for these are the very laws of order in the Lord‘s kingdom, and these they reject so as to abominate them, which also shows itself openly in the other life. This love is also the "serpent’s head," which the "Seed of the woman" (that is, the Lord) "treads down" (n. 257).

[5] But the love of self is not always that which appears in the outward form as pride and haughtiness, for sometimes such persons are able to hold the neighbor in charity, for with some such an external is born, and with some it is contracted in early life, but is afterwards subjugated, the external still remaining. But those are in the love of self who despise others and make them of no account in comparison with themselves, and who care nothing for the common good, unless it is for them, and they themselves, as it were, are it, especially those who hate all by whom they are not favored and served, persecuting them, and so far as they are able depriving them of their possessions, honor, reputation, and even life. Let those who breathe such things in intention know that they are pre-eminently in the love of self.

AC 2220. That "Sodom" is all evil from the love of self, is evident from the signification of" Sodom" in the Word. Although in the following chapter it appears as if the evil of the worst adultery was signified by " Sodom," nevertheless in the internal sense nothing else than evil from the love of self is signified by it. In the Word also the abominations that well forth from the love of self are represented by adulteries of various kinds. That "Sodom" signifies in general all evil from the love of self, and "Gomorrah" all falsity therefrom, has been shown (n. 1212, 1663, 1682, 1689), and is further evident from the following passages in the Word. In Jeremiah:--

A sword upon the Chaldeans, and upon the inhabitants of Babel, as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah, and the neighbor cities thereof, saith Jehovah, there shall not a man dwell there, and there shall not a son of man sojourn therein (Jeremiah 50:35, 40).

This passage treats of those signified by the Chaldeans, who are such as have profane falsity in their worship (n. 1368); and of those signified by Babel, who are such as have profane evil in their worship (n. 1182, 1326). Their condemnation is described by the "overthrow of Sodom," that is, of evil in general, and by the "overthrow of Gomorrah," that is, of falsity in general; because they also have in their worship the evil of the love of self, and the derivative falsity.

[2] In Amos:--

I have overthrown you as when God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah; and ye became as a brand plucked out of the burning (Amos 4:11),

where Samaria is treated of, by which is signified the perverted spiritual church, and which in respect to evils in general contrary to the goods of charity is called "Sodom," and in respect to falsities in general contrary to the truths of faith is called" Gomorrah;" and in respect to both (here as previously) is called the "overthrowing of God." In Zephaniah:

Moab shall be as Sodom, and the sons of Ammon as Gomorrah, a forsaken place of the nettle, and a pit of salt, and a desolation even to eternity this shall they have for their pride, because they have reproached and have enlarged upon the people of Jehovah Zebaoth (Zephaniah 2:9, 10),

where" Sodom" denotes evil from the love of self, and "Gomorrah" the derivative falsity, of both of which "desolation‘s is here predicated, as previously was "overthrow." "Pride" is the love of self; to "reproach the people of Jehovah Zebaoth," is to bring evil upon truths; and to "enlarge upon the people," is to bring falsity upon them.

[3] In Ezekiel:--

Thine elder sister is Samaria, that dwelleth at thy left hand, she and her daughters and thy younger sister, that dwelleth at thy right hand, is Sodom and her daughters. Thy sister Sodom hath not done, she and her daughters, as thou hast done, thou and thy daughters. Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom; pride, satiety of bread, and security of ease, were in her and her daughters, and she did not strengthen the hand of the wretched and needy and they became haughty, and committed abomination before Me (Ezekiel 16:46-50),

where the abominations of Jerusalem are treated of, and are described by " Samaria" and " Sodom;" by " Samaria," instead of Gomorrah, as to falsities, and by "Sodom" as to evils; and it is stated what is specifically signified by " Sodom," for it is said, "this was the iniquity of Sodom," to wit that it was the love of self, which is there signified by "pride." That they turned away from the goods of charity, is signified by the "satiety of bread;" that they had acquiesced in these things, is signified by the " security of ease;" that they had no mercy, is described by their "not having strengthened the hand of the poor and needy;" and that all the cupidities thence derived are imbued with the love of self, is signified by their "daughters having become haughty;" the "daughters" are cupidities.

[4] Hence it is manifestly evident what " Sodom" is, thus that it is not according to the historic sense in the following chapter, but that such things are there signified in the internal sense as are described here by the prophet, namely, those which are of the love of self. But Sodom is here described more mildly because the abominations of Jerusalem are treated of as having been greater than those of Sodom, as is also evident from the Lord’s words in Matthew:--

Verily I say unto you, it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment, than for that city (Matthew 10:15; Mark 6:11; Luke 10:12).

In John:--

Their bodies shall lie upon the street of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt (Rev. 11:8),

where it is evident that by "Sodom" is not meant Sodom, nor Egypt by "Egypt," for it is said that it is "spiritually called Sodom and Egypt;" Sodom" denotes all evil from the love of self, and "Egypt" (instead of Gomorrah) all derivative falsity.

AC 2221. Abraham went with them. That this signifies that the Lord still remained with them in perception, but concerning the human race, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense; for to "go with the three men" (that is, with Jehovah) is to be still in perception.

AC 2222. To send them away. That this signifies that He willed to withdraw from that perception, is evident without explication. The reason is also manifest, namely, that the perception from the Divine, and the thought therefrom concerning the human race that such was their quality, struck Him with horror, for the Lord‘s love toward the human race was so great that He willed to save all to eternity by the unition of His Human Essence with the Divine, and of the Divine with the Human, on which account, when He perceived that they were such, He willed to withdraw from the perception and derivative thought, which is signified by Abraham desiring to "send the men away."

AC 2223. Verse 17. And Jehovah said, Shall I hide from Abraham that which I do? "And Jehovah said," signifies perception; " Shall I hide from Abraham that which I do?" signifies that nothing ought to be hidden before the Lord.

AC 2224. Jehovah said. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (n. 1898, 1919, 2080). Here, as it is Jehovah who "said," the meaning is that the Lord perceived from the Divine.

AC 2225. Shall I hide from Abraham that which I do? That this signifies that nothing ought to be hidden before the Lord, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord in that state (as already explained several times in this chapter). That the rest of the words signify that nothing ought to be hidden, is evident. In this case the sense of the letter is similar to the internal sense, as occasionally elsewhere, especially where the essentials of faith are treated of, which, being necessary to salvation, are stated in the letter such as they are in the internal sense; as for example in Moses:--

Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; and thou shalt love Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strengths; and these words shall be upon thy heart (Deut. 6:4-6).

AC 2226. Verse 18. And Abraham shall surely be for a nation great and numerous; and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him. "Abraham shall surely be for a nation great and numerous," signifies that from the Lord will be all good and all the derivative truth; "and in him shall all the nations of the earth be blessed," signifies that all who are in charity will be saved by Him.

AC 2227. Abraham shall surely be for a nation great and numerous. That this signifies that all good and all the derivative truth will be from the Lord, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord, and also from the signification of a "nation," as being good (n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849); here a "nation great and numerous," by which is signified good and the derivative truth That "great" is predicated of good, and "numerous" of truth, appears from other places in the Word, but I must refrain from citing them here. The derivative truth, that is, truth from good, in the genuine sense is spiritual good. There are two kinds of good that are distinct from each other, namely, celestial good and spiritual good. Celestial good is that of love to the Lord, spiritual good is that of love toward the neighbor. From the former, or celestial good, comes the latter, or spiritual good; for no one can love the Lord unless he also loves his neighbor. In love to the Lord is love toward the neighbor; for love to the Lord is from the Lord, and thus is from love itself toward the universal human race. To be in love to the Lord is the same as to be in the Lord; and he who is in the Lord cannot be otherwise than in His love; which is toward the human race and thus toward the neighbor; thus is he in both kinds of good, celestial and spiritual. The former is the veriest good itself; but the latter is its truth, or the truth therefrom; which truth is spiritual good, as said. The former is what is signified by "great," but the latter by "numerous."

AC 2228. All the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him. That this signifies that all who are in charity will be saved by Him, is evident from the signification of being "blessed," as being to be endowed with all goods which are from a heavenly origin, as explained in (n. 981, 1096, 1420, 1422). They who are endowed with goods from a heavenly origin, that is, with both celestial and spiritual goods (n. 2177), are also endowed with eternal salvation, that is, are saved. By "all the nations of the earth" are meant in the internal sense those who are in the good of love and of charity, as is evident from the signification of a "nation," as being good (n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849). That all men in the whole globe are not meant by "all the nations of the earth," is evident to every one, because there are very many among them who are not saved, but only those who are in charity, that is, who have attained the life of charity.

[2] That none may be unaware how the case is with the salvation of men after their decease, it shall be briefly stated. There are many who say that man is saved by faith, or, in their words, if he only has faith; but for the most part they are those who do not know what faith is. Some suppose that it is mere thought; some that it is an acknowledgment of something to be believed; some that it is the whole doctrine of faith, which is to be believed; and others otherwise. Thus in the bare knowledge of what faith is they wander in error, consequently in the knowledge of what that is by which man is saved. Faith, however, is not mere thought, nor is it an acknowledgment of something to be believed, nor a knowledge of all things which belong to the doctrine of faith By these no one can be saved; for they can take root no deeper than in the thought, and thought saves no one, but the life which the man has procured for himself in the world by means of the knowledges of faith. This life remains; whereas all thought which does not accord with the life perishes, even so as to become none at all. The heavenly consociations are according to lives and by no means according to thoughts which are not of the life. Thoughts which are not of the life are counterfeit, and such are altogether rejected.

[3] In general, life is twofold, being on the one hand infernal, on the other heavenly. Infernal life is acquired from all those ends, thoughts, and works which flow from the love of self, consequently from hatred against the neighbor; heavenly life, from all those ends, thoughts, and works which are of love toward the neighbor. The latter is the life to which all things that are called faith have regard, and which is procured by all things of faith. All this shows what faith is, namely, that it is charity, for to charity all things lead which are said to be of the doctrine of faith; in it they are all contained, and from it they are all derived. The soul, after the life of the body, is such as its love is.

AC 2229. Verse 19. For I know him, because he will command his sons, and his house after him, and they will keep the way of Jehovah to do righteousness and judgment; that Jehovah may bring upon Abraham that which He hath spoken concerning him. "For I know him," signifies that it is true; "because he will command his sons, and his house after him, and they will keep the way of Jehovah to do righteousness and judgment," signifies that all the doctrine of charity and faith is from Him; "sons" are they who are in truths, "house," they who are in goods, "way" is doctrine, "righteousness" has regard to good, "judgment" to truth; "that Jehovah may bring upon Abraham that which He hath spoken concerning him," signifies that the Human Essence will for this reason be adjoined to the Divine Essence.

AC 2230. For I know him. That this signifies that it is true, is evident from the signification of "knowing." Properly speaking, to "know (cognoscere)" anyone, is to know (scire) that he is of such and such a quality; and it is the same when the term is applied to any thing, or to anything else: to "know" it means to know that such is its quality; and therefore to "know (nosse)" has reference to that which is predicated, and it signifies that that which is meant in accordance with the series of things is so, or is true.

AC 2231. Because he will command his sons, and his house after him, and they will keep the way of Jehovah, to do righteousness and judgment That this signifies that all the doctrine of charity and faith is from Him, is evident from the signification of a " son," of a "house," of a "way," of righteousness," and of "judgment;" which when summed up, or gathered into one sense, signify all the doctrine of charity and faith. For by "sons" are signified all who are in truths, by "house" all who are in goods, by a "way" the doctrine by which they are instructed, which doctrine in regard to good is signified by "righteousness," and in regard to truth by "judgment." Doctrine concerning good is the doctrine of charity, and doctrine concerning truth is the doctrine of faith.

[2] In general, there is only one doctrine, namely, the doctrine of charity, for (n. 2228) all things of faith look to charity. Between charity and faith there is no other difference than that between willing what is good and thinking what is good (for he who wills what is good also thinks what is good), thus than that between the will and the understanding. They who reflect, know that the will is one thing and the understanding another. This is also known in the learned world, and it plainly appears with those who will evil and yet from thought speak well; from all which it is evident to every one that the will is one thing, and the understanding another; and thus that the human mind is distinguished into two parts, which do not make a one. Yet man was so created that these two parts should constitute one mind; nor should there be any other distinction (to speak by comparison) than such as there is between a flame and the light from it (love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor being like the flame, and all perception and thought being like the light from it); thus love and charity should be the all of the perception and thought, that is should be in each and all things of them. Perception or thought concerning the quality of love and charity is that which is called faith.

[3] But as the human race began to will what is evil, to hate the neighbor, and to exercise revenges and cruelties, insomuch that that part of the mind which is called the will was altogether destroyed, men began to make a distinction between charity and faith, and to refer to faith all the doctrinal matters that were of their religion, and call them by the single term faith; and at length they went so far as to say that they could be saved by faith alone-by which they meant their doctrinal things-provided they merely believed these, no matter how they might live. Thus was charity separated from faith, which is then nothing else whatever (to speak by comparison) than a kind of light without flame, such as is wont to be the light of the sun in time of winter, which is cold and icy, insomuch that the vegetation of the earth grows torpid and dies; whereas faith from charity is like the light in the time of spring and summer, by which all things germinate and bloom.

[4] This may also be known from the fact that love and charity are celestial flame, and that faith is the spiritual light therefrom. In this manner also do they present themselves to perception and sight in the other life; for there the Lord’s celestial manifests itself before the angels by a flaming radiance like that of the sun, and the Lord‘s spiritual by the light from this radiance, by which also angels and spirits are affected as to their interiors, in accordance with the life of love and charity that appertains to them. This is the source in the other life of joys and happinesses with all their varieties. And all this shows how the case is with the statement that faith alone saves.

AC 2232. That "sons" are those who are in truths, is evident from the signification of a "son" in the Word as being truth (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147). By "sons" in the abstract sense are signified truths; but as applied to man, "sons" denote all those who are in truths.

AC 2233. That a "house" denotes those who are in goods, is evident from the signification of a "house," as being good (n. 710, 1708, 2048). By a "house," or those born in the house, in the abstract sense goods are in like manner signified, but as applied to man they denote all who are in good.

AC 2234. That a "way" denotes doctrine, is evident from the signification of a "way." A "way" in the Word is predicated of truths, because truths lead to good and proceed from good (n. 627); and as a "way" is predicated of truths, it denotes doctrine, because doctrine comprises in one complex all the things which lead to good, that is, to charity.

AC 2235. That "righteousness" has regard to good, and "judgment" to truth, is evident from the signification of "righteousness," and from the signification of "judgment." In the Word, "righteousness and judgment" are many times named together, but what they signify in the internal sense has not yet been known. In the proximate sense "righteousness" is predicated of what is righteous or just (justus), and " judgment" of what is right (rectus). There is what is righteous when anything is judged from good, and this according to conscience; but what is right when anything is judged from the law, and thus from the righteousness of the law, thus also according to conscience, because it has the law for its rule. But in the internal sense "righteousness" denotes that which is from good, and "judgment" that which is from truth. Good is all that which be longs to love and charity; truth is all that which belongs to the derivative faith. Truth derives its essence from good, and is called truth from good, just as faith derives its essence from love, and in the same way judgment from righteousness.

[2] That such is the signification of "righteousness and judgment" is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Jeremiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah, Execute ye judgment and righteousness, and rescue the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor. Woe to him that buildeth his house in that which is not righteousness and his chambers in that which is not judgment. Did not thy father eat and drink, and do judgment and righteousness? then he had that which is good (Jeremiah 22:3, 13, 15),

where "judgment" denotes the things that are of truth, and "righteousness" the things that are of good. In Ezekiel:--

If the wicked shall return from his sin, and do judgment and righteousness, all his sins that he hath sinned shall not be mentioned unto him; he hath done judgment and righteousness: he shall surely live. When the wicked turns himself from his wickedness, and does judgment and righteousness, for these he shall live (Ezekiel 33:14, 16, 19),

where in like manner "judgment" denotes truth, which is of faith; and "righteousness" good, which is of charity.

[3] So in Amos:--

Let judgment flow like waters, and righteousness like a mighty river (Amos 5:24).

In Isaiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah, Keep ye judgment, and do righteousness, for My salvation is near to come, and My righteousness to reveal itself (Isaiah 56:1).

In the same:--

To peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it, with judgment and with righteousness, from henceforth and even to eternity (Isaiah 9:7),

denoting that they are in the truths of faith and in the goods of charity. In the same:--

Jehovah is exalted, for He dwelleth on high; He hath filled Zion with judgment and righteousness (Isaiah 33:5),

where "judgment" denotes faith, "righteousness" love, and "Zion" the church. "Judgment" stands first because love comes through faith; but when "righteousness" stands first, it is because the faith is from love, as in Hosea:--

I will betroth thee unto Me to eternity, and I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness and judgment, and in mercy and in compassions; and I will betroth thee unto Me in faith, and thou shalt know Jehovah (Hosea 2:19, 20),

where "righteousness" stands first, as also "mercy," which are of love; and "judgment" follows, as also "compassions," which are of faith from love; both are called "faith" or "faithfulness."

[4] In David:--

Thy mercy, O Jehovah, is in the heavens, thy truth reacheth unto the skies (aetheres). Thy righteousness is like the mountains of God, Thy judgments are a great deep (Ps. 36:5, 6),

where both "mercy" and "righteousness" are in like manner of love, and "truth" and "judgments" are of faith. In the same Truth shall spring out of the earth, and righteousness shall look forth from heaven. Yea, Jehovah shall give good, and our land shall yield its increase (Ps. 85:11, 12), where "truth," which is of faith, denotes " judgment," and "righteousness" love or mercy. In Zechariah:--

I will bring them, and they shall dwell in the midst of Jerusalem, and they shall be My people, and I will be their God in truth and in righteousness (Zechariah 8:8),

from which also it is evident that "judgment" denotes truth, and "righteousness" good; because "truth" is here used in place of "judgment." In like manner in David:--

He that walketh perfect, and worketh righteousness, and speaketh truth (Ps. 15:2).

[5] As faith is of charity, or as truth is of good, the truths of good are occasionally called the "judgments of righteousness;" and thus "judgments" signify almost the same as "precepts;" as in Isaiah:--

They will seek Me day by day, and desire to know My ways, as a nation that doeth righteousness and forsaketh not the judgment of their God they will ask of Me judgments of righteousness, they will desire to draw near to God (Isaiah 58:2).

That "precepts" signify the same may be seen in David:--

Seven times a day have I praised Thee because of the judgments of Thy righteousness; all Thy precepts are righteousness (Ps. 119:164, 172).

It is especially said of the Lord that He "does judgment and righteousness," when He creates man anew as in Jeremiah:--

Let him that glorieth glory in this, that he understandeth and knoweth Me, that I am Jehovah that doeth mercy, judgment, and righteousness in the earth, for in these things I am well pleased (Jeremiah 9:24),

where mercy, which is of love, is described by "judgment and righteousness." In the same:--

I will raise up unto David a righteous offshoot, and He shall reign as King, and shall act intelligently, and shall do judgement and righteousness in the earth (Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15).

[6] Hence it is said in John:--

If I go away, I will send the Comforter unto you; and when He is come, He will reprove the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment of sin, because they believe not on Me of righteousness, because I go unto My father, and ye shall see Me no more; of judgment, because the prince of this world is judged (John 16:7-11).

" Sin" here denotes all unfaithfulness. His "reproving in regard to righteousness" means in regard to all that is against good, when yet the Lord united the Human to the Divine to save the world-which is the meaning of "I go unto My Father and ye shall see Me no more." His " reproving in regard to judgment" means in regard to all that is against truth, when yet evils were cast down into their hells so as no longer to be able to inflict injury-which is meant by the prince of the world being judged. In general, His "reproving in regard to sin, righteousness, and judgment," means that it was in regard to all unfaithfulness against good and truth; and thus that there was no charity and faith; for in ancient times by righteousness and judgment were understood, as regards the Lord, all mercy and grace; and as regards man, all charity and faith.

AC 2236. That Jehovah may bring upon Abraham that which He hath spoken concerning him. That this signifies that on this account the Human Essence will be adjoined to the Divine Essence, is not so evident from the signification of the words as from the fact that all things said in the Word involve the Lord’s coming to unite the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, by which unition He should save the human race. These are the things signified in the internal sense by His "bringing upon Abraham that which He hath spoken concerning him."

AC 2237. Verse 20. And Jehovah said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah has become great, and because their sin has become very grievous. "Jehovah said," signifies perception; "because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah has become great, and because their sin has become very grievous," signifies that the falsity and evil of the love of self have grown even to consummation. "Cry" is falsity, and "sin" is evil.

AC 2238. Jehovah said. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification, in the historical sense, of "saying," as being to perceive, as shown several times before. When the expression "Jehovah said" occurs in the historicals of the Word, it signifies a perception which is not altogether continuous with the previous one, but is a sequent one, and sometimes a new one (n. 2061).

AC 2239. Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah has become great, and because their sin has become very grievous. That this signifies that the falsity and evil of the love of self have increased even to consummation, is evident from the signification of "Sodom," as being evil from the love of self; and of "Gomorrah," as being the derivative falsity (n. 2220); also from the signification of a " cry," as being falsity; and of "sin," as being evil (to be explained presently); from all which it is evident that the "cry having become great, and the sin having become very grievous," signifies that the falsity and evil had come to their height, or to consummation. This is better seen from what follows, where it is said that if ten were found there the city should be spared (verse 32); by which is signified, if there were still any remains, that is, anything of good and truth; for when there is no longer anything of good and truth within man, there is then wasteness and desolation, consequently consummation.

AC 2240. That a "cry" denotes falsity, and "sin" evil, is evident from the signification in the Word of a "cry." That a "cry" signifies falsity, can be evident to no one unless he knows the internal sense of the Word. The word sometimes occurs in the Prophets, and when vastation and desolation are there treated of, it is said that men "howl and cry," by which is signified that goods and truths have been vastated; and a term is there made use of by which in the internal sense falsity is described; as in Jeremiah:--

A voice of the cry of the shepherds, and the howling of the powerful ones of the flock because Jehovah layeth waste their pasture (Jeremiah 25:36),

where the "cry of the shepherds" denotes that they are in falsity, from which there comes vastation.

[2] In the same:--

Behold, waters rise up from the north, and shall become an overflowing stream, and shall overflow the land and the fullness thereof, the city and them that dwell therein and the men shall cry, and every inhabitant of the land shall howl, because of the day that cometh to lay waste (Jeremiah 47:2, 4),

where the desolation of faith is treated of, which is brought about by falsities; the "overflowing stream" is falsity (n. 705, 790).

[3] In Zephaniah:--

The voice of a cry from the fish gate, and a howling from the second, and a great shattering from the hills, and their wealth shall become a spoil, and their houses a desolation (Zephaniah 1:10, 13),

where also a "cry" is predicated of the falsities which lay waste.

[4] In Isaiah:--

In the way of Horonaim they shall rouse up a cry of shattering, for the waters of Nimrim shall be desolations, for the grass has dried up, the herb is consumed, there is no green thing (Isaiah 15:5, 6; Jer. 48:3),

where the desolation of faith and its consummation is described by a "cry."

[5] In Jeremiah:--

Judah hath mourned, and her gates languish, they have been blackened upon the earth, and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up and their illustrious ones have sent their younger ones to the waters they came to the pits, they found no waters, they returned with their vessels empty (Jeremiah 14:2, 3),

where the "cry of Jerusalem" denotes falsities for by their "finding no waters" is signified that there were no knowledges of truth, which are " waters" (n. 28, 680, 739).

[6] In Isaiah:--

I will exult in Jerusalem and be glad in My people, and the voice of weeping shall be no more heard in her, nor the voice of crying (Isaiah 65:19),

where there "not being heard the voice of weeping" denotes that there shall not be evil; "nor the voice of crying" denotes that there shall not he falsity. Very many of these things cannot be understood from the sense of the letter, but only from the internal sense, and this is the case with a "cry."

[7] In the same:--

Jehovah looked for judgment, but behold a scab for righteousness, but behold a cry (Isa. 5:7),

where also the vastation of good and truth is treated of. There is in this passage a kind of reciprocation, such as is occasionally found in the Prophets, and which is of such a nature that in the place of truth there is found evil, which is meant by there being" a scab instead of judgment;" and falsity in place of good, which is meant by there being " a cry instead of righteousness", for that " judgment" is truth, and "righteousness" good, was shown above, (n. 2235).

[8] There is a like reciprocation in Moses, where Sodom and Gomorrah are treated of:--

Of the vine of Sodom is their vine, and of the fields of Gomorrah are their grapes; they have grapes of gall, clusters of bitternesses. (Deut. 32:32),

where there is a similar mode of speaking; for the "vine" is predicated of truths and falsities, and the "fields" and "grapes," of goods and evils so that" the vine of Sodom" is falsity from evil, and "the fields and grapes of Gomorrah" are evils from falsities for there are two kinds of falsity (n. 1212); and so also there are two kinds of evil. Both kinds of falsity and evil are signified in this verse by the " cry of Sodom and Gomorrah having become great, and their sin having become exceeding grievous " as is evident from the fact that "cry" is named in the first place, and "sin" in the second; and yet " Sodom," which is evil from the love of self, is mentioned first; and " Gomorrah," which is the derivative falsity, second.

AC 2241. Verse 21. I will go down, I pray, and I will see whether they have made a consummation according to the cry thereof which is come unto Me, and if not I will know. "I will go down, I pray, and I will see," signifies visitation " whether they have made a consummation according to the cry thereof which is come unto Me, and if not I will know," signifies whether the evil has arrived at its height.

AC 2242. I will go down, I pray, and I will see. That this signifies visitation, is evident from the signification of "going down to see,‘ as being Judgment (n. 1311), consequently that it is visitation. The last time of the church in general, and that of every one in particular, is called in the Word "visitation," which precedes Judgment; thus a "visitation" is simply an exploration as to quality, that is, as to the quality of the church in general, or of a man in particular; and this exploration is expressed in the sense of the letter by Jehovah "going down and seeing."

[2] This shows what is the nature of the sense of the letter, for Jehovah does not go down, since going down cannot be predicated of the Lord, because He is always in the highest; nor does Jehovah see whether a thing be so, for seeing whether it be so cannot be predicated of the Lord, because He knows all things from eternity both in general and in particular. Nevertheless it is so expressed because it appears to man as if it were so, for man is in things that are below, and when anything appears there, he does not think or even know how the case is with things that are above, thus neither how they flow in, for his thought goes no further than to what is nearest to him, and hence he cannot perceive otherwise than that there is some such thing as going down and seeing, and this the more because he imagines that no one knows what he is thinking; besides that he has no other idea than that there is a coming down from on high, and, when said of God, from the highest; whereas it is not from the highest, but from the inmost.

[3] This shows what is the nature of the sense of the letter, namely, that it is according to appearances and if it were not according to appearances, no one would understand and acknowledge the Word; thus no one would receive it. But the angels are not in appearances in the way that man is, and therefore while the Word as to the sense of the letter is for man, as to the internal sense it is for the angels, as also for those men to whom of the Lord’s Divine mercy it is given, while living in the world, to be like the angels.

[4] "Visitation" is mentioned in various places in the Word, and by it is signified either vastation, whether of the church or of each man or deliverance, and thus exploration as to quality. It denotes vastation in Isaiah:--

What will ye do in the day of visitation? it shall come from far. To whom will ye flee for help? and where will ye leave your glory? (Isaiah 10:3).

And again:--

The stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not shine with their light, the sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine, and I will visit evil upon the world, and upon the wicked their iniquity (Isaiah 13:10, 11).

That by the stars and constellations which shall not shine, and the sun which shall be darkened, and the moon which shall not make her light to shine, is signified that there will be no love and no charity, may be seen above (n. 2120); and as this is vastation, it is the "day of visitation."

[5] In Jeremiah:--

They shall fall among them that fall, and in the time of their visitation they shall stumble (Jeremiah 8:12),

meaning the time when they have been vastated, or when there is no charity and faith In Ezekiel:--

The visitations of the city have come near, and every man with his instrument of destruction in his hand (Ezekiel 9:1).

Here also vastation is treated of; hence every man has an instrument of destruction. In Hosea:--

The days of visitation are come, the days of retribution are come (Hosea 9:7).

In Micah:--

The day of thy watchmen, thy visitation, is come; now shall be their perplexity (Micah 7:4),

also denoting vastated charity. In Moses:--

In the day of My visiting, and I will visit upon them their sin (Exod. 32:34),

where the people in the wilderness are treated of, after they had made for themselves the golden calf. That deliverance is signified by "visitation" is plain from many passages (Exod. 3:16; 4:31; Jer. 27:22; 29:10; Luke 1:68, 78; 19:41, 42).

AC 2243. Whether they have made a consummation according to the cry of it which is come unto Me, and if not I will know. That this signifies whether evil has arrived at its height, is evident from the signification of a "cry," as being falsity (n. 2240). As there said (near the end) there are two kinds of falsity, namely, the falsity which is from evil, and the falsity which produces evil. The falsity which is from evil is all that which a man thinks when he is in evil, namely, all that favors his evil; as for example, when he is in adultery, that which he then thinks about adultery: that it is allowable, that it is becoming, that it is the delight of life, that the procreation of offspring is thereby promoted, and so on; all these thoughts being falsities from evil.

[2] But the falsity which produces evil takes place when from his religious belief a man conceives some principle, and consequently believes that it is good or holy, when yet in itself it is evil. For example, he who believes from his religion that there is some man who can save, and therefore worships and adores him, does evil from that falsity; and the same is true in regard to any other religious belief which in itself is false. As therefore falsity is from evil, and falsity produces evil, the expression "cry" is here used, signifying, as a kind of general expression, that which it involves, namely, evil; as is also evident from its being said, "whether they have made a consummation according to the cry of it which is come unto Me;" where "its cry" is put in the singular number, and "they have made a consummation," in the plural.

[3] What a "consummation" is, was shown (n. 1857); and what a consummation is further, may be comprehended from the churches. The Most Ancient Church which was called "Man," was the most celestial of all. This in process of time so far degenerated from the good of love, that at length nothing celestial remained, and then was its consummation, which is described by the state of those just before the flood.

[4] The Ancient Church (which was after the flood and was called "Noah," and was less celestial) also in course of time so departed from the good of charity, that nothing of charity remained, for it was turned partly into magic, partly into idolatry, and partly into a kind of dogmatic system separate from charity; and then was its consummation.

[5] Another church succeeded, called the Hebrew Church, which was still less celestial and spiritual, placing somewhat of holy worship in external rites. This in course of time was distorted in various ways, and that external worship was turned into idolatry; and then was its consummation.

[6] A fourth church was then restored among the posterity of Jacob, which had nothing celestial and spiritual, but only a representative of it; and therefore that church was a church representative of celestial and spiritual things, inasmuch as they did not know what their rites represented and signified; but it was instituted in order that there might still be some connection between man and heaven, such as there is between the representatives of good and truth, and good and truth themselves. This church at length so fell away into falsities and evils that every rite became idolatrous; and then was its consummation. Therefore, after the churches had thus successively declined-- when in the last one the connection between the human race and heaven was altogether broken, insomuch that the human race would have perished because there was no church by which there could be a connection and a bond (n. 468, 637, 931, 2054),

[7] the Lord then came into the world, and by the unition of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence in Himself, conjoined heaven with earth, and at the same time He set up again a new church, called the Christian Church, which at first was in the good of faith, and its members lived in charity with one another as brethren. But in process of time this church has departed in divers ways, and at the present day has become such that its members do not even know that the fundamental of faith is love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor; and although they say from doctrine that the Lord is the Saviour of the human race, that they are to rise again after death, and that there is a heaven and a hell, yet few believe it As this church has become such, its consummation is not far off.

[8] All this shows what "consummation" is, namely, that it is when evil has come to its height. The case is similar in particular, that is, with every man; but how the case is with consummation as regards each person in particular, will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be told in what follows. Consummation is treated of in the Word in various places, and the state which precedes is described by "vastation" and "desolation," which is followed by "visitation."

AC 2244. Verse 22. And the men looked forth thence and went toward Sodom; and Abraham as yet he was standing before Jehovah. "The men looked forth thence," signifies the Lord’s thought from the Divine; "and went toward Sodom," signifies concerning the human race as being in such great evil; "and Abraham as yet he was standing before Jehovah," signifies the Lord‘s thought from the Human which was adjoined in the manner stated above.

AC 2245. The men looked forth thence. That this signifies the Lord’s thought from the Divine, is evident from the signification of "looking forth," as being to think (for to "see," in the internal sense, as in common discourse, is to understand, since understanding is internal sight, and in the same way to "look forth" is to think, which is of the internal sight, that is, of the understanding) and also from the signification of "the men," as being the Divine. In this chapter throughout mention is sometimes made of "the men," and sometimes of " Jehovah" instead of "the men:" when mention is made of "the men" there is signified a Trine, namely, the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Proceeding. The Lord‘s thought from this Divine is signified by "the men looked forth thence." The thought was from the Human conjoined with the Divine, which conjunction was treated of at the beginning of this chapter; but the perception from which came the thought was from the Divine, therefore mention is now made in this same verse of "Jehovah"-- that "Abraham was standing before Jehovah;" and when the Human was conjoined with the Divine, there was also together with them the Proceeding.

AC 2246. They went toward Sodom. That this signifies thought concerning the human race as being in such great evil, is evident from the signification of "Sodom," as being evil from the love of self (n. 2220); and of "looking forth toward the faces of Sodom," as being toward the state of the human race (n. 2219). That "Sodom" signifies the state of the human race as being in such great evil, is because by "Sodom" is not meant Sodom, but all those in the universal world who are in the love of self; and by the description of Sodom is represented the state of all who are in that evil, as is evident from what follows. That the love of self is the fountain of all evils, thus evil itself, is evident from what was said and shown of it before (n. 2045, 2057, 2219), and therefore it is here said that they were in such great evil.

AC 2247. Abraham as yet he was standing before Jehovah. That this signifies the Lord’s thought from the Human which was adjoined in the manner stated above, is evident from the representation of Abraham in this chapter, as being the Lord as to the Human; and from his "standing before Jehovah." Hence it follows without explication, that it was the thought from the Human which was adjoined in the manner stated at the beginning of this chapter, as also above (n. 2245).

AC 2248. Verse 23. And Abraham drew near, and said, Wilt Thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked? "Abraham drew near, and said, "signifies the Lord‘s thought from the Human, which thought adjoined itself more closely to the Divine; "wilt Thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked?" signifies the Lord’s grief from love toward the human race, and His intercession, urging that possibly there might be what is good joined to them, although they were evil.

AC 2249. And Abraham drew near, and said. That this signifies the Lord‘s thought from the Human, which thought adjoined itself more closely to the Divine, follows from the things that precede, where the Lord’s thought concerning the human race is treated of: thus without explication. That in this chapter in the internal sense the state of the Lord‘s thought and perception is so fully described, and at the beginning the state of the conjunction of the Lord’s Human with His Divine, will possibly appear to man as if it were not of so much importance.

[2] And yet it is of the greatest moment; for before the angels, to whom the internal sense is the Word, these things are presented to the life, together with their representatives, in a most beautiful form; besides numberless things that follow from them and bear their likeness, concerning the Lord‘s conjunction with heaven, and the reception of His Divine in their human; for the ideas of angels are such that they relish such things above all others, and perceive them as being most pleasant; and they are also enlightened and confirmed by them more and more in regard to the unition of the Lord’s Human Essence with His Divine Essence; for the angels have been men, and when men they could not but think of the Lord as a man, and of the Lord as God, as also of the Divine Trinity, and form for themselves various ideas, although at that time they knew not of what quality these ideas were.

[3] For heavenly arcana are of such a nature that although they surpass all apprehension, yet every one forms for himself some idea of them; for nothing can possibly be retained in the memory, still less enter into anything of thought, except by means of some idea formed in one way or another. And because their ideas could not be formed otherwise than from things in the world, or from things analogous to those in the world; and because fallacies then insinuated themselves from things not understood (which in the other life alienate the ideas of the though--which are then more internal--from the truth and good of faith),

[4] in order that such things may be dispersed, so much is said in this chapter, in its internal sense, about the conjunction of the Lord‘s Human with His divine, and about His perception and thought; and accordingly when the Word is read, these things are so presented to the perception of the angels that their former ideas, formed from other sources and from scruples easily springing therefrom, are gradually dissipated, and new ideas are insinuated that are in conformity with the light of truth in which the angels are. This takes place more with the spiritual angels than with the celestial; for according to the purification of their ideas are they perfected for the reception of celestial things. It is known that heaven is not pure before the Lord; and it is a truth that the angels are continually being perfected.

AC 2250. Wilt Thou also destroy the righteous with the wicked? That this signifies the Lord’s grief from love toward the human race, and His intercession urging that possibly there might be what is good adjoined to them although they were evil, is evident from the zeal of love that here shines forth, and still more in (verse 25) just below, where it is said, "Be it far from Thee to do according to this thing, to cause the righteous to die with the wicked, that so the righteous be as the wicked; be it far from Thee; shall not the Judge of all the earth do judgment?" The same is evident from the signification of "the righteous" as being good (n. 612, 2235), and from the signification of "the wicked" as being opposite to "the righteous," that is, opposite to good, thus evil. It is likewise evident from these words, as also from the things that follow in this chapter, that there is intercession. The Lord‘s intercession for the human race existed at the time when He was in the world, and in fact when He was in a state of humiliation, for as before said, He then spoke with Jehovah as with another. But of course in His state of glorification when the Human Essence has become united to the Divine Essence, and is itself also Jehovah, He does not intercede, but has mercy and affords aid from His Divine, and saves. It is Mercy itself which is the intercession, for such is its essence.

AC 2251. Verse 24. Peradventure there be fifty righteous in the midst of the city; wilt Thou also destroy and not scare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are in the midst of it? "Peradventure there be fifty righteous in the midst of the city," signifies that possibly the truths may be full of goods; "wilt Thou also destroy and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are in the midst of it?" signifies intercession from love, that in such case they should not perish.

AC 2252. Peradventure there be fifty righteous in the midst of the city. That this signifies that the truths may possibly be full of goods, is evident from the signification of "fifty," as being what is full; from the signification of righteous" as being good (n. 612, 2235); from that of the "midst," as being what is within (n. 1074); and from that of "city," as being truth (n. 402). Thus "fifty righteous in the midst of the city," means in the internal sense that truths may possibly be full of goods within. That there is this meaning in these words cannot be seen from the letter, for the historicals of the literal sense lead the mind in quite a different direction, that is, to different thoughts and yet that these words are so perceived by those who are in the internal sense, I know of a certainty. The numbers themselves also, as here "fifty," and in what follows "forty-five," " forty," "thirty," "twenty," and "ten," are by no means perceived as numbers by those who are in the internal sense, but as real things or states (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 2075).

[2] For the ancients marked the states of their church--in one way by numbers; and the nature of their computation in so doing is evident from the signification of the numbers in the places just referred to. They had the signification of numbers from the representatives which exist in the world of spirits, where, when anything appears as numbered, it does not signify anything that is determined by the numbers, but the thing or state itself; as is evident from the things that have been adduced (n. 2129, 2130, 2089), concerning "twelve," as meaning all the things of faith. It is similar with the numbers which now follow. This shows what is the nature of the Word in the internal sense.

[3] That "fifty" signifies what is full, comes from its following next after the product of seven into seven, or forty-nine, so that it is the impletion of this number, on which account there was in the Representative Church the festival of the Seven Sabbaths on the fiftieth day, and the Jubilee in the fiftieth year. As regards the festival of the seven sabbaths we read in Moses:--

Ye shall count unto you from the morrow of the sabbath, from the day that ye brought the sheaf of the wave-offering, seven entire sabbaths shall there be, even unto the morrow of the seventh sabbath shall ye count fifty days, and ye shall offer a new offering unto Jehovah (Lev. 23:15).

And concerning the Jubilee:--

Thou shalt count for thee seven sabbaths of years, seven years seven times, and they shall be to thee seven sabbaths of years, nine and forty years, and ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty in the land to all the inhabitants thereof it shall be a jubilee unto you (Lev. 25:8, 10),

which shows that the fiftieth is what is full in relation to sad baths.

[4] Moreover, wherever " fifty" is mentioned in the Word, it signifies what is full; as when it is said that The Levites were numbered from a son of thirty years and upward, even unto a son of fifty years (Num. 4:23, 35, 39, 43, 47; 8:25); meaning the full or final state of discharging the ministry. That a man lying with a damsel, a virgin, shall give unto the damsel’s father fifty pieces of silver, and she should be to him for a wife, nor could be put her away (Deut. 22:29), which denotes a full fine and full restitution. David‘s giving to Araunah for the threshing-floor where he built the altar to Jehovah, fifty shekels of silver (2 Sam. 24:24), denotes a full price and a full purchase. Absalom’s preparing for himself a chariot and horses, and having fifty men running before him (2 Sam. 15:1), and in like manner Adonijah‘s having chariots and horsemen, and fifty men running before him (1 Kings 1:5), denotes full excellence and greatness. For they had from the ancients certain representative and significative numbers, which they observed, and which were also commanded in their rites; but most of them did not know what they signified.

[5] And in the same way, as "fifty" signifies what is full, and as this number was also representatives--already said--the same thing is signified by it in the Lord’s parable of the steward, who said to him that owed the oil:--

How much owest thou unto my lord? and he said, a hundred baths of oil. And he said unto him, take thy bond, and sit down quickly, and write fifty (Luke 16:6);

"fifty" denoting full payment. As fifty is a number, it indeed appears to involve nothing beyond the number; whereas in the internal sense what is full is everywhere meant by it, as in Haggai:--

One came to the wine-press to draw out fifty out of the wine-press; there were twenty (Haggai 2:16),

that is, instead of fullness there was not much. "Fifty" could not have been mentioned here in the Prophet unless it had been significative.

AC 2253. Wilt thou also destroy and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are in the midst of it? That this signifies intercession from love--that they should not perish--is evident from the signification of "fifty," and of righteous," as also of "the midst of it," that is, of the city (n. 2252), all of which thing involve intercession from love, and that they should not perish. Regarding intercession see (n. 2250). That it was from love is also manifest. With the Lord, when He was in the world, there was no other life than the life of love toward the universal human race, which He ardently desired to eternally save. This is the veriest celestial life, by which He united Himself to the Divine, and the Divine to Himself--for Esse itself, or Jehovah, is nothing else than Mercy, which is of love to the universal human race--and that life was one of pure love, which is never possible with any man. They who do not know what life is, and that the life is such as the love, do not comprehend this. This shows that in so far as anyone loves his neighbor, in so far he partakes of the Lord‘s life.

AC 2254. Verse 25. Be it far from Thee to do according to this thing, to cause the righteous to die with the wicked, that so the righteous be as the wicked; be it far from Thee; shall not the Judge of all the earth do judgment? "Be it far from Thee to do according to this thing," signifies the Lord’s horror; "to cause the righteous to die with the wicked, that so the righteous be as the wicked," signifies that good cannot die, because evil can be separated from it; "be it far from Thee," signifies a greater degree of horror; "shall not the Judge of all the earth do judgment?" signifies that the Divine good cannot do this, after the manner of truth separated from good.

AC 2255. Be it far from Thee to do according to this thing. That this signifies the Lord‘s horror, is evident without explication.

AC 2256. To cause the righteous to die with the wicked, that so the righteous be as the wicked. That this signifies that good cannot die, because evil can be separated from it, is evident from the signification of "righteous," as being good, and of "wicked," as being evil (n. 2250). Hence to "cause the righteous to die with the wicked," is to make good die with evil. As this ought not to be done, and causes horror to think of, it is removed in the internal sense, and then there is presented this that good cannot die, because evil can be separated from it.

[2] How this matter stands, is known to few, if any. Be it known that all the good a man has thought and done from infancy even to the last of his life, remains in like manner all the evil, so that not the least of it completely perishes. Both are inscribed on his book of life (that is, on each of his memories), and on his nature (that is, his native disposition and genius). From these he has formed for himself a life, and so to speak a soul, which after death is of a corresponding quality. But goods are never so commingled with evils, nor evils with goods, that they cannot be separated; for if they should be commingled, the man would eternally perish. In relation to this the Lord exercises His providence, and when a man comes into the other life, if he has lived in the good of love and of charity, the Lord then separates his evils, and by what is good with him elevates him into heaven. But if he has lived in evils, that is, in things contrary to love and charity, the Lord then separates from him what is good, and his evils bring him into hell. Such is the lot of every one after death; but it is a separation, and in no wise a complete removal.

[3] Moreover, as the will of man, which is the one part of his life, has been utterly destroyed, the Lord separates this destroyed part from the other which is his intellectual part, and in those who are being regenerated, implants in this intellectual part the good of charity, and through this a new will; these are they who have conscience. Thus also, speaking generally, the Lord separates evil from good. These are the arcana which are meant in the internal sense by the statement that good cannot die, because evil can be separated from it.

AC 2257. Be it far from Thee. That this signifies a greater degree of horror, is evident from the words being repeated; thus it also needs no explication.

AC 2258. Shall not the Judge of all the earth do judgment? That this signifies that the Divine good cannot do this after the manner of truth separated from good, is evident from the signification of the "Judge of all the earth," as also from the signification of judgment." The "Judge of all the earth," signifies in the internal sense the good itself from which comes truth; which also in the representative Church was represented by the priests who were at the same time judges; for as priests they represented the Divine good, and as judges the Divine truth; but the "Judge of all the earth" means both, and this from the signification of "earth." But to prove these things now from the representatives of that church wood be too tedious. "Judgment," however, signifies truth (n. 2235). From these significations, and at the same time from the series of things in the internal sense, it is evident that " Shall not the Judge of all the earth do judgment?" signifies that the Divine good cannot do this after the manner of truth separated from good.

[2] In order to the understanding of these things, be it known that there are two things which constitute the order of the universal heaven, and thence in the universe, namely, Good and Truth. Good is the essential of order, all the things of which are mercies. Truth is the secondary of order, all the things of which are truths. The Divine good adjudges all to heaven, but the Divine truth condemns all to hell; and therefore unless the Lord’s Mercy, which is of good, were eternal, all men, however many, would be condemned. This is what is signified by the statement that the Divine good cannot do this after the manner of truth separated from good (n. 1728).

[3] That the evil are nevertheless condemned to hell, is not because the Divine good is separated from the Divine truth, but because the man separates himself from the Divine good. For the Lord in no case sends anyone down into hell, but the man sends himself, as has been already stated a number of times. In the following respect also the Divine good is conjoined with the Divine truth: that unless the evil were separated from the good, the evil would do harm to the good, and would be continually endeavoring to destroy order: thus that the good may not be harmed, is of Mercy. This stands just as in the kingdoms of the earth. If evils were not punished, the whole kingdom would be infected with evils, and so would perish for which reason kings and judges show more mercy in punishing evils and in expelling from society those guilty of them, than by exercising in their behalf an unseasonable clemency.

AC 2259. Verse 26. And Jehovah said, If I find in Sodom fifty righteous in the midst of the city, I will spare all the place for their sake. "Jehovah said," signifies perception; "If I find in Sodom fifty righteous in the midst of the city," signifies here as before, if truths are full of goods; "I will spare all the place for their sake," signifies that they will be saved.

AC 2260. Jehovah said. That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of "Jehovah‘s saying," in the historic Word, as being representative of the Lord’s perception from the Divine, and something of thought following therefrom, and some reply. Concerning the expression "Jehovah said," see (n. 2238).

AC 2261. If I find in Sodom fifty righteous in the midst of the city. That this signifies if truths are full of goods, is evident from the signification of "fifty," as being what is full, and from the signification of "the midst of the city," as being within truth, or in truth (n. 2252). It may be supposed that a man cannot but be saved if truths are full of goods. But be it known that there are very few truths with man, and that if there are any, they have no life unless there are goods in them; and that if there are goods in them, he is saved, but from Mercy. For, as before said, the truths with man are very few; and the goods which are in them have their quality in accordance with the truths, and the man‘s life.

[2] Regarded in themselves, truths do not give life. It is goods that give life. Truths are only recipients of life, that is, of good. And therefore no one can ever say that he can be saved by truths (or as the common expression is, by faith alone), unless there is good in the truths which are of faith, and this good that must be in the truths must be the good of charity; hence faith itself, in the internal sense, is nothing else than charity (n. 2231). As regards people’s saying that the acknowledgment of truth is the faith that saves, be it known that with those who live in things contrary to charity, there cannot possibly be any acknowledgment but only persuasion, to which there has been adjoined the life of the love of self or of the world; thus in the acknowledgment they refer to there is not the life of faith, which is that of charity. The worst men of all--from the love of self or the world, that is, for the sake of being eminent above others in what is called intelligence and wisdom, and thus of winning honors, reputation, and gains--can learn the truths of faith, and confirm them by many things; but still with them these truths are dead.

[3] The life of truth, and thus of faith, is solely from the Lord, who is life itself. The Lord‘s life is mercy, which is that of love toward the universal human race. In the Lord’s life those can in no wise have part who although they profess the truths of faith despise others in comparison with themselves, and who, when their life of the love of self and of the world is touched, hold the neighbor in hatred, and take delight in his loss of wealth, of honor, of reputation, and of life. But the case with the truths of faith is that by means of them man is regenerated, for they are the veriest vessels recipient of good. Such therefore as are the truths, and such as are the goods in the truths, and such as is their conjunction and the consequent capability of being perfected in the other life, such is the state of blessedness and happiness after death.

AC 2262. I will spare all the place for their sake. That this signifies that they will be saved, follows from the series as a conclusion, and thus without explication. "Place" signifies state (n. 1273, 1378), and therefore it is here said the "place" instead of the "city," to signify that they who are in such a state would be saved.

AC 2263. Verse 27. And Abraham answered and said, Behold I Pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord, and I am dust and ashes. "Abraham answered and said," signifies the Lord‘s thought from the human; "Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord, and I am dust and ashes," signifies the humiliation of the human as to its relative quality.

AC 2264. Abraham answered and said. That this signifies the Lord’s thought from the human, is evident from the signification of "Abraham" in this chapter, as being the Lord in respect to the human, concerning which several times above.

AC 2265. Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord, and I am dust and ashes. That this signifies the humiliation of the human as to its relative quality, is evident. The Lord‘s state in the human (or His state of humiliation), and the Lord’s state in the Divine (or His state of glorification), have been treated of several times before; and it has been shown that in His state of humiliation the Lord spoke with Jehovah as with another; but in His state of glorification, as with Himself (n. 1999). As in the present passage Abraham represents the Lord in His human, it is said in that state that relatively to the Divine the human is dust and ashes; on which account that state is also called His state of humiliation. The humiliation results from the self-acknowledgment that one is relatively of such a character. By the human in this place is not meant the Divine Human, but the human which the Lord derived from the mother, and which He utterly expelled, and put on in its stead the Divine Human. It is the former human, namely, the maternal human, of which "dust and ashes" are here predicated. (n. 2159).

AC 2266. Verse 28. Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous; wilt Thou destroy all the city for five? and He said, I will not destroy it if I find there forty and five. "Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous," signifies if there should be somewhat less; "wilt thou destroy all the city for five?" signifies, shall man perish for the little which is wanting? "and He said, I will not destroy it if I find there forty and five," signifies that he should not perish if good and truth could be conjoined together.

AC 2267. Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous. That this signifies if there should be somewhat less, is evident from the signification of "five," as being a little, or less, in regard to which signification of this number, see (n. 649). What the "fifty righteous" signify, has been shown above (n. 2252).

AC 2268. Wilt Thou destroy all the city for five? That this signifies shall man perish for the little which is wanting, is evident from the signification of "five," as being (as just stated) and from the signification of a "city," as being truth, also explained before. In regard to the truths in it the human mind is compared in the Word to a "city," and is also so called; and in regard to the goods which are in the truths, it is compared to the inhabitants of the city, and the goods are also called; for the case as regards these is much the same. If the truths which are in man‘s memories, and in the thoughts of his mind, are devoid of goods, they are like a city without inhabitants, and are in the same way vacant and empty. Nay, even of the angels it may be declared that when a man lives in love to the Lord, and in charity toward the neighbor, they dwell as it were in his truths, and insinuate affections of good from the Lord; for they are delighted to dwell this, that is, to live with such men. Very different is it with those who are in some truths, but in no goods of charity.

AC 2269. And He said, I will not destroy it if I find there forty and five. That this signifies that man should not perish if good and truth could be conjoined together, is evident from the signification of the number forty-five, as being conjunction. It has been already shown that the simple numbers retain their signification even when they are multiplied; and that consequently the greater numbers have a signification similar to that of the less and such is the case with forty-five, which number is compounded by the multiplication of five into nine; and as it has been compounded by the multiplication of five into nine, it has the same signification as have "five" and "nine." That "five" signifies a little, was shown above (n. 649), and that "nine" signifies conjunction, or what is conjoined (n. 2075); and thus the signification here is: If goods have in some measure been conjoined with truths. That in the Word numbers signify actual things, or states, is evident from what was said about fifty (n. 2252); also from what has been shown before concerning numbers (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988).

[2] It is because "five" signifies a little, and "forty-five" conjunction, that the very setting forth of these numbers in this verse is of such a nature, for it is said, "Peradventure there shall lack five of the fifty righteous;" and by this is signified, If there should be somewhat less; and then it is said, "Wilt Thou destroy all the city for five?" by which is signified, Shall they perish for the little which is wanting? for as "five" signifies a little, this number is not employed again, but it is said, "I will not destroy it if I find there forty and five;" by which is signified that they would not perish if good and truth could be conjoined together. The reason also of its being said here "forty and five," and not "if there lack five of fifty," is because "five" not only signifies a little (n. 649), but also signifies disjunction (n. 1686); and therefore in order that not disjunction, but conjunction, might be signified, this number forty-five is named; for " forty-five" denotes some conjunction, as stated above; and thus in the internal sense all things follow on in a beautiful sequence Of their own.

[3] As regards the conjunction of good with truth, it is an arcanum which cannot be described so that it can be grasped by the ordinary comprehension. It must be told in a few words. The more genuine and pure the truth, the better can the good which is from the Lord be adapted into it as its recipient vessel; but the less genuine and pure the truth, the less can the good which is from the Lord be adapted into it; for they must correspond to each other, and the conjunction of the two is effected according to the correspondence. Goods cannot possibly be insinuated into falsities, nor evils into truths, as their recipient vessels; for they are of a contrary character and nature, the one casting out the other as its enemy; nay, should they attempt to conjoin themselves together, the one would spew out the other, that is to say, good would spew out evil as if it were poison, and evil would spew out good as if it were an emetic. Such enmity between good and evil has been provided by the Lord in order to prevent the possibility of their being commingled, for if they were commingled, the man would perish. In the deceitful and in hypocrites they are not far from being conjoined together, but still precautions are taken by the Lord in order to prevent their being so conjoined. This is the reason why in the other life those who are deceitful and those who are hypocrites suffer things more direful than those which are suffered by any others.

AC 2270. Verse 29. And he added yet to speak unto Him, and said, Peradventure forty shall be found there; and He said, I will not do it for forty’s sake. "He added yet to speak unto Him," signifies thought; "and said, Peradventure forty shall be found there," signifies those who have been in temptations; "and He said, I will not do it for forty‘s sake," signifies that they shall be saved.

AC 2271. He added yet to speak unto Him. That this signifies thought, is evident from the signification in the internal sense of "speaking." To "speak" or "speaking" is nothing else than that which flows forth from the thought; and as internal things are signified by external things--like understanding by "seeing," the understanding by the "eye," obedience by the "ear," and so forth--so thinking is signified by "speaking."

AC 2272. And he said, Peradventure forty shall be found there. That this signifies those who have been in temptation, is evident from the signification of the number forty, as being temptations (n. 730). How these things follow on in a series may be seen from temptations. Temptations take place to the end not only that the man may be confirmed in truths, but also that truths may be more closely conjoined with goods; for man is then battling for truths against falsities, and as he is then in interior distress and in torment, the delights of the life of cupidities and their derivative pleasures come to a cessation; and then goods flow in from the Lord, the consequence of which is that evils are at the same time regarded as abominable, and the effect of this is new thoughts of a nature contrary to those possessed before, to which the man may afterwards be bent, thus from evils to goods, and these goods be conjoined with truths. And as the conjunction of good with truth is effected by means of temptations, and as it has been said in a former verse that those would be saved with whom goods can be conjoined with truths, therefore there follows what is here said; and indeed in such words as to signify that goods and truths can be conjoined by means of temptations. This is the connection of the subject matters for those who are in the internal sense.

AC 2273. And He said, I will not do it for forty’s sake. That this signifies that they will be saved, is evident without any unfolding of the meaning. As regards those who in the preceding verse are signified by "forty-five," it was said, "I will not destroy it if I find forty and five," and the signification was that they should not perish if goods were able to be conjoined with truths, and there here follows a statement concerning the forty: "I will not do it for forty‘s sake;" by which is not signified that they should be saved on account of temptations, for there are some who even undergo temptations and who yield in them; and therefore with these goods are not conjoined. I would even say that a man is not saved on account of temptations if he places anything of merit in them; for if he does this, it is from the love of self, in that he congratulates himself on their account, and believes that he has merited heaven more than others, and at the same time he is thinking of his own preeminence over others by despising others in comparison with himself; all of which things are contrary to mutual love, and therefore to heavenly blessedness.

[2] The temptations in which a man overcomes are attended with a belief that all others are more worthy than himself, and that he is infernal rather than heavenly; for while in temptations such ideas are presented to him; and therefore when after temptations he comes into thoughts contrary to these, it is an indication that he has not overcome; for the thoughts which the man has had in temptations are those to which can be bent the thoughts which he has after the temptations and if the latter cannot be bent to the former, the man has either yielded in the temptation, or he again comes into similar ones, and sometimes into more grievous ones, until he has been reduced to such sanity that he believes he has merited nothing. Hence it is evident that by "forty" are here signified those with whom by means of temptations goods have been conjoined with truths.

AC 2274. Verse 30. And he said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak: peradventure thirty shall be found there; and He said, I will not do it if I find thirty there. "And he said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak," signifies anxiety concerning the human race; peradventure thirty shall be found there," signifies somewhat of combat; "and He said, I will not do it if I find thirty there," signifies that these shall be saved.

AC 2275. And he said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak. That this signifies anxiety concerning the state of the human race, may be seen, not so much from the words, as from the affection that belongs to them. The internal sense of the Word contains within it two things, to wit, what is spiritual, and what is celestial. That which is spiritual consists in there being comprehended, abstractedly from the letter, actual thing’ to which the literal sense serves as an object, just as do those things which the eye sees, when they serve as objects for suggesting thought about matters of a more exalted nature. That which is celestial consists in there being solely perceived the affection that belongs to the actual things that are in the internal sense. In the former are the spiritual angels, in the latter are the celestial angels. They who are in the latter, that is, in the affection, perceive at once from the affection alone what the letter involves when it is being read by man, and from it they form for themselves celestial ideas, and this with endless variety, and in an ineffable manner, in accordance with the onflowing harmony of the celestial things of love that are in the affection. From this we may see what the Word of the Lord contains within its remote recesses. When therefore these words are read: "Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak," the celestial angels at once perceive a certain anxiety, and indeed the anxiety of love toward the human race and at the same time there are insinuated into them in numerable and ineffable things in regard to the anxiety of love which the Lord felt when He thought about the state of the human race.

AC 2276. Peradventure thirty shall be found. That this signifies somewhat of combat, is evident from the signification of the number thirty. That "thirty" signifies somewhat of combat, thus but a little of combat, comes from the fact that this number is compounded by the multiplication of five (by which is signified some little), and six (by which is signified labor or combat (n. 649, 720, 737, 900, 1709).

[2] Hence also this number, wherever read in the Word, signifies something that is relatively little; as in Zechariah:--

I said unto them, If it be good in your eyes, give me my hire and if not, forbear and they weighed my hire, thirty pieces of silver. And Jehovah said unto me, Cast it unto the potter, the goodly price whereat I was valued by them and I took the thirty silver pieces, and cast it to the potter in the house of Jehovah (Zechariah 11:12, 13);

denoting that they valued so little the Lord‘s merit, and redemption and salvation by Him. The "potter" denotes reformation and regeneration.

[3] Hence the same thirty silver pieces are spoken of in Matthew:--

They took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him whom they had bought from the sons of Israel, and gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me (Matthew 27:9, 10);

from which it is plainly evident that "thirty" here denotes the price of what is but little valued. The valuation of a servant who was held as being of little account, was thirty shekels; as is evident in Moses:--

If the ox gore a manservant, or a maidservant, he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver; and the ox shall be stoned (Exod. 21:32).

Of how little account a servant was held, is evident in the same chapter (Exodus 21:20, 21). In the internal sense a "servant" denotes labor.

[4] That the Levites were taken for the work of the ministerial office--which is described by the expression "one coming to exercise warfare, and to do the work in the tent"--from a "son of thirty years to one of fifty" (Num. 4:3, 23, 30, 35, 39, 43), was because "thirty" signified those who were being initiated, and who therefore could as yet exercise but little warfare as understood in the spiritual sense.

[5] So in other passages where "thirty" is named in the Word; as that they should offer "upon a son of an ox a meat-offering of three tenths" (Num. 15:9); which was because the sacrifice of an ox represented natural good (n. 2180); and natural good is but little in comparison with spiritual good, which was represented by the sacrifice of a ram; and still less in comparison with celestial good, which was represented by the sacrifice of a lamb; in connection with which there was another rate of tenths for the meat offering, as is evident in the same chapter (Numbers 15:4-6; 28:12, 13, 20, 21, 28, 29; 29:3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15); which rates of tenths, or which proportions, would never have been commanded, unless they had involved heavenly arcana. In Mark also "thirty" denotes a little:--

The seed which fell into good ground yielded fruit growing up and increasing, and brought forth, one thirty, and another sixty, and another a hundred (Mark 4:8),

where "thirty" denotes a small growth, and that which has labored but little. These numbers would not have been marked out for use, unless they had contained within them the things which they signify.

AC 2277. He said, I will not do it if I find thirty there. That this signifies that these shall be saved, is evident from the series or connection of things in the internal sense, without any unfolding of the meaning.

AC 2278. Verse 31. And he said, Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord: peradventure twenty shall be found there; and He said, I will not destroy it for twenty‘s sake. "He said, Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord," signifies here as before the humiliation of the human before the Divine; "peradventure twenty shall be found there," signifies if there be not anything of combat, but still there be good "and He said, I will not destroy it for twenty’s sake," signifies that they will be saved.

AC 2279. He said, Behold I pray I have taken upon me to speak unto my Lord. That this signifies the humiliation of the human before the Divine, is evident from what was said above (n. 2265), where are the same words.

AC 2280. Peradventure twenty shall be found there. That this signifies if there be not anything of combat, but still there be good, is evident from the signification of "twenty." As all the numbers that are mentioned in the Word signify actual things, and states (n. 2252), so also does "twenty;" and what it signifies can be seen from its derivation, namely, from twice ten. "Ten" in the Word, as also "tenths," signify remains, by which is meant everything good and true that the Lord insinuates into man from infancy even to the end of his life, and which are treated of in the following verse. Twice ten, or double tenths, that is, twenty, signify the same, but in a higher degree, namely, good.

[2] Goods of three kinds are signified by remains, namely, the goods of infancy, the goods of ignorance, and the goods of intelligence. The goods of infancy are those which are insinuated into man from his very birth up to the age in which he is beginning to be instructed and to know something. The goods of ignorance are what are insinuated when he is being instructed and is beginning to know something. The goods of intelligence are what are insinuated when he is able to reflect upon what is good and what is true. The good of infancy exists from the man‘s infancy up to the tenth year of his age; the good of ignorance, from this age up to his twentieth year. From this year the man begins to become rational, and to have the faculty of reflecting upon good and truth, and to procure for himself the good of intelligence.

[3] The good of ignorance is that which is signified by "twenty," because those who are in the good of ignorance do not come into any temptation for no one is tempted before he is able to reflect, and in his own way to perceive the nature of good and truth. Those who have received goods by means of temptations have been treated of in the two immediately preceding verses; those who have not been in temptations, and yet have good, are now treated of in this verse.

[4] As those who have this good, which is called the good of ignorance, are signified by "twenty," all those who went forth from Egypt were reckoned from "a son of twenty years" and upward; or as it is expressed, " every one going forth into the army," by whom are meant those who were no longer in the good of ignorance, concerning whom we read in (Numbers 1:20, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 38, 40, 42, 45; 26:4); and also that all those who were more than twenty years old died in the wilderness (Numbers 32:10, 11), because evil could be imputed to them, and they represented those who yield in temptations; as well as that the valuing made of a male, from "a son of five years" to "a son of twenty years" was "twenty shekels" (Lev. 27:5); and another valuing from "a son of twenty years" old to one of sixty was fifty shekels (Leviticus 27:3).

[5] As regards the before-mentioned goods, namely those of infancy, of ignorance, and of intelligence, the case is this. The good of intelligence is the best, for this is of wisdom the good which precedes it, namely that of ignorance, is indeed good, but as there is but little of intelligence in it, it cannot be called the good of wisdom; and as for the good of infancy, it is indeed good in itself, but still it is less good than the other two; for as yet there is not any truth of intelligence adjoined to it, and thus it has not become any good of wisdom, but it is only a plane for being able to become so; for it is the knowledges of good and truth that cause a man to be wise as a man. Infancy itself, by which is signified innocence, does not belong to infancy, but to wisdom; as can be better seen from what will be said about little children in the other life, at the end of this chapter.

[6] By "twenty," in this verse, as has been said, there is signified no other good than the good of ignorance which good is not only declared to be with those who are under their twentieth year, as already said, but also with all who are in the good of charity and at the same time in ignorance of truth, as are those within the church who are in the good of charity, but from whatever cause, do not know what the truth of faith is; as is the case with very many of those who think devoutly about God and kindly about the neighbor; and as is also the case with all outside the church, who are called Gentiles, and who in like manner live in the good of charity. Both the latter and the former, although not in the truths of faith, yet being in good, are in the faculty of receiving the truths of faith in the other life equally as are little children; for their understanding has not as yet been tainted with principles of falsity, nor their will so confirmed in a life of evil, because they are ignorant of its being falsity and evil; and the life of charity is attended with this: that the falsity and evil of ignorance may be easily bent to truth and good. Not so is it with those who have confirmed themselves in things contrary to the truth, and at the same time have lived a life in things contrary to good.

[7] In other cases by "two tenths" in the Word is signified good both celestial and spiritual, good celestial and thence spiritual by the two tenths of which every loaf of the shewbread or bread of faces was prepared (Lev. 24:5), and spiritual good by the two tenths of the meat offering with the sacrifice of the ram (Num. 15:6; 28:12, 20, 28; 29:3, 9, 14), concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere.

AC 2281. And He said I will not destroy it for twenty‘s sake. That this signifies that they will be saved, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense, and thus without any unfolding of the meaning.

AC 2282. Verse 32. And he said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak but this once: peradventure ten shall be found there; and He said, I will not destroy it for ten’s sake. "He said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak but this once," signifies anxiety still continued concerning the state of the human race; peradventure ten shall be found there," signifies if there should still be remains; "and He said, I will not destroy it for ten‘s sake," signifies that they will be saved.

AC 2283. He said, Oh let not my Lord be angry, and I will speak but this once. That this signifies anxiety still continued concerning the state of the human race, is evident from the affection of these words (n. 2275), where the same words occur.

AC 2284. Peradventure ten shall be found there. That this signifies if there should still be remains, is evident from the signification of the number "ten," as being remains (n. 576, 1738). What remains are has been stated and shown before in various places (n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 660, 661, 1050, 1738, 1906), namely, that they are all the good and all the truth with man which lie stored up in his memories and in his life.

[2] It is well known that there is nothing good and nothing true, except from the Lord; and also that what is good and true is continually inflowing from the Lord into man, but that it is received in various ways, and in fact in accordance with the life of evil, and in accordance with the principles of falsity in which the man has confirmed himself. These are what either quench, or stifle, or pervert the goods and truths that are continually flowing in from the Lord Lest therefore goods should be commingled with evils, and truths with falsities (for if they were commingled the man would perish eternally), the Lord separates them, and stores up in his interior man the goods and truths which the man receives; whence He will never permit them to come forth so long as the man is in evil and falsity, but only at such a time as he is in a holy state, or in some anxiety, sickness, or other trouble. These things which the Lord has thus stored up with man are what are called "remains," of which very much mention is made in the Word; but it has not yet been known to anyone that this is what they signify.

[3] According to the quality and quantity of the remains--that is, of the good and truth with a man--does he enjoy bliss and happiness in the other life; for, as has been said, these remains are stored up in his interior man, and they are opened at the time when the man has left corporeal and worldly things behind. The Lord alone knows the quality and extent of the remains in a man; the man himself cannot possibly know this, for at the present day man is of such a character that he is able to counterfeit what is good, while within there is nothing but evil; and a man may also appear to be evil and yet have good within. On this account no man is ever allowed to judge concerning the quality of the spiritual life of another, for the Lord alone, as before said, knows this; but every one may judge of another in regard to the quality of his moral and civil life, for this concerns society.

[4] It is very common for those who have taken up an opinion respecting any truth of faith, to judge of others that they cannot be saved, unless they believe as they did judgment which the Lord has forbidden (Matt. 7:1, 2). On the other hand, I have learned from much experience that men of every religion are saved, provided that by a life of charity they have received remains of good and of apparent truth. This is what is meant by its being said that if ten were found, they should not be destroyed for the ten’s sake; by which is signified that they would be saved if there were remains.

[5] The life of charity consists in thinking kindly of another, and in wishing him well; and in perceiving joy in one‘s self from the fact that others also are saved. But those have not the life of charity who desire that none should be saved except those who believe as they do; and especially is this the case with those who are indignant that it is otherwise. This may be seen from the mere fact that more from the Gentiles are saved than from Christians; for those Gentiles who have thought kindly of their neighbor and have wished well to him, receive the truths of faith in the other life better than those who are called Christians, and acknowledge the Lord more than Christians do. For nothing is more delightful and blessed to the angels than to instruct those who come from the earth into the other life.

AC 2285. I will not destroy it for ten’s sake. That this signifies that they will be saved, is evident from the series of the things in the internal sense, and thus without any unfolding of the meaning.

AC 2286. Verse 33. And Jehovah went when He had completed His speaking unto Abraham; and Abraham returned unto his place. "Jehovah went when He had completed His speaking unto Abraham,"signifies that this state of perception in which the Lord was, then ceased to be such; "and Abraham returned unto his place," signifies that the Lord returned into the state in which He had been before He perceived these things.

AC 2287. Jehovah went when He had completed His speaking unto Abraham. That this signifies that this state of perception in which the Lord was, then ceased to be such, is evident from the signification of "speaking," and from the representation of Abraham. "To speak," in the internal sense, signifies to think (n. 2271); but here it signifies to perceive, because it is declared of Jehovah that He " had completed His speaking" to Abraham; for the thought was from perception, as before said, and the perception was from the Lord‘s internal, which was Jehovah. But "Abraham" in this chapter represents the Lord in the human state, as often stated above. From this we can see that by its being said that "Jehovah went when He had completed His speaking unto Abraham," nothing else is signified in the internal sense than that the state of perception in which the Lord had been, then came to its close and completion. The reason why the Lord’s perception and thought are so much treated of in this chapter in the internal sense, may be seen above (n. 2249).

AC 2288. Abraham returned to his place. That this signifies that the Lord returned into the state in which He had been before He perceived these things, is evident from the representation of Abraham in this chapter, as being the Lord in the human state; and from the signification of a "place," as being a state (n. 1273, 1378); thus to "return to his place," in the internal sense, here signifies to return to the state in which He had been before. That while He lived in this world the Lord had two states, namely, a state of humiliation and a state of glorification, has been said and shown before. His state of humiliation was when He was in the human which He took by inheritance from the mother; His state of glorification was when He was in the Divine which He had from Jehovah His Father. The former state, namely, that of the human from the mother, the Lord altogether put off, and put on the Divine Human, when He passed out of the world, and returned to the Divine Itself, in which He was from eternity (John 17:5), together with the Human made Divine from both of which comes the Holy which fills the universal heaven. Thus from the Divine Itself and the Divine Human, by means of the proceeding Holy, He directs the universe.

CONCERNING THE STATE OF LITTLE CHILDREN IN THE OTHER LIFE

AC 2289. I have been given to know with certainty that all little children in the wide world who die, are raised again by the Lord and are taken up into heaven, and there are brought up and instructed among angels who have the care of them, and that they also grow up in proportion to their advance in intelligence and wisdom. From this we can see how immense is the Lords heaven from little children alone; for they are all instructed in the truths of faith and in the goods of mutual love, and become angels.

AC 2290. They who know nothing about the state of the life after death may suppose that little children are in angelic intelligence and wisdom as soon as they come into the other life; but I have been instructed by much experience that such is not the case. Those who die not long after birth are of an infantile mind, almost as on earth, nor do they know anything more; for they possess only the faculty of knowing, and from this of understanding, and from this of being wise; which faculty is more perfect because they are not in the body, but are spirits. That they are so when they first come into heaven, has not merely been told, but has also been shown me for of the Lord‘s Divine mercy little children have on several occasions been sent to me in choirs, and I have also been allowed to read to them the Lord’s Prayer; and at the same time I have been given to perceive how the angels in whose company they were, insinuated into their tender and novitiate ideas the meaning of the things which are in this Prayer, and filled them, so far as the little ones were able to receive; and afterwards how the capacity was given the little ones of thinking such things as it were from themselves.

AC 2291. The nature of their tender understanding was also shown me when I was praying the Lord‘s Prayer; and they then inflowed into the ideas of my thought from their own understanding, which was so tender that they understood scarcely anything beyond the sense of the words. Yet their ideas in that tenderness were capable of being opened even to the Lord, that is, even from the Lord, for the Lord inflows into the ideas of little children in especial, from the inmosts; for nothing has as yet closed their ideas, as is the case with adults: no principles of falsity against the understanding of truth, and no life of evil against the reception of good, and thus not against becoming wise.

AC 2292. From all this we can see that little children do not come into the state of angels immediately after death; but that they are introduced successively, by means of the knowledges of good and truth, and this in accordance with all heavenly order; for the very least of all the things of their natural disposition are there most exquisitely perceived; and according to all the movements of their inclination both in general and in particular they are impelled to receive the truths of good and the goods of truth, and this under the Lord’s constant oversight.

AC 2293. Especially are they all the time initiated into knowing no other Father, and thereafter in acknowledging no other than the Lord alone, and that they have life from Him; for that they are lives, that is, truly human and angelic lives, is from the intelligence of truth and the wisdom of good, which they have solely from the Lord. Hence it is that they know no otherwise than that they have been born in heaven.

AC 2294. Many times when children have been with me in choirs, they being as yet quite infantile, they have been heard as a tender something devoid of order, so that they did not as get act as a one, as they do afterwards when they become older; and what surprised me, the spirits about me could not refrain from trying to lead them to think and to speak. Such a desire is innate in spirits. But I often noticed that the little children resisted, not being willing to think or speak in such a way. I have often observed this refusal and resistance attended with a kind of indignation, and when any ability to speak was granted them they merely said that it was not so. I have been instructed that such is the temptation of little children in the other life, to accustom and inaugurate them not only in the resisting of falsity and evil, but also in not allowing themselves to think, speak, and act from others, and thus in not suffering themselves to be led by any other than the Lord alone.

AC 2295. When little children are not in that state, but in a more interior sphere, namely, the angelic sphere, they cannot possibly be infested by spirits; even if they are in the midst of them. Moreover the little children who are in the other life are sometimes sent by the Lord to little children on earth (although the little child on earth is quite unaware of it), and those little ones of heaven are in the highest degree delighted with these little ones of earth.

AC 2296. The manner in which all things are insinuated into the little ones of the other life by means of delightful and pleasant things suited to their genius, has also been shown me; for I have been permitted to see the little children most beautifully clothed, having their bosoms and tender arms encircled with garlands of flowers that were resplendent with the most pleasing and heavenly colors. Once also I was permitted to see the little children with their maiden educatresses in a paradisal garden, that consisted not so much of trees, as of laurel espaliers and of bowers thus formed; beautifully laid out with paths that led toward the more interior parts; and I also saw the little children themselves, clothed as above described; and when they entered the garden the flower arch above the entrance shone most joyously. From this we can see the nature of their deliciousnesses, and also that by means of pleasant and delightful things they are introduced into the goods of innocence and charity, which are continually being insinuated by the Lord into those delightful and pleasant things.

AC 2297. Moreover, as the little children are perfected, they are encompassed with atmospheres in accordance with the state of their perfection. That in the other life there are atmospheres of endless variety and ineffable beauty, may be seen from experience (n. 1621). Especially are there presented to their atmospheres as of sporting little children in least forms, not visible, but perceptible only by an inmost idea; from which they receive this heavenly idea: that everything around them is alive, and that they are in the Lord‘s life, and this idea affects their deepest being with happiness.

AC 2298. It has been shown me by a method of communication that is familiar in the other life of what nature are the ideas of little children when they see any objects. They were as if everything was alive, so that they had life in every idea of their thought. I also perceived that little children on earth have very similar ideas when they are at play; for as yet they have not reflection, such as adults have, as regards that which is devoid of life.

AC 2299. Especially are the little children instructed by means of representatives adapted to their various genius; and how beautiful these are, and at the same time how full of wisdom from within, no one can possibly believe. In this way there is by degrees insinuated into them an intelligence that draws its soul from good. I may here mention one representative only that I was permitted to see, from which the nature of the rest may be inferred. They represented the Lord rising out of the sepulchre, and at the same time the unition of His Human with the Divine; which was done in a manner so wise as to surpass all human wisdom, and at the same time in an innocent infantile manner. They presented also the idea of a sepulchre, but not at the same time the idea of the Lord, except so remotely that it was scarcely perceived that it was the Lord, except as it were from afar; for the reason that in the idea of a sepulchre there is something funereal, which they thus removed. They afterwards in the most discreet manner admitted into the sepulchre something of an atmospherical nature, yet appearing thinly aqueous, by which they signified, also with becoming remoteness, spiritual life in baptism. I afterwards saw represented by them the Lord’s descent to the bound, and His ascent with the bound into heaven; and this with incomparable sagacity and piety. A child-like feature of the representation was that when they represented the Lord among the bound in the lower earth, they let down cords that were almost invisible, and that were very soft and tender, with which to lift the Lord in His ascent; with a constant holy fear lest anything in the representative should touch upon something in which there was not what is spiritual celestial. Besides other representatives wherein the little ones are, and by which, as well as by sports of infancy adapted to their various dispositions, they are brought into knowledges of truth and affections of good.

AC 2300. Moreover little children are of diverse genius and of diverse natural disposition, and this from what they inherit from their parents, and by succession from grandparents and great-grandparents; for the actual life with parents, confirmed by habit, becomes a second nature, and is implanted hereditarily in the infants, and this is the source of their diverse tendencies.

AC 2301. Speaking generally, little children are of a genius either celestial or spiritual. Those of a celestial genius are well distinguished from those of a spiritual genius. The former think, speak, and act more softly, so that hardly anything appears except a fluent something from the love of good to the Lord and toward other little children; but the latter do not think, speak, and act so softly, but something as it were winged and vibratile shows itself in all their doings; and is also evident from their indignation; besides other characteristic differences. Thus every little child has a natural disposition different from that of every other, and each is educated according to his natural disposition.

AC 2302. There are certain and numerous societies of angels who have the care of little children; and which are chiefly from the female sex, who had loved them very tenderly in the life of the body. The little children who are more virtuous than others, by an established custom they offer to the Lord.

AC 2303. Angelic spirits who were above in front spoke with me in angelic speech not distinguished into words, saying that their state was a state of the tranquillity of peace, and that there were also little children among them, and that they were conscious of blessedness from being in association with them; these spirits also were of the female sex. They said further concerning infants on earth, that directly after birth angels from the heaven of innocence are with them; in the succeeding age angels from the heaven of the tranquillity of peace; and afterwards those who are from the societies of charity; and then, as the innocence and charity with the young children decrease, other angels are with them; and at length, when they become older and enter into a life foreign to charity, angels are indeed present, but more remotely, and this in accordance with the ends of life, which the angels especially regulate by continually insinuating good ones, and turning aside evil ones; and they flow in more nearly or more remotely, in proportion as they can or cannot do this.

AC 2304. Many may suppose that in the other life the little children remain such, and are as little children among the angels. They who do not know what an angel is, may have been confirmed in this opinion by the images that are common in churches and elsewhere, where angels are represented as little children. Very different however is the actual truth. It is intelligence and wisdom that make an angel, and so long as the little children have not these they are indeed with the angels, but are not angels. But when they have become intelligent and wise, then for the first time do they become angels; and it is a wonderful fact that they then do not appear as little children, but as adults; for they are then no longer of an infantile genius, but of a more adult angelic one. Intelligence and wisdom are attended with this result, for it is understanding and judgment, and a life according thereto, that cause every one to appear to himself and to others as an adult; as every one can see.

[2] I have not only been informed by the angels that such is the case, but I have also spoken with a certain one who had died when an infant, and yet then appeared as an adult. The same also spoke with his brother who had died in adult age, and this from so much mutual brotherly love that his brother could not refrain from tears, saying that he perceived no otherwise than that it was love itself that was speaking. Besides other examples not necessary to mention.

AC 2305. There are some who suppose that innocence is the same as infancy, for the reason that the Lord said of little children that of such is heaven; and that they who do not become as little children cannot enter into the kingdom of the heavens. But they who so imagine do not know the internal sense of the Word, nor therefore what is meant by "infancy." By "infancy" is meant the innocence of intelligence and wisdom, which is such that they acknowledge that they have life from the Lord alone, and that the Lord is their only Father; for that man is man is from the intelligence of truth and the wisdom of good, which he has solely from the Lord. Innocence itself, which in the Word is called "infancy," has no existence or abode except in wisdom; so much so that the wiser one is, the more innocent he is; on which account the Lord is innocence itself, because wisdom itself.

AC 2306. As regards the innocence of little children, being as yet devoid of intelligence and wisdom it is only a kind of plane for receiving genuine innocence, which they receive by degrees as they become wise. The quality of the innocence of little children has been represented to me by a wooden something almost void of life, which is vivified in proportion as they are perfected by means of knowledges of truth and affections of good. The quality of genuine innocence was afterwards represented by a most beautiful little child, full of life, and naked; for the innocent themselves, who are in the inmost heaven, and thereby are nearest the Lord, appear before the eyes of other angels no otherwise than as little children, and indeed naked; for innocence is represented by the nakedness of which they are not ashamed, as we read of the first man and his wife in paradise. In a word, the wiser the angels are, the more innocent they are; and the more innocent they are, the more do they appear to themselves as little children. Hence it is that in the Word innocence is signified by "infancy." But concerning the state of innocence, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy hereafter.

AC 2307. Concerning little children I have inquired of the angels whether they are pure from evils, seeing that they have no actual evil, as adults have. But I was told that they are equally in evil; nay, that they too are nothing but evil; but that they, like all the angels, are withheld from evil and are kept in good by the Lord, insomuch that it appears to them as if they were in good from themselves. And therefore also the little children, after they have become adults in heaven, in order to prevent them from being of the false opinion regarding themselves that the good in them is from themselves, and not from the Lord, are sometimes remitted into their evils which they have received by inheritance, and are left in them until they know, acknowledge and believe, that the truth is as has been said. A certain one also who had died when an infant, but had grown up in heaven, was of a similar opinion; and therefore he was remitted into the life of the evils inborn in him, and it was then given me to perceive from his sphere that he had a disposition to domineer over others, and that he esteemed lascivious things as of no account which were evils that he had inherited from his parents. But after he had acknowledged that such was his nature, he was again received among the angels with whom he had been before.

AC 2308. No one ever suffers punishment in the other life on account of hereditary evil, because it is not his, and therefore he is not to blame for being of such a nature; but every one suffers on account of the actual evil which is his own, and consequently for so much of the hereditary evil as he has appropriated to himself by actual life (n. 966). It is not therefore for the sake of punishment that the little children on becoming adult are remitted into the state of their hereditary evil; but that they may know that of themselves they are nothing but evil, and that it is of the Lord’s mercy that they are taken away from the hell that is with them into heaven; and that they are not in heaven by their own merit, but of the Lord; and thereby to prevent them from boasting before others of the good that is in them; for this is contrary to the good of mutual love, as it is contrary to the truth of faith.

AC 2309. From what has been adduced we can see what is the nature of the education of little children in heaven, namely, that by means of the intelligence of truth and the wisdom of good they are introduced into the angelic life, which is love to the Lord, and mutual love, in which loves there is innocence. But how contrary is the education of little children on earth, with many, has been evidenced from this one example. I was in the street of a great city, and saw little boys fighting with one another. A crowd gathered and looked on with much pleasure; and I was informed that the parents themselves urge on their little boys to such fights. The good spirits and angels who saw these things through my eyes were so averse to them that I perceived their horror, especially at the fact that the parents incite them to such things saying that thus in their earliest age they extinguish all the mutual love and all the innocence which little children receive from the Lord, and initiate them into hatred and revenge; consequently that they deliberately shut out their children from heaven, where there is nothing but mutual love. Let parents therefore who wish well to their children beware of such things. At the end of the preceding seventeenth chapter of Genesis the Last Judgment is treated of, and at the end of this eighteenth chapter the state of little children in the other life--in both cases from experience of things which have been seen and heard in the world of spirits and in the heaven of angels.


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