HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter 21

AC 2606. The Word of the Old Testament was formerly called the " Law and the Prophets." By the "Law" were meant all the historical books, which are the five books of Moses, and those of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings: by the "Prophets" were meant all the prophetical books, which are those of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zephaniah Malachi; and also the Psalms of David. The historical books of the Word are also called "Moses;" hence it is occasionally said, "Moses and the Prophets," instead of the "Law and the Prophets;" and the prophetical books are called "Elias" (n. 2135A).

AC 2607. As regards the historicals they are all historically true, except those in the first chapters of Genesis, which are made up history. Yet although they are historically true, they nevertheless have an internal sense; and in that sense, like the propheticals, treat solely of the Lord. They do indeed treat of heaven and the church, and of what belongs to heaven and the church, but as these are of the Lord, through these the historicals look to the Lord, and therefore are the Word. The historic events are all representative, and every word by which they are described is significative. That the historic events are representative is evident from what has been unfolded thus far concerning Abraham, and will be further evident from what of the Lord‘s Divine mercy is to be explained concerning Isaac, Jacob, and his twelve sons; concerning Egypt, the sojourning of the people in the wilderness, their entrance into the land of Canaan, etc.

[2] That every word by which these historicals are described is significative, is also evident from what has been shown for instance in regard to the names as signifying actual things; thus "Egypt" signifies memory-knowledge, "Asshur" the rational, " Ephraim" the intellectual, "Tyre" knowledges, Zion" the celestial church, "Jerusalem" the spiritual church, and so on. The same has been shown in regard to the words; as that "king" signifies truth, "priest" good, and that all other words have their respective internal significance; such as "kingdom," "city," "house," "nation," "people," "garden," "vineyard," " oliveyard," " gold," " silver," " brass," " iron," "birds," "beasts," "bread," "wine," "oil," "morning," "day," "light;" and this uniformly in both the historical and the prophetical books, although they were written by various individuals, and at different times-a uniformity that would not be possible unless the Word had come down from heaven. From this it may be known that there is an internal sense in the Word; as well as from the fact that the Divine Word cannot treat of mere men, such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and their posterity (which was the worst of nations); of their kings, their wives, sons, and daughters; of harlots, plunderings, and such things, which, considered in themselves, are not worthy to be even mentioned in the Word, unless by them are represented and signified such things as are in the Lord’s kingdom: it is these things that are worthy of the Word.

AC 2608. Similar to these also are very many things in the Prophets, such as those adduced above (n. 1888); and also the following in Isaiah:--

Moab shall howl, all Moab shall howl, for the foundations of Kirhareseth shall ye mourn howbeit ye have been bruised; for the fields of Heshbon have failed, the vine of Sibmah; the lords of the nations break down the shoots, they reached even unto Jazer, they wandered in the wilderness, her offshoots have been torn away they have passed over the sea. Therefore with weeping will I weep for Jazer, for the vine of Sibmah I will water thee with my tears, O Heshbon and Elealeh for upon thy vintage and upon thy harvest the shout is fallen (Isaiah 16:7-9).

In Jeremiah:--

The voice of a cry from Horonaim, wasting and great destruction, Moab is broken to pieces, her little ones have caused a cry to be heard for by the ascent of Luhith with weeping a weeping goeth up; for in the going down of Horonaim the enemies have heard a cry of a breaking to pieces. Judgment is come unto the land of the plain, unto Holon, and unto Jahzah, and unto Mephaath, and upon Dibon, and upon Nebo, and upon Beth-diblathaim, and upon Kiriathaim, and upon Beth-gamul, and upon Beth-meon, and upon Kerioth, and upon Bozrah (Jeremiah 48:3, 4, 5, 21-24).

Such in very many places is the character of the propheticals of the Word, which would be of no use unless they had an internal sense; and yet the Word, being Divine, must needs contain within itself the laws of that Heavenly Kingdom into which man is to come.

AC 2609. But as regards the Precepts of Life, such as all things in the decalogue, and many in the Law and the Prophets-these, being of service to man‘s very life, are of use in both senses, both the literal and the internal. The things contained in the literal sense were for the people and peoples of that period, who did not apprehend internal things; and the things contained in the internal sense were for the angels, who have no care for external things. Unless the precepts of the decalogue contained internal things also, they would never have been promulgated on Mount Sinai with so great a miracle; for such things as it contains, such as that parents are to be honored, that men must not steal, must not kill, must not commit adultery, must not covet what is another’s, are things which the Gentiles also know and have prescribed in their laws; and which the sons of Israel as men must have been well acquainted with, without such a promulgation. But as those precepts were for the service of life, in both senses, and were as external forms produced from internal, that corresponded to each other-this was the reason why they came down out of heaven upon Mount Sinai with so great a miracle, and in their internal sense were uttered and heard in heaven, while in their external sense they were uttered and heard on earth.

[2] Take as an example the promise that they who honor their parents shall have their days prolonged upon the land: by "parents" the angels in heaven perceived the Lord; by the "land," His kingdom, which those who worship Him from love and faith should eternally possess as sons and heirs; whereas by "parents" men on earth understood parents; by "land," the land of Canaan; by the "prolongation of their days," the years of their life. Take again the precept that men must not steal: by this the angels who were in heaven perceived that they should take nothing away from the Lord, and should not claim anything of righteousness and merit for themselves; whereas men on earth understood that they must not steal; from which we can see that these precepts are true in both senses. Take again the precept that men must not kill: by this the angels in heaven perceived that they should not hate anyone, and should not extinguish anything of good and truth with anyone; whereas men on earth understood that their friends must not be killed. The case is the same with all the other precepts.

GENESIS 21:1-34

1. And Jehovah visited Sarah, as He had said; and Jehovah did unto Sarah as He had spoken.

2. And Sarah conceived and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the appointed time, as God had spoken with him.

3. And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac.

4. And Abraham circumcised Isaac his son, a son of eight days, as God had commanded him.

5. And Abraham was a son of a hundred years when Isaac his son was born unto him.

6. And Sarah said, God hath made laughter for me, every one that heareth will laugh with me.

7. And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, Sarah shall suckle sons? for I have borne a son to his old age.

8. And the child grew, and was weaned; and Abraham made a great feast, on the day when he weaned Isaac.

9. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne unto Abraham, mocking.

10. And she said unto Abraham, Cast out this handmaid and her son; for the son of this handmaid shall not inherit with my son, with Isaac.

11. And the word was evil exceedingly in the eyes of Abraham, on account of his son.

12. And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be evil in thine eyes because of the boy, and because of thine handmaid; all that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice, for isa Isaac shall thy seed be called.

13. And also the son of the handmaid I will make a nation, because he is thy seed.

14. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave to Hagar, and put them on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away; and she went and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba.

15. And the water was spent out of the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs.

16. And she went and sat by herself over against him, withdrawing about a bowshot; for she said, Let me not see the death of the child; and she sat over against him; and she lifted up her voice, and wept.

17. And God heard the voice of the child, and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not, for God hath heard the voice of the child where he is.

18. Arise, lift up the child, and strengthen thy hand in him, for I will make him a great nation.

19. And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water, and she went and filled the bottle with water, and gave the child drink.

20. And God was with the child, and he grew, and he dwelt in the wilderness, and became a shooter of the bow.

21. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran; and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt.

22. And it came to pass at that time, that Abimelech and Phicol the captain of his army said unto Abraham, saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest.

23. And now swear unto me here by God, that thou wilt not be false to me, nor to my son, nor to my son‘s son; according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned.

24. And Abraham said, I will swear.

25. And Abraham reproved Abimelech, because of the well of water which Abimelech’s servants had taken away.

26. And Abimelech said, I know not who hath done this word, neither didst thou tell me, neither heard I of it, but today.

27. And Abraham took flock and herd, and gave to Abimelech, and they two struck a covenant.

28. And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves.

29. And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What are these seven ewe lambs which thou hast set by themselves?

30. And he said, Because these seven ewe lambs thou shalt take from my hand, that it may be a witness unto me that I have digged this well.

31. Therefore he called that place Beer-sheba, because there they sware both of them.

32. And they struck a covenant at Beer-sheba; and Abimelech rose up, and Phicol the captain of his army, and they returned into the land of the Philistines.

33. And he planted a grove in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the God of eternity.

34. And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines many days.

THE CONTENTS

AC 2610. In the internal sense of this chapter the Lord‘s Divine Rational is first treated of, which is represented by "Isaac" (verses 1-8).

AC 2611. Next the merely human rational, which was then separated, and which is the "son of Hagar the Egyptian" (verses 9-12).

AC 2612. After this had been separated, the spiritual church is represented by the same, namely, by Hagar’s son, as well as by his mother; which church and its state are treated of in (verses 13 to 21).

AC 2613. Concerning the human rational things that were adjoined to the doctrine of faith, which in itself is Divine (verses 22-34).

AC 2614. This doctrine together with those things adjoined is "Beer-sheba" (verses 14, 31, 33).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 2615. Verse 1. And Jehovah visited Sarah, as he had said; and Jehovah did unto Sarah as He had spoken. "Jehovah visited Sarah," signifies the presence of the Divine celestial in the Divine spiritual; "as He had said," signifies as He had perceived; "and Jehovah did unto Sarah," signifies the state of unition; "as He had spoken," signifies as He had thought.

AC 2616. Jehovah visited Sarah. That this signifies the presence of the Divine celestial in the Divine spiritual, is evident from the signification of "Jehovah," as being the Divine celestial, that is, the Divine Good, or Esse (Being) itself, which, because it is of love and mercy, is Good itself; from the signification of "visiting," as meaning to be present; and from the signification of " Sarah," as being the Divine spiritual, that is, Divine Truth (n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2065, 2507).

AC 2617. As He had said. That this signifies as He had perceived, is evident from the signification in the historical parts of the Word of "saying," as meaning to perceive (n. 2238, 2260, 2552).

AC 2618. And Jehovah did unto Sarah. That this signifies the state of unition, namely, of the Lord‘s Divine spiritual in His Divine celestial, is evident from the signification of "doing," when predicated of the Lord’s Divine, as being the sum total of the effect, consequently the state; and from the signification of "Jehovah," and also of "Sarah" (n. 2616). As regards the state of unition of the Lord‘s Divine spiritual in His Divine celestial, this is the very marriage itself of good and truth, from which comes the heavenly marriage; and this marriage is the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on earth. For this reason the Lord‘s kingdom is so frequently in the Word called a "marriage," and is compared to a marriage. The reason (a secret one) is that all conjugial love (and through this all celestial and spiritual love) comes from the marriage of Divine good and truth, and of Divine truth and good, in the Lord. What further arcana are enfolded in these words: that "Jehovah visited Sarah as He had said," and that "Jehovah did unto Sarah as He had spoken," cannot be declared, because they are inexpressible; for they comprise the very state itself of the unition of the Lord’s Divine with His Human. Appearances of this are presented by the Lord before the angels by means of heavenly lights, and are illustrated by means of ineffable representations; but they cannot be presented before men, because it would have to be done by means of such things as belong to the light of the world, into which such arcana do not fall; nay, by a description based on such things they become more obscure.

AC 2619. As He had spoken. That this signifies as He had thought, is evident from the signification of "speaking," as being to think (n. 2271, 2287). The perception which is signified by "Jehovah said" was from the Divine celestial; but the thought which is signified by "Jehovah spake" was from the Divine celestial through the Divine spiritual; and there is therefore an apparent repetition in the sense of the letter, namely, "as He said," and "as He spake." But what it is to perceive from the Divine celestial and to think from the Divine celestial through the Divine spiritual, does not fall into even the most enlightened apprehension by means of things that belong to the light of the world. This shows how infinite the rest of the Word may be. That thought is from perception see (n. 1919, 2515). With man the case is this: it is good from which he perceives, but it is truth by means of which he thinks. Good is of love and its affections, consequently from it is perception; but truth is of faith, consequently this is of thought. The former is signified in the historic parts of the Word by "saying," but the latter by "speaking." But when "saying" is found alone, it then sometimes signifies perceiving, and sometimes thinking; because "saying" involves both.

AC 2620. Verse 2. And Sarah conceived and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the appointed time, as God had spoken with him. She "conceived and bare," signifies that it was and came forth; "Sarah bare Abraham," signifies from the unition of the Lord‘s Divine spiritual with His Divine celestial; "a son" signifies the Divine rational; "in his old age," signifies when the days were fulfilled that He should put off the human; "at the appointed time," signifies when the rational was such as to receive; "as God had spoken with him," signifies as He had willed.

AC 2621. That "conceived and bare" signifies that it Was and Came forth, namely the Divine rational, from the unition of the Lord’s Divine spiritual with His Divine celestial, is evident from the signification of "conceiving and bearing." That in the internal sense of the Word no other conceptions and bearings are meant than those which are spiritual and celestial, may be seen above (n. 2584); but here those which were Divine, because the subject here treated of is the Lord‘s rational made Divine; and of Him, namely, the Lord, Being and Coming forth (Esse et Existere) are chiefly predicated; for He alone Is and Comes forth. As regards Being and Coming forth (Esse et Existere) we may add that they seem as if they were nearly the same, but are not the same. Every person and every thing, has its Being from conception, but its Coming forth from birth; and thus, as conception is prior to birth, so Being is prior to Coming forth.

[2] The soul is the Being itself of man, and the sensitive or corporeal faculty is its Coming forth, for the former comes forth in the latter. Celestial and spiritual love are the very Being of the man who is being regenerated; and the rational and sensitive faculties, when imbued with that love, are his Coming forth. And so it is with each and all things in the universe; for there is nothing whatever which has not its conception that it may be, and its birth that it may come forth; which may also be illustrated in the terms of philosophy by saying that every effect has its cause, and every cause has its end. The end is the Being of the cause, and the cause is the Coming forth of the end. In the same way, the cause is the Being of the effect, and the effect is the Coming forth of the cause.

AC 2622. Sarah to Abraham. That this signifies from the unition of the Divine spiritual with the Divine celestial, is evident from the representation of Sarah, as being the Divine spiritual, or Divine Truth (n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2065, 2172, 2173, 2198, 2507); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Divine celestial, or Divine Good (n. 1989, 2011, 2172, 2198, 2501). Concerning the unition of the Divine spiritual with the Divine celestial, see (n. 2618).

AC 2623. A son. That this signifies the Divine rational, is evil dent from the signification of a "son." In the internal sense of the Word a "son" signifies truth (n. 489, 491, 533); and as truth is the chief thing in the rational (n. 2072, 2189), the rational is also signified by a "son;" but here the Divine rational, in which principally there is good, which Isaac, who is the "son," also represents.

AC 2624. In his old age. That this signifies when the days were fulfilled that the human should be put off, is evident from the signification of "old age," as being the state when the human should be put off and the Divine put on (n. 2198); for Abraham was at that time a hundred years old; and by this number is signified a full state of unition, as will be seen in the explication at (verse 5).

AC 2625. At the appointed time. That this signifies when the rational was such as to receive, is evident from the signification of "time." There are two things which while man lives in the world appear to be essential, because they are proper to nature, namely, space and time. Hence to live in space and time is to live in the world or in nature. But in the other life these two things are of no consequence. In the world of spirits indeed they do appear to be of some consequence, for the reason that spirits fresh from the body still retain the idea of natural things; yet it is not long before they perceive that there is no space and time there, but state instead; and that in the other life states correspond to spaces and times in nature; to spaces states as to Being (esse), and to times states as to Coming forth (existere). In regard to space or place see (n. 1274, 1379, 1380, 1382).

[2] From this anyone can see what kind of an idea a man may have, while in the world or in nature, respecting the things of the other life and many arcana of faith; namely, that he is not willing to believe them until be apprehends them by means of the things in the world, nay, by sensuous things; for he must needs suppose that if he were to put off the idea of space and time, and still more space and time themselves, he would become absolutely nothing; and thus that he would have nothing left from which he could feel and think, except something confused and incomprehensible; when yet the case is exactly the reverse. Angelic life is of such a nature as to be the wisest and happiest of all.

[3] This is the reason why in the Word "ages" in the internal sense do not signify ages, but states; so that in this verse "old age" does not mean old age. And in the same way the numbers do not signify numbers, but some specific state, as for instance the number a hundred years, concerning which hereafter. From this we can now see that by the "appointed time" is signified the state when the rational was such as to receive.

[4] In regard to the specific matter here treated of, namely, that the Divine rational was and came forth from the unition of the Divine spiritual with the Divine celestial of the Lord, when the days were fulfilled for the human to be put off, and when the rational was such as to receive (all of which is signified in the internal sense by Sarah’s conceiving and bearing to Abraham a son to his old age at the appointed time), be it known that the human begins in the inmost of the rational (n. 2106, 2194); and that the Lord advanced successively to the union of the Human Essence with the Divine Essence, and of the Divine Essence with the Human Essence (n. 1864, 2033, 2523); and this by His own power (n. 1921, 2025, 2026, 2083), by continual temptations and victories (n. 1737, 1813, 1690), and by continual revelations from His Divine (n. 1616, 2500); and this until at length He had expelled all the maternal human (n. 1414, 1444, 2574); and thus had made His Human Divine in respect to the rational, according to the things contained in this verse. Hence it is manifest what is to be understood by the days being fulfilled for the human to be put off, and by the rational being such as to receive.

[5] Some idea of this may be formed from what takes place in those who are being regenerated. The celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith are not at once implanted in them by the Lord, but successively; and when by means of them the man‘s rational has become such that it can receive, then for the first time is he becoming regenerate, for the most part by means of temptations in which he conquers. When these things take place, the days are fulfilled for him to put off the old man, and to put on the new. Concerning man’s regeneration, see (n. 677, 679, 711, 848, 986, 1555, 2475).

AC 2626. As God had spoken with him. That this signifies as He had willed, is evident from the signification of "speaking," as being to think (n. 2271, 2287, 2619); but that here it means to will is because it is said, "as God had spoken;" since for the Divine to think is to will.

AC 2627. Verse 3. And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac. "Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him," signifies the quality of the rational as being Divine; "whom Sarah bare to him," signifies that it was and came forth from the Divine spiritual united to the Divine celestial; "Isaac‘s signifies the Divine rational.

AC 2628. Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him. That this signifies the quality of the rational as being Divine, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord as to the Divine celestial, or the Divine Good, treated of many times before; and from the signification of "calling a name," as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009); and from the signification of his "son," as being the rational (n. 2623); and also from the signification of his being "born unto him," as being to come forth from the Divine. Hence it is evident that "Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him," signifies the quality of the rational as being Divine. From these few words three arcana shine forth for those who are in the internal sense:--First, that the Lord’s Divine Human came forth (exstiterit) from the Divine Itself; which is further treated of in this verse. Second, that the Lord‘s Divine Human was not only conceived, but also born, of Jehovah, and hence the Lord as to His Divine Human is called the "Son of God," and the "Only-begotten" (John 1:14, 18, 50; 3:16, 18, 35, 36; 5:19-27; 6:69; 9:35; 10:36; 11:27; 14:13, 14; 17:1; 20:31); and in like manner in the other Evangelists. Third, that the Lord’s Divine Human is the "name" of Jehovah, that is, His quality (John 12:28).

AC 2629. Whom Sarah bare to him. That this signifies being and coming forth from the Divine spiritual united to the Divine celestial is evident from the signification of "bearing," as being to come forth (existere) (n. 2621); and as birth involves conception, and the birth or coming forth is from the Divine spiritual, and the conception, or being, from the Divine celestial, which two have now been united, hence "bearing" here signifies both being and coming forth; and also from the representation of Sarah, as being the Divine spiritual united to the Divine celestial (n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2065, 2172, 2173, 2198, 2507). These things are arcana too deep to be described, or indeed to be illustrated by anything in this world. They are for angelic minds, to whom they are presented in the light of heaven by means of things ineffable.

AC 2630. Isaac. That this signifies the Divine Rational, is evident from what has been said before concerning Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (n. 1893, 2066, 2083), namely, that Abraham represents the supreme Divine, Isaac the Divine rational, and Jacob His Divine natural; as will also be seen hereafter, where Isaac is treated of.

AC 2631. Verse 4. And Abraham circumcised Isaac his son, a son of eight days, as God commanded him. "Abraham circumcised Isaac his son," signifies the purification of the rational; "a son of eight days," signifies a beginning and continuance; "as God had commanded him," signifies according to Divine order.

AC 2632. Abraham circumcised Isaac his son. That this signifies the purification of the rational, is evident from the signification of "being circumcised," which is to be purified (n. 2039); and from the representation of "Isaac," as being the Divine rational (n. 2630).

[2] That the Lord‘s first rational was born as with others, namely, by means of knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones), has been stated before, where Ishmael was treated of, by whom that rational is represented. As this was born by means of knowledges, thus by the external way, which is that of the senses, and as with others, it could not but have in itself many things from the outward world, for from them are the ideas of the rational procured; and this the more because it had its hereditary from the mother. It was these worldly things and this hereditary which the Lord successively expelled from His rational, and this until it was such as to be able to receive the Divine (n. 2624, 2625). The Lord’s Divine rational was then born, which is represented by Isaac (n. 2630); not however by the external way, which is that of the senses, as the former rational was; but by the internal way from the Divine Itself (n. 2628, 2629). As this was not done at once, but successively (n. 1690, 2033), it was purified, and this continually; which is signified by "Abraham‘s circumcising his son, a son of eight days." That the Lord made His rational Divine by successive steps, and continually purified it, is evident also in John:--

Jesus said, Father, glorify Thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven: I have both glorified, and will glorify again (John 12:28).

That to "glorify" is to make Divine, may be seen above (n. 1603, 1999).

[3] In the Ancient Church nothing else was represented and signified by circumcision than that a man should be purified from the loves of self and of the world, and this also by successive steps and continually (n. 2039, 2046, 2049, 2056); especially when he has been born a new man, that is, when he has been regenerated; for the Lord then flows in by the internal way, that is, by the good of conscience, and successively and continually separates the things which adhere both from hereditary and from actual evil.

AC 2633. A son of eight days. That this signifies a beginning and continuance, is evident from the signification of the "eighth day," on which they were circumcised, as being any beginning, and thus continuance (n. 2044).

AC 2634. As God had commanded him. That this signifies according to Divine order, is evident from the signification of "God commanding," or of His precepts. God’s precepts, or the things which God has commanded, are all things that are of Divine order both in general and in particular; so that Divine order is nothing but the perpetual precept of God; and therefore to live according to the precepts of God, and to live in the precepts of God, is to live according to Divine order and in Divine order. Hence it is that by "as God commanded," is signified according to Divine order. It was according to Divine order that every male should be circumcised on the eighth day from his birth; not that circumcision was of any avail, or that they who were circumcised would enter into the kingdom of God before the uncircumcised; but because in the representative church such a rite corresponded to the purification of the heart; which correspondence will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be spoken of elsewhere. It is of Divine order that the heart, that is, man’s interiors, should be purified gradually and continually from the evils of cupidities, and from the falsities of the phantasies thence derived. The precepts relating to the purification of the heart are all things of Divine order both in general and in particular. In so far therefore as a man lives in those precepts, so far he lives in Divine order; and in so far as he lives in this, so far all things in him, both of reason and memory, are disposed by the Lord according to the order which is from Him in the heavens. Hence the man becomes a little heaven corresponding to the greatest.

AC 2635. Verse 5. And Abraham was a son of a hundred years when Isaac his son was born unto him. "Abraham was a son of a hundred years," signifies a full state of unition; "when Isaac his son was born unto him," signifies when the Lord‘s rational was made Divine.

AC 2636. Abraham was a son of a hundred years. That this signifies a full state of unition, is evident from the signification of a "hundred," as being what is full; and from the signification of "years," as being state (n. 482, 487, 488, 493, 893); here, a state of unition. What a full state of unition of the Lord’s Divine with His Human is, or what is the same, with His rational, for the human begins in the inmost of the rational (n. 2106, 2194), cannot so well be told to the apprehension, but still can be illustrated by what is called with man a full state when he is being reformed and regenerated.

[2] It is known that a man cannot be regenerated until adult age, because he then for the first time has the full exercise of reason and judgment, and thus can receive good and truth from the Lord. Before he comes into this state he is being prepared by the Lord by such things being insinuated into him as may serve him as ground for receiving the seeds of good and truth; which are the many states of innocence and charity, and also the knowledges of good and truth, and the thoughts derived from them. This preparation is going on for some years before his regeneration commences. When the man has been imbued with these things, and is thus prepared, his state is then said to be full; for his interiors are then disposed for receiving. All those things with which a man is endowed by the Lord before regeneration, and by means of which he is regenerated, are called remains, which are signified in the Word by the number "ten" (n. 576, 1738, 2284); and also by a "hundred," when the state for regeneration is full (n. 1988).

[3] These things may serve for illustration as to what is signified by a full state of unition of the Human with the Divine in the Lord, namely, when from His own power, by means of the combats of temptations and by victories, and by the powers of the Divine Wisdom and intelligence, He had procured to Himself so much of the Divine in His Human, that is, in His rational, as to be able to unite the Divine Itself to the Divine acquired in the rational. That this state might be represented, it was brought to pass that, although Abraham had dwelt for many years in the land of Canaan, Isaac was not born to him until he was a hundred years old. These are the arcana contained in the number a "hundred years," which was Abraham‘s age.

[4] That the number a "hundred" signifies what is full, is evident from other passages in the Word, as in Isaiah:--

There shall be no more thence an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days; for the child shall die a son of a hundred years, and the sinner a son of a hundred years shall be accursed (Isaiah 65:20);

where a "hundred" manifestly denotes what is full; for it is said, there shall be no more an infant of days, nor an old man that hath not filled his days, and a child and a sinner of a hundred years; that is, when his state is full.

[5] In Matthew:--

Every one that hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My name’s sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit eternal life (Matthew 19:29; Mark 10:29, 30);

where a "hundredfold" denotes what is full; or "good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over" (Luke 6:38).

[6] And in Luke:--

And other seed fell upon the good earth and having sprung up it brought forth fruit a hundredfold (Luke 8:8; Matt. 13:8, 23; Mark 4:20);

where also a "hundred" denotes what is full, which number would not have been mentioned unless it had signified that. The same is true where the Lord speaks by parable concerning the debtors, that one owed "a hundred baths of oil," and the other "a hundred cors of wheat" (Luke 16:5-7). So also in other places where a "hundred" is mentioned. The case is similar with a "thousand," respecting which number, see above (n. 2575).

AC 2637. When Isaac his son was born unto him. That this signifies when the Lord‘s rational was made Divine, is evident from the signification of "being born," which is to come forth (existere) (n. 2584, 2621, 2629) and from the representation of "Isaac," as being the Divine rational (n. 2630). This is said to be "born to Abraham," when made Divine; as also above, (verse 3): "Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him" (n. 2628).

AC 2638. Verses 6, 7. And Sarah said, God hath made laughter for me; every one that heareth will laugh with me. And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, Sarah shall suckle sons? for I have borne a son to his old age. " Sarah said," signifies perception from the Divine spiritual; "God hath made laughter for me," signifies the affection of celestial truth; "every one that heareth will laugh with me," signifies that all things in it will have this affection; "and she said," signifies thought; "who would have said unto Abraham, Sarah shall suckle sons?" signifies that the Lord implanted the Human in the Divine by His own power; "for I have borne a son to his old age," signifies that this was done when the days were fulfilled.

AC 2639. Sarah said. That this signifies perception from the Divine spiritual, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive; and from the representation of Sarah, as being the Divine spiritual, or Divine truth (n. 2622).

AC 2640. God hath made laughter for me. That this signifies the affection of celestial truth, is evident from the signification of "laughter," as being the affection of truth (n. 2072, 2216); and from the expression "God making," as denoting the celestial from which it is.

AC 2641. Everyone that heareth will laugh with me. That this signifies that all things in it will have this affection, is evident from the signification of "hearing" and "laughing." In the Word to "hear" is predicated of what is of affection, but to "see" of what is of thought; which is evident from a great many passages in the Word, as also from the correspondences (n. 2542). As the affection of celestial truth is here treated of, it is said, "Every one that heareth," by which are signified all things that are of affection. To "laugh" denotes to be affected by truth, that is, to have the affection of truth (n. 2072, 2216, 2640).

AC 2642. And she said. That this signifies thought, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive, and also to think (n. 2619).

AC 2643. Who would have said unto Abraham, Sarah shall suckle sons? That this signifies that the Lord implanted the Human in the Divine by His own power, is evident from the representation of Abraham, and also of Sarah, and from the signification of "suckling’ and of "sons." That Abraham represents Divine good, and Sarah Divine truth, has been shown before. That "milk" denotes what is spiritual from a celestial origin, or truth from good, may be seen above (n. 2184); and thus to "suckle" is to implant it. That "sons" are truths, here those that are in the rational, is evident from the signification of "sons" (n. 489, 490, 491, 533). That these things signify in the internal sense that the Lord implanted the Human in the Divine by His own power, is because the Divine truth is the same as the Divine Human; and when it is said of this that it "suckles sons to Abraham," the signification is that it has implanted the Human in the Divine; and as it was the Human, He did it from His own power. But these things can with difficulty be explained more clearly to the understanding. If many words be used, the sense will become still more obscure; for these are Divine things, which can only be presented before angels by thing celestial and spiritual; and if they were presented before man in any more elevated style, they would fall into the material and corporeal ideas which man has.

[2] It is further to be known that the Lord‘s Divine rational is described as to its quality when it was first born in the words, "God hath made laughter for me; every one that heareth will laugh with me; and she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, Sarah shall suckle sons?" For it was according to ancient custom, that when a child was born, a name was given significative of the state; and that the state also was then described; as when Cain was born to Eve and Adam (Gen. 4:1); when Sheth was born to them (Gen. 4:25); when Noah was born to Lamech (Gen. 5:29); when Esau and Jacob were born to Isaac (Gen. 25:25, 26); when the twelve sons were born to Jacob (Gen. 29:32-35; 30:6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 20, 24; 35:18); when Perez and Zerah were born to Tamar (Gen. 38:29, 30); when Manasseh and Ephraim were born to Joseph (Gen. 41:51, 52); when Gershom and Eliezer were born to Moses (Exod. 2:22; 18:4). What all these represent, and what they signify in the internal sense, was involved in the descriptions added to the names which were given; thus here what Isaac represents. What is involved is manifest in some degree from this brief explication, but deeper arcana yet are hidden within; for they are Divine things, which can be expressed by no forms or formulas of expression.

AC 2644. For I have borne a son to his old age. That this signifies that this was done when the days were fulfilled, is evident from the explication of nearly the same words in the second verse (n. 2621-2624).

AC 2645. Verse 8. And the child grew, and was weaned; and Abraham made a great feast on the day when he weaned Isaac. "The child grew," signifies the further perfecting of the Lord’s rational; "and was weaned," signifies the separation of the merely human rational; "Abraham made a great feast," signifies dwelling together and union; "on the day when he weaned Isaac," signifies the state of separation.

AC 2646. The child grew. That this signifies the further perfecting of the Lord‘s rational, is evident from the signification of "growing," as being to be perfected; and from the signification of the "child" or "son," as being the Lord’s Divine rational (n. 2623)

AC 2647. And was weaned. That this signifies the separation of the merely human rational, is evident from the signification of "being weaned," as being to be separated, like infants from their mothers‘ breasts. That the merely human rational was separated, is further described in this chapter, and is represented by Hagar’s son, in his being cast out of the house.

AC 2648. Abraham made a great feast. That this signifies dwelling together and union, is evident from the signification of a "feast," as being a dwelling together (n. 2341); here union also, because the Lord is treated of, whose Human was united to His Divine, and the Divine to the Human; and because this union is treated of, it is said a "great feast."

AC 2649. On the day when he weaned Isaac. That this signifies the state of separation, is evident from the signification of "day," as being state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893); and from the signification of "being weaned," as being to be separated (n. 2647). From the first verse of this chapter the uniting of the Lord‘s Divine Essence with His Human Essence has been treated of, in this order: The presence of the Divine in the Human for the sake of unition (verse 1). The presence of the Human in the Divine, and thus a reciprocal unition (n. 2004) (verse 2). From this unition the Human was made Divine (verse 3). And this successively and continually while the Lord lived in the world (verse 4). And this commenced when the rational was in a state to receive (verse 5). The state of the unition is described as to its quality, with its arcana (verses 6, 7). Now follows the separation of the maternal human, and this is continued down to (verse 12); which separation is signified in this verse by the weaning of Isaac, and is represented in the following verses by Hagar’s son being sent away out of the house. And as the union of the Lord‘s Divine with His Human and of His Human with His Divine is the very marriage of good and truth, and from it is the heavenly marriage, which is the same as the Lord’s kingdom, therefore a great feast is mentioned which Abraham made when he weaned Isaac, by which the beginning of marriage or the first union is signified; which feast and weaning, but for the signification, would never have been mentioned.

[2] As the separation of the first human, which the Lord had from the mother, now follows, and at length the full removal of it, it is to be known that the Lord gradually and continually, even to the last of His life when He was glorified, separated from Himself and put off that which was merely human, namely, that which He derived from the mother, until at length He was no longer her son, but the Son of God, not only as to conception but also as to birth, and thus was one with the Father, and was Jehovah Himself. That He separated from Himself and put off all the human from the mother, so that He was no longer her son, is manifest from His words in John:--

When the wine failed, the mother of Jesus said unto Him, They have no wine. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what (belongs) to Me and to thee? (John 2:3, 4).

In Matthew:--

One said, Behold, Thy mother and Thy brethren stand without, seeking to speak to Thee. But Jesus answering said unto him that told Him, Who is My mother? and who are My brethren? And stretching forth His hand toward His disciples, He said, Behold My mother, and My brethren; for whosoever shall do the will of My Father who is in the heavens, the same is My brother, and sister, and mother (Matthew 12:47-50; Mark 3:32-35; Luke 8:20, 21).

In Luke:--

A certain woman out of the multitude lifting up her voice, said unto Him, Blessed is the womb that bare Thee, and the breasts which Thou didst suck. But Jesus said, Blessed are they that hear the Word of God, and keep it (Luke 11:27, 28).

[3] Here, when the woman spoke of His mother, the Lord spoke of those described above, namely, "Whoever shall do the will of My Father, the same is My brother, and sister, and mother;" which is the same as this, "Blessed are they that hear the Word of God, and keep it." In John:--

Jesus seeing His mother and the disciple whom He loved standing by, said unto His mother, Woman, behold thy son. Then said He to the disciple, Behold thy mother. Therefore from that hour the disciple took her to his own home (John 19:26, 27).

From these words it is manifest that the Lord spoke to her according to her thought when she saw Him on the cross, and even then not calling her mother, but "woman;" and that He transferred the name of mother to those who are signified by the disciple; on which account He said to the disciple, "Behold thy mother." Still more manifest is this from the Lord‘s own words, in Matthew:--

Jesus asked the Pharisees, saying, What think ye of Christ? whose son is He? They say unto Him, David’s. He saith unto them, How then doth David in the spirit call Him Lord, saying, The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on My right hand until I make Thine enemies Thy foot stool? If David therefore call Him Lord, how is He his Son? And no one was able to answer Him a word (Matthew 22:41-46; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:42-44).

Thus He was no longer the Son of David as to the flesh.

[4] And further, in regard to the separation and putting off of the maternal human those do not comprehend this who have merely corporeal ideas respecting the Lord‘s Human, and think of it as of the human of any other man; hence to such these things are stumbling blocks. They do not know that such as the life is such is the man, and that the Divine Esse (Being) of life, or Jehovah, was in the Lord from conception, and that a similar Esse of life came forth in His Human by means of the union.

AC 2650. Verse 9. And Sarah sad the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne unto Abraham, mocking. "Sarah saw," signifies the Lord’s insight from the Divine spiritual; "the son of Hagar the Egyptian," signifies into the merely human rational; "Hagar the Egyptian" is the affection of memory-knowledges, of which as a mother that rational was born; "whom she had borne unto Abraham," signifies that it came forth from the Divine celestial as a father; "mocking" signifies not in agreement with or favoring the Divine rational.

AC 2651. And Sarah saw. That this signifies the Lord‘s insight from the Divine spiritual, is evident from the signification of "seeing," as being to understand (n. 897, 2150, 2325), which is the same as to look into, from the mind’s sight; also from the representation of Sarah, as being the Divine spiritual, or Divine truth (n. 2622). " Sarah saw," means that the Divine spiritual had insight, which is the same as to say that the Lord had it from the Divine spiritual.

AC 2652. The son of Hagar the Egyptian. That this signifies into the merely human rational, and that "Hagar the Egyptian" is the affection of memory-knowledges, of which that rational was born as a mother, is evident from the signification of the "son," namely Ishmael, as being the first rational which the Lord had - treated of in the sixteenth chapter of Genesis, where Hagar and Ishmael are the subject also from his representation, and that of Hagar the Egyptian, his mother, explained under that chapter. That the first or merely human rational in the Lord was conceived from the Divine celestial as a father, and born of the affection of memory-knowledges as a mother, see (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910).

AC 2653. Whom she had borne unto Abraham. That this signifies that it came forth from the Divine celestial as a father, is evident from the signification of "bearing," as being to come forth (existere) (n. 2621, 2629); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Divine celestial (n. 1989, 2011, 2172, 2198, 2501). That the first rational came forth from the Divine celestial as a father, see (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910).

AC 2654. Mocking. That this signifies not in agreement with or favoring the Divine rational, is evident from the signification of "mocking," as being that which comes of an affection contrary to what does not agree with and favor one‘s self. In the preceding verse it was said that the child grew, and was weaned, and that Abraham made a great feast when he weaned Isaac; by which is signified that when the Lord’s rational was made Divine, the former rational was separated. Therefore there now immediately follows that which concerns the son of Hagar the Egyptian, by whom this rational is meant, as was shown in the explication at the sixteenth chapter, where Ishmael and Hagar are treated of. From this it is likewise manifest that the things which are in the internal sense follow together in a continuous series.

[2] But in regard to the Lord‘s first rational, seeing that it was born as with another’ man, namely, by means of knowledges (per scientias et cognitiones), it could not but be in appearances of truth which are not truths in themselves, as is evident from what has been shown before (n. 1911, 1936, 2196, 2203, 2209, 2519); and as it was in appearances of truth, truths without appearances, such as Divine truths are, could not agree with it or favor it, both because this rational does not comprehend them, and because they oppose it. But take examples for illustration.

[3] The human rational-that namely which has its birth from worldly things through impressions of sense, and afterwards from analogies of worldly things by means of knowledges (per scientifica et cognitiones) - is ready to laugh and mock if told that it does not live of itself, but only appears to live so; and that one lives the more, that is, the more wisely and intelligently, and the more blissfully and happily, the less he believes that he lives of himself; and that this is the life of angels, especially of those who are celestial, and inmost, or nearest to the Lord; for they know that no one lives of himself except Jehovah alone, that is, the Lord.

[4] This rational would mock also if it were told that it has nothing of its own, and that its having anything of its own is a fallacy or an appearance; and still more would it mock if told that the more it is in the fallacy that it has anything of its own, the less it has; and the converse. So too would it mock if told that whatever it thinks and does from what is its own is evil, although it were good; and that it is not wise until it believes and perceives that all evil is from hell, and all good from the Lord. In this belief, and even in this perception, are all the angels; who nevertheless have what is their own more abundantly than all others; but they know and perceive that this is from the Lord, although it altogether appears as theirs.

[5] Again: this rational would mock if it were said that in heaven the greatest are they who are least, the wisest they who believe and perceive themselves to be the least wise, and the happiest they who desire others to be the most happy, and themselves the least so; that it is heaven to wish to be below all, but hell to wish to be above all; consequently that in the glory of heaven there is absolutely nothing the same as in the glory of the world.

[6] In the same way would that rational mock, if it were said that in the other life there is nothing of space and time, but that there are states, according to which there are appearances of space and time; and that life is the more heavenly the further it is from what is of space and time, and the nearer it is to what is eternal; in which, namely, in what is eternal, there is nothing at all from the idea of time, nor from anything analogous to it: and so with numberless other things.

[7] That there were such things in the merely human rational, and that therefore this rational mocked at Divine things, the Lord saw, and indeed from the Divine spiritual, which is signified by Sarah‘s seeing the son of Hagar the Egyptian, (n. 2651, 2652). That man is able to look from within into the things in himself which are below, is known by experience to those who are in perception, and even to those who are in conscience; for they see so far as to reprove their very thoughts. Hence the regenerate can see what is the quality of the rational which they had before regeneration. With man such perception is from the Lord; but the Lord’s was from Himself.

AC 2655. Verse 10. And she said unto Abraham, Cast out this handmaid and her son; for the son of this handmaid shall not inherit with my son, with Isaac. " She said unto Abraham," signifies perception from the Divine; "cast out this handmaid and her soil," signifies that the things of the merely human rational should be banished; "for the son of this handmaid shall not inherit with my son, with Isaac," signifies that the merely human rational could not have a common life with the Divine rational itself, either as to truth or as to good.

AC 2656. She said unto Abraham. That this signifies perception from the Divine, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historic parts of the Word, which is to perceive (as stated often before); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Divine celestial, or the Divine good (n. 2622).

AC 2657. Cast out this handmaid and her son. That this signifies that the things of the merely human rational should be banished, is evident from the signification of "casting out," as being to banish; from the signification of a "handmaid," as being the affection of rational things and memory-knowledges, thus as being the good of them (n. 2567); and from the signification of her "son," as being the truth of that rational (n. 264, 489, 533, 1147). But it is apparent good and truth which are predicated of this first or merely human rational. Hence it is that "cast out this handmaid and her son," signifies that the things of the merely human rational were to be banished. How this is, namely, that the first rational was banished when the Divine rational took its place, has been stated and shown several times before; but as it is here treated of specifically, it must be still further explained in a few words.

[2] With every man who is being regenerated there are two rationals, one before regeneration, the other after regeneration. The first, which is before regeneration, is procured through the experience of the senses, by reflections upon things of civic life and of moral life, and by means of the sciences and the reasonings derived from them and by means of them, also by means of the knowledges of spiritual things from the doctrine of faith or from the Word. But these go no further at that time than a little above the ideas of the corporeal memory, which comparatively are quite material. Whatever therefore it then thinks is from such things; or, in order that what it thinks may be comprehended at the same time by interior or intellectual sight, the semblances of such things are presented by comparison, or analogically. Of this kind is the first rational, or that which is before regeneration.

[3] But the rational after regeneration is formed by the Lord through the affections of spiritual truth and good, which affections are implanted by the Lord in a wonderful manner in the truths of the former rational; and those things in it which are in agreement and which favor, and thus vivified; but the rest are separated from it as of no use; until at length spiritual goods and truths are collected together as it were into bundles, the incongruous things which cannot be vivified being rejected to the circumference, and this by successive steps, as spiritual goods and truths grow, together with the life of the affections of them. From this it appears what the second rational is.

[4] How the case is with these things may be illustrated by comparison with the fruit of trees. The first rational, in the beginning, is like unripe fruit, which gradually matures till it forms seeds within itself, and when it is of such age as to begin to separate itself from the tree, its state is then full (n. 2636). But the second rational, with which one is gifted by the Lord when he is being regenerated, is like the same fruit in good ground, in which those things which are round about the seeds decay, and the seeds push forth from their inmost parts, and send out a root, and then a shoot above the ground, which grows into a new tree, and unfolds itself at length even into new fruits, and then into gardens and paradises, according to the affections of good and truth which it receives (Matt. 13:31, 32; John 12:24).

[5] But as examples aid conviction, take as an example that which is man‘s own before regeneration, and that which is his own after it. From the first rational, which he has procured to himself by the means described above, the man believes that he thinks truth and does good from himself, and thus from what is his own. This first rational cannot apprehend otherwise, even if it has been instructed that all the good of love and all the truth of faith are from the Lord. But when man is being regenerated, which takes place in adult age, then from the other rational with which he is gifted by the Lord he begins to think that the good and truth are not from himself, or from what is his own, but from the Lord, but that nevertheless he does good and thinks truth as from himself, see (n. 1937, 1947). The more he is then confirmed in this, the more is he led into the light of truth respecting these things, till at last he believes that all good and all truth are from the Lord. The Own that belongs to the former rational is then successively separated, and the man is gifted by the Lord with a heavenly Own, which becomes that of his new rational.

[6] Take another example. The first rational, in the beginning, knows no other love than that of self and the world; and although it hears that heavenly love is altogether of another character, it nevertheless does not comprehend it. But then, when the man does any good, he perceives no other delight from it than that he may seem to himself to merit the favor of another, or may hear himself called a Christian, or may obtain from it the joy of eternal life. The second rational however, with which he is gifted by the Lord through regeneration, begins to feel some delight in good and truth itself, and to be affected by this, not for the sake of anything of his own, but for the sake of the good and truth; and when he is led by this delight, he disclaims merit, till at length he rejects it as an enormity. This delight grows with him step by step, and becomes blessed; and in the other life it becomes happiness, and is itself his heaven. Hence it is now evident how it is with each rational in the man who is being regenerated.

[7] But be it known that although a man is being regenerated, still each and all things of the first rational remain with him, and are merely separated from the second rational, and this in a most wonderful manner by the Lord. But the Lord wholly banished His first rational, so that nothing of it remained; for what is merely human cannot be together with the Divine. Hence He was no longer the son of Mary, but was Jehovah as to each Essence.

AC 2658. For the son of this handmaid shall not inherit with my son, with Isaac. That this signifies that the merely human rational could not have a life in common with the Divine rational itself, either as to good or as to truth, is evident from the signification of "inheriting," as being to have another’s life (to be explained presently); from the signification of the "son of the handmaid," as being the merely human rational as to truth and as to good (n. 2657); from the signification of "my son Isaac," as being the Divine rational as to truth, which is "my son", and as to good, which is "Isaac", see (n. 2623, 2630). That " Isaac" is the Divine rational as to good, is evident from the signification of "laughter," from which he was named, as being the affection of truth, or the good of truth, in the sixth and seventh verses (n. 2640, 2641, 2643). Hence it is manifest that "the son of this handmaid shall not inherit with my son, with Isaac," denotes that the merely human rational cannot have a life in common with the Divine rational, either as to truth or as to good. That it cannot have a life in common, is evident from the mere fact that the Divine is Life itself, and thus has life in Itself; whereas the merely human is an organ of life, and thus has not life in itself.

[2] When the Lord‘s Human was made Divine it was no longer an organ of life, or a recipient of life, but was Life itself, such as is that of Jehovah Himself. It had this at first from its very conception from Jehovah, as is clearly manifest from the Lord’s own words in John:--

As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:26);

the Divine Human is what is here called the "Son" (n. 1729, 2159, 2628). In the same:--

In Him was life, and the life was the light of men (John 1:4).

In the same:--

Jesus said, I am the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).

In the same:--

Jesus said, I am the resurrection and the life, he that believeth in Me, though he die, yet shall he live (John 11:25).

In the same:--

The bread of God is He that cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world (John 6:33).

But that man is not life, but an organ or recipient of life, may be seen above (n. 2021). From all this it is evident that when the Lord was made Jehovah even as to His Human, that which was not life in itself, that is, that which was merely human, was banished. This is signified by its being said that the son of the handmaid could not inherit with the son Isaac.

[3] That to "inherit," in the internal sense, when predicated of the Lord, is to have the Father‘s life, thus to have life in Himself; and when predicated of men, it is to have the Lord’s life, that is, to receive life from the Lord, is evident from many passages in the Word. To have life in Himself is the Esse itself of life, that is, Jehovah; whereas to have the Lord‘s life, or to receive life from the Lord, is to receive the Lord in love and faith; and as those who so receive Him are in the Lord, and are the Lord’s, they are called His "heirs," and His "sons."

[4] In the Word of the Old Testament "inheriting" is predicated not only of what is celestial, or of good, but also of what is spiritual, or of truth, but still the one is expressed by a different word from the other: the word that is predicated of good may be rendered "to possess by inheritance;" and the word that is predicated of truth, "to inherit." The former word also in the original language involves possession, but the latter, derivation from something else, as is the case with the spiritual in relation to the celestial, or with truth in relation to good. In this verse, where the Lord‘s Divine rational, or His Divine Human, is represented by Isaac, the word denoting possession by hereditary right is used, because the Lord’s Divine Human is the sole heir-possessor, as He also teaches in the parable (Matt. 21:33, 37, 38; Mark 12:7; Luke 20:14); and He declares in several places that all things of the Father are His.

[5] That to "possess by inheritance" and to "inherit," in the Word, when predicated of men, signify to receive life from the Lord, consequently eternal life or heaven, for they alone receive heaven who receive the Lord‘s life), is evident in John:--

He that overcometh shall inherit all things, and I will be his God, and he shall be My son (Rev. 21:7).

In Matthew:--

Every one that hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, for My name’s sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit eternal life (Matthew 19:29; 25:34; Mark 10:17; Luke 18:18).

Here heaven is called "eternal life," elsewhere simply "life" (Matt. 18:8, 9; 19:17; John 3:36; 5:24, 29), for the reason that the Lord is Life itself, and he who receives His life is in heaven.

[6] In David:--

God will save Zion, and build the cities of Judah, and they shall dwell there, and possess it by inheritance, the seed also of His servants shall inherit it, and they that love His name shall dwell therein (Ps. 69:35, 36);

where to "possess by inheritance" is predicated of those who are in celestial love, and to "inherit" of those who are in spiritual love. In Isaiah:--

He that putteth his trust in Me shall inherit the land, and shall possess by inheritance the mountain of My holiness (Isaiah 57:13).

[7] In like manner in Moses:--

I will bring you unto the land concerning which I lifted up My hand to give it to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, and I will give it to you for an hereditary possession (Exod. 6:8).

In the sense of the letter these words signify that the land of Canaan should be given to them for an hereditary possession, which also was done; but in the internal sense they signify that heaven should be given to those who are in love to the Lord and faith in Him; for as the Lord is represented by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, so love itself and faith itself are signified, consequently those who are in love and faith, and thus those who are in the Lord. The same are also signified by Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with whom many shall sit down in the kingdom of the heavens, as we read in (Matthew 8:11); for in heaven Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are not known at all; but it is only known what is represented and signified by them, as also what is signified by sitting down or eating with them. For that all names in the Word signify actual things may be seen above (n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888); also that the "land of Canaan" is the heavenly Canaan or heaven (n. 1585, 1607, 1866), which is called simply the "land" (n. 1413, 1607, 1733, 2571). So too in Matthew:--

Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit the earth (Matthew 5:5).

AC 2659. Verse 11. And the word was evil exceedingly in the eyes of Abraham, on account of his son. "The word was evil exceedingly in the eyes of Abraham," signifies the Lord‘s state when He first thought of that rational being separated from Himself; "on account of his son," signifies on this account, that He loved it.

AC 2660. The word was evil exceedingly in the eyes of Abraham. That this signifies the Lord’s state at first when He thought of that rational being separated from Himself, namely, that it was a state of grief from love, is evident without explication.

AC 2661. On account of his son. That this signifies on this account, that He loved it, namely, the first rational, is evident from the signification of the "son," namely, that of the handmaid, as being the merely human or first rational, described before. Although the cause of this grief is not told, it is evident from what follows. That the cause is the love is plain enough, for it is said "on account of his son;" and the same son is treated of in what follows, from (verse 13 to 21). Nevertheless in order that it may be known why there was this grief, or on what account it is said that the word was very evil in Abraham‘s eyes on account of his son; take these few things by way of illustration.

[2] The Lord did not come into the world to save the celestial, but the spiritual. The Most Ancient Church, called "Man," was celestial; and if this church had remained in its integrity, the Lord would have had no need to be born a man. But as soon as this church began to decline, the Lord foresaw that the celestial church would wholly perish from the world; and on that account the prediction was then made concerning the Lord’s coming into the world (Gen. 3:15). After the time of that church there was no longer a celestial church, but a spiritual church; for the Ancient Church which was after the flood, was a spiritual church; and this church, that is, those who were of the spiritual church, could not have been saved unless the Lord had come into the world. This is meant by the Lord‘s words in Matthew:--

They that are well have no need of a physician, but they that are sick; I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance (Matthew 9:12, 13).

Also by these words in John:--

And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one flock and one shepherd (John 10:16).

Also by the parable of the hundred sheep, in (Matthew 18:11-13).

[3] Now as by Isaac is represented the Lord’s Divine rational, and as by him are also signified the celestial who are called "heirs;" and as by Ishmael is represented the Lord‘s merely human rational, and as by him are also signified the spiritual who are called "sons" (n. 2658), this was the reason why the Lord felt grief from Divine love, as shown in the words of this verse; and also in those which follow from (verse 13 to 21), where by Hagar’s son and the mother of that son is represented the spiritual church; and the state of this church, that is, the state of those who were of this church, is treated of (n. 2612). These arcana cannot as yet be set forth more fully; it may simply be said that with the Lord when in the world all the states of the church were represented, and also in what manner those who belonged to the church were to be saved by Him; and for this reason the same states of the church are likewise signified by these same names.

AC 2662. Verse 12. And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be evil in thine eyes because of the child, and because of thine handmaid; all that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called. "God said unto Abraham," signifies the Lord‘s perception from the Divine; "let it not be evil in thine eyes because of the child, and because of thine handmaid," signifies a change of state toward that rational; "all that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice," signifies that He should act according to spiritual truth; "for in Isaac shall thy seed be called," signifies that from the Lord’s Divine Human is all salvation for those who are in good.

AC 2663. God said unto Abraham. That this signifies the Lord‘s perception from the Divine, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historic parts of the Word, as being to perceive (explained very often before); and because it was from the Divine it is said that "God said to Abraham." By both names "God" and "Abraham," is meant the Lord; which shows that the historic statements which are the sense of the letter, divide the ideas; but that the internal sense unites them; for in the historic sense of the letter there are two (namely, God and Abraham) who speak to each other; but in the internal sense there is one, namely, the Lord in respect to the Divine. This also shows that they who are three in the sense of the letter are one in the internal sense; as the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, who are not three gods, but one; and that all the Trinity is complete in the Lord; namely, that in Him is the Father, as He says; and that from Him is the Holy Spirit, as He also says.

AC 2664. Let it not be evil in thine eyes because of the child, and because of thine handmaid. That this signifies a change of state toward that rational, is evident. In the internal sense nearest the words, the meaning is that He should not grieve at having to separate the merely human rational from Himself; and also that He did not grieve; for it belonged to His perception from the Divine that it was necessary that it should be separated; because in no other manner could the human race be saved. This is the change of state that is signified.

AC 2665. All that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice. That this signifies that He should act according to spiritual truth, is evident from the representation of Sarah, as being the Divine spiritual, or Divine truth (n. 2622); and from the signification of "hearkening to the voice," as being to act according to it (n. 2542). What it is to act according to spiritual truth cannot be unfolded to the apprehension in the fullness in which it can be perceived by those who are in the internal sense; and therefore if we were to state what it is according to their perception, it would scarcely be acknowledged; and there is the further reason that more arcana are first to be unfolded, nay, believed, before the matter when unfolded can enter into the ideas of men’s belief. What it signifies in a general way can be told in some small degree, namely, that the Lord formed a conclusion from the Human Divine, and acted according to it, and thus from His own power: for Divine truth was that by means of which He united the Human to the Divine; and Divine good that by means of which He united the Divine to the Human; which unition was reciprocal (n. 2004).

AC 2666. In Isaac shall thy seed be called. That this signifies that from the Lord‘s Divine Human is all salvation for those who are in good, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Divine rational, thus the Divine Human, for the human commences in the inmost of the rational, (n. 2106); and from the signification of "seed," which is predicated of Isaac, as being the celestial rational, or what is the same, those who are celestial (n. 2085, 2661). Thus that "thy seed shall be called" signifies that they will be heirs, consequently that they will have salvation. The spiritual also are "seed," but from the son of the handmaid, as is said in the following verse:--" and also the son of the handmaid, I will make him a nation, because he is thy seed;" and therefore the spiritual also have salvation if they are in good, as will appear from the internal sense of these words. The Lord also teaches the same in many places, and plainly in John:--

As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, to them that believe in His name who were born, not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (John 1:12, 13).

AC 2667. From the first verse of this chapter to the seventh, the unition of the Lord’s Human with His Divine, and of His Divine with His Human, has been treated of; and it has been shown that from that unition the Lord‘s Human was made Divine. The contents of the several verses may be seen above (n. 2649). From that point the merely human rational has been treated of, as being separated (verse 8); because it was not in agreement with the Divine Rational (verse 9); nor could it have a life in common with it, either as to truth or as to good (verse 10) that the separation was at first a grief to the Lord (verse 11); but that He perceived from the Divine that the human race could be saved in no other manner (verse 12). There now follows the subject of those who were of the spiritual church, who are signified by Hagar’s son after he was sent away.

AC 2668. Verse 13. And also the son of the handmaid I will make a nation, because he is thy seed. "The son of the handmaid I will make a nation," signifies the spiritual church which was to receive the good of faith; "because he is thy seed," signifies that they also shall have salvation from the Lord‘s Divine Human.

AC 2669. Also the son of the handmaid I will make a nation. That this signifies the spiritual church which was to receive the good of faith, is evident from the signification of the "son of the handmaid," and also of a "nation." The son of the handmaid, or Ishmael, when he was in Abraham’s house, or with Abraham, represented the Lord‘s first rational, as shown above (n. 2652, 2653, 2657, 2658); but now, when separated, he puts on another representation, namely, that of the spiritual church (n. 2666); in the same manner as did Lot before, who while with Abraham represented the Lord’s external man (n. 1428, 1429, 1434, 1547, 1597, 1598, 1698); but when separated from Abraham represented the external church, and the many states of that church (n. 2324, 2371, 2399, 2422, 2459); and in the whole of the nineteenth chapter of Genesis. That a "nation" signifies good may be seen above (n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849); here the good of faith, because it is predicated of the spiritual church. Hence now "also the son of the handmaid I will make a nation" signifies the spiritual church which was to receive the good of faith, that is, charity.

[2] The Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens and on earth is celestial and spiritual; and the angels are therefore distinguished into celestial and spiritual (n. 202, 337). To the celestial angels the Lord appears as a Sun, and to the spiritual as a Moon (n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531). In the same manner are men distinguished into celestial and spiritual. They who were of the Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood, were celestial (n. 607, 608, 780, 895, 920, 1114-1125); but they who were of the Ancient Church, which was after the flood, were spiritual (n. 609, 640, 641, 765). What the difference between these churches was, may be seen above (n. 597, 607); also what the difference is between what is celestial and what is spiritual (n. 81, 1155, 1577, 1824, 2048, 2069, 2088, 2227, 2507).

[3] The celestial are they of whom the Lord says:--He calleth His own sheep by name, and leadeth them out; and when He hath led out His own sheep, He goeth before them, and the sheep follow Him, for they know His voice. But the spiritual are they of whom He says:--

And other sheep I have which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one flock, and one shepherd (John 10:3, 4, 16).

The good of love is what makes the celestial church, but the good of faith is what makes the spiritual church. The truth of faith does not make, but introduces.

AC 2670. Because he is thy seed. That this signifies that they also have salvation from the Lord’s Divine Human, is evident from what was said above (n. 2666). That "seed" is faith, but the faith of charity, may be seen above (n. 255, 880, 1025, 1447, 1610, 1940).

AC 2671. From (verse 13 to 21), the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom is treated of in general, and specifically those who become spiritual; and this in order from the first state of their reformation to the last. Their state before reformation, as being one of wandering in the doctrinal things of faith (verse 14). That they are reduced even to ignorance, so as to know nothing of truth (verse 15). That they have grief from it (verse 16). And then comfort and help from the Lord (verse 17). And enlightenment (verse 18). And instruction from the Word (verse 19). That still their state after reformation, in comparison with the celestial, is obscure (verse 20). But that they have light from the Lord’s Divine Human in their affection of memory-knowledges and of appearances of truths (verse 21).

AC 2672. Verse 14. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave to Hagar, and put them on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away, and she went and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. "Abraham rose early in the morning," signifies the Lord‘s clear perception from the Divine; "and took bread and a bottle of water," signifies good and truth; "and gave to Hagar," signifies implantation in its life; "and put them on her shoulder," signifies as much as it could receive; "and the child," signifies spiritual truth; "and sent her away," signifies that he left it in what is their own; "and she went and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba," signifies a state of wandering in the doctrinal things of faith.

AC 2673. Abraham rose early in the morning. That this signifies the Lord’s clear perception from the Divine, is evident from the signification of "morning," and of "rising early," as being to perceive clearly (n. 2540), where the same words occur); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord‘s Divine. The Lord had a clear perception from the Divine concerning the state of His spiritual kingdom; namely, what they who are of that kingdom or of that church are in the beginning, what they are successively, and what they at length become for all their state is accurately and fully described in the internal sense, from (verse 13 to 21) of this chapter.

AC 2674. And he took bread and a bottle of water. That this signifies good and truth, is evident from the signification of "bread," as being what is celestial, or good (n. 276, 680, 2165); and from the signification of " water," as being what is spiritual, or truth (n. 28, 680, 739). It is said a "bottle of water," because it is very little truth with which they are gifted in the beginning; as much that is to say as they are able to receive, which is signified by his "putting it on her shoulder" (n. 2676). Every one can see that these historic statements involve arcana, from the fact that Abraham, who was rich in flock and herd, and also in gold and silver, sent away in this manner his handmaid by whom he had a son, and the boy Ishmael whom he much loved, giving them only bread [and water]. He could also foresee that when these were consumed they would die; and this would have come to pass if they had not received help from the angel. And besides, these things respecting the bread and the bottle of water, and their being put on her shoulder, are not of so much importance as to be narrated. But still it was so done, and was related because these things involve and signify the first state of those who are becoming spiritual--to whom in the beginning something of good and something of truth, and indeed but little, is imparted--and afterwards that the water fails them, and they then receive help from the Lord.

AC 2675. And gave to Hagar. That this signifies implantation in its life, is evident from the signification of "Hagar," as being the life of the exterior man (n. 1896, 1909). The life of the exterior man is the affection of memory-knowledges, which is specifically signified by "Hagar the Egyptian." With those who are becoming spiritual, good and truth are implanted by the Lord in the affection of memory-knowledges; and this so that they desire to know and to learn what is good and true for the purpose and use of becoming rational and of becoming spiritual; for the affection of memory-knowledges is the mother through whom is born the rational in which is the spiritual (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910). The like does indeed flow in from the Lord with all, but no others receive it for that end and that use except those who can be reformed; the rest do it for other ends and other uses, which are innumerable, and have regard to themselves and the world.

AC 2676. Put it on her shoulder. That this signifies as much as it could receive, is evident from the signification of the "shoulder," as being all power (n. 1085); thus as much of good and truth as one can receive.

AC 2677. And the child. That this signifies the spiritual, is evident from the signification of a "child," here as being that which is called the spiritual; for Ishmael or the son of the handmaid here represents the man of the spiritual church; and because he here represents the beginning of it, he is called a "child."

AC 2678. And sent her away. That this signifies that He left it in what is their own, is evident from the signification of "sending away," when done by Abraham, who represents the Lord; and also from the first state of those who are being reformed and are becoming spiritual. Their first state is that they suppose they do good and think truth from themselves, thus from what is their own, nor do they then know otherwise; and when told that all good and truth are from the Lord they do not indeed reject it, but do not acknowledge it at heart, because they do not feel it, nor interiorly perceive that anything flows in from any other source than themselves. As all who are being reformed are in such a state at first, they are therefore left by the Lord in what is their own; nevertheless they are led by means of this without knowing it.

AC 2679. And she went and wandered in the wilderness of Beer-sheba. That this signifies a state of wandering at that time in the doctrinal things of faith, is evident from the signification of "going and wandering in the wilderness," as being a wandering state and from the signification of "Beer-sheba," as being the doctrine of faith (treated of at the end of this chapter, where it is said that Abraham and Abimelech made a covenant in Beer-sheba, (verse 32); and that Abraham planted a grove in Beer-sheba, (verse 33). In this verse is described what the quality of the state of those who are reformed is in the beginning, namely, that they are carried away into various wanderings; for it is given them by the Lord to think much about eternal life, and thus much about the truths of faith; but because from what is their own they cannot do otherwise than wander hither and thither, both in doctrine and in life, seizing as truth that which has been inseminated from their infancy, or is impressed upon them by others, or is thought out by themselves--besides their being led away by various affections of which they are not conscious--they are like fruits as yet unripe, on which shape, beauty, and savor cannot be induced in a moment; or like tender blades which cannot in a moment grow up into bloom and ear. But the things which enter in at that time, though for the most part erroneous, are still such as are serviceable for promoting growth; and afterwards, when the men are being reformed, these are partly separated, and are partly conducive to introducing nourishment and as it were juices into the subsequent life--which again can afterwards be partly adapted to the implanting of goods and truths by the Lord, and partly to being serviceable to spiritual things as ultimate planes; and thus as continual means to reformation, which means follow on in perpetual connection and order; for all things even the least with man are foreseen by the Lord, and are provided for his future state to eternity; and this for his good in so far as is in any wise possible, and as he suffers himself to be led by the Lord.

AC 2680. Verse 15. And the water was spent out of the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs. "The water was spent out of the bottle," signifies the desolation of truth; "and she cast the child under one of the shrubs," signifies despair that nothing of truth and good was perceived.

AC 2681. The water was spent out of the bottle. That this signifies the desolation of truth, is evident from the signification of being "spent," as being desolated; and from the signification of "water," as being truth (n. 28, 680, 739).

AC 2682. And she cast the child under one of the shrubs. That this signifies despair that nothing of truth and good was perceived, is evident from the signification of the "child," as being spiritual truth (n. 2669, 2677); and from the signification of a "shrub" or "bush," as being perception, but so little as to be scarcely anything; on which account it is also said "under one of the shrubs"--having the same signification as trees, but in a less degree; and that "trees" signify perceptions may be seen above (n. 103, 2163): also from the feeling there was in the act, which was one of despair; all which shows that by her casting the child under one of the shrubs is signified despair that nothing of truth and good was perceived. That being "cast under one of the shrubs" denotes to be desolated as to truth and good even to despair, is manifest in Job:--

Alone in want and famine; they flee to the drought, yesternight desolation and wasteness; they pluck mallows upon the shrub; to dwell in the cleft of the valleys, in holes of the dust and of the rocks; among the shrubs they were groaning, under the thistle they were joined together (Job 30:3, 4, 6, 7);

where the desolation of truth is treated of, which is described by forms of expression in common use in the Ancient Church (for the book of Job is a book of the Ancient Church), such as to be alone, in want and in famine, to flee to the drought, yesternight desolation and wasteness; to dwell in the clefts of the valleys and of the rocks; also to pluck mallows upon the shrub, and to groan among the shrubs. So too in Isaiah:--

They shall come and shall rest all of them in the rivers of desolations, in the clefts of the rocks, and in all shrubs, and in all watercourses (Isaiah 7:19);

where also desolation is treated of, which is described by similar forms of expression, that is to say, by resting in the rivers of desolations, in the clefts of the rocks, and in the shrubs.

[2] In this verse the second state of those who are being reformed is treated of, which is that they are reduced to ignorance till they know nothing of truth, and this even to despair. The cause of their being reduced to such ignorance is that persuasive light may be extinguished, which is of such a nature as to illuminate falsities equally as well as truths, and to induce a belief in falsity by means of truths, and a belief in truth by means of falsities, and at the same time trust in themselves also that they may be led by experience itself to a knowledge of the fact that nothing of good and nothing of truth is of self or of man’s own, but from the Lord. They who are being reformed are reduced into ignorance even to despair, and then they have comfort and enlightenment, as is evident from what follows; for the light of truth from the Lord cannot flow into the persuasive which is from man‘s own; for this is of such a nature as to extinguish that light. In the other life that which is persuasive appears like the light of winter; but at the approach of the light of heaven, instead of that light there comes darkness, in which there is ignorance of all truth. With those who are being reformed this state is called the state of desolation of truth, and this also is much treated of in the internal sense of the Word.

[3] But of this state few have any knowledge, because few at this day are being regenerated. To those who are not being regenerated it makes no difference whether they know the truth, or do not; nor whether what they do know be truth or not, provided they can palm a thing off for truth. But they who are being regenerated think much about doctrine and life, because they think much about eternal salvation; and therefore if truth be deficient with them, as it is the subject of their thought and affection, they grieve at heart. The state of the one and of the other may be seen from this: While a man is in the body he is living as to his spirit in heaven, and as to his body in the world; for he is born into both, and has been so created that as to his spirit he can be actually with the angels, and at the same time with men by means of what is of the body. But as there are few who believe that they have a spirit which is to live after death, there are few who are being regenerated. To those who believe it, the other life is the whole of their thought and affection, and the world is nothing in comparison; but to those who do not believe it, the world is the whole of their thought and affection, and the other life is in comparison nothing. The former are they who can be regenerated, but the latter are they who cannot.

AC 2683. Verse 16. And she went and sat by herself over against him, withdrawing about a bowshot; for she said, Let "me not see the death of the child; and she sat over against him; and she lifted up her voice and wept. "She went and sat by herself over against him," signifies a state of thought; "withdrawing about a bowshot," signifies how far that state was from the doctrine of truth (a "bow" is the doctrine of truth); "for she said, Let me not see the death of the child," signifies grief that it should thus perish; "and she sat over against him," signifies a state of thought; "and she lifted up her voice and wept," signifies a further degree of grief.

AC 2684. And she went and sat by herself over against him. That this signifies a state of thought, is evident from the signification of "going," and also of "sitting by herself," and this over against, as applied to the things that precede and that follow. To "go," here to go away from the child, signifies removal from spiritual truth; which is further expressed and determined by her withdrawing about a bowshot. To "sit by one’s self," signifies a solitary state, such as is that of thought in grief and despair; "over against," signifies that she might not look on, and yet might look on; that to "look on" means to think, see above (n. 2245); this is also further expressed and determined by her saying, "Let me not see the death of the child; and she sat over against." There is thus involved in these words the state of thought of those who are in desolation of truth, and in the consequent despair.

AC 2685. Withdrawing about a bowshot. That this signifies how distant the state was from the doctrine of truth, is evident from the signification of "withdrawing," as being to be distant; and from the signification of a "bow," as being the doctrine of truth; a "shot" signifies as far distant as possible, since it was as far as an arrow could be sent by a bow. It is here said a "bowshot," because a "bow" is predicated of the spiritual man, and he is a shooter of the bow--as is said of him in (verse 20):--"and he dwelt in the wilderness, and became a shooter of the bow."

AC 2686. That a "bow" here denotes the doctrine of truth, is evident from its signification. Wherever wars are treated of in the Word, and wherever they are mentioned, no other wars are signified than spiritual ones (n. 1664). There were books also in the Ancient Word that were entitled "The Wars of Jehovah;" as is evident in Moses (Num. 21:14-16); which, being written in the prophetic style, had an internal sense, and treated of the combats and temptations of the Lord, and also of those of the church, and of the men of the church. This is manifest from the fact that some things were taken from these books by Moses; and also from other books of that church called "The Books of the Prophetic Enunciators" (Num. 21:27-30), in which almost the same words are found as in Jeremiah. Compare (Num. 21:28), and (Jer. 48:45). From this it may also be concluded that the Ancient Church had writings both historic and prophetic that were Divine and inspired, and that in their internal sense treated of the Lord and His kingdom; and that these were the Word to them, as are to us those historic and prophetic books which in the sense of the letter treat of the Jews and Israelites, but in their internal sense of the Lord, and of the things which are His.

[2] As in the Word, and also in the books of the Ancient Church, "war" signified spiritual war, so all arms, such as sword, spear, buckler, shield, darts, bow, and arrows, signified special things belonging to war as understood in the spiritual sense. What the several kinds of arms specifically signify, will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be told elsewhere. Here it will now be shown what a "bow" signifies, namely, the doctrine of truth; and this from the darts, arrows, or other missiles, which denote the doctrinal things from which and with which those in especial fight who are spiritual, and who were thence formerly called " shooters with the bow."

[3] That a "bow" signifies the doctrine of truth is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

Jehovah’s arrows are sharp, and all His bows are bent, the hoofs of His horses are counted as rock, and His wheels as the whirlwind (Isaiah 5:28).

Here the truths of doctrine are treated of; "arrows" are spiritual truths; "bows" are doctrine; the "horses‘ hoofs" are natural truths; the "wheels" are their doctrine; and as these things have such a signification they are attributed to Jehovah, to whom they cannot be attributed except in a spiritual sense; for otherwise they would be empty words and unbecoming. In Jeremiah:--

The Lord hath bent His bow like an enemy, He hath stood with His right had as an adversary, and hath slain all that were pleasant to the eye in the tent of the daughter of Zion, He hath poured out His fury like fire (Lam. 2:4).

Here "bow" denotes the doctrine of truth, which appears to those who are in falsities as an enemy and as hostile; no other how can be predicated of the Lord. In Habakkuk:--

O Jehovah, Thou ridest upon Thy horses, Thy chariots of salvation, Thy bow will be made quite bare (Habakkuk 3:8, 9).

Here also the "bow" is the doctrine of good and truth. In Moses:--

They grieved him, and shot at him, the archers hated him, his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob; from thence is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel (Gen. 49:23, 24);

where Joseph is spoken of. His "bow" denotes the doctrine of good and truth.

[4] In John:--

I saw and behold a white horse, and he that sat thereon had a bow, and there was given unto him a crown (Rev. 6:2).

The "white horse" denotes wisdom; "he that sat thereon," the Word, as is said plainly in (Rev. 19:13), where the white horse is again treated of; and as he that sat thereon was the Word, it is evident that the "bow" is the doctrine of truth. In Isaiah:--

Who hath raised up righteousness from the east, and called him to his footsteps? he hath given nations before him, and made him to rule over kings; he gave them as dust to his sword, as the driven stubble to his bow (Isaiah 41:2);

where the Lord is treated of; the "sword" denotes truth; the "bow," doctrine from Him. In the same:--

I will set a sign among them, and I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan (Isaiah 66:19).

They that "draw the bow" denote those who teach doctrine. The signification of "Tarshish" may be seen above (n. 1156); that of "Lud" (n. 1195, 1231), that of "Tubal" (n. 1151), and that of " Javan" (n. 1152, 1153, 1155).

[5] In Jeremiah:--

For the voice of the horseman and of him that shooteth the bow, the whole city fleeth; they have entered into clouds, and climbed up upon the rocks, the whole city is forsaken (Jeremiah 4:29).

The "horseman" denotes those who declare truth the "bow," the doctrine of truth, which they who are in falsities flee from or fear. In the same:--

Set yourselves in array against Babel round about; all ye that bend the bow shoot at her, spare not with the arrow, for she hath sinned against Jehovah (Jeremiah 50:14, 29; 51:2, 3);

where "they that shoot, and bend the bow" denote those who declare and teach the doctrine of truth.

[6] In Zechariah:--

I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim, and the horse from Jerusalem; and the battle bow shall be cut off, and He shall speak peace unto the nations (Zechariah 9:10).

"Ephraim" denotes the understanding of truth in the church; the "bow," doctrine. In Samuel:--

David lamented with this lamentation over Saul, and over Jonathan his son, and he said it to teach the sons of Judah the bow (2 Sam. 1:17, 18).

where the "bow" is not the subject, but the doctrinal things of faith. In Ezekiel:--

Said the Lord Jehovah, This is the day whereof I have spoken; and they that dwell in the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set on fire and burn up the weapons, the shield and the buckler, the bow and the arrows, and the hand staff and the spear, and they shall kindle fire in them seven years (Ezekiel 39:8, 9).

The arms here named are all arms of spiritual war; the "bow with the arrows" denote doctrine and its truths. In the other life truths themselves when separated from good and represented to the sight, appear like arrows.

[7] As a "bow" signifies the doctrine of truth, in the opposite sense it signifies the doctrine of falsity. The same things in the Word have usually an opposite sense, as has been said and shown in several places; thus in Jeremiah:--

Behold a people cometh from the north country, and a great nation shall be stirred up from the sides of the earth; they lay hold on bow and spear; they are cruel, and shall not have compassion; their voice shall roar like the sea, they shall ride upon horses set in array as a man for battle, against thee, O daughter of Zion (Jeremiah 6:22, 23);

where "bow" denotes the doctrine of falsity. In the same:--

Behold a people cometh from the north, and a great nation, and many kings shall be stirred up from the sides of the earth, they lay hold on bow and spear, they are cruel, and have no compassion (Jeremiah 50:41, 42);

where the meaning is similar. In the same:--

They bend their tongue; their bow is a lie, and not for truth, they are grown strong in the land; for they have gone forth from evil to evil, and have not known Me (Jeremiah 9:3).

[8] That the "bow" is the doctrine of falsity is plainly manifest, for it is said, "they bend their tongue; their bow is a lie, and not for truth." In the same:--

Jehovah Zebaoth said, Behold I will break the bow of Elam, the chief of his might (Jeremiah 49:35).

In David:--

Come, behold the works of Jehovah, who hath made desolations in the earth He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth, He breaketh the bow, He cutteth the spear in sunder, He burneth the chariots in the fire (Ps. 46:9).

In the same:--

In Judah is God known, His name is great in Israel; in Salem also shall be His tabernacle, and His dwelling-place in Zion; there brake He the fiery shafts of the bow, the shield and the sword, and the war (Ps. 76:1-3).

In the same:--

Lo the wicked bend the bow, they make ready their arrows upon the string, to shoot in darkness at the upright in heart (Ps. 11:2).

Here the "bow and arrows" plainly denote doctrinal things of falsity.

AC 2687. For she said, Let me not see the death of the child. That this signifies grief that it should so perish, is evident from the signification of "seeing the death," as being to perish; and from the signification of the "child," as being spiritual truth--explained above. Hence, and from the feeling of despair on account of the desolation of truth, it is manifest that it is interior grief that is within these words.

AC 2688. And she sat over against him. That this signifies a state of thought, is evident from what was said above (n. 2684), where are the same words. The reason that this is said again in this verse is that the state of thought was increased and aggravated even to the last degree of grief, as is manifest from what just precedes: "let me not see the death of the child;" and from what next follows: "she lifted up her voice and wept."

AC 2689. And she lifted up her voice and wept. That this signifies a further degree of grief, is evident from the signification of "lifting up the voice and weeping," as being the last degree of grief; for weeping with a loud voice is nothing else. The state of desolation of truth, and also of removal from truths, with those who are becoming spiritual, is described in this verse. How these things are to be understood shall be briefly told. Those who cannot be reformed do not at all know what it is to grieve on account of being deprived of truths for they suppose that no one can feel in the least anxious about such a thing. The only anxiety they believe to be possible is on account of being deprived of the goods of the body and the world; such as health, honors, reputation, wealth, and life. But they who can be reformed believe altogether differently: these are kept by the Lord in the affection of good and in the thought of truth; and therefore they come into anxiety when deprived of this thought and affection.

[2] It is known that all anxiety and grief arise from being deprived of the things with which we are affected, or which we love. They who are affected only with corporeal and worldly things, or who love such things only, grieve when they are deprived of them; but they who are affected with spiritual goods and truths and love them, grieve when they are deprived of them. Every one’s life is nothing but affection or love. Hence it is evident what is the state of those who are desolated as to the goods and truths with which they are affected, or which they love, namely, that their state of grief is more severe, because more internal; and in the deprivation of good and truth they do not regard the death of the body, for which they do not care, but eternal death. It is their state which is here described.

[3] That it may be known who those are that can be kept by the Lord in the affection of good and truth, and thus be reformed and become spiritual, and who those are that cannot, we will briefly state that during childhood, while being for the first time imbued with goods and truths, every one is kept by the Lord in the affirmative idea that what he is told and taught by his parents and masters is true. With those who can become spiritual men this affirmative is confirmed by means of knowledges (scientifica et cognitiones); for whatever they afterwards learn that has an affinity with it, insinuates itself into this affirmative, and corroborates it; and this more and more, even to affection. These are they who become spiritual men in accordance with the essence of the truth in which they have faith, and who conquer in temptations. But it is otherwise with those who cannot become spiritual men. Although during their childhood these are in the affirmative, yet in the age that follows they admit doubts, and thus trench upon the affirmative of good and truth; and when they come to adult age, they admit negatives, even to the affection of falsity. If these should be brought into temptations, they would wholly yield; and on this account they are exempted from them.

[4] But the real cause of their admitting doubts, and afterwards negatives, is to be found in their life of evil. They who are in a life of evil cannot possibly do otherwise; for as before said the life of every one is his affection or love; and such as is the affection or love, such is the thought. The affection of evil and the thought of truth never conjoin themselves together. with those in whom there is an appearance of this conjunction, there is really no such conjunction, but only the thought of truth without the affection of it; and therefore with such persons truth is not truth, but only something of sound, or of the mouth, from which the heart is absent. Such truth even the worst can know, and sometimes better than others. With some also there is found a persuasion of truth, of such a nature that no one can know but that it is genuine; and yet it is not so if there is no life of good: it is an affection a the love of self or of the world, which induces such a persuasion that they defend it even with the vehemence of apparent zeal; nay, they will even go so far as to condemn those who do not receive it, or believe in the same way. But this truth is of such a quality as is the principle with each person from which it starts, being strong in proportion as the love of self or of the world is strong. It indeed attaches itself to evil, but does not conjoin itself with it, and is therefore extirpated in the other life. Very different is it with those who are in the life of good. With these truth itself has its own ground and heart, and has its life from the Lord.

AC 2690. Verse 17. And God heard the voice of the child; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not, for God hath heard the voice of the child where he is. "God heard the voice of the child," signifies help at that time "and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven," signifies consolation; "and said unto her, What aileth thee Hagar?" signifies perception concerning one‘s state; "fear not, for God hath heard the voice of the child where he is," signifies the hope of help.

AC 2691. God heard the voice of the child. That this signifies help at that time, is evident from the signification of "God hearing a voice," said in the historic sense, as being in the internal sense to bring help; and from the signification of the "child," as being spiritual truth-explained before; here it is the state in which the spiritual was as to truth; for it is said that He heard the voice of the child, and again in this verse, that He heard the voice of the child where he was, that is, in what state; and in what precedes it was shown that it was in a state of the greatest grief on account of the privation of truth. The voice of the child, and not Hagar’s, is said to have been heard, because the state of the spiritual man is treated of. By the child, or Ishmael, is represented the man of the spiritual church; by his mother Hagar, the affection of the knowledges of truth, which is that which had grief. Man‘s rational is born of the affection of memory-knowledges as a mother (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910, 2094, 2524); but his spiritual is born of the affection of the knowledges of truth from doctrine, especially from the Word. The spiritual itself is here the "child;" and the affection of the knowledges of truth is "Hagar."

AC 2692. And the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven. That this signifies consolation, is evident from the signification of "calling out of heaven," and also of the "angel of God," as well as of "Hagar." To "call out of heaven," signifies influx; the "angel of God," signifies the Lord (n. 1925, 2319); and "Hagar," the affection of the knowledges of truth (n. 2691). The influx of the Lord into the affection of truth, when this is in deepest grief on account of the deprivation, is consolation. That which flows in with man from the Lord is said to be "called out of heaven," because it is through heaven, and is there manifest; but in man’s perception and thought it is obscure, manifesting itself only by a change of the state of his affection; as here by its receiving consolation.

AC 2693. And said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? That this signifies perception concerning its state, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historic parts of the Word, as being to perceive--explained before; and from the signification of "What aileth thee, Hagar?" as being the state in which it was: here it signifies that the Lord thoroughly knew its state, although she was questioned, and it is said, What aileth thee, Hagar? In the sense of the letter it is interrogation from the Lord, but in the internal sense it is infinite perception of all things. We read here and there in the Word that men are questioned as to their state; but the reason is that man believes that no one knows his thoughts, still less the state of his affection. A further reason is that men may have consolation from being able to express their feelings, which often proves a relief (n. 1701, 1931).

AC 2694. Fear not, for God hath heard the voice of the child where he is. That this signifies the hope of help, is evident from the signification of "fear not," as being not to despair; for when fear is taken away, hope is present; and from the signification of "hearing the voice of the child," as being help (n. 2691), where the words are similar). In the verses which precede, the state of desolation in which those are who are being reformed and are becoming spiritual, is treated of; now the subject is their being restored, and here their comfort and hope of help.

[2] That they who are being reformed are reduced into ignorance of truth, or desolation, even to grief and despair, and that they then for the first time have comfort and help from the Lord, is unknown at this day, for the reason that few are reformed. They who are such that they can be reformed are brought into this state, if not in the life of the body, nevertheless in the other life, where this state is well known, and is called vastation or desolation (n. 1109). They who are in such vastation or desolation are reduced even to despair; and when they are in this state they then receive comfort and help from the Lord, and are at length taken away into heaven, where they are instructed among the angels as it were anew in the goods and truths of faith. The reason of this vastation and desolation is chiefly that the persuasive which they have conceived from what is their own may be broken (n. 2682); and that they may also receive the perception of good and truth, which they cannot receive until the persuasive which is from their own has been as it were softened. This is effected by the state of anxiety and grief even to despair. What is good, nay, what is blessed and happy, no one can perceive with an exquisite sense unless he has been in a state of what is not good, not blessed, and not happy. From this he acquires a sphere of perception, and this in the degree in which he has been in the opposite state. The sphere of perception and the extension of its limits arise from the realizing of contrasts. These are causes of vastation or desolation, besides many others.

[3] But take examples for illustration. If to those who ascribe all things to their own prudence and little or nothing to Divine Providence, it be proved by thousands of reasons that the Divine Providence is universal, and this because it is in the most minute particulars; and that not even a hair falls from the head (that is, nothing happens however small) which is not foreseen and provided accordingly, nevertheless their state of thought about their own prudence is not changed by it, except at the very moment when they find themselves convinced by the reasons. Nay, if the same thing were attested to them by living experiences; just at the moment when they see the experiences, or are in them, they may confess that it is so; but after the lapse of a few moments they return to their former state of opinion. Such things have some momentary effect upon the thought, but not upon the affection; and unless the affection is broken, the thought remains in its own state; for the thought has its belief and its life from the affection. But when anxiety and grief are induced upon them by the fact of their own helplessness, and this even to despair, their persuasive is broken, and their state is changed; and then they can be led into the belief that they can do nothing of themselves, but that all power, prudence, intelligence, and wisdom are from the Lord. The case is similar with those who believe that faith is from themselves, and that good is from themselves.

[4] Take another example for illustration: If to those who have conceived the persuasion that when justified there is no longer any evil in them, but it is completely wiped away and blotted out, and thus they are pure--if to these it be made clear by thousands of reasons that nothing is wiped away or blotted out, but that they are kept back from evil and held in good by the Lord (that is to say those who are of such a character that from the life of good in which they had been in the world this is possible to them); and if moreover they be convinced by experience that of themselves they are nothing but evil, and indeed are most impure heaps of evils--after all they will not recede from the belief of their opinion. But when they are reduced to such a state that they perceive hell in themselves, and this to such a degree as to despair of ever being able to be saved, then for the first time that persuasive is broken, and with it their pride, and their contempt of others in comparison with themselves, and also the arrogance that they are the only ones who are saved; and they can be led into the true confession of faith, not only that all good is from the Lord, but also that all things are of His mercy and at length into humiliation of heart before the Lord, which is not possible without the acknowledgment of the true character of self. Hence now it is manifest why they who are being reformed, or are becoming spiritual, are reduced into the state of vastation or desolation treated of in the verses which precede; and that when they are in that state even to despair, they then for the first time receive comfort and help from the Lord.

AC 2695. Verse 18. Arise, lift up the child, and strengthen thy hand in him, for I will make him a great nation. "Arise," signifies elevation of mind; "lift up the child," signifies the spiritual as to truth; "and strengthen thy hand in him"‘ signifies support therefrom; "for I will make him a great nation," signifies the spiritual church.

AC 2696. Arise. That this signifies elevation of mind, is evident from the signification in the Word of "arising," as involving where mentioned some kind of elevation (n. 2401); here elevation of mind, because enlightenment--and in the following verse instruction--in truths.

AC 2697. Lift up the child. That this signifies the spiritual as to truth, is evident from the signification of the "child," as being the spiritual especially as to truth (n. 2677, 2687); for the man of the spiritual church seems to be regenerated by means of the truths of faith, but does not know that it is by means of the good of truth; for this is not apparent, and only manifests itself in the affection of truth, and then in life according to truth. Never can anyone be regenerated by means of truth, except when in the truth there is good; for truth without good has no life; and therefore by truth separate from good there does not come any new life; which however a man possesses by regeneration.

AC 2698. And strengthen thy hand in him. That this signifies support from it, is evident from the signification of "being strengthened," as meaning to be supported; and from the signification of the "hand," as being power (n. 878), which relates to support. "In him," that is, in the child, means from it, that is, from the spiritual as to truth. They who are in internal grief, and in despair from the privation of truth, are elevated and sustained solely by truth, because it is for this that they have grief and despair. With those who are in the affection of good, their good desires good as one hungers for bread; but with those who are in the affection of truth, their good desires truth, as one thirsts for water. What "strengthening the hand in him" here means, will not be understood by anyone except from the internal sense.

AC 2699. For I will make him a great nation. That this signifies the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of a "great nation," as being the spiritual church, which will receive the good of faith (n. 2669). It is said a "great nation," because the spiritual kingdom is the Lord’s second kingdom. As the man of the spiritual church is represented by Ishmael, so also is the spiritual church itself represented by him, and also the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom in the heavens; for the image and likeness of the one is in the other. The first state after desolation was described in the preceding verse, which was a state of consolation and of the hope of help. Their second state after desolation is described in this verse, which is a state of enlightenment and of refreshment therefrom.

[2] As these states are unknown in the world, for the reason as before said that at this day few are being regenerated, we may describe the state of those who are being regenerated in the other life, where it is most fully known. Those who have been in vastation or desolation there, after being comforted by the hope of help, are elevated by the Lord into heaven, thus from a state of shade which is a state of ignorance, into a state of light which is a state of enlightenment and of the refreshment therefrom, thus into a joy that affects their inmosts. It is actually light into which they come, of such a quality as to enlighten not only their sight, but also their understanding at the same time; and how much this light refreshes them may be seen from the opposite state, from which they have been delivered. Some who had been of an infantile disposition and of simple faith, then appear to themselves in white and shining garments; some with crowns; some are taken around to various angelic societies, and are everywhere received with charity as brethren; and whatever of good is gratifying to their new life is shown them: to some it is given to see the immensity of heaven, or of the Lord’s kingdom, and at the same time to perceive the blessedness of those who are there; besides innumerable other things which cannot be described. Such is the state of the first enlightenment, and of the refreshment therefrom with those who come out of desolation.

AC 2700. Verse 19. And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the child drink. "God opened her eyes," signifies intelligence; "and she saw a well of water," signifies the Lord‘s Word from which are truths; "and she filled the bottle with water," signifies truths from the Word; "and she gave the child drink," signifies instruction in spiritual things.

AC 2701. God opened her eyes. That this signifies intelligence, is evident from the signification of "opening"--and of "God opening," and also of "eyes"--as being to give intelligence. That "eyes" signify the understanding see (n. 212), in like manner as "sight" or "seeing," (n. 2150, 2325). It is said that "God opens the eyes" when He opens the interior sight or understanding; which is effected by an influx into man’s rational, or rather into the spiritual of his rational. This is done by the way of the soul, or the internal way, unknown to the man. This influx is his state of enlightenment, in which the truths which he hears or reads are confirmed to him by a kind of perception interiorly within his intellectual. This the man believes to be innate in him, and to proceed from his own intellectual faculty; but in this he is very much mistaken; for it is an influx through heaven from the Lord into what is obscure, fallacious, and seeming with the man, which by means of the good therein causes the things which he believes to be similar to truth. But they only who are spiritual are blessed with enlightenment in the spiritual things of faith. It is this which is signified by "God opening the eyes."

[2] That the "eye" signifies the understanding is because the sight of the body corresponds to the sight of its spirit, which is the understanding; and because it corresponds, in the Word the understanding is signified by the "eye" in almost every place where it is mentioned, even where it is believed to be otherwise; as where the Lord says in Matthew:--

The light of the body is the eye if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light; but if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness; if therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness (Matthew 6:22, 23; Luke 11:34).

Here the "eye" is the understanding, the spiritual of which is faith, as also is evident from the explication:--"if therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness." So too in the same:--

If thy right eye causeth thee to stumble, pluck it out, and cast it from thee (Matthew 5:29; 18:9).

The "left eye" is the intellectual, but the "right eye" is its affection: that the right eye is to be plucked out means that the affection is to be subdued if it causes stumbling.

[3] In the same:--

Blessed are your eyes for they see, and your ears for they hear (Matthew 13:16);

and in Luke:--

Jesus said to the disciples, Blessed are the eyes which see the thing which ye see (Luke 10:23).

Here by the "eyes which see," intelligence and faith are signified; for their seeing the Lord, and also His miracles and works, did not make them blessed; but comprehending them with the understanding and having faith, which is "seeing with the eyes;" and obeying, which is "hearing with the ears." That to "see with the eyes" is to understand, and also to have faith, may be seen above (n. 897, 2325) for the understanding is the spiritual of the sight, and faith is the spiritual of the understanding. The sight of the eye is from the light of the world, but the sight of faith is from the light of heaven. Hence it is common to speak of seeing with the understanding, and of seeing by faith. That to "hear with the ear" is to obey, see (n. 2542).

[4] Also in Mark:--

Jesus said to the disciples, Do ye not yet perceive, neither understand? have ye your heart yet hardened? having eyes see ye not? and having ears hear ye not? (Mark 8:17, 18);

where it is manifest that not to be willing to understand and not to believe, is to "have eyes and not see." In Luke:--

Jesus said of the city, If thou hadst known the things that belong unto thy peace; but now it is hid from thine eyes (Luke 19:41, 42).

And in Mark:--

This is the Lord‘s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes (Mark 12:11);

where to be "hid from the eyes," and to be "marvelous in the eyes," means to be so to the understanding, as is known to every one from the signification of the eye even in the common use of language.

AC 2702. And she saw a well of water. That this signifies the Lord’s Word from which are truths, is evident from the signification of a "well of water," and of a "fountain," as being the Word, and also doctrine from the Word, consequently also truth itself; and from the signification of "water," as being truth. That a "well in which there is water," and a "fountain," denote the Lord‘s Word, and also doctrine from the Word, consequently also truth itself, may be seen from very many passages. A "well," and not a "fountain," is spoken of here, because the spiritual church is treated of, as also in the following verses of this chapter:--Abraham reproved Abimelech because of the well which the servants of Abimelech had taken away (verse 25). So too in the twenty-sixth chapter:--

All the wells which the servants of Isaac’s father digged in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines had stopped up. And Isaac returned, and digged the wells of water which they had digged in the days of Abraham his father, and the Philistines had stopped them up after the death of Abraham. And Isaac‘s servants digged in the valley, and found there a well of living water. And they digged another well, and for that they strove not. And it came to pass in that day that Isaac’s servants came and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him, We have found water (Genesis 26:15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 25, 32).

Here by" wells" nothing else is signified than doctrinal matters about which they contended, and those about which they did not contend. Otherwise their digging wells and contending so many times about them would not be of so much importance as to be worthy of mention in the Divine Word.

[2] The "well" spoken of by Moses signifies in like manner the Word, or doctrine:--

They journeyed to Beer; this is the well whereof Jehovah said unto Moses, Gather the people together, and I will give them water. Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well; answer ye from it. The princes digged the well, the willing of the people digged it, in the law-giver, with their staves (Num. 21:16-18).

As a "well" signified these things, there was therefore this prophetic song in Israel, in which the doctrine of truth is treated of, as is evident from every particular in the internal sense. Hence came the name "Beer" (a "well"), and hence the name "Beer-sheba," and its signification in the internal sense, as being doctrine itself.

[3] But doctrine in which there are no truths is called a "pit," or a "well in which there is no water," as in Jeremiah:--

Their nobles have sent their little ones to the water; they came to the pits, they found no water; they returned with their vessels empty (Jeremiah 14:3);

where "waters" denote truths; and "pits where they found no water," doctrine in which there is no truth. In the same:--

My people have committed two evils: they have forsaken Me the fountain of living waters, to hew them out pits, broken pits, that can hold no waters (Jeremiah 2:13);

where "pits" in like manner denote doctrines that are not true; and "broken pits," fabricated doctrines.

[4] That a "fountain" is the Word, and also doctrine, consequently truth, may be seen in Isaiah:--

The afflicted and the needy seek waters, and there are none; their tongue faileth for thirst. I Jehovah will hear them, the God of Israel will not forsake them; I will open rivers upon the hillsides, and fountains in the midst of the valleys; I will make the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs of waters (Isaiah 41:17, 18);

where the desolation of truth is treated of, which is signified by the afflicted and needy seeking for waters when there are none, and by their tongue failing for thirst; and then their consolation, refreshment, and instruction after desolation are treated of (as in the verses about Hagar now being explained), signified by Jehovah opening rivers upon the hillsides, making fountains in the midst of the valleys, and the wilderness into a pool of waters, and the dry land into springs of waters; all which things relate to the doctrine of truth, and to the affection thence derived.

[5] In Moses:--

Israel dwelt securely alone at the fountain of Jacob, in a land of corn and new wine; yea, his heavens drop down dew (Deut. 33:28).

The "fountain of Jacob" denotes the Word and the doctrine of truth therefrom. Because the "fountain of Jacob" signified the Word and the doctrine of truth therefrom, when the Lord came to the fountain of Jacob, He spoke with the woman of Samaria, and taught what is signified by a "fountain" and by "water," as described in John:--

Jesus came to a city of Samaria called Sychar, and Jacob‘s fountain was there Jesus therefore being wearied with His journey, sat thus by the fountain. There cometh a woman of Samaria to draw water. Jesus saith unto her, Give Me to drink: Jesus said, If thou knewest the gift of God, and who it is that saith unto thee, Give Me to drink, thou wouldst ask of Him that He should give thee living water. Every one that drinketh of this water shall thirst again; but whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst, but the water that I shall give him shall become in him a fountain of water springing up unto eternal life (John 4:5, 6, 7, 10, 13, 14).

As "Jacob’s fountain" signified the Word, the "water" truth, and " Samaria" the spiritual church (as is frequently the case in the Word), the Lord spoke with the woman of Samaria, and taught that the doctrine of truth is from Him; and that when it is from Him, or what is the same, from His Word, it is a fountain of water springing up unto eternal life; and that truth itself is living water.

[6] Again in the same:--

Jesus said, If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink; who soever believeth in Me, as the Scripture saith, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water (John 7:37, 38).

And in the same:--

The Lamb that is in the midst of the throne shall feed them, and shall lead them unto living fountains of water; and God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes (Rev. 7:17).

In the same:--

I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely (Rev. 21:6);

"rivers of living water," and "living fountains of waters," denote truths that are from the Lord, or from His Word; for the Lord is the Word. The good of love and of charity, which is solely from the Lord, is the life of truth. He is said to be "athirst" who is in the love and affection of truth; no other can "thirst."

[7] These truths are also called "fountains of salvation" in Isaiah:--

With joy shall ye draw waters out of the fountains of salvation; and in that day shall ye say, Confess to Jehovah, call upon His name (Isaiah 12:3, 4).

That a "fountain" is the Word, or doctrine from it, is plain also in Joel:--

It shall come to pass in that day that the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the streams of Judah shall flow with waters, and a fountain shall go forth out of the house of Jehovah, and shall water the stream of Shittim (Joel 3:18);

where "waters" denote truths; and a "fountain out of the house of Jehovah," the Lord‘s Word.

[8] In Jeremiah:--

Behold I will bring them from the north country, and gather them from the sides of the earth; and among them the blind and the lame; they shall come with weeping, and with supplications will I bring them unto fountains of waters in a straight way, wherein they shall not stumble (Jeremiah 31:8, 9);

"fountains of waters in a straight way" manifestly denote the doctrinal things of truth; the "north country," ignorance or desolation of truth; "weeping" and "supplications," their state of grief and despair; and to be "brought to the fountains of waters," refreshment and instruction in truths (as here, there Hagar and her son are treated of).

[9] The same things are also thus described in Isaiah:--

The wilderness and the parched land shall be glad for them, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose; budding it shall bud, and shall rejoice even with rejoicing and singing; the glory of Lebanon has been given unto it, the honor of Carmel and Sharon; they shall see the glory of Jehovah, the honor of our God. Make ye firm the enfeebled hands, and strengthen the tottering knees. The eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert; and the dry place shall become a pool, and the thirsty ground springs of waters (Isaiah 35:1-3, 5-7);

where the "wilderness" denotes the desolation of truth "waters," "streams," "lakes," and "springs of waters," the truths that are a refreshment and joy to those who have been in vastation, whose joys are there described with many words.

[10] In David:--

Jehovah sendeth forth fountains into the valleys, they shall run among the mountains; they shall give drink to every wild beast of the field, the wild asses shall quench their thirst. He watereth the mountains from His chambers (Ps. 104:10, 11, 13);

"fountains" denote truths "mountains," the love of good and truth; to "give drink," instructing; "wild beasts of the field," those who live from this (n. 774, 841, 908); "wild asses," those who are solely in rational truth (n. 1949-1951).

[11] In Moses:--

Joseph is the son of a fruitful one, the son of a fruitful one by a fountain (Gen. 49:22);

a "fountain" denotes doctrine from the Lord. In the same:--

Jehovah thy God bringeth thee into a good land, a land of rivers, of waters, of fountains, and of depths going forth in valley and in mountain (Deut. 8:7);

the "land" denotes the Lord’s kingdom and church (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1413, 2571); which is called " good" from the good of love and charity; " rivers," "waters," "fountains," and "depths," denote the truths thence derived. In the same:--

The land of Canaan, a land of mountains and valleys, that drinketh water of the rain of heaven (Deut. 11:11).

[12] That "waters" are truths, both spiritual and rational, and also those of memory-knowledge, is manifest from these passages in Isaiah:--

Behold the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth doth take away from Jerusalem and from Judah the whole staff of bread, and the whole staff of water (Isaiah 3:1).

In the same:--

Bring ye waters to him that is thirsty; meet the fugitive with his bread (Isaiah 21:14).

In the same:--

Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters (Isaiah 32:20).

In the same:--

He that walketh in righteousnesses, and speaketh uprightnesses, shall dwell on high; his bread shall be given, his waters shall be faithful (Isaiah 33:15, 16).

In the same:--

Then shall they not thirst, He shall lead them in the desert, He shall cause the waters to flow out of the rock for them He cleaveth the rock also, and the waters flow out (Isaiah 48:21; Exod. 17:1-8; Num. 20:11, 13).

AC 2702a.

[13] In David:--

He clave the rocks in the wilderness, and gave them to drink abundantly as out of the deeps. He brought streams out of the rock and caused waters to run down like a river (Ps. 78:15, 16);

where the "rock" denotes the Lord; "waters," "rivers," and "deeps" from it, denote truths from Him. In the same:--

Jehovah maketh rivers into a wilderness, and water-springs into dry ground; He maketh a wilderness into a pool of waters, and a dry land into water-springs (Ps. 107:33, 35).

In the same:--

The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters; Jehovah is upon many waters (Ps. 29:3).

In the same:--

A river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the Most High (Ps. 46:4).

In the same:--

By the Word of Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the army of them by the breath of His mouth; He gathereth the waters of the sea together as a heap, He layeth up the deeps in storehouses (Ps. 33:6, 7).

In the same:--

Thou dost visit the earth, and delightest in it greatly; thou enrichest it, the river of God is full of waters (Ps. 65:9).

In the same:--

The waters saw Thee, O God, the waters saw Thee, the deeps also trembled; the clouds poured out waters Thy way was in the sea, and Thy path in many waters (Ps. 77:16, 17, 19).

It is manifest to every one that the " waters" here do not signify waters, and that it is not meant that the deeps trembled, nor that the way of Jehovah was in the sea, and His path in the waters; but that spiritual waters are meant, that is, spiritual things which are of truth; otherwise this would be a heap of empty words. In Isaiah:--

Ho every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters and he that hath no silver, come ye, buy (Isaiah 55:1).

In Zechariah:--

It shall come to pass in that day that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea (Zechariah 14:8).

[14] Moreover where the church is treated of in the Word as about to be planted and as having been planted, and where it is described by a paradise, a garden, a grove, or by trees, it is usual for it to be also described by waters or rivers which irrigate; by which either spiritual, rational, or memory things (which are of truth) are signified--as in the description of Paradise in (Genesis 2:8, 9); which is also described by the rivers there (Genesis 2:10-14), signifying the things of wisdom and intelligence (n. 107-121). The same is true in many other places in the Word, as in Moses:--

As valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river, as sandalwood trees which Jehovah hath planted, as cedars beside the Waters; waters shall flow from his buckets, and his seed shall be in many waters (Num. 24:6, 7).

In Ezekiel:--

He took of the seed of the land, and planted it in a field of sowing, he placed it beside many waters; it budded, and became a luxuriant vine (Ezekiel 17:5, 6);

that a "vine" and a "vineyard" signify the spiritual church may be seen above (n. 1069). In the same:--

Thy mother was like a vine in thy likeness, planted by the waters; she became fruitful and full of branches by reason of many waters (Ezekiel 19:10).

In the same:--

Behold Asshur was a cedar in Lebanon; the waters nourished him, the deep made him high, going with her rivers round about his plant; and she sent out her canals unto all the trees of the field (Ezekiel 31:4).

[15] In the same:--

Behold upon the bank of the river were very many trees on this side and on that. He said unto me, These waters issue forth toward the eastern border, and shall go down into the plain, and shall go toward the sea; and being sent into the sea the Waters are healed. And it shall be that every living soul that creepeth, in every place whither the two rivers come, shall live and there shall be a very great multitude of fish, because these waters are come thither; and they shall be healed, so that everything whithersoever the river cometh shall live. The miry places thereof and the marshes thereof shall not be healed; they shall be given up to salt (Ezekiel 47:7, 8, 9, 11).

Here the New Jerusalem, or the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, is described: the "waters going forth to the eastern border," signify spiritual things from celestial things, which are truths from a celestial origin; that is, faith from love and charity (n. 101, 1250). To "go down into the plain," signifies doctrinal things which are of the rational (n. 2418, 2450). To "go toward the sea," signifies to memory-knowledges; the "sea" is the collection of them (n. 28); the "living soul which creepeth," signifies their delights (n. 746, 909, 994); which will "live from the waters of the river," that is, from spiritual things from a celestial origin. "Much fish" denotes an abundance of applicable memory-knowledges (n. 40, 991). The "miry places and the marshes" denote things not applicable and impure; being "given up to salt," denotes being vastated (n. 2455). In Jeremiah:--

Blessed is the man that trusteth in Jehovah; he shall be like a tree planted by the waters, and that sendeth forth its roots by the river (Jeremiah 17:7, 8).

In David:--

He shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth its fruit in its season (Ps. 1:3).

In John:--

He showed me a pure river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb; in the midst of the street of it, and on this side of the river and on that was the tree of life bearing twelve fruits (Rev. 22:1, 2).

[16] Seeing that in the internal sense of the Word "waters" signify truths, therefore in the Jewish Church, for the sake of representation before the angels with whom the rituals were viewed spiritually, it was commanded that the priests and Levites should wash themselves with water when they came near to minister, and indeed out of the laver between the tent and the altar; and later, out of the brazen sea and the other lavers around the temple, which were in place of a fountain. So too for the sake of the representation was the institution of the water of sin or of purgation that was to be sprinkled upon the Levites (Num. 8:7); also that of the water of separation, from the ashes of the red heifer (Num. 19:2-19); and that the spoils from the Midianites should be cleansed by water (Num. 31:19-25).

[17] The waters which were given out of the rock (Exod. 17:1-8; Num. 20:1-13; Deut. 8:15) represented and signified an abundance of spiritual things or truths of faith from the Lord. The bitter waters which were healed by the wood (Exod. 15:23-25), represented and signified that the truths which are not pleasing become acceptable and grateful from good, that is, from the affection of it. "Wood" signifies good which is of affection, or of the will (n. 643). From all this it may now be known what "water" denotes in the Word, and hence what the water in baptism denotes, of which the Lord speaks thus in John:--

Except a man be born of water and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (John 3:5);

namely, that "water" is the spiritual of faith, and the "spirit" the celestial of it; thus that baptism is the symbol of the regeneration of man by the Lord by means of the truths and goods of faith. Not that regeneration is effected by baptism, but by the life signified in baptism, into which life Christians who have the truths of faith, because they have the Word, must come.

AC 2703. And she filled the bottle with water. That this signifies truths therefrom, is evident from the signification of "water," as being truth--treated of just above.

AC 2704. And gave the child drink. That this signifies instruction in spiritual things, is evident from the signification of "giving to drink," as being to instruct in truths; and from the signification of the "child," as being the spiritual as to truth (n. 2697). This state, which is that of instruction, treated of in this verse, is the third state of those who are coming out of vastation or desolation; for when they come into a state of enlightenment or of heavenly light (verse 18) (n. 2699), they are then in the affection of knowing and learning truths; and when they are in this affection, they are easily and as it were spontaneously imbued with truths: those who are on earth, from the Lord’s Word or from doctrine; but those who are in heaven, from the angels, who perceive nothing more blessed and happy than to teach novitiate brethren, and imbue them with the truths and goods which are of heavenly order, and thus lead to the Lord.

AC 2705. Verse 20. And God was with the child, and he grew, and he dwelt in the wilderness, and became a shooter of the bow. "God was with the child," signifies the Lord‘s presence with the spiritual; "and he grew," signifies increase; "and he dwelt in the wilderness," signifies obscurity, relatively; "and became a shooter of the bow," signifies the man of the spiritual church.

AC 2706. God was with the child. That this signifies the Lord’s presence with the spiritual, is evident from the signification of "God being with" anyone, and from the signification of the "child." That "God being with" anyone signifies the Lord‘s presence, is evident without explication. The Lord is indeed present with every one; for life is from no other source, and He governs the most minute things of it, even with the worst of men, and in hell itself; but in various ways according to the reception of life. With those who receive the life of the love of His good and truth in a wrong manner, and pervert it into loves of evil and falsity, the Lord is present, and overrules their ends as far as possible for good; but His presence with them is called absence, and indeed in the same degree in which evil is distant from good, and falsity from truth. But with those who receive the life of the love of the Lord’s good and truth, He is said to be present, and indeed according to the degree of reception. It is with the Lord‘s presence as with that of the sun, which is present with its heat and light in the vegetation of the world also according to the reception. That the "child" signifies the spiritual as to truth, has been said above; but here he signifies those who are spiritual because he represents the man of the spiritual church, and also the spiritual church itself, and in the universal sense the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; for when it is said that anyone signifies what is spiritual, as here that "the child" signifies the spiritual as to truth, it involves that those are signified who are spiritual; for there is no spiritual without a subject. It is the same with all other things said in an abstract sense.

AC 2707. And he grew. That this signifies increase, is evident without explication.

AC 2708. And he dwelt in the wilderness. That this signifies in what is relatively obscure, is evident from the signification of "dwelling," as being to live (n. 2451); and from the signification of "wilderness," as being that which has little vitality (n. 1927); here what is obscure, but relatively By what is relatively obscure is meant the state of the spiritual church relatively to the state of the celestial church, or the state of those who are spiritual relatively to that of those who are celestial. The celestial are in the affection of good, the spiritual in the affection of truth; the celestial have perception, but the spiritual a dictate of conscience; to the celestial the Lord appears as a Sun, but to the spiritual as a Moon (n. 1521, 1530, 1531, 2495). The former have light from the Lord, but giving both sight and the perception of good and truth, like the light of day from the sun; but the latter have light from the Lord like the light of night from the moon, and thus they are in relative obscurity. The reason is that the celestial are in love to the Lord, and thus in the Lord‘s life itself; but the spiritual are in charity toward the neighbor and in faith, and thus in the Lord’s life indeed, but more obscurely. Hence it is that the celestial never reason about faith and its truths, but being in perception of truth from good, they say that it is so; whereas the spiritual speak and reason concerning the truths of faith, because they are in the conscience of good from truth; and also because with the celestial the good of love has been implanted in their will part, wherein is the chief life of man, but with the spiritual in their intellectual part, wherein is the secondary life of man; this is the reason why the spiritual are in what is relatively obscure (n. 81, 202, 337, 765, 784, 895, 1114-1125, 1155, 1577, 1824, 2048, 2088, 2227, 2454, 2507).

[2] This comparative obscurity is here called a "wilderness." In the Word a "wilderness" signifies what is little inhabited and cultivated, and also signifies what is not at all inhabited and cultivated, and is thus used in a twofold sense. Where it signifies what is little inhabited and cultivated, or where there are few habitations, folds of flocks, pastures, and waters, it signifies what has relatively little life and light--as what is spiritual, or those who are spiritual, in comparison with what is celestial, or those who are celestial. but where it signifies what is not inhabited or cultivated at all, or where there are no habitations, folds of flocks, pastures, or waters, it signifies those who are in vastation as to good and in desolation as to truth.

[3] That a "wilderness" signifies what is comparatively little inhabited and cultivated, or where there are few habitations, folds of flocks, pastures, and waters, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

Sing unto Jehovah a new song and His praise from the end of the earth; ye that go down to the sea, and the fullness thereof, the Isles and the inhabitants thereof; let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit; let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains (Isaiah 42:10, 11).

In Ezekiel:--

I will make with them a covenant of peace, and will cause the evil wild beast to cease out of the land, and they shall dwell securely in the wilderness, and sleep in the woods and I will make them and the places round about My hill a blessing the tree of the field shall yield its fruit, and the earth shall yield her fruit (Ezekiel 34:25-27);

here the spiritual are treated of. In Hosea:--

I will bring her into the wilderness, and will speak to her heart; and I will give her her vineyards from thence (Hosea 2:14, 15)

where the desolation of truth, and consolation afterwards, are treated of. In David:--

The folds of the wilderness do drop, and the hills are girded with rejoicing; the pastures are clothed with flocks, the valleys also are covered over with corn (Ps. 65:12, 13).

[4] In Isaiah:--

I will make the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs of waters. I will plant in the wilderness the cedar of Shittim, and the myrtle, and the oil-tree; I will set in the desert the fir-tree; that they may see, and know, and consider, and understand together, that the hand of Jehovah hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel hath created it (Isaiah 41:18-20);

where the regeneration of those who are in ignorance of truth, or the Gentiles, and the enlightenment and instruction of those who are in desolation, are treated of; the "wilderness" is predicated of these; the "cedar, myrtle, and oil-tree" denote the truths and goods of the interior man; the "fir-tree" denotes those of the exterior. In David:--

Jehovah maketh rivers into a wilderness, and water-rings into dry ground; He maketh a wilderness into a pool of waters, and a dry land into water-springs (Ps. 107:33, 35);

where the meaning is the same. In Isaiah:--

The wilderness and the parched land shall be glad for them, and the desert shall rejoice, and blossom as the rose; budding it shall bud; in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert (Isaiah 35:1, 2, 6).

In the same:--

Thou shalt be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water whose waters do not fail; and they that be of thee shall build the deserts of old (Isaiah 58:11, 12).

In the same:--

Until the spirit be poured upon as from on high, and the wilderness become Carmel, and Carmel be counted for a forest; and judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness in Carmel (Isaiah 32:15, 16);

where the spiritual church is treated of, which though inhabited and cultivated is called relatively a "wilderness;" for it is said, "judgment shall dwell in the wilderness and righteousness in Carmel." That a "wilderness" denotes a comparatively obscure state, is plain from these passages by its being called a "wilderness" and also a "forest;" and very evidently so in Jeremiah:--

O generation, see ye the Word of Jehovah. Have I been a wilderness unto Israel? or a land of darkness? (Jeremiah 2:31).

[5] That a "wilderness" signifies what is not at all inhabited or cultivated, or where there are no habitations, folds of flocks, pastures, and waters, and thus those who are in vastation as to good and in desolation as to truth, is also evident from the Word. This kind of "wilderness" is predicated in a double sense, namely, of those who are afterwards reformed, and of those who cannot be reformed. Concerning those who are afterwards reformed (as here in regard to Hagar and her son) we read in Jeremiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah, I remember for thee the mercy of thy youth, thy going after Me in the wilderness, in a land that was not sown (Jeremiah 2:2);

where Jerusalem is treated of, which here is the Ancient Church that was spiritual. In Moses:--

Jehovah‘s portion is His people, Jacob is the line of His inheritance; He found him in a desert land, and in a waste howling wilderness; He led him about, He made him understand, He kept him as the pupil of His eye (Deut. 32:9, 10).

In David:--

They wandered in the wilderness in a solitary way, they found no city of habitation (Ps. 107:4);

where those who have been in desolation of truth and are being reformed are treated of. In Ezekiel:--

I will bring you to the wilderness of the peoples, and I will judge with you there, as I judged with your fathers in the wilderness of the land of Egypt (Ezekiel 20:35, 36);

where in like manner the vastation and desolation of those who are being reformed are treated of.

[6] The journeyings and wanderings of the people of Israel in the wilderness represented nothing but the vastation and desolation of believers before reformation; consequently their temptation, if indeed they are in vastation and desolation when they are in spiritual temptations; as may also be seen from the following passages in Moses:--

Jehovah bare them in the wilderness as a man beareth his son, in the way, even unto this place (Deut. 1:31).

And in another place:--

Thou shalt remember all the way which Jehovah thy God led thee these forty years in the wilderness, to afflict thee, to tempt thee, and to know what is in thy heart; whether thou wouldest keep His commandments or no. He afflicted thee, He suffered thee to hunger, He made thee to eat manna, which thou knewest not, neither did thy fathers know; that thou mightest know that man doth not live by bread only, but by everything that proceedeth out of the mouth of Jehovah doth man live (Deut. 8:2, 3).

And again in the same chapter:--

Lest thou forget that Jehovah led thee in the great and terrible wilderness, where were serpents, fiery serpents, and scorpions; a thirsty land where was no water; who brought thee forth water out of the rock of flint; He fed thee in the wilderness with manna, which thy fathers knew not, that He might afflict thee, and might tempt thee, to do thee good at thy latter end (Deuteronomy 8:15, 16).

Here the " wilderness" denotes vastation and desolation, such as those are in who are in temptations. By their journeyings and wanderings in the wilderness forty years, all the state of the combating church is described-how of itself it yields, but conquers from the Lord.

[7] By the "woman who fled into the wilderness," in John, nothing else is signified than the temptation of the church, thus described:--

The woman who brought forth a son, a man child, fled into the wilderness, where she hath a place prepared of God; there were given unto the woman two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place; and the serpent cast out of his mouth after the woman water as a flood, that he might cause her to be carried away of the flood. But the earth helped the woman; for the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed up the flood which the dragon cast out of his mouth (Rev. 12:6, 14-16).

[8] That "wilderness" is predicated of a church altogether vastated, and of those who are altogether vastated as to good and truth, who cannot be reformed, is thus shown in Isaiah:--

I make the rivers a wilderness; their fish stink because there is no water, and die for thirst; I clothe the heavens with thick darkness (Isaiah 50:2, 3).

In the same:--

Thy holy cities were become a wilderness, Zion was become a wilderness, Jerusalem a desolation (Isaiah 64:10).

In Jeremiah:--

I beheld and lo Carmel was a wilderness, and all her cities were broken down at the presence of Jehovah (Jeremiah 4:26).

In the same:--

Many shepherds have destroyed My vineyard, they have trodden My portion under foot; they have made My pleasant portion a wilderness of desolation, they have made it a desolation, it hath mourned unto Me, being desolate the whole land is made desolate, because no man layeth it to heart. Spoilers are come upon all the hillsides in the wilderness (Jeremiah 12:10-12).

In Joel:--

The fire hath devoured the folds of the wilderness, and the flame hath burned all the trees of the field, the water brooks are dried up, the fire hath devoured the folds of the wilderness (Joel 1:19, 20).

In Isaiah:--

He made the world as a wilderness, and overthrew the cities thereof (Isaiah 14:17);

where Lucifer is spoken of. In the same:--

The prophecy of the wilderness of the sea. As whirlwinds in the south, it cometh from the wilderness, from a terrible land (Isaiah 21:1).

The "wilderness of the sea" denotes truth vastated by memory-knowledges and the reasonings from them.

[9] From all this it may be seen what is signified by the following concerning John the Baptist:--

It was said by Isaiah, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way for the Lord, make His paths straight (Matt. 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23; Isa. 40:3);

which means that the church was then altogether vastated, so that there was no longer any good, nor any truth; which is plainly manifest from the fact, that then no one knew that man had any internal, nor that there was any internal in the Word, and thus that no one knew that the Messiah or Christ was to come to eternally save them. Hence it is also manifest what is signified by John being in the wilderness until the days of his appearing to Israel (Luke 1:80); and by his preaching in the wilderness of Judea (Matt. 3:1-17); and by his baptizing in the wilderness (Mark 1:4); for by that he also represented the state of the church. From the signification of a "wilderness" it may also be seen why the Lord so often withdrew into the wilderness. See for examples (Matt. 4:1; 15:32-39; Mark 1:12, 13, 35-40, 45; 6:31-36; Luke 4:1; 5:16; 9:10; John 11:54). From the signification of a "mountain" also it is manifest why the Lord withdrew into the mountains, as in (Matt. 14:23; 15:29-31; 17:1; 28:16, 17; Mark 3:13, 14; 6:46; 9:2-9; Luke 6:12, 13; 9:28; John 6:15).

AC 2709. And he became a shooter of the bow. That this signifies the man of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of a "shaft," "dart," or "arrow," as being truth; and from the signification of a "bow," as being doctrine (n. 2686). The man of the spiritual church was formerly called a "shooter of the bow," because he defended himself by truths, and disputed about truths; differently from the man of the celestial church, who is secure by means of good, and does not dispute about truths (n. 2708). The truths by which the man of the spiritual church defends himself, and respecting which he disputes, are from the doctrine which he acknowledges.

[2] That the spiritual man was in old time called "shooter" and an "archer," and that doctrine was called a "bow" and a "quiver," and that the truths of doctrine, or rather doctrinal matters, were called "darts," "shafts," and "arrows," is further evident in David:--

The sons of Ephraim being armed, shooters of the bow, turned back in the day of battle (Ps. 78:9).

"Ephraim" denotes the intellectual of the church. In the book of Judges:--

Consider, ye that ride on white asses, ye that sit upon carpets, and ye that walk by the way; because of the voice of archers among them that draw water, there shall they rehearse the righteousnesses of Jehovah, the righteousnesses toward His villages in Israel (Judges 5:10, 11).

In Isaiah:--

Jehovah hath called me from the womb, from the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of my name, and He hath made my mouth like a sharp sword; in the shadow of His hand hath He hid me, and He hath made me a polished arrow, in His quiver hath He hid me; and He said unto me, Thou art My servant; Israel, in whom I will be glorified (Isaiah 49:1-3).

"Israel" denotes the spiritual church.

[3] In David:--

As arrows are in the hand of a mighty man, so are the children of the youth; happy is the man that hath filled his quiver with them (Ps. 127:4);

a " quiver" denotes the doctrine of good and truth. In Habakkuk:--

The sun and moon stood still in their seat; at the light of Thine arrows shall they go, at the shining of the lightning of Thy spear (Habakkuk 3:11).

That Joash king of Israel shot an arrow from a bow through the window, at the command of Elisha, while Elisha said, "The arrow of the salvation of Jehovah, the arrow of the salvation of Jehovah against the Syrian" (2 Kings 13:16 to 18), signifies arcana concerning the doctrine of good and truth.

[4] As most of the things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise have "shafts," "darts," "arrows," bows," and a "shooter;" and they signify falsities, the doctrine of falsity, and those who are in falsity. Thus in Moses:--

Joseph is the son of a fruitful one, the son of a fruitful one by a fountain, of a daughter, she marcheth upon the wall; they grieved him, and shot at him, and the archers hated him (Gen. 49:22, 23).

In Jeremiah:--

They have shot out their tongue, their bow is a lie, and not for truth; their tongue is a lengthened arrow, it speaketh deceit (Jeremiah 9:3, 8).

In David:--

They have sharpened their tongue like a sword, they have aimed their arrow, a bitter word, to shoot in secret places at the perfect; suddenly will they shoot at him, and will not fear. They will make strong for themselves an evil word, they will tell of the hiding of snares (Ps. 64:4-6).

In the same:--

Lo, the wicked bend the bow, they make ready their arrow upon the string, to shoot in the darkness at the upright in heart (Ps. 11:2).

In the same:--

His truth is a shield and buckler thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night, for the arrow that flieth by day (Ps. 91:4, 5).

AC 2710. In the verse before us the state of the spiritual church is described, as being obscure in comparison with the state of the celestial church, and as being combative, for the reason that the man of the spiritual church knows truth only from doctrine, and not from good itself, as does the man of the celestial church.

AC 2711. Verse 21. And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran; and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt. "He dwelt in the wilderness of Paran," signifies the life of the spiritual man as to good; the "wilderness" here as before is what is relatively obscure; "Paran" is illumination from the Lord’s Divine Human; "and his mother took him," signifies the affection of truth; "a wife out of the land of Egypt," signifies the affection of memory-knowledges which the man of the spiritual church has.

AC 2712. He dwelt in the wilderness of Paran. That this signifies the life of the spiritual man as to good, is evident from the signification of "dwelling," as being predicated of the good of truth, or of spiritual good, that is, of the good of the spiritual man. What its quality is, is described by his "dwelling in the wilderness of Paran" which is to be treated of presently. That "to dwell" is predicated of the good, that is, of the affection, of truth, is evident from many passages in the Word where cities are treated of, by which truths are signified, and as being without an inhabitant, by whom good is signified (n. 2268, 2450, 2451); for truths are inhabited by good; and truths without good are like a city in which there is no one dwelling. So in Zephaniah:--

I have made their streets waste, that none passeth by their cities are desolated, so that there is no inhabitant (Zephaniah 3:6).

[2] In Jeremiah:--

Jehovah led us through the wilderness, where no man passed through, and where no man dwelt; they had made his land a waste, his cities are burned up, so that there is no inhabitant (Jeremiah 2:6, 15).

In the same:--

Every city is forsaken, and no one dwelleth therein (Jeremiah 4:29).

In the same:--

In the streets of Jerusalem that are desolate, without man, and without inhabitant, and without beast (Jeremiah 33:10);

"streets" denote truths (n. 2336); "without man" denotes no celestial good; "without inhabitant," no spiritual good; and "without beast," no natural good. In the same:--

The cities of Moab shall become a desolation, without any to dwell therein (Jeremiah 48:9).

[3] In the Prophets in every expression there is the marriage of truth and good; and therefore where a city is said to be desolate, it is also added that there is no inhabitant in it; for the reason that the city signifies truths, and the inhabitant good; otherwise it would be superfluous to say that there was no inhabitant, when it has been said that the city was desolate. So likewise the expressions are constant that signify the things of celestial good, those of spiritual good, and those of truth; as in Isaiah:--

Thy seed shall possess the nations, and they shall dwell in the desolate cities (Isaiah 54:3);

where to "possess" is predicated of celestial goods; and to "dwell in," of spiritual good. In the same:--

Mine elect shall possess it, and my servants shall dwell there (Isaiah 65:9);

where the signification is the same.

[4] In David:--

God will save Zion, and will build the cities of Judah and they shall dwell there, and shall possess it; the seed also of His servants shall inherit it, and they that love His name shall dwell therein (Ps. 69:35, 36);

"dwelling" and at the same time "possessing," is predicated of celestial good; but "dwelling," of spiritual good. In Isaiah:--

Saying to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited, and to the cities of Judah, ye shall be built (Isaiah 44:26);

where "dwelling," or "inhabiting," is predicated of the good of the spiritual church, which is "Jerusalem." To such a degree are the expressions in the Word predicated of their own goods and their own truths, that merely from a knowledge of the predication of these expressions it can be known what subject in general is treated of.

AC 2713. That a "wilderness" here signifies what is relatively obscure, is evident from the signification of a "wilderness," when predicated of the spiritual man, as being what is obscure in comparison with the celestial man (n. 2708).

AC 2714. That "Paran" is illumination from the Lord‘s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of "Paran," as being the Lord’s Divine Human, which is manifest from the passages in the Word where it is named, as in the prophet Habakkuk:--

O Jehovah, I have heard Thy fame, I was afraid; O Jehovah, revive Thy work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known, in zeal remember mercy. God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran; Selah: His honor covered the heavens, and the earth is full of His praise; and His brightness shall be as the light. He had horns going out from His hand, and there was the hiding of His strength (Habakkuk 3:2-4);

where the Lord‘s advent is plainly treated of, which is signified by "reviving in the midst of the years," and by "making down in the midst of the years." His Divine Human is described by "God coming from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran." He is said to " come from Teman" as to celestial love, and "from Mount Paran" as to spiritual love; and that illumination and power are from these is signified by saying that there shall be "brightness and light," and by His having "horns going out from His hand;" the "brightness and light" are illumination, and the "horns" are power.

[2] In Moses:--

Jehovah came from Sinai, and rose from Seir unto them; He shone forth from Mount Paran, and He came from the ten thousands of holiness; from His right hand was a fire of law unto them; yea, He loveth the peoples; all His saints are in thy hand, and they were gathered together at thy foot, and he shall receive of thy words (Deut. 33:2, 3).

Here also the Lord is treated of, whose Divine Human is described by His "rising from Seir, and shining forth from Mount Paran"-- from "Seir" as to celestial love, and from "Mount Paran" as to spiritual love. The spiritual are signified by the "peoples whom He loves," and by their being "gathered together at His foot." The "foot" signifies what is lower, and thus more obscure, in the Lord’s kingdom.

[3] In the same:--

Chedorlaomer and the kings that were with him smote the Horites in their Mount Seir, unto El-paran, which is in the wilderness (Gen. 14:5, 6);

that the Lord‘s Divine Human is here signified by "Mount Seir," and by "El-paran," may be seen above (n. 1675, 1676). In the same:--

It came to pass in the second year, in the second month, in the twentieth day of the month, that the cloud was taken up from over the tabernacle of the testimony and the sons of Israel set forward according to their journeys, out of the wilderness of Sinai; and the cloud abode in the wilderness of Paran (Num. 10:11, 12).

[4] That the journeys of the people in the wilderness all signify the state of a combating church and its temptations, in which man yields but the Lord conquers for him--consequently the very temptations and victories of the Lord-will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be shown elsewhere; and because the Lord from His Divine Human sustained temptations, the Lord‘s Divine Human is here signified in like manner by the "wilderness of Paran." And so again by these words in the same:--

The people afterwards journeyed from Hazeroth, and pitched their camp in the wilderness of Paran. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Send thou men, and let them explore the land of Canaan, which I give unto the sons of Israel and Moses sent them from the wilderness of Paran, according to the command of Jehovah. And they returned, and came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the sons of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran to Kadesh; and brought back word unto them, and showed them the fruit of the land (Num. 12:16; 13:1-3, 26).

[5] By their setting out from the wilderness of Paran and exploring the land of Canaan, is signified that through the Lord’s Divine Human the sons of Israel, that is, the spiritual, have the heavenly kingdom, which is signified by the land of Canaan; but their also succumbing at that time signifies their weakness, and that the Lord therefore fulfilled all things in the Law, and endured temptations, and conquered; and that they who are in the faith of charity, as also they who are in temptations in which the Lord conquers, have salvation from His Divine Human. On which account also, when the Lord was tempted, He was in the wilderness (Matt. 4:1; Mark 1:12, 13; Luke 4:1); (n. 2708).

AC 2715. There are two arcana here, one, that the good of the spiritual man is comparatively obscure; and the other, that this obscurity is illuminated by the Lord‘s Divine Human. As regards the first, that good with the spiritual man is comparatively obscure, this is evident from what was said above concerning the state of the spiritual man in comparison with the state of the celestial man (n. 2708); for by comparing these states the fact becomes manifest. With the celestial, good itself is implanted in their will part, and light comes therefrom into their intellectual part; but with the spiritual all the will part has been destroyed, so that they have nothing of good from it; and therefore good is implanted by the Lord in their intellectual part (n. 863, 875, 895, 927, 928, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2124, 2256). The will part is what chiefly lives in man, while the intellectual lives from it. As therefore the will part has been so destroyed with the spiritual man as to be nothing but evil, and yet evil flows in from it perpetually and continually into his intellectual part, that is, into his thought, it is evident that the good there is comparatively obscured.

[2] Hence it is that the spiritual have not love to the Lord, as have the celestial, and consequently they have not the humiliation which is essential in all worship, and by means of which good can flow in from the Lord; for an elated heart does nod receive at all, but a humble heart. Neither have the spiritual love toward the neighbor, as the celestial have for the love of self and the world continually flows in from their will part, and obscures the good of that love; as must also be evident to every one if he reflects, by considering that when he does good to anyone it is for the sake of an end in the world; and that therefore, although he is not doing so consciously, still he is thinking of a recompense, either from those to whom he does good, or from the Lord in the other life; thus that his good is defiled by the idea of merit,--as also by considering that when he has done any good, if he can make it known and thus set himself above others, he is in the delight of his life. But the celestial love the neighbor more than themselves; nor do they think at all of recompense, nor in any manner set themselves up above others.

[3] Moreover the good that is with the spiritual has been obscured by persuasions from various principles arising also from the love of self and of the world. The quality of their persuasion even of faith may be seen above (n. 2682, 2689 at the end); this likewise is from the influx of evil from their will part.

[4] Moreover that the good with the spiritual man is obscure in comparison, is evident from the fact that he does not know what is true from any perception, as the celestial do, but from instruction from parents and masters, and also from the doctrine into which he was born; and when he superadds anything from himself and from his thought, then for the most part the sensuous and its fallacies, and the rational and its appearances, prevail, and cause him to be scarcely able to acknowledge any pure truth, such as the celestial acknowledge. Nevertheless in those seeming truths the Lord implants good, even if the truths are fallacious, or appearances of truth; but the good becomes obscure from them, being qualified by the truths with which it is conjoined. The case with this is as with the light of the sun flowing into objects. The quality of the objects which receive it causes the light to appear there under the aspect of color, beautiful if the quality of the form and of the reception is becoming and correspondent, but unbeautiful if the quality of the form and of the reception is not becoming, and thus not correspondent. In this manner the good itself is qualified according to the truth.

[5] The same is also manifest from the fact that the spiritual man does not know what evil is. He scarcely believes any other things to be evil than those which are contrary to the precepts of the Decalogue, and is not aware of the evils of affection and thought, which are innumerable; nor does be reflect upon them, nor call them evils. All delights whatever of cupidities and pleasures he regards no otherwise than as good; and the very delights of the love of self he both seeks after, and approves, and excuses, being ignorant that such things affect his spirit, and that he becomes altogether such in the other life.

[6] From this it is in like manner evident that though scarcely anything else is treated of in the whole Word than the good of love to the Lord and of love toward the neighbor, still the spiritual man does not know that good is the essential of faith, nor even what love and charity are in their essence; and that as to what he has learned of faith, which he makes essential, he nevertheless discusses whether it be so, unless he has been confirmed by much experience of life. This the celestial never do, for they know and perceive that it is so. Hence it is said by the Lord in Matthew:--

Let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay; what is more than these is of evil (Matthew 5:37).

For the celestial are in the truth itself respecting which the spiritual dispute whether it be so; hence, as the celestial are in the truth itself, they can see from it endless things which belong to that truth, and thus from light see as it were the whole heaven. But as the spiritual dispute whether it be so, they cannot, so long as they do this, come to the first boundary of the light of the celestial, still less look at anything from their light.

AC 2716. As regards the second arcanum, namely, that the obscurity with the spiritual is illuminated by the Lord’s Divine Human, it is one which cannot be explained to the comprehension, for it is the influx of the Divine that would have to be described. But some idea of it may be obtained by considering that if the Supreme Divine Itself were to flow into such a good as has been described, defiled by so many evils and falsities, it could not be received; and if anything were received by the man who had such good, he would feel infernal torture and would thus perish. But the Lord‘s Divine Human can flow in with such men and can illuminate such good, as the sun shines into the dense clouds and transforms them in the early morning into the glories of the dawn; and yet the Lord cannot appear before them as the light of the sun, but as the light of the moon. Hence it is evident that the cause of the Lord’s coming into the world was that the spiritual might be saved (n. 2661).

AC 2717. And his mother took him. That this signifies the affection of truth, is evident from the signification of "mother," as being the church (n. 289); and because the spiritual church that is here represented is in the affection of truth, and is a church by virtue of the affection of truth, this affection is here signified by "mother."

AC 2718. A wife out of the land of Egypt. That this signifies the affection of memory-knowledges belonging to the man of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of a "wife," as being affection or good (n. 915, 2517); and from the signification of "Egypt," as being memory-knowledge (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462). In this verse the man of the spiritual church is described in regard to his quality as to good, that is, as to the essence of his life, namely, that the good that is with him is obscure, but is illuminated by the Lord‘s Divine Human; from which illumination there comes forth in his rational the affection of truth, and in his natural the affection of memory-knowledges. The reason why the affection of good cannot come forth with the spiritual man such as it is with the celestial, but in place of it the affection of truth, is that the good which is in him is implanted in his intellectual part and is comparatively obscure (n. 2715), from which no other affection can be produced and derived in his rational than the affection of truth, and thereby in his natural the affection of memory-knowledges. By truth here no other truth is meant than such as he believes to be true, though it he not true in itself; and by memory-knowledges are not meant such as the learned have, but everything of knowledge with which one can be imbued from experience and by hearing, from civic life, from doctrine, and from the Word. The man of the spiritual church is in the affection of such things.

[2] That it may be known what it is to be in the affection of truth, and what to be in the affection of good, we will briefly state that they who are in the affection of truth, think, search out, and discuss whether a thing be true, or whether it be so; and when they are confirmed that it is true, or that it is so, they think, search out, and discuss what it is, and thus stick fast at the first threshold; nor can they be admitted into wisdom until they are free from doubt. But they who are in the affection of good, from the good itself in which they are, know and perceive that the thing is so; and thus are not at the first threshold, but are in the inner chamber, being admitted into wisdom.

[3] Take as an example that it is celestial to think and act from the affection of good, or from good: They who are in the affection of truth discuss whether this be so, whether it be possible, and what it is; and so long as they are occupied with doubts about it they cannot be admitted; but they who are in the affection of good do not discuss, nor busy themselves with doubts, but affirm that it is so, and are therefore admitted; for they who are in the affection of good, that is, who are celestial, begin where they who are in the affection of truth, that is, who are spiritual, stop; so that the furthest boundary of the latter is the first of the former. For this reason it is given to them to know, to recognize, and to perceive that there are innumerable affections of good (as many, in fact, as there are societies in heaven); and that they are all conjoined by the Lord into a heavenly form, so as to constitute as it were one man; and it is also given them to distinguish by perception the kind and variety of each affection.

[4] Or take this example: That all delight, blessedness, and happiness, are solely of love; and that such as the love is, such is the delight, the blessedness, and the happiness. The spiritual man keeps his natural mind fixed on the question whether it be so, and whether the happiness be not from some other source, as from social intercourse, conversation, meditation, and learning, or from possessions and the honor, reputation, and glory of them; not confirming himself in the fact that these effect nothing, but only the affection of love such as there is in them. But the celestial man does not stick in these preliminaries, but affirms that it is so, and is therefore in the end itself and the use, that is, in the very affections of the love, which are innumerable, and in every one of which there are ineffable things--and this with variation of delight, blessedness, and happiness, to eternity.

[5] Take also as an example that the neighbor is to be loved for the good that is in him: They who are in the affection of truth, think, search out, and discuss whether this be true, or whether it be so; what the neighbor is, and what good is; nor do they go any further, and therefore they close to themselves the gate to wisdom; but they who are in the affection of good affirm that it is so, and therefore do not close that gate to themselves, but enter in, and know, and recognize, and perceive, from good, who is more the neighbor than another, also in what degree he is the neighbor, and that all are neighbors in different degrees; and thus they perceive ineffable things beyond those who are only in the affection of truth.

[6] Take further this example: That he who loves his neighbor for the good that is in him, loves the Lord. They who are in the affection of truth examine carefully whether it be so; and if they are told that he who loves his neighbor for the good that is in him, loves the good, and that--as all good is from the Lord and the Lord is in the good--when anyone loves good he also loves Him from whom it is and in which He is, they examine whether it be so; also what good is, and whether the Lord is in good more than in truth; and so long as they stick in such things they cannot see wisdom even at a distance. But they who are in the affection of good know from perception that it is so; and they immediately see the field of wisdom, leading even to the Lord.

[7] From all this we can see why they who are in the affection of truth (that is, the spiritual) have obscurity in comparison with those who are in the affection of good (that is, the celestial). Nevertheless the spiritual can come from obscurity into light, provided they are willing to be in the affirmative that all good is of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor; and that love and charity are spiritual conjunction; and that all blessedness and happiness are from these; and thus that heavenly life is in the good of love from the Lord, but not in he truth of faith separate from it.

AC 2719. In this chapter the Lord’s rational has first been treated of, as being made Divine, which rational is "Isaac;" then the merely human rational, as being separated, which is the "son of Hagar the Egyptian;" and afterwards the spiritual church, which was saved by the Lord‘s Divine Human, which church is "Hagar" and her "child." Now the doctrine of faith is treated of, which is to be serviceable to that church; namely, that human reasonings from memory-knowledges are adjoined to it, which are "Abimelech" and "Phicol." This conjunction is signified by the "covenant" which Abraham made with them. These reasonings are appearances, not from a Divine but from a human origin, which are adjoined for the reason that without them the spiritual church would not comprehend doctrine, and thus would not receive it For, as was shown above (n. 2715), the man of the spiritual church is relatively in obscurity; and doctrine is therefore to be clothed with such appearances as are of human thought and affection, and is not to be in discrepancy to such a degree that the Divine good cannot have in them some kind of receptacle. As Abimelech is again treated of in the following twenty-sixth chapter, and also a covenant (but with Isaac); and in the internal sense, the reasonings and memory-knowledges added to the doctrine of faith a second time, only a summary may here be given of the things contained in the internal sense, which will become clearer by the explication of that chapter.

AC 2720. Verse 22. And it came to pass at that time, that Abimelech, and Phicol the captain of his army, said unto Abraham, saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest. Verse 23. And now swear unto me here by God, that thou wilt not be false to me, nor to my son, nor to my son’s son; according to the kindness that I have done unto thee, thou shalt do unto me, and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned. Verse 24. And Abraham said, I will swear. Verse 25. And Abraham reproved Abimelech, because of the well of water which Abimelech‘s servants had taken away Verse 26. And Abimelech said, I know not who hath done this word, neither didst thou tell me, neither heard I of it but to-day. Verse 27. And Abraham took flock and herd, and gave to Abimelech, and they two struck a covenant. Verse 28. And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves. Verse 29. And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What are these seven ewe lambs which thou hast set by themselves? Verse 30. And he said, Because these seven ewe lambs shalt thou take of my hand, that it may be a witness unto me that I have digged this well. Verse 31. Therefore he called that place Beer-sheba, because there they sware, both of them. Verse 32. And they struck a covenant at Beer-sheba; and Abimelech rose up, and Phicol the captain of his army; and they returned into the land of the Philistines.

[2] "It came to pass at that time," signifies the state in which the Lord was when His rational was made Divine; "and Abimelech, and Phicol the captain of his army, said unto Abraham," signifies the human rational things from memory-knowledges that were to be adjoined to the doctrine of faith, which in itself is Divine; "saying, God is with thee in all that thou doest," signifies that it was Divine to all things both in general and in particular;

[3] "and now swear unto me here by God," signifies affirmation; "that thou wilt not be false to me," signifies without a doubt; "nor to my son, nor to my son’s son," signifies concerning the things of faith; "according to the kindness that I have done unto thee," signifies the rational things in which the Lord had been previously instructed; "thou shalt do unto me and to the land wherein thou hast sojourned," signifies what is reciprocal.

[4] "And Abraham said, I will swear," signifies all that is affirmative. "And Abraham reproved Abimelech," signifies the Lord‘s indignation; "because of the well of water which Abimelech’s servants had taken away," signifies as to the doctrine of faith, that the memory-knowledges desired to attribute it to themselves.

[5] "And Abimelech said," signifies a reply. "I know not who hath done this word," signifies that the rational dictated something different; "neither didst thou tell me," signifies that it was not from the Divine; "neither heard I of it but today," signifies that it was now first disclosed.

[6] "And Abraham took flock and herd, and gave to Abimelech," signifies the Divine goods implanted in the rational things of doctrine signified by "Abimelech;" "and they two struck a covenant," signifies conjunction thus. "And Abraham set seven ewe lambs of the flock by themselves," signifies the holiness of innocence.

[7] "And Abimelech said unto Abraham, What are these seven ewe lambs which thou hast set by themselves," signifies that he should be instructed and would acknowledge. "And he said, Because these seven ewe lambs shalt thou take of my hand," signifies that the holiness of innocence is from the Divine; "that it may be a witness unto me," signifies certainty; "that I have digged this well," signifies that the doctrine was from the Divine. " Therefore he called that place Beer-sheba," signifies the state and quality of the doctrine; "because there they sware both of them," signifies from the conjunction.

[8] "And they struck a covenant in Beer-sheba," signifies that human rational things were adjoined to the doctrine of faith; "and Abimelech rose up, and Phicol the captain of his army, and they returned into the land of the Philistines," signifies that nevertheless these things had no part in the doctrine.

AC 2721. Verse 33. And he planted a grove in Beer-sheba; and he called there on the name of the God of eternity. "He planted a grove in Beer-sheba," signifies doctrine with its knowledges and its quality; "and he called on the name of the God of eternity," signifies worship from it.

AC 2722. He planted a grove in Beer-sheba. That this signifies doctrine thence with its knowledges and its quality, is evident from the signification of a "grove," and from the signification of "Beer-sheba." As regards groves:--In the Ancient Church holy worship was performed on mountains and in groves; on mountains, because mountains signified the celestial things of worship; and in groves, because groves signified its spiritual things. So long as that church, namely, the Ancient, was in its simplicity, their worship at that time on mountains and in groves was holy, for the reason that celestial things, which are those of love and charity, were represented by things high and lofty, such as mountains and hills; and spiritual things, which are therefrom, by things fruitful and leafy, such as gardens and groves; but after representatives and significatives began to be made idolatrous, by the worship of external things without internal, that holy worship became profane; and they were therefore forbidden to worship on mountains and in groves.

[2] That the ancients held holy worship on mountains is evident from the twelfth chapter of Genesis, where we read of Abraham:--

He removed thence unto a mountain on the east of Bethel, and pitched his tent, having Bethel on the sea, and Ai on the east; and there he built an altar, and called on the name of Jehovah (Genesis 12:8),

(n. 1449-1455); and also from the signification of a "mountain," as being the celestial of love (n. 795, 796, 1430). That they also held holy worship in groves is evident from what is stated in this verse: "Abraham planted a grove in Beer-sheba, and called there on the name of the God of eternity;" and also from the signification of a "garden," as being intelligence (n. 100, 108, 1588); and of "trees," as being perceptions (n. 103, 2163). That this was forbidden is evident from the following passages. In Moses:--

Thou shalt not plant thee a grove of any tree beside the altar of Jehovah thy God which thou shalt make thee, and thou shalt not set thee up a pillar; which Jehovah thy God hateth (Deut. 16:21, 22).

In the same:--

The altars of the nations shall ye break down, and dash in pieces their pillars, and cut down their groves (Exod. 34:13);

and they were commanded to burn the groves of the nations with fire (Deut. 12:3).

[3] And as the Jews and Israelites, among whom the representative ritual of the Ancient Church was introduced, were solely in externals, and at heart were nothing but idolaters, neither knowing nor wishing to know what anything internal was, nor the life after death, nor even that the Messiah‘s kingdom was a heavenly one, therefore whenever they were in freedom they held profane worship on mountains and hills, and also in groves and forests; and likewise in place of mountains and hills they made for themselves high places, and in place of groves carved representations of a grove, as is evident from many passages in the Word. As in the book of Judges:--

The sons of Israel served Baalim and the groves (Judges 3:7).

In the book of Kings:--

Israel made groves provoking Jehovah (1 Kings 14:15).

And in another place:--

Judah built them high places, and pillars, and groves, upon every high hill, and under every green tree (1 Kings 14:23).

And again:--

Israel built them high places in all their cities, and set up pillars and groves upon every high hill, and under every green tree (2 Kings 17:9, 10).

And again:--

Manasseh king of Judah reared up altars for Baal, and made a grove, as did Ahab king of Israel, and set the carved image of the grove which he had made in the house of God (2 Kings 21:3, 7);

from which it is manifest that they also made for themselves carved images of a grove. That these were destroyed by king Josiah may be seen in the same book:--

Josiah caused all the vessels that were made for Baal and for the grove, and for the sun and the moon, and for all the army of the heavens, to be brought out of the temple of Jehovah, and he burnt them without Jerusalem, and the houses which the women had woven there for the grove. He also cut down the groves which Solomon had made, and likewise the grove in Bethel which Jeroboam had made (2 Kings 23:4, 6, 7, 13-15).

That king Hezekiah also demolished such things may be seen in the same book:--

Hezekiah king of Judah removed the high places, and brake the pillars, and cut down the grove, and brake in pieces the brazen serpent which Moses had made (2 Kings 18:4).

[4] That the brazen serpent was holy in the time of Moses is evident; but when the external was worshiped it became profane, and was broken in pieces, for the same reason that worship on mountains and in groves was forbidden. These things are still more evident in the Prophets. In Isaiah:--

Inflaming yourselves with gods under every green tree; sacrificing the children in the rivers under the crags of the rocks; thou hast also poured out a drink-offering to the rivers, thou hast offered a gift; upon a high and lofty mountain hast thou set thy habitation, and thither wentest thou up to offer sacrifice (Isaiah 57:5-7).

In the same:--

In that day shall a man look unto his Maker, and his eyes shall see the Holy One of Israel; and he shall not look to the altars the work of his hands, neither shall he see that which his fingers have made, and the groves and the sun-images (Isaiah 17:7, 8).

In Micah:--

I will cut off thy graven images and thy pillars out of the midst of thee, and thou shalt no more bow thyself down to the work of thy hands; and I will pluck up thy groves out of the midst of thee, and I will destroy thy cities (Micah 5:13, 14).

In Ezekiel:--

That their slain may be among their idols, round about their altars, upon every high hill, on all the tops of the mountains, and under every green tree, and under every tangled oak, the place where they did offer an odor of rest to all their idols (Ezekiel 6:13).

[5] From all this it is now manifest from what origin idolatrous worship came, namely, the worship of objects that were representative and significative. The most ancient people who were before the flood saw in each and everything--in mountains, hills, plains, and valleys, gardens, groves, and forests, rivers and waters, fields and plantations, trees and animals of every kind, and the luminaries of heaven--something representative and significative of the Lord’s kingdom; but they never dwelt with their eyes, still less with their minds, on these objects; but these things served them as means for thinking about the celestial and spiritual things in the Lord‘s kingdom; and this to such a degree that there was nothing at all in universal nature that did not serve them as such means. The real fact is that everything in nature is representative, which is an arcanum at this day and scarcely believed by anyone. But after the celestial which is of love to the Lord had perished, the human race was then no longer in that state--namely, that from objects as means they could see the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom.

[6] Yet the ancients after the flood knew, from traditions, and from collections made by certain persons, that these things had such a signification; and as they were significative they esteemed them holy. Hence came the representative worship of the Ancient Church; which church, being spiritual, was not in the perception that a thing was so, but was in the knowledge of the fact; for it was relatively in obscurity (n. 2715). Nevertheless they did not worship outward things, but by means of outward things they called to mind inward things; and hence when they were in those representatives and significatives, they were in holiness of worship. They were able to be so because they were in spiritual love, that is, in charity, which they made an essential of worship; and therefore holiness from the Lord could flow into their worship. But when the state of the human race had become so changed and perverted that they removed themselves from the good of charity, and thus no longer believed that there was any heavenly kingdom, or any life after death, but that men were in a similar condition with animals, save only that they could think (as is also believed at this day), then the holy representative worship was turned into idolatry, and the outward things were worshiped. Hence with many Gentiles at that time, and also with the Jews and Israelites, the worship was not representative, but was a worship of the representatives and significatives; that is, of the outward things without the inward.

[7] As regards groves in particular, among the ancients they were of various signification, and indeed according to the kinds of trees in them. Groves of olive-trees signified the celestial things of worship; groves of vines signified the spiritual things of worship; but groves of fig-trees, cedars, fir-trees, poplars, and oaks, signified various things relating to what is celestial and spiritual. In the passage before us mention is made simply of a grove or plantation of trees; and this signifies the things of reason that were adjoined to doctrine and its knowledges; for trees in general signify perceptions (n. 103, 2163), but when they are predicated of the spiritual church they signify knowledges, for the reason that the man of the spiritual church has no other perceptions than those which come through knowledges from doctrine or the Word; for these become of his faith, and thus of conscience, from which he has perception.

AC 2723. But in regard to Beer-sheeba--"Beer-sheba" signifies the state and quality of the doctrine, namely, that it is Divine and to which what is of human reason is adjoined-as is evident from the series of things treated of from (verse 22) to this verse (n. 2613, 2614); and also from the signification of the word itself in the original language, which is "the well of the oath," and "of seven." That a "well" is the doctrine of faith may be seen above (n. 2702, 2720); that an "oath" is conjunction (n. 2720); and that a "covenant made by an oath," has the same meaning (n. 1996, 2003, 2021, 2037); and that "seven" denotes what is holy and thus Divine (n. 395, 433, 716, 881); from all which it is evident that "Beer-sheba" signifies doctrine which is in itself Divine together with things of human reason or appearances adjoined.

[2] That the name Beer-sheba comes from all this is manifest from Abraham‘s words:--

Because these seven ewe lambs shalt thou take from my hand, that it may be a witness unto me that I have digged this well; therefore he called that place Beer-sheba, because there they sware both of them; and they struck a covenant in Beer-sheba (Genesis 26:30-32).

In like manner from Isaac’s words in chapter 26:--It came to pass on that day that Isaac‘s servants came and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him, We have found water; and he called it Shibah (an "oath" and "seven"); therefore the name of the city is Beer-sheba unto this day (verses 32, 33). There also wells are spoken of about which there was contention with Abimelech, and a covenant with him is treated of and by "Beer-sheba" are signified the things of human reason again adjoined to the doctrine of faith; and because they are again adjoined, and the doctrine thus became adapted to human comprehension, it is called a "city". That a "city" signifies doctrine in its complex see (n. 402, 2268, 2450, 2451). Moreover Beer-sheba is mentioned with a similar signification as to the internal sense in other places (Gen 22:19; 26:22, 23; 28:10; 46:1, 5; Josh. 15:28; 19:1, 2; 1 Sam. 8:2; 1 Kings 19:3); and also in the opposite sense, (Amos 5:5; 8:13, 14).

[3] The extension of the celestial and spiritual things belonging to doctrine is signified in the internal sense, where the extent of the land of Canaan is described by the expression "from Dan even to Beer-sheba;" for by the land of Canaan is signified the Lord’s kingdom, and also His church, consequently the celestial and spiritual things of doctrine; as in the book of Judges:--

All the sons of Israel went out, and the congregation was assembled as one man from Dan even to Beer-sheba (Judges 20:1).

In the book of Samuel:--

All Israel from Dan even to Beer-sheba (1 Sam. 3:20).

And again:--

To transfer the kingdom from the house of Saul, and to set up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan even to Beer-sheba (2 Sam. 3:10).

And again:--

Hushai said to Absalom, Let all Israel be gathered together, from Dan even unto Beer-sheba (2 Sam. 17:11).

And again:--

David told Joab to go through all the tribes of Israel from Dan even to Beer-sheba (2 Sam. 24:2, 7).

And again:--

There died of the people from Dan even to Beer-sheba seventy thousand men (2 Sam. 24:15).

In the book of Kings:--

Judah dwelt under his vine and under his fig-tree, from Dan even to Beer-sheba, all the days of Solomon (1 Kings 4:25).

AC 2724. And called there on the name of the God of eternity. That this signifies worship therefrom, is evident from the signification of calling upon the name of God," as being worship (n. 440). They who were of the Ancient Church did not by a name understand the name, but all the quality (n. 144, 145, 440, 768, 1754, 1896, 2009); and thus by the " name of God" all that in one complex by which God was worshiped, consequently everything of love and faith; but when the internal of worship perished, and only the external remained, they then began to understand by the name of God nothing else than the name, so much so that they worshiped the name itself, feeling no care about the love and the faith from which they worshiped. On this account the nations began to distinguish themselves by the names of their gods; and the Jews and Israelites set themselves up above the rest, because they worshiped Jehovah, placing the essential of worship in uttering the name and invoking it, when in truth the worship of a name only is no worship, and may also be found among the worst of men, who thereby profane the more.

[2] But as by the "name of God" everything of worship is signified, that is, everything of love and faith from which He is worshiped, it is therefore evident what is meant by "hallowed be Thy Name," in the Lord‘s Prayer (Matt. 6:9) also by what the Lord said:--

Ye shall be hated for My name’s sake (Matt. 10:22).

If two shall agree on earth as touching anything that they shall ask, it shall be done for them by My Father who is in the heavens; for where two or three are gathered together in My name, there am I in the midst of them (Matt. 18:19, 20).

Every one that hath left houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for My name‘s sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit eternal life (Matt. 19:29).

Hosanna to the Son of David! blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (Matt. 21:9).

Jesus said, Ye shall not see Me henceforth till ye shall say, Blessed is He that cometh In the name of the Lord (Matt. 23:39).

Ye shall be hated of all nations for My name’s sake and then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another (Matt. 24:9, 10).

As many as received Him, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, to them that believe on His name (John 1:12).

He that believeth not is judged already, because he hath not believed on the name of the only begotten Son of God (John 3:18).

Jesus said, Whatsoever ye shall ask in My name, that will I do (John 14:14, 15; 15:16; 16:23, 24, 26, 27).

Jesus said, I have manifested Thy name unto the men (John 17:6).

Holy Father, keep them in Thy name whom Thou hast given Me, that they may be one, as We are (John 17:11, 12).

I have made known unto them Thy name, and will make it known; that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them (John 17:26).

That ye may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye may have life in His name (John 20:31).

Besides very many passages in the Old Testament, in which by the "name" of Jehovah and of God the name is not meant, but everything of love and faith from which is worship.

[3] But they who worship a name only, without love and faith, are thus spoken of in Matthew:--

Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied by Thy name, and by Thy name have cast out demons, and in Thy name done many mighty works? But I will confess unto them, I know you not; depart from Me ye that work iniquity (Matthew 7:22, 23).

When as before said the men of the church became external, from being internal, and began to place worship in a name alone, they then no longer acknowledged one God, but many. For it was a common thing for the ancients to add something to the name of Jehovah, and thereby call to mind some benefit or attribute of His, as in the passage before us, "he called upon the name of the God of eternity;" and in chapter 22, "Abraham called the name of that place, Jehovah-jireh," that is, "Jehovah shall see" (Genesis 22:14). "Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovah-nissi," that is, "Jehovah my banner" (Exod. 17:15); "Gideon built an altar there unto Jehovah, and called it Jehovah-shalom" that is, "Jehovah of peace" (Judges 6:24); besides other places. From this it came to pass that they who placed worship in a name only, acknowledged so many gods; and also that among the Gentiles, especially in Greece and at Rome, so many gods were acknowledged and worshiped whereas the Ancient Church, from which the epithets emanated, never worshiped but one God, reverenced under so many names, because by the "name" they understood the quality.

AC 2725. Verse 34. And Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines many days. "Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines many days," signifies that the Lord adjoined to the doctrine of faith very many things from the memory-knowledge of human knowledges (ex scientia cognitionum humanarum).

AC 2726. Abraham sojourned in the land of the Philistines many days. That this signifies that the Lord adjoined to the doctrine of faith very many things from the memory-knowledge of human knowledges, is evident from the signification of "sojourning," as being to instruct (n. 1463, 2025); from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord (n. 1965, 1989, 2011, 2501); from the signification of the "land of the Philistines," or Philistia, as being the memory-knowledge of knowledges (n. 1197, 1198); and from the signification of "days," as being the state of the thing which is treated of (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893); here, because knowledges from the things of memory and reason are treated of, and it is said "many days," it signifies relatively very many things. Thus far, from (verse 22), rational things from human memory-knowledges, added to the doctrine of faith, are treated of, as is manifest from the explication; and here is the conclusion of them. As regards the subject itself; as in itself it is deep, and as much is said about it in chapter 26, it may be well at present to defer further explication.

CONCERNING MARRIAGES, HOW THEY ARE REGARDED IN THE HEAVENS; AND CONCERNING ADULTERIES

AC 2727. What genuine conjugial love is, and whence its origin, few at this day know, for the reason that few are in it. Almost all believe that it is inborn, and so flows from a kind of natural instinct, as they say, and this the more, because something of marriage exists also among animals; whereas the difference between conjugial love among human beings and what is of marriage among animals is such as is that between the state of a human being and the state of a brute animal.

AC 2728. And because, as was said, few at this day know what genuine conjugial love is, it shall be described from what has been discovered to me. Conjugial love takes its origin from the Divine marriage of good and truth, and thus from the Lord Himself. That conjugial love is from this, is not apparent to sense nor to apprehension; but still it may be seen from influx and from correspondence, as well as from the Word. From influx, inasmuch as heaven, from the union of good and truth, which inflows from the Lord; is compared to a marriage, and is called a marriage: from correspondence, since, when good united to truth flows down into a lower sphere, it forms a union of minds; and when into one still lower, it forms a marriage: wherefore union of minds from good united to truth from the Lord, is conjugial love itself.

AC 2729. That genuine conjugial love is from this, may be seen from the fact that no one can be in it unless he is in the good of truth and the truth of good from the Lord; also from the fact that heavenly blessedness and happiness is in that love; and they who are in it all come into heaven, or into the heavenly marriage. Also from the fact that when angels are conversing about the union of good and truth, there is then presented among good spirits in the lower sphere a representative of marriage; but among evil spirits a representative of adultery. Hence it is that in the Word the union of good and truth is called "marriage;" but the adulteration of good and the falsification of truth, "adultery" and "whoredom" (n. 2466).

AC 2730. The people of the Most Ancient Church above all on this earth lived in genuine conjugial love, because they were celestial, were in truth from good, and were in the Lord‘s kingdom together with the angels; and in that love they had heaven. But their posterity, with whom the church declined, began to love their children, and not their consorts; for children can be loved by the evil, but a consort can be loved only by the good.

AC 2731. From those most ancient people it has been heard that conjugial love is of such a nature as to desire to be altogether the other’s, and this reciprocally; and that when this is experienced mutually and reciprocally they are in heavenly happiness: also, that the conjunction of minds is of such a nature that this mutuality and reciprocity is in everything of their life, that is, in everything of their affection, and in everything of their thought. On this account it has been instituted by the Lord that wives should be affections of good which are of the will, and husbands thoughts of truth which are of the understanding; and that from this there should be a marriage such as there is between the will and the under standing, and between all things thereof with one who is in the good of truth and the truth of good.

AC 2732. I have spoken with angels as to the nature of this mutuality and reciprocity, and they said that there is the image and likeness of the one in the mind of the other, and that they thus dwell together not only in the particulars, but also in the inmosts of life; and that into such a one the Lord‘s love and mercy can flow with blessedness and happiness. They said also that they who have lived in such conjugial love in the life of the body are together and dwell together in heaven as angels, sometimes with their children also; but that very few from Christendom at this day have so lived, though all so lived from the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, and many from the Ancient Church, which was spiritual. But that they who have lived in marriage, joined together not by conjugial love, but by lascivious love, are separated in the other life, because nothing of lasciviousness is tolerated in heaven; and that still more are those separated who have lived in mutual aversion, and more still they who have hated each other. When both first come into the other life, they for the most part meet again, but after much suffering are separated.

AC 2733. There were certain spirits who from practice in the life of the body infested me with peculiar adroitness, and this by a somewhat gentle influx, like a wave, such as that of upright spirits is wont to be; but it was perceived that there was in it craftiness and the like, to captivate and deceive. I at length spoke with one of them who I was told had been in the world the commander of an army. And as I perceived that in the ideas of his thought there was lasciviousness, I spoke with him about marriage. The speech of spirits is illustrated by representatives, which fully express the sense, and many things in a moment of time.

[2] He said that in the life of the body he thought nothing of adulteries. But it was given to tell him that adulteries are horribly wicked--though to such men they do not appear to be so, but even allowable, owing to the delight they take in them, and the persuasion therefrom--which he might also know from the fact that marriages are the nurseries of the human race, and hence also the nurseries of the heavenly kingdom, and on that account are in no wise to be violated, but to be kept holy; as well as from the consideration that being in the other life and in a state of perception he ought to be aware that conjugial love comes down through heaven from the Lord; and that from that love, as from a parent, is derived mutual love, which is the basis of heaven; and also from the fact that when adulterers merely approach heavenly societies they become sensible of their own stench, and cast themselves down toward hell. Further, he might at least know that to violate marriages is contrary to the Divine laws, and contrary to the civil laws of all, and also contrary to the genuine light of reason, because contrary to order both Divine and human; and much more besides.

[3] But he answered that he had never known such things in the life of the body, nor had thought of them. He wished to reason whether they were so; but was told that in the other life truth does not admit of reasonings, for these favor one’s delights, and thus his evils and falsities; and that he ought first to think of the things that had been said, because they were true. Or he ought also to think from the principle most fully known in the world, that one must not do to another what he is not willing that the other should do to him: and thus, if anyone had in such a manner beguiled his wife, whom he loved--as every one does in the beginning of marriage--would he not himself also at that time, when in a state of wrath about it, if he spoke from that state, have detested adulteries? and at the same time, as he was of superior talent, would he not have confirmed himself against them more than others, even to condemning them to hell? and thus he might have judged himself from himself.

AC 2734. They who in the life of the body have had happiness in marriages from genuine conjugial love, have happiness also in the other life; so that with them the happiness of the one life is continued into that of the other, and becomes there a union of minds, in which is heaven. I have been told that the kinds of celestial and spiritual happiness from it, even only the most universal, cannot be numbered.

AC 2735. Genuine conjugial love is the image of heaven, and when it is represented in the other life this is done by the most beautiful things that can ever be seen by the eyes, or conceived by the mind. It is represented by a virgin of inexpressible beauty, encompassed by a bright cloud, so that it may be said to be beauty itself in essence and form. It has been said that all beauty in the other life is from conjugial love. Its affections and thoughts are represented by diamond-like auras, sparkling as it were with rubies and carbuncles, and these things are attended with delights which affect the inmosts of the mind; but as soon as anything of lasciviousness enters in, they disappear.

AC 2736. I have been instructed that genuine conjugial love is innocence itself, which dwells in wisdom. Those who have lived in conjugial love are in wisdom more than all others in heaven; and yet when viewed by others they appear like little children, in the age of bloom and spring; and whatever then befalls is joy and happiness to them. They are in the inmost heaven, which is called the heaven of innocence. Through this heaven the Lord flows into conjugial love, and angels from that heaven are present with those who live in that love. They are also present with little children in their earliest age.

AC 2737. With those who live in conjugial love, the interiors of their minds are open through heaven even to the Lord; for this love flows in from the Lord through a man‘s inmost. From this they have the Lord’s kingdom in themselves, and from this they have genuine love toward little children for the sake of the Lord‘s kingdom; and from this they are receptive of heavenly loves above others, and are in mutual love more than others for this comes from that source as a stream from its fountain.

AC 2738. Mutual love, such as there is in heaven, is not like conjugial love. Conjugial love consists in desiring to be in the other’s life as a one but mutual love consists in wishing better to another than to one‘s self, as is the case with the love of parents toward their children, and as is the love of those who are in the love of doing good, not for their own sake, but because this is a joy to them. Such angelic love is derived from conjugial love, and is born from it as a child from its parent; and for this reason it exists with parents toward their children. This love is preserved by the Lord with parents, even if they are not in conjugial love, in order that the human race may not perish.

AC 2739. From the marriage of good and truth in the heavens descend all loves, which are such as the love of parents toward their children, the love of brothers for one another, and the love for relatives, and so on, according to their degrees in their order. According to these loves, which are solely from good and truth, that is, from love to the Lord and faith in Him, are formed all the heavenly societies; which are joined together by the Lord as to represent one man, and therefore heaven is also called the Grand Man. There are unutterable varieties, all of which take their origin and are derived from the union of good and truth from the Lord, which union is the heavenly marriage. Hence it is that the origin of all consanguinities and relationships on earth is derived from marriages, and that loves were derived in like manner according to their degrees mutually among themselves; but as there is no conjugial love at this day, consanguinities and relationships are indeed reckoned from marriage, but there are no consanguinities and relationships of love. In the Most Ancient Church the derivations of love were of this nature, and therefore they dwell together in the heavens distinguished as it were into nations, families, and houses, all of which acknowledge the Lord as their only Parent.

AC 2740. Genuine conjugial love is not possible except between two consorts, that is, in the marriage of one man with one wife, and by no means with more than one at the same time; for the reason that conjugial love is mutual and reciprocal, and is the alternate life of the one in the other, so that they are as it were a one. Such a union is possible between two, but not among more: more tear that love asunder. The men of the Most Ancient Church, who were celestial and in the perception of good and truth, like the angels, had but one wife. They said that with one wife they perceived heavenly delights and happiness, and that when marriage with more was merely mentioned, they were filled with horror; for as before said the marriage of one husband and one wife comes down from the marriage of good and truth, or from the heavenly marriage, which is of this nature, as is very evident from the Lord’s words in Matthew:--

Jesus said, have ye not heard that He who made them from the beginning made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they twain shall be one flesh? Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh; what therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. Moses, for the hardness of your heart, permitted you to put away your wives; but from the beginning it was not so. All cannot receive this word, save they to whom it is given (Matthew 19:3-12).

AC 2741. Good and truth are continually flowing in from the Lord with all, and consequently so is genuine conjugial love; but it is received in various ways and as it is received, such it becomes. With the lascivious it is turned into lasciviousness, with adulterers into adulteries, its heavenly happiness into unclean delight, thus heaven into hell. The case with this is as with the light of the sun flowing into objects, which is received according to the nature of the objects, and becomes blue, red, yellow, green, dark, and even black, according to the reception.

AC 2742. A certain semblance of conjugial love is found with some, but is not really that unless they are in the love of good and truth. It is a love appearing like conjugial love, but it is for the sake of the love of the world or of self, namely, to be served at home, or to be in security or at ease, or to be ministered to when ill and when growing old; or for the sake of the care of their children whom they love. With some this seeming love is induced from fear of the consort, or for one‘s reputation, or fear of misfortunes; and with some from lascivious love. This appears in the first period as if it were conjugial love; for at that time they behave with something like innocence, they sport like little children, they have a perception of joy as of something from heaven; but with the progress of time they do not become united more and more closely, like those who are in conjugial love, but are being separated. Conjugial love also differs with the consorts; with the one it may be more or less, with the other little or nothing; and because of this difference there may be heaven for the one, but hell for the other. The affection and the reception determine this.

AC 2743. A great dog like Cerberus was seen by me, and I asked what it signified, and was told that by such a dog is signified a guard lest anyone should pass in conjugial love from heavenly delight to infernal delight, or the reverse; for they who are in genuine conjugial love are in heavenly delight; but they who are in adulteries are also in a delight which appears to them as heavenly, but is infernal. By the dog is thus represented that those opposite delights must not communicate.

AC 2744. It was shown me how the delights from conjugial love advance, on the one side to heaven, and on the other to hell. The advancement of the delights toward heaven was into blessedness and happiness continually more and more, even to what was beyond number or description; and the more interior, the more innumerable and ineffable, even to the very celestial happiness of the inmost heaven, or of the heaven of innocence; and this with the greatest freedom, for all freedom is from love; and thus the greatest freedom is from conjugial love, and is heavenly freedom itself. It was then shown how the delights of conjugial love descend toward hell--that they remove themselves little by little away from heaven, and this likewise with apparent freedom, till at last scarcely any. thing human remains in them. The deadly and infernal end to which they come has been seen, but cannot be described. A certain spirit who was then with me, and likewise saw these things, ran hastily forward to some sirens, of this character, declaring that he would show them the quality of their delight, and at first having the idea of delight; but as by little and little he came more in front, his idea was continued on, like the progress of the delight, to hell; and at length it ended in such horror. Sirens are women who have been in the persuasion that it is honorable to commit whoredom and adultery, and have also been valued by others for being so disposed, and for being in the elegancies of life. Most of them come into the other life from Christendom. They are treated of above (n. 831, 959, 1515, 1983, 2483).

AC 2745. There are women who do not love their husbands, but hold them in contempt, and at length esteem them as of no account. Their quality was represented to me by a cock, a wild cat, and a tiger of a dark color. It was said that such begin by talking much, and then proceed to scolding, and at length put on the nature of the tiger. It was said by some that such still love their children; but it was answered that such love is not human, and that it flows equally into the evil, and even into animals of whatever kind, to such a degree that these also love their offspring more than themselves. It was added that with such persons there is nothing of conjugial love.

AC 2746. There was a certain spirit in middle altitude above the head, who in the life of the body had lived wantonly, delighted with variety, so that he loved no one constantly, but passed his time in brothels, and thus had scortated with many, every one of whom he had afterwards rejected. It hence came to pass that he had beguiled many, and had thereby extinguished the desire for marriage, even for the procreation of children, and thus had contracted an unnatural nature. All these things were disclosed, and he was miserably punished, and this in the sight of the angels; and afterwards he was cast into hell. Concerning the hells of adulterers, see (n. 824-830).

AC 2747. As adulteries are contrary to conjugial love, adulterers cannot be in heaven with the angels; for the reason also that they are in what is contrary to good and truth, and thus are not in the heavenly marriage; and also because they have none but filthy ideas respecting marriage. When marriage is merely mentioned, or the idea of it occurs, instantly in their ideas are things lascivious, obscene, nay, unmentionable. It is the same when the angels are speaking about good and truth: such persons then think things that are opposite; for all affections and the derivative thoughts remain with a man after death, such as they had been in the world. Adulterers are in the desire of destroying society; many of them are cruel (n. 824), and thus in heart they are opposed to charity and mercy; laughing at the miseries of others; wishing to take away from every one what is his; and doing this as far as they dare. Their delight is to destroy friendships, and to bring about enmities. Their religious profession is that they acknowledge a Creator of the universe and a Providence--but only a universal one--and salvation by faith, and believe that nothing worse can be done to them than to others. But when they are examined as to what they are at heart, which is done in the other life, they do not believe even what they have professed; but instead of the creator of the universe they think of nature; instead of a universal Providence, they think of none; and they think nothing of faith. All this is so, because adulteries are wholly contrary to good and truth. Judge then how such can be in heaven.

AC 2748. Some spirits who in the world had lived a life of adultery, came and spoke to me. I perceived that they had not been long in the other life, for they did not know that they were there, thinking that they were still in the world, and reflection as to where they were, being taken away from them. It was given to tell them that they were in the other life; but soon forgetting it, they asked where there were houses into which they might get introduced. But they were asked whether they had no respect for spiritual things, namely, for conjugial love, which is broken up by such allurements; and they were told that such things are contrary to heavenly order. But to this they paid no attention, neither did they understand what was said. I inquired further whether they did not fear the laws, and punishments according to the laws; but these things they held in contempt. But when I said that perhaps they would be severely beaten by the servants, this alone they feared. It was afterwards given to perceive their thoughts, which are communicated in the other life. They were so filthy and obscene that the well disposed could not but be struck with horror; and yet they are made manifest as to each and every particular before spirits and angels in the other life. From all this it is evident that such cannot be in heaven.

AC 2749. With those who have by adulteries conceived a loathing and nausea for marriages, when any delight, blessedness, and happiness from the heaven of the angels reaches them, it is turned into what is loathsome and nauseous, and then into what is painful, and at length into an offensive stench, until they cast themselves down from thence into hell.

AC 2750. I have been instructed by angels that when anyone commits adultery on earth, heaven is then immediately closed to him, and he afterwards lives only in worldly and corporeal things; and although he then hears of the things of love and faith, they nevertheless do not penetrate to his interiors; and what he says about them himself does not come from his interiors, but only from the memory and the mouth, being called forth by pride or the love of gain; for his interiors are closed up, and cannot he opened except by serious repentance.

AC 2751. Above in front before the left eye were massed together such as in the life of the body had in secret and with great craftiness plotted against others. They were adulterers, and were still in the world of spirits, as they were among the newcomers. Their custom was to send forth from their troop this way and that some to plot intrigues, not only against conjugial love, but also against good and truth, and most of all against the Lord. They who are thus sent out return to them, and relate what they have heard; and so they take counsel. They also sent one to me, supposing that I was a spirit, because I spoke with the speech of spirits. When that emissary spoke, he uttered scandalous things, mostly against the Lord; so that he was as it were made up of mere scandals. But I answered that he should abstain from such things, as I knew from what band and what refuse he was; and that as regards the Lord, I knew beyond all doubt that He is one with the Father; that the universal heaven is His; that all innocence, peace, love, charity, and mercy are from Him, and all conjugial love also; and that from Him are all good and truth; all of which things are Divine; and that Moses and the Prophets, that is, all and everything in the Word, in the internal sense, treats of Him; and that all the rites of the Jewish Church represented Him; and as I was so certain of these things that I had no doubt, what more did he want? On hearing these things he withdrew with shame. These things were said, that he might tell them to the adulterers who constituted that wicked troop from which he was sent.

AC 2752. In the other life they who have been eaten up with adulteries desire more than others to obsess men, and thus through them to return into the world; but they are kept back in hell by the Lord, lest they should come among the spirits who are with men. The most who are such are from the Christian world; rarely from elsewhere.

AC 2753. There are some in the world who are carried away by the lust of seducing virgins to whoredom, wherever they may be: in nunneries, in families, or with their parents, and also wives; and they insinuate themselves by crafty modes and with flatteries. As they are accustomed to such things, and have formed their nature from them, they retain in the other life the ability to insinuate themselves into societies by flatteries and simulations; but as their thoughts lie plainly open, they are rejected. They thus pass from one society to another, but are everywhere rejected: they are also treated with severity, for they study to steal away the delights and blessedness of others. At length they are admitted into no societies, but after having endured severe punishments, are associated with their like in hell.

AC 2754. The most deceitful sometimes appear high above the head, but their hell is deep under the heel of the foot. They are the modern antediluvians. They ensnare by pretense of innocence, of pity, and of various good affections, with persuasion. When they lived in the world they were adulterers beyond others. Where there was a wife beautiful and young, there they entered without conscience and by such means seduced her. They are invisible and are unwilling to be discovered, as they act in secret. They are also cruel, having cared for themselves alone, and reckoning it as nothing even if the whole world should perish for them. There are great numbers of such spirits at this day, and it was said that they are from Christendom. Their hell is the most grievous of all.

AC 2755. The hells of adulterers are many. There they love nothing more than filth and excrement, in which they now find delight. This may also be evident from many of that sort in the life of the body, to whom it is delightful to think and talk of filthy things, abstaining only for decorum’s sake. The delight of adultery is turned into such things in the other life. It is as when the heat of the sun, even that of spring, flows into excrement or into carrion.

AC 2756. There are those who have held as a principle community of wives. These in the other life speak as if they were good, but they are malignant and deceitful. Their punishment is horrible. They are bound together as if into a bundle, and by representation a serpent appears wound around them, which binds them all as it were into a great ball, and thus they are cast out.

AC 2757. When I was being conducted through several abodes, I came to one where heat seized my feet and loins, and it was said that those were there who have indulged in pleasures, but still have not extinguished the natural desire of procreating offspring.

AC 2758. That genuine conjugial love is heaven, is represented in the kingdoms of nature; for there is nothing in all nature that does not in some way represent the Lord‘s kingdom in general, since the natural kingdom derives all its origin from the spiritual. What is without an origin prior to itself is nothing. Nothing exists that is unconnected with a cause, and thus with an end. What is unconnected falls away in a moment, and becomes nothing; from this then are the representatives of the Lord’s kingdom in the kingdoms of nature. That conjugial love is heaven, is manifest from the transformation of little worms into nymphs and chrysalides, and thus into winged insects for when their time of nuptials comes--which is when they put off their earthly form, or their worm-like form, and are embellished with wings and become flying creatures--they are then elevated into the air, which is their heaven; and there they sport with each other, perform their marriage rites, lay eggs, and nourish themselves on the juices of flowers. They are then also in their beauty; for they have wings decorated with golden, silver, and other elegantly marked colors. Such things does the marriage principle produce among such vile little worms.

AC 2759. On the right side there rose up from the lower earth as it were a roll; and it was said that they were many spirits from the lower class of people, untaught but not depraved. They were peasants and other simple people. I spoke with them, and they said that they know the Lord, to whose name they commend themselves. Further than this they knew little of faith and its mysteries. Afterwards others rose up who knew some little more. It was perceived that their interiors were capable of being opened; for in the other life this can be manifestly perceived. They had conscience, which was communicated to me, that I might know it; and it was said that they lived in conjugial love in simplicity. They said that they loved their consorts and abstained from adulteries. That this was from conscience was evident from their saying that they could not do otherwise, because it was contrary to their will. Such persons are instructed in the other life and are perfected in the good of love and truth of faith, and are at length received among the angels.

How greatly they are deluded who remain in the sense of the letter alone, and do not search out the internal sense from other passages in the Word in which it is explained, is very evident from the many heresies, every one of which proves its dogmas from the literal sense of the Word especially is this manifest from that great heresy which the insane and infernal love of self and the world has drawn from the Lord‘s words to Peter:--

I say unto thee that thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it; and I will give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth shall be bound in the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth shall be loosed in the heavens (Matt. 16:15-19).

[2] They who press the sense of the letter think that these things were said of Peter, and that power so great was given him; although they are fully aware that Peter was a very simple man, and that he by no means exercised such power; and that to exercise it is contrary to the Divine. Nevertheless, as owing to the insane and infernal love of self and the world they desire to arrogate to themselves the highest power on earth and in heaven, and to make themselves gods, they explain this according to the letter, and vehemently defend it; whereas the internal sense of these words is, that Faith itself in the Lord, which exists solely with those who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, has that power; and yet not faith, but the Lord from whom faith is. By "Peter" there is meant that faith, as everywhere else in the Word. Upon this is the Church built, and against it the gates of hell do not prevail. This faith has the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and it shuts heaven lest evils and falsities should enter in, and opens heaven for goods and truths. This is the internal sense of these words.

[3] The twelve apostles, like the twelve tribes of Israel, represented nothing else than all the things of such faith (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130). Peter represented faith itself, James charity, and John the goods of charity (n. 2135a); in like manner as did Reuben, Simeon, and Levi, the firstborn sons of Jacob, in the representative Jewish and Israelitish Church, which is plain from a thousand passages in the Word. And as Peter represented faith, the words in question were said to him. From this it is manifest into what darkness those cast themselves, and others with them, who explain all things according to the letter; as those who so explain these words to Peter, by which they derogate from the Lord and arrogate to themselves the power of saving the human race.


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