HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter 22

AC 2760. The Word as to its internal sense is thus described by John in the Apocalypse:--

I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse, and He who sat upon him was called faithful and true; and in righteousness He doth judge and make war. His eyes were a flame of fire; and upon His head were many diadems; and He had a name written which no one knew but He Himself; and He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood; and His name is called The Word of God. And the armies which are in heaven followed Him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen white and clean. And He hath upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords (Apocalypse 19:11-14, 16).

What each of these things involves no one can know except from the internal sense. It is manifest that every one of them is something representative and significative, as, that heaven was opened, that the horse was white, that He that sat upon him was faithful and true, and judgeth and maketh war in righteousness; that His eyes were a flame of fire, that upon His head were many diadems, that He had a name written which no one knew but He Himself, that He was clothed in a garment dipped in blood, that the armies which are in heaven followed Him upon white horses, that they were clothed in fine linen white and clean, and that He had upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written. It is said in plain words that it is the Word which is meant, and that it is the Lord who is the Word; for it is said, "His name is called the Word of God," and then, "He hath upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords."

[2] From the interpretation of each of the words it is manifest that the Word is here described as to its internal sense. "Heaven being opened," represents and signifies that the internal sense of the Word is not seen except in heaven, and by those to whom heaven is opened, that is, who are in love to the Lord and thence in faith in Him. The "horse which was white" represents and signifies the understanding of the Word as to its interiors; that a "white horse" is this will be manifest from what follows. That "He who sat upon him" is the Word, and the Lord who is the Word, is evident. He is called "faithful and judging from righteousness" on account of good, and "true and making war from righteousness" on account of truth. His "having upon His head many diadems," signifies all things of faith. His "having a name written which no one knew but He Himself," signifies that no one sees what the Word is in its internal sense but Himself, and he to whom He reveals it. "His being clothed in a garment dipped in blood," signifies the Word in the letter. The "armies in the heavens which followed Him upon white horses," signify those who are in the understanding of the Word as to its interiors. "Clothed in fine linen white and clean," signifies the same in love and thence in faith. The "name written upon His garment and upon His thigh," signifies truth and good. From all this, and from what there precedes and follows, it is manifest that toward the last period the internal sense of the Word will be opened; but what will then come to pass is also described there (Revelation 19:17-21).

AC 2761. That the "white horse" is the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or what is the same, the internal sense of the Word, is evident from the signification of a "horse," as being the intellectual faculty. In the prophetic parts of the Word a horse and a rider are often named; but no one has hitherto known that a "horse" signifies the faculty of understanding, and a "rider" one who is intelligent--as in the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel, respecting Dan:--

Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse‘s heels, and his rider shall fall backward. I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah (Gen. 49:17, 18).

That a "serpent" is one who reasons concerning Divine arcana from the senses and from memory-knowledges, may be seen above (n. 195); also that a "way" and a path" are truth (n. 627, 2333); and that the "heel" is the lowest of the natural (n. 259); a "horse" is the understanding of the Word; and a "rider" he that teaches. Hence it is manifest what these prophetic words signify, namely, that one who reasons concerning the truths of faith from the senses and from memory-knowledges, sticks fast in the lowest things of nature only, and thus believes nothing, which is to "fall backward;" wherefore it is added, "I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah."

[2] In Habakkuk:--

O God, Thou dost ride upon Thy horses, Thy chariots are salvation, Thou hast made Thy horses to tread in the sea (Habakkuk 3:8, 15);

where "horses" denote the Divine truths which are in the Word; " chariots," doctrine from them; the "sea," knowledges (n. 28, 2120); and because these are of the understanding of the Word from God, it is said, "Thou hast made Thy horses to tread in the sea." Horses are here attributed to God, as in the Apocalypse, above; to whom they cannot be attributed unless they signify such things.

[3] In David:--

Sing unto God, sing praises to His name, extol Him that rideth upon the clouds, by His name Jah (Ps. 68:4);

to "ride upon the clouds" denotes the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or in its internal sense. A "cloud" is the Word in the letter, in which is the internal sense (n. 2135a).

[4] In the same:--

Jehovah bowed the heavens, and came down, and thick darkness was under His feet; and He rode upon a cherub (Ps. 18:9, 10);

"thick darkness" here denotes clouds; to "ride upon a cherub" represents the Lord’s providence lest man should of himself enter into the mysteries of faith which are in the Word (n. 308). In Zechariah:--

In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, Holiness unto Jehovah (Zechariah 14:20);

the "bells of the horses" denote the understanding of the spiritual things of the Word, which are holy.

[5] In Jeremiah:--

There shall enter in by the gates of this city kings and princes, sitting upon the throne of David, riding in chariot and on horses, they, and their princes, the men of Judah, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and this city shall be inhabited forever (Jeremiah 17:25, 26; 22:4);

the "city Jerusalem" denotes the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom and church; "kings," truths (n. 1672, 2015, 2069); "princes," the primary precepts of truth (n. 1482, 2089); "David," the Lord (n. 1888); the "men of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem," those who are in the good of love, of charity, and of faith (n. 2268, 2451, 2712); thus to "ride upon a chariot and upon horses" means to be instructed in the doctrine of truth from the internal understanding of the Word.

[6] In Isaiah:--

Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob (Isaiah 58:14);

to "ride upon the high places of the earth" denotes intelligence. In David:--

A song of loves: Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O mighty one, Thy glory and Thy majesty; and in Thy majesty go forward, ride upon the word of truth, and of the gentleness of righteousness, and Thy right hand shall teach Thee wonderful things (Ps. 45:3, 4);

to "ride upon the word of truth" manifestly denotes the understanding of truth; and "upon the word of the gentleness of righteousness," the wisdom of good.

[7] In Zechariah:--

In that day, saith Jehovah, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness; and I will open Mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the peoples with blindness (Zechariah 12:4, 5);

where also the "horse" manifestly denotes the understanding, which would be smitten with astonishment and blindness; and the "rider" him that understands, who would be smitten with madness. In Hosea:--

Take away all iniquity, and accept that which is good, and we will render the bullocks of our lips. Asshur shall not save us; we will not ride upon horses; and we will no more say to the work of our hands, Thou art our god (Hosea 14:2, 3);

"Asshur" denotes reasoning (n. 119, 1186); the "horse" one’s own intelligence. Besides these there are many other passages.

AC 2762. That a "horse" signifies the faculty of understanding is from no other source than the representatives in the other life. Often there, in the world of spirits, horses are seen, and this with great variety, and those also that sit on them; and whenever they are seen they signify the faculty of understanding. There are such representatives continually with spirits. It is from the representation of the horse, as being the understanding, that when horses are mentioned in the Word, the spirits and angels with man at once know that the understanding is what is treated of. It is also from this that when spirits from a certain distant world on being imbued with intelligence and wisdom are taken up from the world of spirits into heaven, there appear to them horses shining as with fire; which also I have seen when they were taken up.

[2] From this I could see what is signified by the chariot of fire and horses of fire seen by Elisha when Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven; as also what is signified by the exclamation of Elisha then: "My Father, my Father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof" (2 Kings 2:11, 12); and by Joash king of Israel saying the same to Elisha when he was dying: "My Father, my Father, the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof" (2 Kings 13:14). That by Elijah and Elisha was represented the Lord as to the Word, will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be told elsewhere; the doctrine of love and charity from the Word being meant by the "chariot of fire," and the doctrine of faith therefrom by the "horses of fire." The doctrine of faith is the same as the understanding of the Word as to its interiors, or as to its internal sense.

[3] That chariots and horses are seen in the heavens with spirits and angels, is evident from the fact of their being seen by the prophets, as by (Zechariah 1:8-10; 6:3-7), and by others, and also by Elisha’s servant, as thus described in the book of Kings:--

Jehovah opened the eyes of Elisha‘s boy, and he saw; and behold the mountain was full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha (2 Kings 6:17).

Moreover, where the abode of the intelligent and wise is, in the world of spirits, chariots and horses appear continually; for the reason as said that by chariots and horses are represented the things of wisdom and of intelligence. Resuscitated persons after death, who are entering into the other life, see represented to them a young man sitting upon a horse, and then alighting from the horse; and by this is signified that they are to be instructed in the knowledge of good and truth before they can come into heaven, see (n. 187, 188).

[4] That chariots and horses signified these things, was well known in the Ancient Church, as also is evident from the book of Job, which is a book of that Church, where are these words:--

God hath made her to forget wisdom, and hath not imparted to her intelligence; what time she lifteth up herself on high she scorneth the horse and his rider (Job 39:17-19).

From the Ancient Church the signification of the horse, as being the faculty of understanding, was extended to the wise round about, even into Greece. From this it came to pass that when they described the sun, by which was signified love, (n. 2441, 2495), they placed in it the god of their wisdom and intelligence, and gave him a chariot and four horses of fire; and that when they described the god of the sea, because by the sea were signified knowledges in general (n. 28, 2120), they gave horses also to him; and that when they described the rise of knowledges from the understanding, they represented a flying horse which with his hoof broke open a fountain, where dwelt the virgins that were the sciences; and by the Trojan horse nothing else was signified than a contrivance of their understanding for destroying city walls. Even at this day the intellect is often described, according to the custom received from those ancient people, under the figure of a flying horse, or Pegasus and learning is described as a fountain; but scarcely anyone knows that a horse, in the mystic sense, signifies the understanding, and a fountain truth; still less that these significatives were handed down to the Gentiles from the Ancient Church.

AC 2763. From all this it is now manifest whence come the representatives and significatives in the Word, namely, from the representatives that exist in the other life. From this source they came to the men of the Most Ancient Church, who were celestial, and were in company with spirits and angels while living on earth. From them the representatives passed to their posterity, and at length to those who merely knew that they had such a signification; but because the representatives came from the most ancient times, and were in their Divine worship, they were venerated and held sacred.

[2] Besides representatives, there are also correspondences which suggest and also signify something altogether different in the spiritual world from what they do in the natural world; as the heart, the affection of good; the eyes, the understanding; the ears, obedience; the hands, power; besides innumerable other correspondences. These are not represented in this way in the world of spirits; but they correspond, as what is natural to what is spiritual. Hence it is that every word, even to the smallest iota of all, in the Word, involves spiritual and heavenly things; and that the Word is in this manner inspired, so that when it is read by man, spirits and angels immediately perceive it spiritually according to the representations and correspondences. But this knowledge, which was so much cultivated and esteemed by the ancients after the flood, and by means of which they were able to think with spirits and angels, is at this day altogether obliterated, so much so that scarcely anyone is willing to believe that it exists; and they who believe in it merely call it a kind of mystical thing, of no use; and this for the reason that man has become altogether worldly and corporeal; to such a degree that when what is spiritual and heavenly is mentioned, he feels a repugnance, and sometimes a loathing, or even nausea. What then will he do in the other life, which lasts forever, and where there is nothing worldly and corporeal, but only what is spiritual and heavenly, which makes the life in heaven?

GENESIS 22:1-24

1. And it came to pass after these words, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I.

2. And He said, Take I pray thy son, thine only one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee to the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.

3. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his boys with him, and Isaac his son; and he clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God told him.

4. On the third day, and Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off.

5. And Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the boy will go yonder, and we will bow ourselves down, and will come again to you.

6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together.

7. And Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood; and where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?

8. And Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son: and they went both of them together.

9. And they came to the place which God told him of; and Abraham built there the altar, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. 10. And Abraham put forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.

11. And the angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I.

12. And He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy, and do not anything unto him; for now I know that thou fearest God, and thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me.

13. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw, and behold a ram behind, caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went, and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son.

14. And Abraham called the name of that place, Jehovah-will-see, as it is said to this day, In the mountain Jehovah will see.

15. And the angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven.

16. And said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only one,

17. That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies.

18. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast harkened to My voice.

19. And Abraham returned unto his boys; and they rose up, and went together to Beer-sheba; and Abraham dwelt in Beer-sheba.

20. And it came to pass after these words that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor thy brother:

21. Uz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram;

22. And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel.

23. And Bethuel begat Rebekah; these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham’s brother.

24. And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, she also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah.

THE CONTENTS

AC 2764. In this chapter in the internal sense the Lord‘s most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of, by which He united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence; and also the salvation by this union of those who constitute the Lord’s spiritual church.

AC 2765. The Lord‘s most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of (verses 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11). Concerning the unition of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence, or His glorification, by means of them (verses 2, 11, 12, 16). Concerning the salvation by the Lords Divine Human of the spiritual, of those who are in charity and faith, within the church (verses 2, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19). And concerning the salvation of those who are in good, outside the church (verses 20, 21, 22, 23, 24).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 2766. Verse 1. And it came to pass after these words that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. "It came to pass after these words," signifies after the things just accomplished; "that God did tempt Abraham," signifies the Lord’s most grievous and inmost temptations; "and said unto him, Abraham," signifies the Lord‘s perception from Divine truth; "and he said, Here am I," signifies thought and reflection.

AC 2767. It came to pass after these words. That this signifies after the things just accomplished, is evident without explication. The things which have been treated of are those respecting Abimelech and Abraham, that they made a covenant in Beer-sheba, and lastly that Abraham raised up a grove in Beer-sheba, by which was signified that human rational things were adjoined to the doctrine of faith, which is in itself Divine. Here now the Lord’s temptation as to the rational, which is signified by Isaac, is treated of; for by temptations the Lord made His Human Divine, and thus His rational, in which the human commences (n. 2106, 2194), by chastising and expelling all in the rational that was merely human, or the maternal human. This is the connection of the things of the preceding chapter with those in this chapter; whence it is said, "It came to pass after these things that God did tempt Abraham."

AC 2768. That God did tempt Abraham. That this signifies the Lord‘s most grievous and inmost temptations, is evident from what follows. That in the internal sense by "Abraham" is represented and meant the Lord, is manifest from all that precedes where Abraham is treated of. That the Lord suffered most grievous and inmost temptations, which are described in this chapter in the internal sense, will be made evident. But its being said that "God did tempt," is according to the sense of the letter, in which temptations and many other things are attributed to God; but it is according to the internal sense that God tempts no one; but in the time of temptations is continually liberating from them, as far as possible, or as far as the liberation does not do harm, and is continually looking to the good into which He is leading him who is in the temptations; for God never takes part in temptations in any other manner; and though it is predicated of Him that He permits, still it is not according to the idea which man has of permission, namely, that by permitting He concurs. Man cannot comprehend it in any other manner than that he who permits is also willing; but it is the evil within the man which causes, and even leads into the temptation; and no cause of this is in Gods the cause is not in the king or in the judge, when a man does evil and suffers punishment therefor. For he who separates himself from the laws of Divine order, all of which are the laws of good and thence of truth, casts himself into the laws that are opposite to Divine order, which are those of evil and falsity, and thence of punishments and torments.

AC 2769. And said unto him, Abraham. That this signifies the Lord’s perception from Divine truth, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historical statements of the Word, as being to perceive (n. 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord. That the perception was from Divine truth, may be seen from the fact that "God" is named, and not "Jehovah;" for where truth is treated of in the Word, there "God" is named; but where good is treated of, there "Jehovah" is named (n. 2586). Hence it is that it is said "God" in this verse and also in those which follow, to (verse 11), for the reason that temptation is there treated of. And that it is said "Jehovah" in (verse 11) and those that follow, is because liberation is then treated of; for all temptation and condemnation is from truth, but all liberation and salvation is from good. That truth condemns and good saves, see (n. 1685, 2258, 2335).

AC 2770. And he said, Here am I. That this signifies thought and reflection, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (n. 2769), but here to think and reflect, because they are the words of an answer for all thought and the reflection therefrom comes from perception (n. 1919, 2515, 2552).

AC 2771. Verse 2. And He said, Take I pray thy son, thine only one, whom thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee to the land of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of. "He said, Take I pray thy son," signifies the Divine rational begotten by Him; "thine only one, whom thou lovest," signifies the sole one in the universe by which He was to save the human race; "even Isaac," signifies its quality; "and get thee to the land of Moriah," signifies a place and state of temptation; "and offer him there for a burnt-offering," signifies that He should sanctify Himself to the Divine; "upon one of the mountains," signifies the Divine Love; "which I will tell thee of," signifies as He should perceive.

AC 2772. He said, Take I pray thy son. That this signifies the Divine rational begotten by Him, is evident from the signification of a "son," as being the rational (n. 2623); here the Divine rational, because by the son is meant Isaac; and that he represents the Lord‘s Divine rational has been shown above (n. 1893, 2066, 2083, 2630). And as the Lord made His rational Divine by His own power, as has been often said, by "thy son" is also signified that it was begotten by Him (n. 1893, 2093, 2625).

AC 2773. Thine only one, whom thou lovest. That this signifies the only one in the universe by which He was to save the human race, is evident from the signification of the "only one," as being the sole and indeed the only one in the universe, because the Lord is treated of, who alone as to all His Human became God, or Divine.

AC 2774. Even Isaac. That this signifies the quality of the rational, namely, as being the good of truth and the truth of good, that is, the Divine marriage as to the Lord’s Human, is evident from the naming of Isaac (Genesis 21:6, 7).

AC 2775. And get thee to the land of Moriah. That this signifies a place and state of temptation, they be seen from the signification of the "land of Moriah." That the "land of Moriah" means a place of temptation, is manifest from Abraham‘s being commanded to go thither and offer up his son as a burnt-offering, and thus to undergo the extremity of temptation. That Jerusalem, where the Lord Himself endured the extremity of temptation, was in the same land, is evident from the fact that an altar was built by David on Mount Moriah, and afterwards the temple by Solomon; as is manifest from the book of Chronicles:--

Solomon began to build the house of Jehovah in Jerusalem, on Mount Moriah, which was seen by David his father, in the place which David prepared in the threshing-floor of Ornan (Araunah) the Jebusite (2 Chron. 3:1; 1 Chron. 21:16-28; 2 Sam. 24:16-25).

From this it is sufficiently evident that these things which are said respecting the sacrificing of Isaac are representative of the Lord; otherwise this might have been done where Abraham was then tarrying; and he would not have been commanded to proceed from thence a journey of nearly three days.

AC 2776. And offer him there for a burnt-offering. That this signifies that He should sanctify Himself to the Divine, is evident from the representation of a burnt-offering among the Hebrew nation and in the Jewish church, as being the most holy thing of their worship. There were burnt-offerings and there were sacrifices, and what these represented may be seen above (n. 922, 923, 1823, 2180). Their sanctifications were made by means of them, and hence it is that by "offering up for a burnt-offering" is here signified to be sanctified to the Divine, for the Lord Himself sanctified Himself to the Divine, that is, united His Human to His Divine by the combats and victories of temptations (n. 1663, 1690, 1691, 1692, 1737, 1787, 1812, 1813, 1820).

[2] It is a common belief at this day that the burnt-offerings and sacrifices signified the Lord’s passion, and that by this the Lord made expiation for the iniquities of all; indeed, that He took them upon Himself, and thus bore them; and that those who believe are in this manner justified and saved, provided they think, even though it were in the last hour before death, that the Lord suffered for them, no matter how they may have lived during the whole course of their life. But the case is not really so: the passion of the cross was the extremity of the Lord‘s temptation, by which He fully united His Human to His Divine and His Divine to His Human, and thus glorified Himself. This very union is the means by which those who have the faith in Him which is the faith of charity, can be saved. For the supreme Divine Itself could no longer reach to the human race, which had removed itself so far from the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith, that men no longer even acknowledged them, and still less perceived them. In order therefore that the supreme Divine might be able to come down to man in such a state, the Lord came into the world and united His Human to the Divine in Himself; which union could not be effected otherwise than by the most grievous combats of temptations and by victories, and at length by the last, which was that of the cross.

[3] Hence it is that the Lord can from His Divine Human illumine minds, even those far removed from the celestial things of love, provided they are in the faith of charity. For the Lord in the other life appears to the celestial angels as a Sun, and to the spiritual as a Moon (n. 1053, 1521, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495), whence comes all the light of heaven. This light of heaven is of such a nature that when it illumines the sight of spirits and angels, it also illumines their understanding at the same time. This is inherent in that light, so that in heaven so much as anyone has of external light, so much has he of internal light, that is, so much of understanding; which shows wherein the light of heaven differs from the light of the world. It is the Lord’s Divine Human which illuminates both the sight and the understanding of the spiritual; which would not take place if the Lord had not united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence; and if He had not united them, man in the world would no longer have had any capacity of understanding and perceiving what is good and true, nor indeed would a spiritual angel in heaven have had any; so that they would have had nothing of blessedness and happiness, consequently nothing of salvation. From this we can see that the human race could not have been saved unless the Lord had assumed the Human and glorified it.

[4] Hence then anyone may infer what truth there is in the idea that men are saved if they only think from a kind of interior emotion that the Lord suffered for them, and took away their sins, however they may have lived; whereas the light of heaven from the Lord‘s Divine Human cannot reach to any but those who live in the good of faith, that is, in charity; or what is the same, those who have conscience. The very plane into which that light can operate, or the receptacle of that light, is the good of faith, or charity, and thus conscience. That the spiritual have salvation from the Lord’s Divine Human, see (n. 1043, 2661, 2716, 2718).

AC 2777. Upon one of the mountains. That this signifies the Divine Love, is evident from the signification of a "mountain," as being love (n. 795, 796, 1430); here, the Divine Love, because it is predicated of the Lord; and what the quality of this love is, may be seen above (n. 1690, 1691, 1789, 1812, 1820, 2077, 2253, 2500, 2572). As it was the Divine Love from which the Lord fought in temptations and conquered, and by which He sanctified and glorified Himself, it is here said to Abraham that he should offer up Isaac for a burnt-offering upon one of the mountains in the land of Moriah. This representative is elucidated by the fact that an altar was built by David, and the temple was built by Solomon, upon the mountain of Moriah (n. 2775); for the altar upon which burnt-offerings and sacrifices were offered, was the principal representative of the Lord, as was afterwards the temple. That the altar was so may be seen above (n. 921); and it is evident in David:--

Let them bring me to the mountain of Thy holiness, and to Thy tabernacles and I will go unto the altar of God, unto God, the gladness of my joy (Ps. 43:3, 4).

That the temple was so too, is evident in John:--

Jesus said, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. He spake of the temple of His body (John 2:19, 21).

AC 2778. Which I will tell thee of. That this signifies as He should perceive, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (n. 2769).

AC 2779. Verse 3. And Abraham rose early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took two of his boys with him, and Isaac his son; and he clave the wood for the burnt-offering, and rose up, and went unto the place of which God told him. "And Abraham rose early in the morning," signifies a state of peace and innocence; "and saddled his ass," signifies the natural man which He prepared; "and took two of his boys," signifies the former rational which He had adjoined; "and Isaac his son," signifies the Divine rational begotten by Himself; "and he clave the wood for the burnt-offering," signifies the merit of righteousness; "and rose up," signifies elevation; "and went unto the place of which God told him," signifies the state at that time according to perception.

AC 2780. And Abraham rose early in the morning. That this signifies a state of peace and innocence, is evident from the signification of "morning," and also of "rising early," when predicated of the Lord, who here is "Abraham." "Morning" in the universal sense signifies the Lord, and hence His kingdom; consequently the celestial of love in general and in particular (n. 2333); and as it signifies these, it signifies the state itself in which they are, which state is that of peace and innocence. The state of peace in the heavens is like that of the dawn on earth. In the state of peace in the heavens come forth all celestial and spiritual things, and derive therefrom all that is auspicious, blessed, and happy in them, as in the time of dawn on earth all things come forth before man as things of delight and gladness; for all the singulars derive their quality from the general affection (n. 920, 2384). The case is the same with the state of innocence: this comes forth in the state of peace, and is a general thing affecting all the things of love and faith. Unless these have innocence in them, they lack their essential. Hence it is that no one can come into heaven unless he have something of innocence (Mark 10:15). It is plain from this what "morning" signifies in the internal sense, and still more when it is said that he "rose early in the morning;" and as in the highest sense "morning" is the Lord, and as the state is from Him which effects and affects all things in His kingdom, "morning" and "rising in the morning" signify many other things which come forth in that state; and this as related to the things which follow in the internal sense.

AC 2781. And saddled his ass. That this signifies the natural man which He prepared, is evident from the signification of an "ass," as explained in what now follows. There are in man things of the will and things of the understanding; to the former class belong the things of good, to the latter those of truth. There are various kinds of beasts by which the things of the will, or those of good, are signified; such as lambs, sheep, kids, goats, bullocks, oxen (n. 1823, 2179, 2180); and there are likewise beasts by which intellectual things, or those of truth, are signified, namely, horses, mules, wild-asses, camels, asses, and also birds. That the intellectual faculty is signified by the "horse," has been shown above (n. 2761, 2762). That by the "wild-ass" truth separate from good is signified, see above (n. 1949). That by the "camel" there is signified memory-knowledge in general, and by the "ass" memory-knowledge in particular, may be seen above (n. 1486).

[2] There are two things which constitute the natural with man, or what is the same, which constitute the natural man, namely, natural good and natural truth. Natural good is the delight flowing forth from charity and faith; natural truth is the memory knowledge of them. That natural truth is what is signified by the "ass," and rational truth by the "mule," may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

The prophecy of the beasts of the south. In a land of straightness and distress; the lion and the old lion, and from them the viper and the flying fire-serpent; they carry their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels, to a people that shall not profit; and the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose (Isaiah 30:6, 7);

those are called the "beasts of the south" who are in the knowledges of good and truth, but who make them not of the life but of memory; of whom it is said that "they shall bring their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels," for the reason that "young asses" signify memory-knowledges in particular, and "camels" memory-knowledges in general: that the "Egyptians" are memory-knowledges, may be seen above (n. 1164, 1165, 1186); of whom it is said that they shall help in vain and to no purpose." That this prophecy has an internal sense, without which it is understood by nobody, is plain to every one; for without the internal sense it cannot be known what the prophecy of the beasts of the south is, the lion and the old lion, the viper and the flying fire-serpent; and what is meant by these beasts bringing their riches upon the shoulder of young asses, and their treasures upon the hump of camels, and why it immediately follows that the Egyptians shall help in vain and to no purpose. The like is meant by the "ass" in the prophecy of Israel respecting Issachar, in Moses:--

Issachar is a bony ass, lying down between the burdens (Gen. 49:14).

[3] In Zechariah:--

This shall be the plague wherewith Jehovah will smite all the peoples that shall fight against Jerusalem there shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and of the ass, and of every beast (Zechariah 14:12, 15);

that by the "horse," "mule," "camel," and "ass," are signified things of the understanding in man, which will be affected by the plague, is evident from all that precedes and follows there; for the plagues which precede the last judgment or consummation of the age are treated of, a subject also much treated of by John in the Apocalypse, and by the rest of the prophets in many places. By these animals are meant those who will then fight against Jerusalem, that is, against the Lord‘s spiritual church and its truths, and who will be affected by such plagues as to the things of their understanding.

[4] In Isaiah:--

Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass (Isaiah 32:20);

"they that sow beside all waters" denote those who suffer themselves to be instructed in spiritual things. That "waters" are spiritual things, thus intellectual things of truth, see (n. 680, 739, 2702). "They that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass" denote natural things which are to do service. The "ox" is the natural as to good (n. 2180, 2566). The "ass" is the natural as to truth.

[5] In Moses:--

Binding his young ass unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine he hath washed his garments in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes (Gen. 49:11);

this is the prophecy of Jacob, at that time Israel, concerning the Lord; the "vine" and the "choice vine" denote the spiritual church external and internal (n. 1069); the "young ass" denotes natural truth; the "ass‘s colt" rational truth. The reason an "ass’s colt" denotes rational truth is that a "she ass" signifies the affection of natural truth (n. 1486), the son of which is rational truth, as may be seen above (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910).

[6] In old times a judge rode upon a she-ass, and his sons upon young asses; for the reason that the judges represented the goods of the church, and their sons the truths thence derived. But a king rode upon a she-mule, and his sons upon mules, by reason that kings and their sons represented the truths of the church (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). That a judge rode upon a she-ass, is evident in the book of Judges:--

My heart is toward the lawgivers of Israel, that offered themselves willingly among the people bless ye Jehovah, ye that ride upon white she-asses, ye that sit upon carpets (Judges 5:9, 10).

That the sons of the judges rode upon young asses:--

Jair the judge over Israel had thirty sons, that rode on thirty young asses (Judges 10:3, 4).

Abdon the judge of Israel had forty sons, and thirty sons‘ sons, that rode on seventy young asses (Judges 12:14).

That a king rode upon a she-mule:--

David said unto them, Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon the she-mule which is mine. And they caused Solomon to ride upon king David’s she-mule, and Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anointed him king in Gihon (1 Kings 1:33, 38, 44, 45).

That the sons of a king rode upon he-mules:--

All the sons of king David rose up, and rode each one upon his mule, and fled, because of Absalom (2 Sam. 13:29).

[7] Hence it is manifest that to ride on a she-ass was the badge of a judge, and to ride on a she-mule, the badge of a king; and that to ride on a young ass was the badge of a judge‘s sons, and to ride on a mule was the badge of a king’s sons; for the reason as already said that a she-ass represented and signified the affection of natural good and truth, a she-mule the affection of rational truth, an ass or a young ass natural truth itself, and a mule and also the son of a she-ass rational truth. Hence it is plain what is meant by the prophecy concerning the Lord in Zechariah:--

Rejoice, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem; behold, thy King cometh unto thee. He is just and having salvation, lowly and riding upon an ass, and upon a young ass the son of she-asses. His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends of the earth (Zechariah 9:9, 10).

That the Lord, when He came to Jerusalem, willed to ride upon these animals, is known from the Evangelists, as in Matthew:--

Jesus sent two disciples, saying unto them, Go into the village that is over against you, and straightway ye shall find a she-ass tied, and a colt with her; loose them, and bring them unto Me. This was done that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, Tell ye the daughter of Zion, behold thy King cometh unto thee, meek, sitting upon a she-ass, and upon a colt the son of a beast of burden. And they brought the she-ass and the colt, and put their garments upon them, and set Him thereon (Matthew 21:1, 2, 4, 5, 7);

[8] to "ride upon an ass" was a sign that the natural was made subordinate; and to "ride upon a colt the son of a she ass" was a sign that the rational was made subordinate. The "son of a she-ass" signified the same as a "mule," which has been explained at (Gen. 49:11). From this their signification, and because it belonged to the highest judge and to a king to ride upon them, and at the same time that the representatives of the church might be fulfilled, it pleased the Lord to do this: as is thus described in John:--On the next day a great multitude that had come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet Him, and cried, Hosanna, Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord, even the King of Israel. And Jesus, having found a young ass, sat thereon as it is written, Fear not, daughter of Zion; behold thy King cometh sitting on the colt of a she-ass. These things understood not His disciples at the first; but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of Him, and that they had done these things unto Him (John 12:12-16; Mark 11:1-12; Luke 19:28-41).

[9] From all this it is now evident that all and everything in the church of that period was representative of the Lord, and therefore of the celestial and spiritual things that are in His kingdom even to the she-ass and the colt of a she-ass, by which the natural man as to good and truth was represented. The reason of the representation was that the natural man ought to serve the rational, and this the spiritual, this the celestial, and this the Lord: such is the order of subordination.

[10] Since by an "ox and an ass" the natural man as to good and truth is signified, many laws were therefore given in which oxen and asses are mentioned, which laws at first sight do not appear to be worthy of mention in the Divine Word; but when unfolded as to their internal sense, the spiritual meaning in them appears to be of great moment--as the following in Moses:--

If a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall into it, the owner of the pit shall give money to the owner, and the dead shall be his (Exod. 21:33, 34).

If thou meet thine enemy‘s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again. If thou see the ass of him that hateth thee lying under his burden, and wouldest forbear to remove it, removing thou shalt remove it from him (Exod. 23:4, 5; Deut. 22:1, 3).

Thou shalt not see thy brother’s ass or his ox falling down in the way, and hide thyself from them lifting thou shalt lift them up again (Deut. 22:4).

Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together. Thou shalt not wear a mixed web of wool and linen together (Deut. 22:10, 11).

Six days thou shalt do thy works, and on the seventh day thou shalt best, that thine ox and thine ass may rest also, and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner (Exod. 23:12).

Here the "ox and ass" signify nothing else in the spiritual sense than natural good and truth.

AC 2782. And took two of his boys. That this signifies the former rational which He had adjoined, is evident from the signification of "boys." A "boy" and "boys" signify various things in the Word; because these terms are applied not only to the sons of the house but also to the sons of the stranger, and to servants also; here to servants. Man‘s natural things which are to serve the rational are signified by "servants" (n. 1486, 1713, 2541, 2567). As however they are not here called " servants," but "boys," the former or merely human rational, which was to serve the Divine rational, is signified; as may also be seen from the very series of the things.

AC 2783. And Isaac his son. That this signifies the Divine rational begotten by Himself, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord’s Divine rational, often spoken of before. That it was begotten by Him is meant by its being called his "son" (n. 2772).

AC 2784. And he clave the wood for the burnt-offering. That this signifies the merit of righteousness, is evident from the signification of "wood" and of " cleaving wood." That "wood" signifies the goods that are of works, and of righteousness; and that "cleaving wood" signifies the placing of merit in the goods that are of works, but " cleaving wood for a burnt-offering" the merit of righteousness, appears too remote to be known without revelation. That "cleaving wood" denotes placing merit in the goods that are of works, was made clear to me by what I have seen and have described in (n. 1110) respecting the hewers of wood, as being those who had desired to merit salvation by the goods which they had done. Moreover there are others also, in front, above, a little to the right, from a certain world, who in the same way had claimed all good to themselves, and appear in like manner to cut and cleave wood. When these seem to themselves to be laboring, they sometimes shine in the face from a kind of fatuous fire, which is the good of merit that they attribute to themselves. The reason of its appearing so is that wood is a representative of good; as was all the wood in the ark and in the temple, and also all the wood upon the altar when the burnt-offerings and sacrifices were made. But they who attribute good to themselves, and make it self-meritorious, these also are said in the Word to "worship wood," or a "graven image" of wood.

AC 2785. And he rose up. That this signifies elevation, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as meaning where it occurs in the Word some elevation.

AC 2786. And went unto the place of which God told him. That this signifies His state at that time according to perception, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (n. 1273-1277, 1376-1381, 2625); and from the signification of "God saying," as being to perceive from the Divine (n. 2769, 2778). As regards the state itself, it is described in this verse, that is, the state which the Lord assumed when He underwent temptations, and here that which He assumed when He underwent the most grievous and inmost temptations. His first preparation for that state was that He entered into a state of peace and innocence, and that He prepared the natural man in Himself, as also the rational, so that they should serve the Divine rational, and that He adjoined the merit of righteousness, and in this manner elevated Himself. These things cannot be explained at all to the comprehension, or be presented to the idea, of anyone who does not know that many states exist together, and these distinct from one another; and who does not also know what a state of peace and innocence is, what the natural man is, what the rational man, and also what the merit of righteousness is; for he must first have a distinct idea of all these, and must also know that the Lord from His Divine could induce upon Himself whatever states He pleased, and that He prepared Himself for temptations by inducing many states. Although these things are in obscurity as of night with men, they are nevertheless in clearness as of day with the angels, who being in the light of heaven from the Lord, see in these and similar things innumerable things distinctly, and from the affection flowing in at the time perceive ineffable joy. Hence it is evident how far human understanding and perception fall short of angelic understanding and perception.

AC 2787. Verse 4. On the third day, and Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the place afar off. "On the third day," signifies completeness, and the beginning of sanctification; "and Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw," signifies thought and view from the Divine; "the place afar off," signifies the state which He foresaw.

AC 2788. On the third day. That this signifies completeness, and the beginning of sanctification, is evident from the signification of the "third day." "Day" in the Word signifies state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893); as also does "year," and in general all periods of time; as an "hour," a "day," a "week," a "month," a "year," an "age;" as also "morning," "noon," "evening," and "night;" and "spring," "summer," "autumn," and "winter;" and when "third" is added to these, they signify the end of that state, and at the same time the beginning of the following state. As the Lord‘s sanctification is here treated of, which was effected by temptations, the "third day" signifies completeness, and at the same time the beginning of sanctification, as also follows from what has been already said The reason of this signification is that when the Lord had fulfilled all things He would rise again on the third day; for the things that were done, or that would be done by the Lord when He lived in the world, were in the representatives of the church as if already done (as also they were in the internal sense of the Word); for in God to be and to become are the same; indeed all eternity is present to Him.

[2] Hence the number "three" was representative, not only in the Ancient Church and in the Jewish, but also among various nations. (n. 720, 901, 1825). That this was the origin of the signification of "three," is evident in Hosea:--

Let us return unto Jehovah, for He hath wounded, and He will heal us; He hath smitten, and He will bind us up; after two days He will revive us, on the third day He will raise us up, that we may live before Him (Hosea 6:1, 2);

where the "third day" denotes the Lord’s coming, and His resurrection. And from Jonah, that he "was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights" (Jonah 1:17); concerning which the Lord thus speaks in Matthew:--

As Jonah was in the whale‘s belly three days and three nights, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth (Matthew 12:40).

[3] Be it known that in the internal sense of the Word "three days" and the "third day" signify the same, as also do "three" and "third" in the passages which now follow. In John:--

Jesus said to the Jews, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up He spake of the temple of His body (John 2:19-21; Matt. 26:61; Mark 14:58; 15:29).

[4] That the Lord rose again on the third day is known. For the same reason the Lord distinguished the periods of His life into three, as stated in Luke:--

Go ye and tell that fox, Behold I cast out demons, and perform cures today and to-morrow, and the third day I am perfected (Luke 13:32).

His last temptation also, that of the cross, the Lord endured at the "third hour" of the day (Mark 15:25); and after three hours there came darkness over the whole land, or at the "sixth hour" (Luke 23:44); and after three hours, or at the "ninth hour," the end (Mark 15:33, 34, 37). But on the morning of the "third day" He rose again (Mark 16:1-4; Luke 24:7; Matt. 16:21; 17:22, 23; 20:18, 19; Mark 8:31; 9:31; 10:33, 34; Luke 18:33; 24:46). From all this, and especially from the Lord’s resurrection on the third day, the number "three" was representative and significative, as may be seen from the following passages in the Word:--

When Jehovah came down upon Mount Sinai, He told Moses to sanctify the people to-day and to-morrow, and that they should wash their garments, and be ready against the third day, for on the third day Jehovah would descend (Exod. 19:10, 11, 15, 16).

When they set forth from the mount of Jehovah on a journey of three days, the ark of Jehovah went before them a three days‘ journey to seek out a resting place for them (Num. 10:33).

There was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days, and they saw not one another for three days, but the sons of Israel had light (Exod. 10:22, 23).

[5] The flesh of the sacrifice of a vow, or of a free-will offering, was to be eaten on the first and second day nothing was to be left to the third day, but the remainder was to be burnt, because it was an abomination.

So too with the flesh of the peace-offering; and if it should be eaten on the third day it would not propitiate, but the soul should carry its iniquity (Lev. 7:16-18; 19:6, 7).

He that touched one dead was to purify himself on the third day, and on the seventh day he should be clean otherwise that soul should be cut off from Israel and one that was clean should sprinkle water upon him that was unclean on the third day and on the seventh day (Num. 19:12, 13, 19).

They who slew a person in battle, or touched one that was slain, were to purify themselves on the third day, and on the seventh day (Num. 31:19).

[6] When they came into the land of Canaan the fruit was to be uncircumcised three years, and was not to be eaten (Lev. 19:23).

At the end of three years they were to bring all the tithes of their increase in that year and lay it up in their gates, that the Levite, the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow might eat (Deut. 14:28, 29; 24:12).

Three times in the year they were to keep a feast to Jehovah, and three times in the year every male was to appear before the face of the Lord Jehovih (Exod. 23:14, 17; Deut. 16:16).

Joshua told the people that in three days they should pass over the Jordan and inherit the land (Josh. 1:11; 3:2).

[7] Jehovah called to Samuel three times, and he answered the third time (1 Sam. 3:8).

When Saul wished to kill David, David hid himself in the field till the third evening. Jonathan said to David that he would sound his father on the third day. Jonathan shot three arrows by the side of the stone, and David then fell upon his face to the earth before Jonathan and bowed himself down three times (1 Sam. 20:5, 12, 19, 20, 35, 36, 41).

David was to choose one of three things seven years of famine in the land; or that he should flee before his enemies three months; or a pestilence in the land three days (2 Sam. 24:12, 13).

[8] There was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year (2 Sam. 21:1).

Elijah stretched himself upon the dead child three times and brought him to life (1 Kings 17:21).

When Elijah had built the altar to Jehovah, he told them to pour water upon the burnt-offering and upon the wood three times (1 Kings 18:34).

The fire twice consumed the commanders over fifty, sent to Elijah, but not him that was sent the third time (2 Kings 1:13).

It was a sign to king Hezekiah that they should eat that year what sprung up spontaneously, in the second year the after-growth, but in the third year they should sow, reap, plant vineyards, and eat the fruit of them (2 Kings 19:29).

[9] Daniel entered into his house and had the windows open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, and here three times a day he blessed upon his knees and prayed (Dan. 6:11, 14).

Daniel mourned three weeks of days, eating no pleasant bread, nor drinking wine, nor anointing himself, until the three weeks of days were fulfilled (Dan. 10:2, 3).

Isaiah went naked and barefoot three years, for a sign and a wonder upon Egypt and upon Cush (Isa. 20:3).

Out of the candlestick went forth three branches on each side, and three almond-shaped cups on each branch (Exod. 25:32, 33).

In the Urim and Thummim there were three precious stones in each row (Exod. 28:17-19).

[10] In the new temple there were to be three chambers of the gate on this side and three on that side, and they three should have one measure at the porch of the house the breadth of the gate should be three cubits on this side and three cubits on that side (Ezek. 40:10, 21, 48).

In the New Jerusalem there were to be three gates to the north, three to the east, three to the south, and three to the west (Ezek. 48:31-34; Rev. 21:13).

So in the following passages:--

Peter denied Jesus thrice (Matt. 26:34, 69-75).

The Lord said to Peter three times, "Lovest thou Me?" (John 21:17).

Also in the parable, the man who planted the vineyard sent servants three times, and at length his son (Luke 20:12; Mark 12:2, 4-6).

They who labored in the vineyard were hired at the third hour, the sixth hour, the ninth hour, and the eleventh hour (Matt. 20:1-17).

Because the fig-tree did not bear fruit for three years, it was to be cut down (Luke 13:6, 7).

[11] As a trine and a third were representative, so also was a third part; as that in the meat-offering of fine flour two tenths were mixed with a third part of a hin of oil and the wine for a libation was a third part of a hin (Num. 15:6, 7; Ezek. 46:14).

The prophet Ezekiel was to pass a razor upon his head, and upon his beard, and then divide the hair and burn a third part in the fire, and smite a third with the sword, about it (the city), and scatter a third to the wind (Ezek. 5:1, 2, 11).

In the whole land, two parts were to be cut off and the third was to be left but the third was to be brought through the fire and proved (Zech. 13:8, 9).

[12] When the first angel sounded there came hail and fire mingled with blood, and it fell upon the earth so that a third part of the trees were burnt up. The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea, and a third part of the sea became blood because of which a third part of the creatures in the sea having souls, died, and a third part of the ships were destroyed. The third angel sounded, and there fell a great star from heaven burning like a lamp, and it fell upon a third part of the rivers the name of the star was Wormwood. The fourth angel sounded, and a third part of the sun was smitten, and a third part of the moon, and a third part of the stars, so that a third part of them was darkened, and the day shone not for a third part of it, and the night in like manner (Rev. 8:7-12).

[13]

The four angels were loosed to kill a third part of men (Rev. 9:15).

By these three were the third part of men killed, by the fire, and the smoke, and the brimstone, which proceeded out of the mouth of the horses (Rev. 9:18).

The dragon drew with his tail a third part of the stars of heaven and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:4).

A "third part," however, signifies some, and what is not yet complete; but the "third," and a "trine," what is complete; and this, of evil to the evil, and of good to the good.

AC 2789. And Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw. That this signifies thought and mental view from the Divine, is evident from the signification of the "eyes," as being intelligence (n. 2701); hence to "lift up the eyes" denotes to elevate the intelligence, thus to think; and from the signification of "seeing," as being to view from the Divine, because it is predicated of the Lord.

AC 2790. The place afar off. That this signifies into the state which He foresaw, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (n. 1273-1277, 1376-1381, 2625); and from the signification of "seeing afar off," as being to foresee.

AC 2791. Verse 5. And Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the boy will go yonder, and we will bow ourselves down, and will come again to you. "Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass," signifies the separation of the former rational together with the natural at that time; "and I and the boy will go yonder," signifies the Divine rational in a state of truth prepared for the most grievous and inmost combats of temptations the "boy" is the Divine rational in such a state; "and we will bow ourselves down," signifies submission; "and will come again to you," signifies conjunction afterwards.

AC 2792. Abraham said unto his boys, Abide ye here with the ass. That this signifies the separation of the former rational together with the natural at that time, is evident from the signification of "abiding here," as being to be separated so long; from the signification of the "boys," as being the former rational (n. 2782); and from the signification of the "ass," as being the natural man, or the natural (n. 2781).

AC 2793. And I and the boy will go yonder. That this signifies the Divine rational in a state of truth prepared for the most grievous and inmost combats of temptations, is evident; and that the "boy" is the Divine rational in such a state, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Divine rational; but as he is not here called "Isaac," nor "my son," as before, but "the boy," it denotes the Divine rational in such a state, concerning which presently.

AC 2794. And we will bow ourselves down. That this signifies submission, is evident without explication.

AC 2795. And will come again to you. That this signifies conjunction afterwards, is also evident without explication. As the Lord’s most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of in this chapter, all the states that He assumed when He underwent these temptations are described. The first state is described in (verse 3), the second state in this verse, the third state in the verse next following, and the rest afterwards. But these states cannot be expounded to the common apprehension unless many things are first known, not only respecting the Lord‘s Divine, as here represented by Abraham, but also respecting His Divine Human as represented by Isaac, and respecting the state of this rational when He engaged in and underwent the combats of temptation (this being the "boy"); and also what and of what quality the former rational was, and also the natural which it had; and likewise what the state was when the one was adjoined to the other, and what the state was when they were more or less separated. Moreover many things concerning temptations must be known, as what exterior and interior temptations are, and hence what were the inmost and most grievous temptations the Lord had, and which are treated of in this chapter. So long as these things are unknown, the things contained in this verse cannot possibly be described to the comprehension; and if they should be described, even most clearly, they would still appear obscure. To the angels, who are in the light of heaven from the Lord, all these things are manifest and clear, indeed blessed, because they are most heavenly.

[2] Here we will merely say that the Lord could not be tempted at all when He was in the Divine Itself, for the Divine is infinitely above all temptation; but He could be tempted as to His human. This is the reason why when He was to undergo the most grievous and inmost temptations, He adjoined to Himself the prior human, that is, the rational and the natural of it, as described in (verse 3); and why He afterwards separated Himself from these, as is said in this verse; but nevertheless retaining something by means of which He could be tempted; which is the reason why it is not here said, "Isaac my son," but "the boy," by whom is meant the Divine rational in such a state, namely, in a state of truth, prepared for the most grievous and inmost combats of temptations (n. 2793). That neither the Divine Itself nor the Divine Human could be tempted, must be evident to every one simply from the fact that not even the angels can approach the Divine, much less the spirits who induce temptations, and still less the hells. Hence it is manifest why the Lord came into the world, and put on the human state itself with its infirmity; for thus He could be tempted as to the human, and by means of the temptations subjugate the hells, and reduce each and all things to obedience and into order, and save the human race which had removed itself so far away from the supreme Divine.

AC 2796. As regards the putting on of the various states by the Lord which is here treated of, they cannot but be unknown to man, because he never reflects on his changes of state; which are nevertheless going on continually, both as to what is of the understanding or the thoughts, and as to what is of the will or the affections. The reason of his not reflecting upon them is that he believes that all things in him follow in natural order, and that there is nothing higher which directs; whereas the case is that all things are disposed by means of the spirits and angels with him and all his states and changes of states are therefrom, and are thus to eternity directed by the Lord to ends which the Lord alone foresees. That the reality is so, has become most fully known to me now by the experience of many years. It has also been given to know and observe what spirits and angels were with me, and what states they induced; and this I can solemnly assert--that all states, even to the least particulars, come from this source and are thereby directed by the Lord. It has also been given to know and observe that in every state there are a great many others, which do not appear, and which together appear as one general state; and that these states are disposed in relation to the states which follow in order in their series. With a man these things are done by the Lord; but with the Lord Himself, when He lived in the world, they were done by Himself; because He was Divine, and the very being of His life was Jehovah.

[2] The changes of state with man as to what is of the understanding and as to what is of the will, and the order in which they follow on, as also the series through which they pass, and thus how they are bent by the Lord as far as possible to good, it belongs to the angels to know. The wisdom of the angels is such that they perceive all these things most minutely. Hence it is that these things which are revealed in the internal sense concerning the changes of state with the Lord, are clearly and distinctly perceivable by the angels, because they are in the light of heaven from the Lord; and they are also in some degree intelligible to a man who lives in simple good; but they are merely obscure and as nothing to those who are in evil, and also to those who are in the deliriums of wisdom; for these have obscured and extinguished their natural and rational light by many things which have induced darkness, however much they may believe that they are pre-eminently in light.

AC 2797. Verse 6. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together. "Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering," signifies the merit of righteousness; "and laid it upon Isaac," signifies that it was adjoined to the Divine rational; "and he took in his hand the fire and the knife," signifies the good of love and the truth of faith; "and they went both of them together," signifies unition as far as possible.

AC 2798. Abraham took the wood of the burnt-offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son. That this signifies the merit of righteousness, is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 2784), thus without further explication. That he "laid it upon Isaac" signifies that the merit of righteousness was adjoined to the Divine rational, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord’s Divine rational (often shown before) and from the signification of "laying upon him," as being to adjoin. He is called his "son," because the Lord‘s Divine Human was not only conceived, but was also born of Jehovah. That the Lord was conceived of Jehovah is most fully known from the Word of the Lord; hence He is called the "Son of the Highest," the "Son of God," and the "Only begotten of the Father," in many places (Matt. 2:15; 3:16, 17; 16:13-17; 17:5; 27:43, 54; Mark 1:10; 9:7, 9; 14:61, 62; Luke 1:31, 32, 35; 3:21, 22; 9:35; 10:22; John 1:14, 18, 50; 3:13, 16-18; 5:20-27; 6:69; 9:34, 35, 38; 10:35, 36; 20:30, 31), and in many other places He calls Jehovah His "Father."

[2] That He was born of the virgin Mary is known, yet as another man; but when He was born again, or became Divine, it was from Jehovah who was in Him, and who was Himself as to the very being of life. The unition of the Divine and the Human Essence was effected mutually and reciprocally, so that He united the Divine Essence to the Human and the Human to the Divine (n. 1921, 1999, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2083, 2508, 2523, 2618, 2628, 2632, 2728, 2729). Hence it is evident that the Lord made the Human in Himself Divine by His own power, and thus became righteousness. The merit of righteousness was what was adjoined to the Divine rational when He underwent inmost temptations, and from it He then fought, and against this the evil genii fought, until He glorified this also. These are the things meant in the internal sense by Abraham laying the wood of the burnt-offering upon Isaac his son, and these are what are perceived by the angels when the words are read.

AC 2799. And he took in his hand the fire and the knife. That this signifies the good of love and the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of " fire," as being the good of love (n. 934); and from the signification of a "knife," as being the truth of faith. That the knife used upon the victims in the sacrifices signified the truth of faith, may be seen from the signification of a "sword" or "little sword" in the Word; for instead of "knife" it is said "little sword." Both have the same signification, but with the difference that the knife used for sacrifices signified the truth of faith, but a sword truth combating; and as a knife is rarely mentioned in the Word, for a secret reason to be mentioned presently, we may show what a " sword" signifies. A "sword" in the internal sense signifies the truth of faith combating, and also the vastation of truth; and in the opposite sense falsity combating, and the punishment of falsity.

[2] I. That a "sword" signifies the truth of faith combating, may be seen from the following passages. In David:--

Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O mighty One, prosper in Thy glow and Thy majesty, ride upon the word of truth, and Thy right hand shall teach Thee wonderful things (Ps. 45:3, 4);

where the Lord is treated of, the "sword" denoting truth combating. In the same:--

Let the merciful exult In glory, let them sing upon their beds let the high praises of God be in their throat, and a two-edged sword in their hand (Ps. 149:5, 6).

In Isaiah:--

Jehovah hath called Me from the womb from the bowels of My mother hath He made mention of My name, and He hath made My mouth like a sharp sword, and hath made Me a polished arrow (Isaiah 49:1, 2);

a "sharp sword" denotes truth combating; and a "polished arrow," the truth of doctrine (n. 2686, 2709). In the same:--

Asshur shall fall by the sword not of a man; and the sword not of man shall devour him and he shall flee before the sword, and his young men shall become tributary (Isaiah 31:8);

"Asshur" denotes reasoning in Divine things (n. 119, 1186); the "sword not of a man, and not of man," falsity; the "sword before which he shall flee," truth combating.

[3] In Zechariah:--

Turn you to the stronghold ye prisoners of hope even today do I declare that I will render double unto thee I who have bent Judah for Me as a bow, I have filled Ephraim, and have stirred up thy sons, O Zion. against thy sons, O Javan, and I will make thee as the sword of a mighty man, and Jehovah shall be seen over them, and His arrows shall go forth as the lightning (Zechariah 9:12-14);

the "sword of a mighty man" denotes truth combating. In John:--

In the midst of the seven candlesticks was one like unto the Son of man; He had in His right band seven stars; out of His mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword, and His countenance was as the sun shining in his strength (Rev. 1:13, 16).

Again:--

These things saith He that hath the sharp two-edged sword; I will come unto thee quickly, and will fight against them with the sword of My mouth (Rev. 2:12, 16);

the "sharp two-edged sword" manifestly denotes truth combating, which was therefore represented as a "sword going out of the mouth."

[4] In the same:--

Out of the mouth of Him that sat upon the white horse proceeded a sharp sword, that with it He should smite the nations; and they were slain by the sword of Him that sat upon the horse, which came forth out of His mouth (Rev. 19:15, 21);

where it is manifest that the "sword out of His mouth" is truth combating. That He who sat upon the white horse is the Word, and thus the Lord who is the Word, see (n. 2760-2763). Hence it is that the Lord says in Matthew:--

Think not that I came to send peace on the earth; I came not to send peace, but a sword (Matthew 10:34).

Also in Luke:--

Now he that hath a purse, let him take it, and likewise a wallet; and he that hath none, let him sell his garment, and buy a sword; they said, Lord, behold here are two swords; and Jesus said, It is enough (Luke 22:36-38);

where nothing else is meant by a "sword" than the truth from which and for which they would combat.

[5] In Hosea:--

In that day will I make a covenant for them with the wild beast of the field, and with the fowl of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the ground and I will break the bow, and the sword, and the war out of the land and will make them to lie down securely (Hosea 2:18);

where the Lord’s kingdom is treated of; by "breaking the how, the sword, and the war," is signified that there is no combat there respecting doctrine and truth. In Joshua:--

Joshua lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold there stood a man over against him, and his sword drawn in his hand; and he said to Joshua, I am prince of the army of Jehovah; and Joshua fell on his face to the earth (Joshua 5:13, 14).

This was when Joshua entered with the sons of Israel into the land of Canaan, by which is meant the entrance of the faithful into the Lord‘s kingdom. Truth combating, which is of the church, is the "drawn sword in the hand of the prince of the army of Jehovah."

[6] But that by "little swords" or "knives" is signified the truth of faith, may be seen from the fact that they were used not only in the sacrifices, but also in circumcision. For use in circumcision they were of stone, and were called "little swords of flint," as is manifest in Joshua:--

Jehovah said unto Joshua, Make thee little swords of flint, and circumcise again the sons of Israel the second time. And Joshua made him little swords of flint, and circumcised the sons of Israel at the hill of the foreskins (Joshua 5:2, 3).

That circumcision was a representative of purification from the love of self and the world, may be seen above (n. 2039, 2632); and as this purification is effected by the truths of faith, therefore little swords of flint were used (n. 2039, 2046).

[7] II. That a "sword" signifies the vastation of truth, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

These two things are befallen thee who shall bemoan thee? desolation and destruction, and the famine and the sword; who will comfort thee? Thy sons have fainted, they lie at the head of all the streets (Isaiah 51:19, 20);

"famine" denotes the vastation of good; and the " sword" the vastation of truth; to "lie at the head of all the streets," is to be deprived of all truth. A "street" is truth (n. 2336); and vastation is explained at (n. 301-304, 407, 408, 410, 411). In the same:--

I will number you to the sword, and ye shall all bow down to the slaughter because I called, and ye did not answer I spake, and ye did not hear (Isaiah 65:12).

[8] In the same:--

By fire and by the sword will Jehovah judge all flesh, and the slain of Jehovah shall be many (Isa. 66:16);

the "slain of Jehovah" denote those who are vastated. In Jeremiah:--

Spoilers are come upon all the hillsides in the wilderness, for the sword of Jehovah devoureth from the one end of the land even to the other end of the land no flesh hath peace; they have sown wheat, and have reaped thorns (Jeremiah 12:12, 13);

the "sword of Jehovah" plainly denotes the vastation of truth. In the same:--

They have lied against Jehovah, and said, It is not He, neither shall evil come upon us neither shall we see sword nor famine; and the prophets shall become wind, and the word is not in them (Jeremiah 5:12, 13).

[9] In the same:--

I will visit upon them; the young men shall die by the sword, their sons and their daughters shall die by famine (Jer. 11:22).

In the same:--

When they offer burnt-offering and meat-offering I will not accept them; for I will consume them by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence. And I said, Ah, Lord Jehovih, behold the prophets say unto them, Ye shall not see the sword, and ye shall not have famine (Jer. 14:12, 13).

In the same:--

The city is given into the hand of the Chaldeans that fight against it, because of the sword, and of the famine, and of the pestilence (Jer. 32:24, 36).

In the same:--

I will send the sword, the famine, and the pestilence among them, until they be consumed from off the land that I gave unto them and to their fathers (Jer. 24:10).

[10] In these passages by "the sword, the famine, and the pestilence" vastation is described; by the "sword" the vastation of truth, by the "famine" the vastation of good, and by the "pestilence" a wasting away even to consumption. In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, take thee a sharp sword, a barber’s razor shalt thou take it unto thee, and shalt cause it to pass upon thy head, and upon thy beard and take thee balances to weigh, and divide them. A third part shalt thou burn with fire in the midst of the city a third part thou shalt smite with the sword round about it; and a third part thou shalt scatter to the wind; and I will draw out a sword after them. A third part shall die with the pestilence, and with famine shall they be consumed in the midst of thee and a third part shall fall by the sword round about thee; and a third part I will scatter to every wind, and I will draw out a sword after them (Ezekiel 5:1, 2, 12, 17).

Here the vastation of natural truth is treated of, which is thus described. In the same:--

The sword is without, and the pestilence and the famine within he that is in the field shall die by the sword, and he that is in the city, famine and pestilence shall devour him (Ezek. 7:15).

[11] In the same:--

Say to the land of Israel, Thus said Jehovah, Behold I am against thee, and will draw forth My sword out of its sheath, and will cut off from thee the just and the wicked. Because I will cut off from thee the just and the wicked, therefore shall My sword go forth out of its sheath, it shall not return any more. The word of Jehovah came unto me, saying, Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said Jehovah, Say a sword, a sword, it is sharpened and also furbished it is sharpened to slaughter a slaughter; it Is furbished that it may be as lightning. Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus said the Lord Jehovih to the sons of Ammon, and to their reproach and say thou, A sword, a sword is drawn for the slaughter, it is furbished to devour because of the lightning, whiles they see vanity unto thee, whiles they divine a lie unto thee (Ezek. 21:3-5, 8-10, 28, 29).

Nothing else is here signified by the "sword" than vastation, as is manifest from the particulars in the internal sense.

AC 2799a.

[12] In the same:--

The king of Babel shall break down thy towers with his swords; by reason of the abundance of his horses their dust shall cover thee by reason of the noise of the rider, and of the wheel, and of the chariot, thy walls shall shake with the hoofs of his horses shall he tread down all thy streets (Ezekiel 26:9-11).

What Babel is, may be seen above (n. 1326); and that it vastates (n. 1327). In David:--

If he turn not, God will whet His sword, He will bend His bow, and make it ready (Ps. 7:12).

In Jeremiah:--

I said, Ah Lord Jehovih surely deceiving Thou hath deceived this people and Jerusalem, saying, Ye shall have peace; and the sword hath reached even to the soul (Jeremiah 4:10).

[13] In the same:--

Declare ye in Egypt, and make it to be heard in Migdol, Stand forth and prepare thee, for the sword shall devour round about thee (Jeremiah 46:14).

In the same:--

A sword is upon the Chaldeans, and upon the inhabitants of Babel, and upon her princes, and upon her wise men; a sword is upon her boasters, and they shall be foolish a sword is upon her mighty men, and they shall be dismayed a sword is upon her horses, and upon her chariots, and upon all the mixed multitude that is in the midst of her, and they shall become as women a sword is upon her treasures, and they shall be robbed; a drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up (Jeremiah 50:35-38);

a "sword" manifestly denotes the vastation of truth, for it is said, "a sword is upon the wise men, upon the boasters, upon the mighty men, upon the horses and the chariot, and upon the treasures," and that "drought is upon the waters, and they shall be dried up."

[14] In the same:--

We have given the hand to Egypt, to Asshur, to be satisfied with bread. Servants have ruled over us, there is none to deliver us out of their hand we gat our bread with our lives, because of the sword of the wilderness (Lam. 5:6, 8, 9).

In Hosea:--

He shall not return into the land of Egypt, and Asshur he shall be his King, because they refused to return to Me, and the sword shall hang over his cities, and shall consume his bars, and shall devour them, because of their counsels (Hosea 11:5, 6).

In Amos:--

I have sent among you the pestilence in the way of Egypt, I have slain your young men with the sword, with the captivity of your horses (Amos 4:10);

"in the way of Egypt" denotes the memory-knowledges which vastate, when they reason from them on Divine things; the "captivity of the horses" denotes the intellectual faculty deprived of its endowment.

[15] III. That a "sword" in the opposite sense signifies falsity combating, may be seen in David:--

My soul lieth in the midst of lions, the sons of men are set on fire; their teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword (Ps. 57:4).

In the same:--

Behold they belch out with their mouth, swords are in their lips, for who doth hear? (Psalms 59:7).

In Isaiah:--

Thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre as an abominable branch, as the raiment of the slain, that are thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit, as a carcass trodden under foot (Isaiah 14:19);

where Lucifer is treated of. In Jeremiah:--

In vain have I smitten your sons, they received no correction your own sword hath devoured your prophets, like a destroying lion. O generation, see ye the word of Jehovah: have I been a wilderness unto Israel? (Jeremiah 2:30, 31).

[16] In the same:--

Go not forth into the field, and walk not in the way, for there is the sword of the enemy, terror is on every side (Jeremiah 6:25, 26).

In the same:--

Take the cup of the wine of fury, and cause all the nations to whom I send thee to drink it; and they shall drink, and reel, and be mad because of the sword that I will send among you. Drink ye and be drunken, and spue and fall, and rise no more because of the sword (Jeremiah 25:15, 16, 27).

In the same:--

Go up, ye horses; and rage, ye chariots; let the mighty men go forth: Cush and Put that handle the shield, and the Ludim that handle and bend the bow. For that is a day of the Lord Jehovih of Armies, a day of vengeance; and the sword shall devour, and be satisfied, and shall be drunken with their blood (Jeremiah 46:9, 10).

[17] In Ezekiel:--

They shall strip thee of thy garments, and take the jewels of thy glory, and shall leave thee naked and bare and they shall bring up an assembly against thee and they shall stone thee with stones, and thrust thee through with their swords (Ezekiel 16:39, 40);

where the abominations of Jerusalem are treated of. In Zechariah:--

Woe to the worthless shepherd that leaveth the flock; the sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye; his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened (Zechariah 11:17).

In Hosea:--

Against me have they thought evil; their princes shall fall by the sword, because of the rage of their tongue this shall be their derision in the land of Egypt (Hosea 7:15, 16).

[18] In Luke:--

There shall be great distress upon the land, and wrath unto this people for they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and be led captive among all the nations; and at length Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations (Luke 21:23, 24);

where the Lord is speaking of the consummation of the age; and in the sense of the letter, of the dispersion of the Jews and the destruction of Jerusalem; but in the internal sense, of the let state of the church. By "falling by the edge of the sword," is signified that there is no longer any truth, but mere falsity; by "all nations" are signified evils of every kind, among which they should be led captive; that "nations" are evils may be seen above (n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868); also that "Jerusalem" is the church (n. 2117), which is thus "trodden down."

[19] IV. That a "sword" also signifies the punishment of falsity, is evident in Isaiah:--

In that day Jehovah with His hard, and great, and strong sword, will visit upon leviathan the long serpent, and upon leviathan the crooked serpent, and will slay the whales that are in the sea (Isaiah 27:1);

where those are treated of who by reasonings from sensuous things and from memory-knowledges enter into the mysteries of faith; the "hard and great and strong sword" denotes the punishments of the falsity therefrom.

[20] Where we read that they were "given over to the edge of the sword and slain by it," sometimes both man and woman, boy and old man, ox and herd, and ass, in the internal sense the punishment of the condemnation of falsity is signified (Josh. 6:21; 8:24, 25; 10:28, 30, 37, 39; 11:10-12, 14; 13:22; 19:47; Judges 1:8, 25; 4:15, 16; 18:27; 20:37; 1 Sam. 15:8, 11; 2 Kings 10:25). Hence it was commanded that a city which should worship other gods should be smitten with the sword, be utterly destroyed, and be burnt up with fire, and be a heap forever (Deut. 13:13, 15-17) the "sword" denoting the punishment of falsity; and "fire" the punishment of evil. The angel of Jehovah standing in the way against Balaam with a draw" sword (Numbers. 22:31) signified the truth which resisted the falsity in which Balaam was; and for that reason also he was killed with a sword (Num. 31:8).

[21] That a "sword" in the genuine sense signifies truth combating, and in the opposite sense falsity combating, also the vastation of truth, and the punishment of falsity, has its origin from the representatives in the other life; for when anyone there speaks what he knows to be false, there then immediately come down over his head as it were little swords, and strike terror; and besides, truth combating is represented by things that have a point, like swords; for indeed truth without good is of this nature, but when together with good it has a rounded form and is gentle. From this origin it comes to pass that whenever a "knife," or "spear," or "little sword," or "sword" is mentioned in the Word, to the angels there is suggested truth combating.

[22] But the reason that a knife is seldom mentioned in the Word, is that there are evil spirits in the other life who are called "knifers," at whose side there appear knives hanging for the reason that they have such a brutal nature that they wish to cut every one‘s throat with the knife. Hence it is that " knives" are not mentioned, but "little swords" or "swords;" for as these are used in combats, they suggest the idea of war, and thus of truth combating.

[23] As it was known to the ancients that a little sword, a little lance, and a knife signify truth, the nations to whom this came by tradition were accustomed to pierce and lacerate themselves with little swords, little lances, or knives, at the time of their sacrifices, even to blood; as we read of the priests of Baal:--

The priests of Baal cried with a loud voice, and cut themselves after their manner with swords and little lances, even till the blood gushed out (1 Kings 18:28).

That all the weapons of war in the Word signify things which belong to spiritual combat, and each one something specific, may be seen above (n. 2686).

AC 2800. And they went both of them together. That this signifies unition as far as possible, is evident without explication.

AC 2801. Verse 7. Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood; and where is the lamb for a burnt-offering? "Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I, my soil," signifies a conference of the Lord from love - of the Divine Truth with the Divine Good; the Divine Truth is the "son," and the Divine Good is the "father;" "and he said, Behold the fire and the wood," signifies that love and righteousness are present; "where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?" signifies where are they of the human race who are to be sanctified?

AC 2802. Isaac said unto Abraham his father; and he said, My father; and he said, Here am I my son. That this signifies the Lord conference from love - of the Divine Truth with the Divine Good-is evident from the signification of "Isaac the son," as being the Divine Truth; and from the signification of "Abraham the father," as being the Divine Good; which are treated of in what presently follows; and from the affection that is in these words, as being from love on both sides. Hence it is manifest that it is a conference of the Lord with His Father. That more arcana he hid in these words than can come to human perception, is evident from the fact that the words "he said" occur four times in this verse. It is usual in the Lord, when any new thing is begun, to say, "and he said" (n. 2061, 2238, 2260). The same is evident from the fact that the words are words of love; and when such come to the perception of the celestial angels who are in the inmost sense, they form for themselves from them most celestial ideas; for they form for themselves luminous ideas from the affections in the Word, whereas the spiritual angels do so from the significations of the words and of the things (n. 2157, 2275); and thus from these words, in which there are four distinct periods and affections of love, the celestial angels form such things as can in no wise come down to human apprehension, nor can be put into words; and this with ineffable abundance and variety. Hence we can see what the quality of the Word is in its internal sense, even where it appears simple in the letter, as in this verse.

AC 2803. That the Divine Truth is the "son," and the Divine Good the "father," is evident from the signification of a "son," as being truth (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2633); and of a "father," as being good; and also from the conception and birth of truth, which is from good. Truth cannot be and come forth (existere) from any other source than good, as has been shown many times. That the "son" here is the Divine Truth, sad the "father" the Divine Good, is because the union of the Divine Essence with the Human, and of the Human Essence with the Divine, is the Divine marriage of Good with Truth, and of Truth with Good, from which comes the heavenly marriage; for in Jehovah or the Lord there is nothing but what is infinite; and because infinite, it cannot be apprehended by any idea, except that it is the being and the coming forth (esse et existere) of all good and truth, or is Good itself and Truth itself. Good itself is the "Father," and Truth itself is the "Son." But because as before said there is a Divine marriage of Good and Truth, and of Truth and Good, the Father is in the Son, and the Son is in the Father, as the Lord Himself teaches in John:--

Jesus saith unto Philip, Believest thou not that I am in the Father and the Father in Me? Believe Me that I am in the Father and the Father in Me (John 14:10, 11).

And again in the same Evangelist:--

Jesus said to the Jews, Though ye believe not Me, believe the works; that ye may know and believe that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father (John 10:36, 38).

And again:--

I pray for them for all Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine; and that they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me, and I in Thee (John 17:9, 10, 21).

And again:--

Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him; if God be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself. Father, glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee (John 13:31, 32; 17:1).

[2] From this may be seen the nature of the union of the Divine and the Human in the Lord; namely, that it is mutual sad alternate, or reciprocal; which union is that which is called the Divine Marriage, from which descends the heavenly marriage, which is the Lord’s kingdom itself in the heavens - thus spoken of in John:--

In that day ye shall know that I am in My Father, and ye in Me, and I in you (John 14:20).

And again:--

I pray for them, that they all may be one, as Thou Father art in Me and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us, I in them and Thou in Me; that the love wherewith Thou hast loved Me may be in them, and I in them (John 17:21-23, 26).

That this heavenly marriage is that of good and truth, and of truth and good, may be seen above (n. 2508, 2618, 2728, 2729).

[3] And because the Divine Good cannot be and come forth without the Divine Truth, nor the Divine Truth without the Divine Good, but the one in the other mutually and reciprocally, it is therefore manifest that the Divine Marriage was from eternity; that is, the Son in the Father, and the Father in the Son, as the Lord Himself teaches in John:--

And now O Father, glorify Thou Me with Thyself, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was (John 17:5, 24).

But the Divine Human which was born from eternity was also born in time; and what was born in time, and glorified, is the same. Hence it is that the Lord so often said that He was going to the Father who sent Him; that is, that He was returning to the Father. And in John:--

In the beginning was the Word (the "Word" is the Divine Truth itself), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God the same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, the glory as of the Only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-3, 14; 3:13; 6:62).

AC 2804. And he said, Behold the fire and the wood. That this signifies that love and righteousness were present, is evident from the signification of "fire," as being love (n. 934); and from the signification of "wood for a burnt-offering," as being the merit of righteousness (n. 2784).

AC 2805. Where is the lamb (pecus) for a burnt-offering? That this signifies, Where are they from the human race who are to be sanctified? is evident from the representation of sacrifices, especially of burn-offerings. That burnt-offerings and sacrifices were representative of internal worship, may be seen above (n. 922, 923); that they were made from the flock and from the herd; that when made from the flock, they consisted of lambs, sheep, she-goats, kids, rains, he-goats, and when from the herd, of oxen, bullocks, or calves and that these signified various kinds of celestial and spiritual things (n. 922, 1823, 2180); also that by means of them sanctifications were to be effected (n. 2776). It may be seen from this, that by Isaac‘s inquiry, "Where is the lamb for a burnt-offering?" is signified, Where are they from the human race who are to be sanctified? which is more plainly manifest from what follows, that is, from the answer of Abraham his father, "God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering" (verse 8); by which is signified that the Divine Human will provide those who are to be sanctified. This is also evident from the fact that a rain was afterwards seen behind them, held by the horns in a thicket, which was offered for a burnt-offering (verse 13), by which are signified those of the human race who are of the Lord’s spiritual church. And the same is evident from what follows in (verses 14 to 17).

AC 2806. Verse 8. And Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son: and they went both of them together. "Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son," signifies the reply, that the Divine Human will provide those who are to be sanctified; "and they went both of them together," signifies unition still closer as far as possible.

AC 2807. Abraham said, God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son. That this signifies the reply that the Divine Human will provide those who are to be sanctified, is evident from the signification of "seeing for Himself," when predicated of God, as being to foresee and provide; for "seeing," in the proximate internal sense, is to understand (n. 2150, 2325); in a still more internal sense it is having faith (n. 897, 2325) but in the supreme sense it is foreseeing and providing; and also from the signification of the "lamb for a burnt-offering," as being those from the human race who are to be sanctified (n. 2805). That the spiritual are here meant by the "lamb for a burnt-offering," is manifest from what follows. The beasts for the burnt-offering and sacrifice signified various things a lamb one thing, a sheep another, a kid and a she-goat another, a ram and a he-goat another; so also an ox, a bullock, and a calf, and the young of doves, and turtledoves. That each signified a different thing is plainly evident from its being expressly defined which kind should be sacrificed on the several days, and at each festival; as at expiations, cleansings, inaugurations, and at other times. These kinds would by no means have been so expressly pointed out, unless each one had a special signification.

[2] It is manifest that all the rites or external kinds of worship that existed in the Ancient Church, and afterwards in the Jewish, represented the Lord, and especially the burnt-offerings and sacrifices, because among the Hebrew nation these were the principal things of worship. And because they represented the Lord, they at the same time also represented those things which are the Lord‘s with men, namely, the celestial things of love and the spiritual things of faith, consequently the men themselves who are celestial or spiritual, or who ought to be. Hence it is that by the "lamb" here are signified the spiritual, that is, they who are of the Lord’s spiritual church. That by "God will see for Himself the lamb for a burnt-offering, my son," is signified that the Divine Human will provide, is evident from the fact that it is not here said that " Jehovah" will see, but that "God" will see. When both are named, as in this chapter, by "Jehovah" is then meant the same as by the "Father," and by "God" the same as by the "Son," and thus here the Divine Human; and this because the spiritual man is treated of, who has salvation from the Divine Human, as may be seen above (n. 2661, 2716).

AC 2808. They went both of them together. That this signifies unition still closer as far as possible, is evident without explication. A closer unition is signified because it is said a second time.

AC 2809. Verse 9. And they came to the place which God told him of; and Abraham built there the altar, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. "They came to the place which God told him of," signifies the state at that time according to perception from Divine Truth; "and Abraham built there the altar," signifies the preparation of the Lord‘s Human Divine; "and laid the wood in order," signifies the righteousness that was adjoined to it; "and bound Isaac his son," signifies the state of the Divine rational which was thus, as to truth, about to undergo the last degrees of temptation; "and laid him on the altar upon the wood," signifies in the Human Divine to which the righteousness belonged.

AC 2810. They came to the place which God told him of. That this signifies the state at that time according to perception from Divine Truth, is evident from the signification of "place," as being state (n. 2786); and from the signification of "saying," in the historical parts of the Word, as being to perceive-explained often before. Here "God saying" denotes perceiving from Divine Truth, because it is said "God," and not "Jehovah" (n. 2586, 2807).

AC 2811. And Abraham built there the altar. That this signifies the preparation of the Lord’s Human Divine, is evident from the signification of an "altar," and of "building an altar." "Altars" signified all worship in general, because they were the primary things of the worship of the representative church (n. 921); and as they signified all worship in general, they signified the Lord‘s Divine Human, for the Lord’s Divine Human is all worship and all doctrine; so much so as to be worship itself and doctrine itself; as may be seen also from the Holy Supper, which succeeded to altars, or to burnt-offerings and sacrifices (n. 2165, 2187, 2343, 2359), and which is the primary thing of external worship, because it is the Lord‘s Divine Human which is there given. That to "build an altar" is to prepare the Human Divine, is evident from the above, and thus without explication. The final preparation of the Lord’s Human Divine for undergoing the last degrees of temptation is treated of in this verse, and is described by Abraham laying the wood in order, binding Isaac his son, and placing him on the altar upon the wood.

AC 2812. And he laid the wood in order. That this signifies the righteousness which was adjoined to it, is evident from the signification of the "wood of a burnt-offering," as being the merit of righteousness (n. 2784, 2798); and from the signification of "laying the wood in order upon the altar," as being to adjoin that righteousness to the Human Divine. The merit of righteousness is adjoined when it is there, and when there is confidence from truth that it belongs to Him.

AC 2813. And bound Isaac his son. That this signifies the state of the Divine rational thus about to undergo as to truth the last degrees of temptation, is evident from the signification of "binding," and also of "Isaac his son." That to "bind" is to put on the state for undergoing the last degrees of temptation, is evident from the fact that he who is in a state of temptation is no otherwise than as bound or chained. That "Isaac the son" is the Lord‘s Divine rational, here as to truth, may be seen above (n. 2802, 2803). All the genuine rational consists of good and truth. The Lord’s Divine rational as to good could not suffer, or undergo temptations; for no genius or spirit inducing temptations can come near to Good Divine, as it is above all attempt at temptation. But Truth Divine bound was what could be tempted; for there are fallacies, and still more falsities, which break in upon and thus tempt it; for concerning Truth Divine some idea can be formed, but not concerning Good Divine except by those who have perception, and are celestial angels. It was Truth Divine which was no longer acknowledged when the Lord came into the world, and therefore it was that from which the Lord underwent and endured temptations. Truth Divine in the Lord is what is called the "Son of man," but Good Divine is what is called the "Son of God." Of the "Son of man" the Lord says many times that He was to suffer, but never of the Son of God. That He says this of the Son of man, or of Truth Divine, is evident in Matthew:--

Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be delivered, unto the chief priests and scribes, and they shall condemn Him, and shall deliver Him unto the Gentiles to mock and to scourge, and to crucify (Matthew 20:18, 19).

In the same:--

Jesus said to His disciples, Behold the hour is at hand, and the Son of man is delivered into the hands of sinners (Matthew 26:45).

In Mark:--

Jesus began to teach them that the Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected by the elders, and the chief priests, and the scribes, and be killed, and after three days rise again (Mark 8:31).

In the same:--

It is written of the Son of man, that He shall suffer many things, and be set at nought. And the Son of man shall be delivered into the hands of men, and they shall kill Him; but when He is killed He shall rise again on the third day (Mark 9:12, 31).

In the same:--

Behold we go up to Jerusalem, and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests and the scribes, and they shall condemn Him to death, and shall deliver Him unto the Gentiles, and they shall mock Him, and shall spit upon Him, and shall kill Him, and the third day He shall rise again (Mark 10:33, 34).

In the same:--

The hour is come behold the Son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners (Mark 14:41).

In Luke:--

The Son of man must suffer many things, and be rejected of the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and the third day rise again (Luke 9:22, 44).

In the same:--

We go up to Jerusalem, where all the things that are written by the prophets concerning the Son of man shall be accomplished He shall be delivered up unto the Gentiles, and shall be mocked, and shamefully entreated, and spit upon, and they shall scourge and kill Him, and the third day He shall rise again (Luke 18:31-33).

In the same:--

The angel said to the women, Remember what He spake unto you when He was yet in Galilee, saying that the Son of man must be delivered up into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again (Luke 24:6, 7).

[2] In all these places by the "Son of man" is meant the Lord as to Truth Divine, or as to the Word in its internal sense, which was rejected by the chief priests and scribes, was shamefully entreated, scourged, spit upon, and crucified, as may be clearly evident from the fact that the Jews applied and arrogated everything to themselves according to the letter, and were not willing to know anything about the spiritual sense of the Word, and about the heavenly kingdom, believing that the Messiah was to come to raise up their kingdom above all the kingdoms of the earth, as they also believe at this day. Hence it is manifest that it was Truth Divine which was rejected by them, shamefully treated, scourged, and crucified. Whether you say Truth Divine, or the Lord as to Truth Divine, it is the same; for the Lord is the Truth itself, as He is the Word itself (n. 2011, 2016, 2533).

[3] The Lord‘s rising again on the third day also involves that Truth Divine, or the Word as to the internal sense, as it was understood by the Ancient Church, will be revived in the consummation of the age, which is also the "third day" (n. 1825, 2788) on which account it is said that the Son of man (that is, Truth Divine) will then appear (Matt. 24:30, 37, 39, 44; Mark 13:26; Luke 17:22, 24-26, 30; 21:27, 36).

[4] That the "Son of man" is the Lord as to Truth Divine, is evident from the passages adduced, and further from the following. In Matthew:--

He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man, the field is the world. In the consummation of the age the Son of man shall send forth His angels, and they shall gather out of His kingdom all things that offend (Matthew 13:37, 41, 42);

where the "good seed" is the truth; the "world" is men; "He that soweth the seed" is the Son of man; and the "things that offend" are falsities. In John:--

The multitude said, We have heard out of the Law that the Christ abideth forever; and how sayest Thou that the Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man? Jesus answered them, A little while is the Light with you walk while ye have the Light, that darkness overtake you not; for he that walketh in the darkness knoweth not whither’ he goeth. While ye have the Lift, believe in the Light, that ye may become the sons of Light (John 12:34, 35);

where, when they asked who the Son of man is, Jesus answered concerning the Light, which is the Truth, and that He is the Light or Truth in which they should believe. As regards the Light which is from the Lord, and which is the Divine Truth, see (n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 1619-1632).

[5] But that the Son of God, or the Lord as to Good in His Human Divine could not be tempted, as was said above, this is manifest also from the Lord‘s answer to the tempter, in the Evangelists:--

The tempter said, If Thou art the Son of God cast Thyself down; for it is written, He shall give His angels charge concerning Thee, lest haply Thou dash Thy foot against a stone. Jesus said unto him, It is written again, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God (Matt. 4:6, 7; Luke 4:9-12).

AC 2814. And laid him on the altar upon the wood. That this signifies in the Human Divine to which righteousness belongs, is evident from the signification of an "altar," as being the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 2811); and from the signification of the "wood of a burnt-offering," as being the merit of righteousness (n. 2784, 2798, 2812). The Truth Divine in the Lord‘s Human Divine, which underwent the temptations, and which has been treated of, is not the Divine Truth itself, for this is above all temptation; but it is rational truth, such as the angels have, consisting in the appearances of truth, and is what is called the " Son of man," but before the glorification. But the Divine Truth in the Lord’s glorified Divine Human is above appearances, nor can it possibly come to any understanding, and still less to the apprehension of man, nor even to that of angels, and thus not at all to anything of temptation. It appears in the heavens as light which is from the Lord. Concerning this Divine Truth, or the Son of man glorified, it is thus written in John:--

Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him: if God is glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him (John 13:31, 32).

That a distinct idea may be had of this very deep arcanum, we may call the Truth with the Lord which could be tempted, and which underwent temptations, Truth Divine in the Lord‘s Human Divine; but the Truth which could not be tempted, or undergo any temptation, because it was glorified, the Divine Truth in the Lord’s Divine Human; this distinction has also been observed here and there in what goes before.

AC 2815. Verse 10. And Abraham put forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. "Abraham put forth his hand," signifies temptation even to the utmost of power; "and took the knife," signifies as to truth; "to slay his son," signifies until whatever was from the merely human was dead.

AC 2816. Abraham put forth his hand. That this signifies temptation even to the utmost of power, is evident from the series of things; for the Lord‘s most grievous and inmost temptations are treated of. The verses which proceed treat of the preparation of the Human Divine for admitting and enduring them: here the act is treated of, which is expressed in the sense of the letter by "Abraham put forth his hand." That power is signified by the "hand" may be seen above (n. 878); here the utmost of power, because nothing but the act was wanting. It is according to the internal sense, that the Lord’s Divine led His Human into the most grievous temptations, for by "Abraham" is meant the Lord as to His Divine, and this even to the utmost of power. The truth is that the Lord admitted temptations into Himself in order that He might expel thence all that was merely human, and this until nothing but the Divine remained.

[2] That the Lord admitted temptations into Himself, even the last, which was that of the cross, may be seen from the words of the Lord Himself, in Matthew:--

Jesus began to show the disciples that He must suffer many things, and be killed. Then Peter took Him, and began to rebuke Him, saying, Spare Thyself, Lord; let this not be done unto Thee. But He turned and said unto Peter, Get thee behind Me, Satan; thou art an offense unto Me; for thou savorest not the things that are of God, but those that are of men (Matthew 16:21-23).

And more manifestly in John:--

No one taketh My life from Me, but I lay it down of Myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again (John 10:18).

And in Luke:--

Behooved it not the Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into His glory? (Luke 24:26).

AC 2817. And took the knife. That this signifies as to truth, is evident from the signification of a "knife," as being the truth of faith (n. 2799); and that the Lords temptation was as to Truth Divine, see above (n. 2813, 2814).

AC 2818. To slay his son. That this signifies until whatever was from the merely human was dead, is evident from the internal sense of these words; for they signify the Lord‘s most grievous and inmost temptations, the last of which was that of the cross, in which it is evident that what was merely human also died. This could not be represented by Abraham’s son or Isaac, because to sacrifice sons was an abomination; but it was represented so far as it could be, namely, even to the attempt, hut not to the act. Hence it is evident that by these words, Abraham took the knife to slay his son," is signified until all that was merely human was dead.

[2] That it was known from the most ancient time that the Lord was to come into the world, and was to suffer death, is evident from the fact that the custom prevailed among the Gentiles of sacrificing their sons, believing that they were thus purified, and propitiated to God; in which abominable custom they could not have placed their most important religious observance, unless they had learned from the ancients that the Son of God was to come, who would, as they believed, be made a sacrifice. To this abomination even the sons of Israel were inclined, and Abraham also; for no one is tempted except by that to which he is inclined. That the sons of Jacob were so inclined is evident in the Prophets but lest they should rush into that abomination, it was permitted to institute burnt-offerings and sacrifices (n. 922, 1128, 1241, 1343, 2180).

AC 2819. As regards the Lords temptations in general, some were more external and some more internal; and the more internal they were, the more grievous. The inmost ones are described by the Evangelists (Matt. 26:37-39, 42, 44; 27:46; Mark 14:33-36; 15:34; Luke 22:42-44); but see what has been said before respecting the Lord‘s temptations, namely: That the Lord first contended from goods: and truths which appeared as goods and truths (n. 1661): That the contended against the evils of the love of self and the world from Divine Love toward the whole human race (n. 1690, 1691, 1789, 1812, 1813, 1820). That He alone contended from the Divine Love (n. 1812, 1813): That all the hells fought against the Lord’s love, which was for the salvation of the whole human race (n. 1820): That the Lord endured the most grievous temptations of all (n. 1663, 1668, 1787): That the Lord became righteousness from His own power by means of temptations and victories (n. 1813, 2025): That the union of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence was effected by the Lord by means of temptations and victories (n. 1737, 1813, 1921, 2025, 2026). See also what has been said before concerning temptations in general (n. 59, 63, 227, 847): That temptation is a combat concerning power, as to whether good or evil, truth or falsity, is to reign supreme (n. 1923): That in temptations there are indignations, and many other affections (n. 1917): That temptations are celestial, spiritual, and natural (n. 847): That in temptations the evil genii and spirits assail the things of the love, and thus the things of the man‘s life (n. 847, 1820): What temptations effect (n. 1692, 1717, 1740): That temptation is for the purpose that corporeal things may be subdued (n. 857): That the evils and falsities in a man who is being regenerated are subdued by temptations, not abolished (n. 868): That truth has the first place in combat (n. 1685): That man combats from the goods and truths which he has acquired by knowledges, though they he not in themselves goods and truths (n. 1661): That evil spirits and genii excite the falsities and evils in a man, and hence come temptations (n. 741, 751, 761): That in temptations man thinks that the Lord is absent, whereas He is then more present (n. 840): That man can by no means sustain the combats of temptations of himself, because they are against all the hells (n. 1692): That the Lord alone combats in man (n. 1661, 1692): That by means of temptations evil genii and spirits are deprived of the power of doing evil and inspiring falsity in man (n. 1695, 1717): That temptations come with those who have conscience, and more acute ones with those who have perception (n. 1668): That temptations rarely exist at this day, but in their place anxieties, which are of another character and from another source (n. 762): That men spiritually dead cannot sustain the combats of temptations (n. 270): That all temptations are attended with despair respecting the end (n. 1787, 1820): That after temptations there is fluctuation (n. 848, 857): That the good learn by temptations that they are nothing but evil, and that all things are of mercy (n. 2334): That by temptations goods are conjoined more closely with truths (n. 2272): That men are not save by temptations if they yield in them, nor if they think that they have merited by them (n. 2273): That in every temptation there is freedom, and stronger than out of temptations (n. 1937).

AC 2820. Verse 11. And the angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. "The angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven," signifies consolation at that time from the Divine Itself; "and said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I," signifies a perception of consolation in the Divine Good of the rational after temptation.

AC 2821. The angel of Jehovah called unto him out of heaven. That this signifies consolation from the Divine Itself at that time, is evident from the signification of "calling out of heaven," as being to console; as is also manifest from what immediately precedes and what next follows; and also from the signification of the "angel of Jehovah." That when angels are mentioned in the Word, by them is meant something in the Lord, and that it appears from the series what of the Lord is meant, see (n. 1925). We read in like manner concerning the Lord, that when He sustained the most grievous temptation in Gethsemane, an angel from heaven was seen by Him strengthening Him (Luke 22:43). By the "angel from heaven" here also in the internal sense is meant the Divine which was in Him.

AC 2822. And said, Abraham, Abraham; and he said, Here am I. That this signifies a perception of consolation in the Divine Good of the rational after temptation, is evident from the signification of "saying" in the historical parts of the Word, as being to perceive - explained often before. That it is here perception in the Divine Good of the rational, is because the Divine Good of the rational of the Lord’s Human is here signified by "Abraham." What perception in the Divine Good of the rational is, cannot be unfolded to the apprehension; for before it is unfolded, an idea of the Lord‘s Divine Human must have been formed from knowledge of many things; and before this has been formed, all things belonging to the explication would fall into empty and obscure ideas, which would either pervert the truths or bring them into things incongruous. In this verse the Lord’s first state after temptation is treated of, which is a state of consolation; on which account it is now no longer said "God," but "Jehovah;" for "God" is named when truth is treated of, but "Jehovah" when good is treated of, from which comes consolation (n. 2769). All consolation after temptation is insinuated into good, for from good is all joy and from the good it passes into truth. On this account by "Abraham" is here signified the Divine good of the rational, as in other places also, and also whenever "Jehovah" is named in the same verse.

AC 2823. Verse 12. And He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy, and do not anything unto him; for now I know that thou fearest God, and thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me. "He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy," signifies that He should admit the temptation no further into the Truth Divine which belonged to the rational; "and do not anything unto him," signifies liberation; "for now I know that thou fearest God," signifies glorification from the Divine love; "and hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me," signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by means of the last of temptation.

AC 2824. And He said, Put not forth thine hand upon the boy. That this signifies that He should admit the temptation no further into the Truth Divine which belonged to the rational, is evident from the signification of "putting forth the hand," as being temptation even to the utmost of power (n. 2816), and from the signification of the "boy," that is, of Isaac, as being the rational as to Truth Divine, into which the temptations were admitted (n. 2803, 2813, 2814, 2817).

AC 2825. And do not anything unto him. That this signifies liberation, is evident without explication; for when it is said that he should do nothing to him, it means that the act should be interrupted, and thus that he will be liberated.

AC 2826. For now I know that thou fearest God. That this signifies glorification from the Divine love, is evident from the signification of "knowing," when predicated of the Lord‘s Divine, as being nothing else than to be united, or what is the same, to be glorified; for it was being united to the Human Divine by means of temptations (n. 1737, 1813); and from the signification of "fearing God," or of the "fear of God," as being here the Divine love. And because this is predicated of the Lord’s Divine rational as to truth, it is here said to fear "God," and not "Jehovah;" for when truth is treated of, it is said " God;" but when good, "Jehovah" (n. 2586, 2769, 2822). That the Divine love is that by which the Lord united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence, and the Divine Essence to the Human, or what is the same, glorified Himself, may be seen above (n. 1812, 1813, 2253). What "fearing God" signifies in the Word, may be seen from a great many passages when understood as to the internal sense. The "fear of God" there signifies worship, and indeed worship either from fear, or from the good of faith, or from the good of love; worship from fear when the non-regenerate, worship from the good of faith when the spiritual regenerate, and worship from the good of love when the celestial regenerate are treated of.

[2] I. That the "fear of God" in general signifies worship, is manifest in the book of Kings

The sons of Israel feared other gods, and walked in the statutes of the nations. The nations sent into Samaria feared not Jehovah in the beginning, therefore Jehovah sent lions among them and one of the priests whom they had carried away from Samaria came and dwelt in Bethel, and taught them how they should fear Jehovah. Jehovah made a covenant with the sons of Israel and commanded them, Ye shall not fear other gods, nor bow yourselves to them, nor serve them, nor sacrifice to them but ye shall fear Jehovah, and bow yourselves down unto Him, and sacrifice to Him (2 Kings 17:7, 8, 24, 26, 28, 32, 33, 36, 37, 41);

here "fearing" manifestly denotes worshiping. In Isaiah:--

Because this people have drawn nigh unto Me with their mouth, and have honored Me with their lips, and their heart hath removed itself far from Me, and their fear of Me is a commandment of men which hath been taught (Isaiah 29:13);

where their "fear of Me" denotes worship in general; for it is said that the fear was a commandment of men. In Luke:--

There was in a city a judge who feared not God and regarded not man (Luke 18:2),

"fearing not God" means not worshiping Him.

[3] II. That the "fear of God" signifies worship from fear when the nonregenerate are treated of, is manifest from the following passages in Moses:--

When the Law was promulgated upon Mount Sinai, the people said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear; but let not God speak with us, lest we die. And Moses said unto the people, God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not (Exod. 20:19, 20).

And again:--

Now why shall we die? for this great fire will consume us; if we hear the voice of Jehovah our God any more, then we shall die. Go thou near, and hear all that Jehovah our God shall say and speak thou unto us all that Jehovah our God shall say unto thee and we will hear it, and do it. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Who will give them to have such a heart as this, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments always (Deut. 5:25, 27-29);

here the "fear of God before you that ye sin not, and a heart to fear Me, and keep all My commandments," signifies worship from fear, in respect to them, because such was their quality; for they who are in external worship, and not in internal, are driven to the observance of the law and to obedience by fear; but still they do not come into internal worship or into holy fear (timor sanctus) unless they are in the good of life, and know what is internal, and believe it. In the same:--

If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, to fear this glorious and fearful name, Jehovah thy God, Jehovah will make thy plagues wonderful, and the plagues of thy seed, plagues great and sure, and sore diseases and sure, and He will bring upon thee again all the sickness of Egypt, which thou wast afraid of, and they shall cleave unto thee (Deut. 28:58-60);

here also to "fear the glorious and fearful name of Jehovah God" is to worship from fear; and that this might exist among those of such a character, all evils even to cursings were attributed to Jehovah (n. 592, 2335, 2395, 2447). In Jeremiah:--

Thine own wickedness shall correct thee, and thy backslidings shall reprove thee know therefore and see that it is an evil thing and a bitter that thou hast forsaken Jehovah thy God, and that My fear is not in thee (Jeremiah 2:19).

In Luke:--

I say unto you, Be not afraid of them that kill the body, but after that have no more that they can do; but I will warn you whom ye shall fear; fear Him who after He hath killed, hath power to cast into hell yea, I say unto you, fear Him (Luke 12:4, 5; Matt. 10:28);

here also "fearing God" involves worshiping from some fear, because fear drove them to obedience, as before said.

[4] III. That to "fear God" or Jehovah" signifies worship from the good of faith, where the spiritual regenerate are treated of, is manifest from the following passages. In Moses:--

The king shall write for himself a copy of this law in a book before the priests the Levites, and it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life, that he may learn to fear Jehovah his God, to keep all the words of this law, and these statutes, to do them (Deut. 17:18, 19).

In the internal sense "king" denotes the truth of faith; for royalty represented the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). Hence to "fear Jehovah his God," is to worship Him from the truth of faith; and because this is inseparable from the good of charity, it is described by "keeping the words of the law and the statutes to do them." In Samuel:--

Behold Jehovah hath set a king over you. If ye will fear Jehovah and serve Him, and hearken unto His voice, then shall both ye and the king that reigneth over you be followers of Jehovah your God (1 Sam. 12:13, 14);

here also in the internal sense "fearing Jehovah" denotes worshiping from the good and truth of faith, as before, because a king or royalty is treated of.

[5] In Joshua:--

Now fear Jehovah, and serve Him in integrity and in truth, and put away the gods which your fathers served (Joshua 24:14);

where also to "fear Jehovah" denotes worshiping from good and truth, which is of the spiritual man; for "integrity" is predicated of the good of faith (n. 612), and "truth" of the truth of faith. In Jeremiah:--

They shall be My people, and I will be their God and I will give them one heart, and one way, that they may fear Me forever, for the good of them and of their children after them and I will make an everlasting covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to do them good and I will put My fear in their heart, that they shall not depart from Me (Jeremiah 32:38-40);

that "fearing God" here is worshiping from the good and truth of faith, is evident from the series, and from the use of the words "people" and "God." That those are called "people’ who are in truth, see (n. 1259, 1260); and that "God" is named where truth is treated of, (n. 2586, 2769, 2807). In Isaiah:--

The strong people shall honor Thee, the city of the mighty nations shall fear Thee (Isaiah 25:3);

where "fearing God" also denotes worshiping from spiritual truth, for it is predicated of "people" and "city." That a "city" is doctrinal truth see (n. 402, 2268, 2450, 2451).

[6] In David:--

What man is he that feareth Jehovah? him shall He teach the way that He shall choose (Ps. 25:12);

where the "man that feareth Jehovah" denotes him who worships Him; and that this is said of the spiritual man is manifest from its being said, "him shall He teach the way." That a "way" is truth, see (n. 627, 2333). And again with similar meaning:--

Blessed is every one that feareth Jehovah, that walketh in His ways (Ps. 128:1).

In the same:--

They that fear Jehovah shall glorify Him all the seed of Jacob shall glorify Him, and all the seed of Israel shall stand in awe of Him (Ps. 22:23);

here to "stand in awe of Him" means to worship from the truth of faith; for the "seed of Israel" is the spiritual of the church, or the good and truth of faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610). In Moses:--

Now Israel, what doth Jehovah thy God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve Jehovah thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, to keep the commandments of Jehovah, and His statutes (Deut. 10:12, 13).

Here is described what it is to "fear God," with the spiritual man‘, that is, "Israel;" namely, that it is to walk in the ways of Jehovah, to love Him, to serve Him, and to keep His precepts and His statutes. In John:--

I saw an angel flying in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting Gospel, saying with a great voice, Fear God, and give glory to Him, for the hour of His judgment is come (Rev. 14:6, 7);

here to "fear God" denotes holy worship from the good and truth of faith. In Luke:--

Jesus said to him that was palsied, Arise, take up thy couch, and go unto thy house and amazement took hold upon them all; and they glorified God, and they were filled with fear (Luke 5:24-26);

where "fear" denotes holy fear, such as is that of those who are being initiated into the good of love by the truth of faith.

[7] IV. That to "fear God" or "Jehovah" signifies worship from the good of love, when the celestial regenerate are treated of. In Malachi:--

My covenant was with Levi, of lives and peace and I gave them to him that he might fear, and he feared Me, and for My name was he broken. The law of truth was in his mouth, and unrighteousness was not in his lips he walked with Me in peace and uprightness (Malachi 2:5, 6);

where the Lord is treated of, who here in the internal sense is "Levi;" "Levi" signifies the priesthood, and signifies love; "fear" here denotes the good of Divine love; the "law of truth," truth; and peace and uprightness," both.

[8] In Isaiah:--

There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots and the spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah, and of His scent in the fear of Jehovah (Isaiah 11:1-3);

where also the Lord is treated of. The "spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah" denotes the Divine love of truth; and His "scent in the fear of Jehovah," the Divine love of good.

[9] In David

The precepts of Jehovah are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of Jehovah is pure, enlightening the eyes the fear of Jehovah is clean, standing forever; the judgments of Jehovah are truth, made righteous together (Ps. 19:8, 9);

where "the fear of Jehovah is clean" denotes love; and "the judgments of Jehovah are truth" denotes faith. That "righteousness" is predicated of the good of love, and "judgment" of the truth of faith, see (n. 2235); and these are said to be " made righteous together," when truth becomes good, or when faith becomes charity.

[10] In the same:--

Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him, upon them that wait for His mercy (Ps. 33:18).

And again:--

Jehovah delighteth not in the strength of the horse, He taketh not pleasure in the legs of a man. Jehovah taketh pleasure in them that fear Him, in those that wait for His mercy (Ps. 147:10, 11);

the "strength of the horse" denotes one’s own power of thinking truth. That a "horse" denotes the intellectual faculty, see (n. 2760-2762), the "legs of a man" denote one‘s own power of doing good; "they that fear Jehovah" denote those who worship Him from the love of truth; and "they that wait for His mercy," those who worship from the love of good. Where good is spoken of in the Prophets, so also is truth; and where truth is spoken of, so also is good, on account of the heavenly marriage of good and truth in everything (n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 2713).

[11] In the same:--

Jehovah will bless the house of Israel, He will bless the house of Aaron, He will bless them that fear Jehovah, both small and great (Ps. 115:12, 13);

here "they that fear Jehovah" denote those who worship from the good of faith, which is the "house of Israel," and from the good of love, which is the "house of Aaron;" they are both named on account of the heavenly marriage, as said above, in everything in the Word.

[12] In Isaiah:--

The truth of thy times shall be strength of salvations, wisdom, and knowledge the fear of Jehovah itself a treasure (Isaiah 33:6);

where "wisdom and knowledge" denote the good of faith conjoined with its truth; and the "fear of Jehovah," the good of love. In the same:--

Who is among you that feareth Jehovah, hearkening to the voice of His servant (Isaiah 50:10);

"he that feareth Jehovah" denotes him that worships from love; he that hearkeneth to the voice of His servant," him that worships from faith. When the one is of the other, then there is the heavenly marriage.

[13] From the passages which have been adduced from the Word it is evident that the "fear of God" is worship, either from fear, or from the good of faith, or from the good of love. But the more there is of fear in the worship, the less there is of faith, and the less still of love; and on the other hand, the more of faith there is in the worship, and especially the more there is of love, the less there is of fear. There is indeed a fear within all worship, but under another appearance and another condition, and this is holy fear. But holy fear is not so much the fear of hell and of damnation, as it is of doing or thinking anything against the Lord and against the neighbor, and thus anything against the good of love and the truth of faith. It is an aversion, which is the boundary of the holy of love and the holy of faith on the one side; and as it is not a fear of hell and damnation, as before said, those have it who are in the good of faith; but those have less of it who are in the good of love, that is, who are in the Lord.

[14] V. Therefore to "fear" signifies also to distrust, or not to have faith and love, as in Isaiah:--

Thus saith thy Creator, O Jacob, and thy Former, O Israel, Fear not, for I have redeemed thee I have called thee by thy name, thou art Mine (Isaiah 43:1, 5; 44:8).

In Luke:--

The oath which He sware to our father Abraham, that He would grant unto us, that we being delivered out of the hand of our enemies, might serve Him without fear, in holiness and righteousness before Him (Luke 1:73, 74).

In the same:--

Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom (Luke 12:32).

In Mark:--

Jesus said unto the ruler of the synagogue, Fear not, only believe (Mark 5:36; Luke 8:49, 50).

In the same:--

Jesus said, Why are ye so fearful? how is it that ye have no faith? (Mark 4:40).

In Luke:--

The hairs of your head are all numbered fear not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows (Luke 12:7).

In these passages to "fear" is to distrust, or not to have faith and love.

AC 2827. And thou hast not withheld thy son, thine only one, from Me. That this signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by the utmost of temptation, is evident from the signification of "thy son," namely, Isaac, as being the Divine rational (explained before), or the Divine Human, for this begins in the rational (n. 2106, 2194); which is called the "only one," because it was the only-begotten (n. 2772); and from the signification of "not withholding from Me," as being to cause it to be united, namely, to the Divine Itself. That the unition was effected by the utmost of temptation, is manifest from all that precedes.

AC 2828. Verse 13. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw, and behold a ram behind, caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went, and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son. "Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw," signifies the Lord‘s thought and mental view from the Divine; "and behold a ram," signifies the spiritual from the human race; "behind, caught in a thicket," signifies entangled in natural knowledge; "by his horns," signifies with all power as to the truths of faith. "And Abraham went, and took the ram," signifies their liberation by the Lord’s Divine Human; "and offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son," signifies their sanctification and adoption.

AC 2829. Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw. That this signifies the Lord‘s thought and mental view from the Divine, may be seen above (n. 2789), where are the same words. The thought and mental view from the Divine is concerning all and each of the things that will take place to eternity, with the Divine Providence.

AC 2830. And behold a ram. That this signifies the spiritual from the human race, is evident from the signification of a "ram," as explained in what follows. It is known within the church that the burnt-offerings and sacrifices in the representative Jewish and Israelitish Church signified the Lord’s Divine Human; but the burnt-offerings and sacrifices from lambs signified one thing, those from sheep and she-goats another, and those also from kids, rams, and he-goats, and from oxen, bullocks, and calves, and from turtledoves and the young of pigeons, other things; and in like manner the meat-offerings and libations. In general they signified the Divine celestial, Divine spiritual, and Divine natural things which belong to the Lord; and hence they signified the celestial, spiritual, and natural things which are from Him in His kingdom, consequently in every one who is a kingdom of the Lord; which may also be seen from the Holy Supper, which succeeded the burnt-offerings and sacrifices. The bread and wine therein signify the Lord‘s Divine Human; the bread His Divine celestial, and the wine His Divine spiritual; they consequently signify His love toward the universal human race; and on the other had the love of the human race to the Lord (n. 2343, 2359). Hence it is manifest that the burnt-offerings and sacrifices involved celestial worship from love to the Lord, and spiritual worship from charity toward the neighbor and the derivative faith in the Lord (n. 922, 923, 1823, 2180). What the celestial is, and what the spiritual, or what are the celestial and the spiritual in the Lord’s kingdom or in His church, has been frequently stated (n. 1155, 1577, 1824, 2048, 2088, 2184, 2227, 2669, 2708, 2715).

[2] That a "ram" therefore signifies the Lord‘s Divine spiritual, and consequently the spiritual with man, or what is the same, those of the human race who are spiritual, may be seen from the burnt-offerings and sacrifices made from rams; in that when Aaron and his sons were sanctified to perform the ministry, that is, when they were inaugurated, they were to offer one bullock for sin, the blood of which was to be sprinkled upon the horns of the altar, and the rest poured at the bottom of it; also that one ram was to be killed, and his blood sprinkled round the altar, and then the whole ram was to be burnt for a burnt-offering; and that the blood of the other ram that was killed was to be sprinkled upon the tip of Aaron’s ear, and upon the thumb of his hand and the great toe of his foot; and that after it was waved, it was to be burnt upon the burnt-offering (Exod. 29:1-35; Lev. 8:1-36; 9:2-24). That all these rites were holy is evident; but they were holy from their representing and signifying holy things. Otherwise to slaughter a bullock and to sprinkle his blood upon the horns of the altar and pour the rest at its base, and to slaughter one ram and sprinkle his blood round the altar and then to burn him, and to sprinkle the blood of the other ram upon the tip of Aaron‘s ear and the thumb of his hand and the great toe of his foot, also to wave it, and to burn it upon the burnt-offering - all these things would have had no holiness and thus would have effected no worship unless they had represented holy things. But what each particular represented can be evident to no one except from the internal sense. That the bullock which was for sin signified the Lord’s Divine natural, and the rain His Divine spiritual, and that it signified also those who are spiritual of the human race, may be seen from the signification of a "bullock" and a "ram" in the Word. Inaugurations into the priesthood were made by spiritual things, for by spiritual things a man is introduced into celestial things; or what is the same, by the truths of faith into the good of love. In like manner when Aaron entered into the holy place, he was to offer a bullock for sin, and a ram for a burnt-offering (Lev. 16:2, 3).

[3] That the Nazirite, when the days of his Naziriteship were fulfilled, was to offer a whole lamb a son of a year, for a burnt-offering, and one ewe-lamb a daughter of a year, entire, for sin, and one whole ram for peace-offerings (Num. 6:13-17), was because the Nazirite represented the celestial man, who is a likeness of the Lord (n. 51, 52, 1013). The celestial man is such that he is in celestial love, that is, in love to the Lord, and thence in celestial truth (n. 202, 337, 2069, 2715, 2718); he was therefore to sacrifice a lamb and a ewe-lamb, by which the celestial was signified; and also a ram, by which the spiritual was signified. At the festivals, bullocks, rams, and lambs were sacrificed-as on the first day of the feast of the unleavened bread, two bullocks, one rain, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:18-20). On the day of the firstfruits also, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:26-28). On the new moons, two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Num. 28:11, 12). In the seventh month, on the first of the month, one bullock, one ram, and seven lambs, with their meat-offering. On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, thirteen bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs. (Num. 29:1, 2, 12-14, 17, 18, 20-22, 24, 26-36). The "bullocks" and the "rams" signified spiritual things, but the "lambs" celestial things; for at the feasts they had to be sanctified and introduced by spiritual things.

[4] As "rams" signified the Divine spiritual of the Lord‘s Divine Human, as also the spiritual things with man, therefore where the new temple and New Jerusalem, that is, the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is spoken of, it is said in Ezekiel, that when they had made an end of cleansing the altar there, they were to offer a bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering, and were to offer the goat of the sin-offering every day for seven days, and a bullock and a ram (Ezekiel 43:23-25); and that on this day the prince should prepare the bullock of the sin-offering for all the people, and on the seven days of the feast seven bullocks, and seven rams, with the meat-offering, for a burnt-offering (Ezekiel 45:22-24); and that on the day of the sabbath he should prepare six lambs and a ram (Ezekiel 46:4, 6).

[5] That by the new temple and the New Jerusalem in the universal sense is signified the Lord‘s kingdom, may be seen above (n. 402, 940); in particular the New Church (n. 2117). That there are not burnt-offerings and sacrifices there, may be known to every one, which shows that by these are signified the celestial things of love, and the spiritual things of faith; for these are of the Lord’s kingdom; and thus such things are here signified by "bullocks," " rams," and "lambs." That "bullocks" and "rams" signify spiritual things, is evident from the several particulars in the internal sense; in general from this, that by the "new temple" and the "New Jerusalem" the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom is specifically signified, but by Zion" the celestial kingdom.

[6] That a "ram" signifies that which is spiritual, or what is the same, those who are spiritual, is plain also in Daniel; in that a ram was seen by him standing before the river, which had two horns; afterwards a he-goat of the goats, which smote him, broke his horns, and trampled him down (Daniel 8:3, 4); where nothing else is meant by the "ram" than the spiritual church, and by the "he-goat of the goats" than those who are in faith separated from charity, or in truth separate from good, who by successive steps uplift themselves against good, and at length against the Lord-which is also described. In Samuel:--

Samuel said to Saul, Hath Jehovah as great pleasure in burnt-offerings and sacrifices as in hearkening to the voice of Jehovah? behold to hearken is better than sacrifice, and to obey than the fat of rams (1 Sam. 15:22);

where because obedience is treated of, so is truth, which is spiritual; and these words were said to the king, by whom also is signified truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069). It is not therefore said, "better than the fat of oxen," or of "lambs," but "better than the fat of rams."

[7] In David:--

When Israel went out of Egypt, the house of Jacob from a people of strange language, Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion. The sea saw it, and fled, and the Jordan turned back; the mountains leaped like rams, the hills like the sons of the flock. What aileth thee, O thou sea, that thou fleest? thou Jordan, that thou turnest back? ye mountains, that ye skip like rams? ye hills, like the sons of the flock? Thou travailest, O earth, at the presence of the Lord, at the presence of the God of Jacob who turned the rock into a pool of waters, and the flint into a fountain of waters (Ps. 114:1-8);

here in the internal sense the subject treated of is spiritual good after regeneration, and it is described in respect to its quality; its celestial spiritual by the "mountains leaping like rams;" and its celestial natural by the " hills like the sons of the flock." That "mountains" are the celestial things of love, see (n. 795, 1430). Every one may know that in these, as in the rest of the words of David, there are holy things, but in the internal sense; and that something is signified by the mountains skipping like rams, and the hills like the sons of the flock, and by the earth travailing at the presence of the Lord; which things, without the internal sense, are words of no meaning.

[8] So with these words in Moses:--

He maketh him ride on the high places of the earth, and to eat the increase of the earth, and He maketh him to suck honey out of the rock, and oil out of the flint of the rock butter of kine and milk of the flock, with fat of lambs, and of rams the sons of Bashan, and he-goats with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and of the blood of grapes thou shalt drink unmixed wine (Deut. 32:13, 14);

"rains the sons of Bashan" denotes celestial spiritual things. What celestial spiritual things are, see (n. 1824). In David:--

I will offer unto Thee burnt-offerings of fatlings with the incense of ram, I will offer bullocks with goats (Ps. 66:15);

"burnt-offerings of fatlings" denotes the celestial things of love; and the "incense of rams," the spiritual things of faith.

[9] In Ezekiel:--

Arabia and all the princes of Kedar were the merchants of thy hand: in lambs, in rams, and he-goats (Ezekiel 27:21);

where Tyre is treated of, by which those are signified who are in the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201); "Arabia" denotes their wisdom; the "princes of Kedar," their intelligence; "lambs," celestial things; "rams," spiritual things; and "he-goats," natural things, which follow in order. In Isaiah:--

All the flock of Kedar shall be gathered together unto Thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto Thee; they shall come up with acceptance on Mine altar, and I will adorn the house of My adornment (Isaiah 60:7);

here the Lord’s Divine Human is treated of; the "flock of Kedar" denotes Divine celestial things; and the "rams of Nebaioth," Divine spiritual things. From all this it is now evident that a " ram" in the internal sense signifies the Lord‘s Divine spiritual, and hence the spiritual in men, or what is the same, those of the human race who are spiritual.

AC 2831. Behind, caught in a thicket. That this signifies entangled in natural knowledge, is evident from the signification of being "caught," as here being entangled; and from the signification of a "thicket" or "tangle," as being memory-knowledge - explained in what follows. That the spiritual are held entangled in natural knowledge in regard to the truths of faith, is as follows. The spiritual have not perception of good and truth, as the celestial have, but instead of it conscience formed from the goods and truths of faith which they have imbibed from infancy from their parents and masters, and afterwards from the doctrine of faith into which they were born. They who have no perception of good and truth have to be confirmed by knowledges. Every one forms for himself some idea respecting the things he has learned, and also respecting the goods and truths of faith; for without an idea, nothing remains in the memory otherwise than as an empty thing. Confirmatory things are added thereto, and fill up the idea of the thing, from other knowledges, even from memory-knowledges. The confirmation of the idea itself by many things causes not only that it sticks in the memory, so that it can be called forth into the thought, but also that faith can be insinuated into it.

[2] As regards perception in general, since few know what perception is, this must be declared. There is perception of what is good and true in celestial and spiritual things; there is perception of what is just and equitable in civil life; and there is perception of what is honorable in moral life. As regards the perception of what is good and true in celestial and spiritual things, the interior angels have this perception from the Lord, the men of the Most Ancient Church had it, and the celestial, who are in love to the Lord, have it. These know at once, from a kind of internal observation, whether a thing is good and whether it is true; for this is insinuated by the Lord, because they are conjoined with Him by love. Spiritual men however have no such perception of good and truth in celestial and spiritual things, but instead of it have conscience which dictates but as before said, this conscience is formed from the knowledges of good and truth which they have imbibed from their parents and masters, and afterwards from their own study in doctrine and in the Word; and in these, even though not entirely good and true, they put their faith. Hence it is that men can have conscience from any doctrine whatever; even the Gentiles have something not unlike conscience from their religion.

[3] That the spiritual have no perception of the good and truth of faith, but say and believe that to be true which they have learned and apprehended, is sufficiently evident from the fact that every one says that his own dogma is true, heretics more than others; and that they are not able to see the truth itself, still less to acknowledge it, although thousands of things should declare it. Let every one explore himself and see if he is able to perceive from any other source whether a thing is true; and if when a thing most true is made manifest to him he still does not fail to acknowledge it. As for example, one who makes faith the essential of salvation, and not love: even if all should be read before him which the Lord spoke concerning love and charity (n. 2373), and if he should know from the Word that all the Law and the Prophets hang upon love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, he will nevertheless remain in the idea of faith, and will say that this alone saves. It is otherwise with those who are in celestial and spiritual perception.

[4] As regards the perception of what is just and equitable in civil life however, those in the world who are rational have this, and also the perception of what is honorable in moral life. These two perceptions distinguish one man from another, but by no means do such men for this reason have the perception of the good and truth of faith, because this perception is higher or more internal, and flows in from the Lord through the inmost of the rational.

[5] The reason also why the spiritual have no perception of the good and truth of faith, is that good and truth are not implanted in their will part, as with celestial men, but in their intellectual part (n. 863, 875, 927, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256). Hence it is that the spiritual cannot arrive at the first degree of the light in which the celestial are (n. 2718), but have what is obscure in comparison (n. 1043, 2708, 2715). That the spiritual are entangled in natural memory-knowledge in respect to the truths of faith, follows from this.

[6] That a "thicket" or "tangle" in the internal sense signifies natural memory-knowledge, that is, that knowledge which sticks fast in the exterior memory, may also be seen from other passages in the Word. In Ezekiel:--

Behold, Asshur was a cedar in Lebanon, with beautiful foliage, and a shady grove, and lofty in height, and his branch was among the tangled boughs (Ezekiel 31:3);

where Egypt, which is memory-knowledge, is treated of (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); "Asshur" denotes the rational (n. 119, 1186); which is also the "cedar," and also "Lebanon," in the Word; "among the tangled boughs" means among memory-knowledges, for the human rational is founded on its memory-knowledges.

[7] In the same:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Because thou art exalted in stature, and he hath set his branch among the tangled boughs, and his heart is lifted up in its height, strangers, the violent of the nations, shall cut him down, and cast him out (Ezek. 31:10, 12);

concerning Egypt; to "set the branch among the tangled boughs" denotes sticking fast in memory-knowledges, and regarding spiritual, celestial, and Divine things from them. In the same:--

To the end that none of all the trees by the waters exalt themselves in their stature, neither set their branch among the tangled boughs, nor that all that drink waters stand over them in their height, for they shall all be delivered unto death, to the lower earth in the midst of the sons of man, to them that go down to the pit (Ezek. 31:14);

here those are treated of who by reasonings from memory-knowledges desire to enter into the mysteries of faith. That they are made altogether blind, see (n. 215, 232, 233, 1072, 1911, 2196, 2203, 2568, 2588). To reason from memory-knowledges is to "set the branch among the tangled boughs." In the same:--

She had plants of strength for the scepters of them that bare rule, and her height was exalted among the tangled boughs (Ezek. 19:11);

this has a similar meaning.

[8] In the same:--

The slain of Israel shall be among their idols, round about their altars, and under every green tree, and under every tangled oak (Ezek. 6:13);

this treats of the worship which those form to themselves who have faith in themselves, and thus in the things which they hatch out from their memory-knowledges; the "tangled oak" denotes the memory-knowledges in such a state. That "oaks" are apperceptions from memory-knowledges, see (n. 1442, 1443, 2144). The like is found elsewhere in the same Prophet:--

They saw every high hill, and every tangled tree, and there they sacrificed their sacrifices (Ezek. 20:28);

a "tangled tree" denotes the things which are dictated not by the Word, but by one’s own memory-knowledge. That worship was performed in groves, and was significative according to the qualities of the trees, see (n. 2722).

[9] In Isaiah:--

Wickedness burneth as the fire; it devoureth the briars and thorns, and kindleth in the thickets of the forest (Isa. 9:18);

the "briars and thorns" denote falsity and cupidity; the "thickets of the forest," memory-knowledges. In the same:--

Jehovah Zebaoth shall cut down the thickets of the forest with iron, and Lebanon shall fall by a mighty one (Isaiah 10:34);

the "thickets of the forest" denote memory-knowledges and "Lebanon," things rational. In Jeremiah:--

Set up a standard toward Zion, for I will bring evil from the north, and a great destruction a lion is gone up from his thicket, and a destroyer of nations; he is on his way, he is gone forth from his place, to make thy land a waste thy cities shall be destroyed, without inhabitant (Jeremiah 4:6, 7);

"from his thicket" denotes from memory-knowledge; and that which ascends into Divine arcana from this makes the "land a waste," that is, lays waste the church.

[10] The reason why in the Word memory-knowledges are called "thickets," is that they are comparatively of such a character, especially when the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, and the principles of falsity, seek for them. Celestial and spiritual love is that which disposes into order the knowledges which are of the exterior memory; and the love of self and of the world is that which perverts the order, and disturbs all things in it. These things the man does not take notice of, because he places order in perverted order, good in evil, and truth in falsity. On this account these things are in entanglement; and also on this, that the things of the exterior memory, where these knowledges are, compared with those in the interior memory, where rational things are, are as in a thicket, or as in a dark forest. How shady, opaque, and dark it is there in comparison, a man cannot know so long as he is living in the body; for he then supposes that all wisdom and intelligence are from this source; but he will know in the other life, when he comes into the things of his interior memory. That in the exterior memory, which is proper to man while he is living in the world, nothing is less to be found than the light of intelligence and wisdom; but that all is relatively dark, disorderly, and entangled there, may be seen above (n. 2469-2494).

AC 2832. By his horns. That this signifies with all power in regard to the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of "horns." "Horns" are mentioned in many places in the Word; and there signify the power of truth from good; and in the opposite sense the power of falsity from evil; here the meaning is that the spiritual who are signified by the "ram" are entangled in natural memory-knowledge with all their might in regard to truth, and hence that they are deprived of the power of perceiving truths. For the more anyone consults natural memory-knowledges, and sticks fast in them in his animus and mind in regard to the things which are truths of faith, the more does he lose the light of truth, and with the light, the life of truth. Every one may know this from experience, if he attends and reflects, from those who say that they can believe nothing unless they comprehend that it is so by means of the things of sense, or of memory-knowledge. If you explore their quality, you will find that they believe nothing; and moreover that nothing seems to them more wise than to ascribe everything to nature. There are many also who say that they believe although they do not comprehend; when nevertheless, in secret with themselves, they reason equally as others do from the things of sense and memory-knowledge concerning the truths of faith, as to whether a thing is so. These either have a kind of persuasion breathed in from the love of self and the world, or they do not believe at all. Their quality is manifest from their life. Both classes are indeed in the Lord‘s spiritual church, but they are not of the church. They who are of the church are in a life of good, and have faith in truths; but the spiritual have faith in other truths besides those which have been impressed on them from infancy, and which they have afterwards confirmed to themselves from doctrine or from some other source. Such is the state of the spiritual, which state is here described by the "ram caught in the thicket by his horns" (n. 2831).

[2] That a "horn" signifies the power of truth from good, is evident from the following passages. In David:--

Thou art the glory of their strength, and in Thy good pleasure wilt Thou exalt our horn for our shield belongeth unto Jehovah, and our king to the Holy One of Israel. My truth and My mercy shall be with him, and in My name shall his horn be exalted I will set his hand also in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers (Ps. 89:17, 18, 24, 26);

where "our horn" and "his horn" manifestly denote the power of truth. The Lord’s spiritual kingdom is there treated of; "our king belongs to the Holy One of Israel" denotes that Divine truth belongs to the Lord. That a "king" is truth, and that the Lord‘s royalty is the Divine Truth, see (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069); to "put his hand in the sea, and his right hand in the rivers" denotes that strength is in the memory-knowledges and the knowledges of truth. That the "hand" and the "right hand" denote strength, see (n. 878); and also that the "sea" and the "rivers" denote memory-knowledges and knowledges, (n. 28, 2702). In the same:--

I will love Thee, O Jehovah, my strength; Jehovah is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer, my God, my strong rock in whom I trust, my shield, and the born of my salvation (Ps. 18:1, 2; 2 Sam. 22:2, 3);

the "horn of salvation" denotes truth as to power; in this passage "strength," "rock," "fortress," " God," " strong rock," and "shield," are all significative of the power of truth.

[3] In the same:--

In Zion will I make a horn to bud unto David, I will prepare a lamp for Mine anointed; His enemies will I clothe with shame (Ps. 132:17, 18);

where the Lord is treated of, who is "David" (n. 1888); a "horn" denotes the power of truth; a "lamp," the light of truth. In Samuel:--

My heart hath exulted in Jehovah, my horn is exalted in Jehovah, my mouth is enlarged against mine enemies, because I have been glad in Thy salvation. Jehovah will give strength unto His king, and will exalt the horn of His anointed (1 Sam. 2:1, 10);

this is the prophecy of Hannah; the "horn" denotes the power of truth.

[4] In Moses:--

The firstling of his ox, honor is his, and his horns are the horns of the unicorn with them shall he push the peoples all of them, to the ends of the earth (Deut. 33:17);

this is the prophecy of Moses concerning Joseph, where the "horns of the unicorn" denote the great power of truth, as is manifest also from its being said that he shall "push the peoples with them to the ends of the earth." So too in David:--

My born shalt Thou exalt like the unicorn’s (Ps. 92:10).

And in the same:--

O Jehovah, save me from the mouth of the lion, and answer me from the horns of the unicorn (Ps. 22:21);

Divine truths, from their height, are called the "horns of unicorns;" hence the "horn" is so often said to be "exalted," for exaltation signifies power from the interior. That what is internal is represented by what is high, see (n. 1735, 2148).

[5] In Jeremiah:--

The Lord hath cut off in fierce anger all the horn of Israel, He hath drawn back His right hand from before the enemy (Lam. 2:3);

to "cut off all the horn of Israel" denotes to deprive of truth which has power, which is also to "draw back the right hand from before the enemy." In Ezekiel:--

In that day will I make a horn to grow for the house of Israel, and I will give thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of them (Ezekiel 29:21);

to "make the horn to grow for the house of Israel," denotes to multiply the truths of the spiritual church, which is "Israel;" the "opening of the mouth" denotes the confession of them.

[6] In Habakkuk:--

God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran; His honor covered the heavens, and the earth was full of His praise and His brightness shall be as the light He had horns out of His hand, and there was the hiding of His strength (Habakkuk 3:3, 4);

where the Lord is treated of. That "He had horns out of His hand, and there was the hiding of His strength," plainly denotes the power of truth; that "Mount Paran" is the Divine Spiritual or the Divine Truth of the Lord‘s Human, may be seen above (n. 2714), which also is the "brightness" and the "light."

[7] The Divine Truth of the Lord’s Human is thus described in John:--

I saw and behold in the midst of the throne, and of the four animals, a Lamb standing as if slain, having seven horns, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6);

the "seven horns" denote holy or Divine truths. That "seven" means holy, see (n. 716, 881). The "seven spirits sent forth into all the earth," are the holy preachings of the same truths.

[8] The "horns of the altars" signified nothing else than truth in which is power. Of these it is said in Moses:--

Thou shalt make horns upon the four corners of the altar out of it shall its horns be (Exod. 27:2; 38:2).

So too upon the altar of incense, out of which were to be horns (Exod. 30:2; 37:25). That the altar was a principal representative of the Lord and of His worship, see (n. 921). The altar was a representative of His Divine Good; the horns were the representatives of His Divine Truth; that truth was from good was represented by the horns being out of it, or out of the altar. That there is no other truth than that which is from good, see (n. 654, 1162, 1176, 1608, 2063, 2261, 2429). It is manifest from this that "horns" in the genuine sense signify the power of truth which is from good.

[9] That Aaron and his sons when initiated in the ministry, took of the blood of the bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar with the finger (Exod. 29:12; Lev. 8:15); and that Aaron made expiation upon the horns of the altar once in the year (Exod. 30:10); and that when a priest sinned, he offered a bullock, and put of the blood upon the horns of the altar of incense (Lev. 4:3, 7); also that when a prince sinned, he offered a burnt-offering, and the blood was sprinkled upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering (Lev. 4:22, 25); and that it was the same when a soul sinned (Leviticus 4:27, 30, 34); as also when the altar was expiated (Lev. 16:18, 19)-all these things signified truths from good; for all sanctifications, inaugurations, and expiations were made by truths, because truths introduce to good (n. 2830). That the "horns of the altar" signified truths which are from good, may also be seen in John:--

The sixth angel sounded, and I heard a voice from the four horns of the golden altar which is before God (Rev. 9:13);

the "horns of the golden altar" manifestly denote truths from good, for thence came the voice. That "gold" is good, see (n. 113, 1551, 1552); and still more the "golden altar".

[10] In Amos:--

In the day that I shall visit the transgressions of Israel upon him, I will visit upon the altars of Bethel, and the horns of the altar shall be cut off, and shall fall to the ground (Amos 3:14);

that the "horns of the altar were to be cut off," was because truth from good was no longer represented there; "Bethel" is the Divine Good, and is therefore called the "king‘s sanctuary," and the "house of the kingdom" (Amos 7:13). The kings being "anointed with oil from a horn" (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39) represented in like manner truth from good. The "oil" was good, (n. 886); but the "born," truth; the "royalty" itself in the internal sense is such truth, (n. 1728, 2015), in which is power).

[11] That a "horn" in the opposite sense signifies the power of falsity which is from evil, is evident from the following passages. In Amos:--

Ye who rejoice in a thing of naught, who say, Have we not taken to us horns by our own strength? (Amos 6:13);

"horns" here denote the power of falsity. In Zechariah:--

I lifted up mine eyes and saw, and behold four horns; and I said unto the angel that talked with me, What are these? And he said to me, These are the horns which have scattered Judah; Israel, and Jerusalem. And Jehovah showed me four smiths and I said, What come these to do? and He said, saying, These are the horns which scattered Judah, so that no man doth lift up his head and these are come to terrify them, to cast down the horns of the nations, which lifted up their horn against the land of Judah, to scatter it (Zechariah 1:18-21);

the "horns" denote the power of falsity, which vastates the church. In Ezekiel:--

Ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push all the diseased with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezekiel 34:21);

here the shepherds who seduce by falsities are treated of; the "horns" denote the power of falsity; the "shoulder," all power (n. 1085). In Jeremiah:--

Jehovah hath destroyed, and hath not pitied, and He hath caused the enemy to rejoice over thee He hath exalted the horn of thine adversaries (Lam. 2:17).

In the same:--

The horn of Moab is cut off, and his arm is broken (Jer. 48:25);

"horn" here denotes powerful falsity.

[12] In David:--

I said to them that were glorying, Glory ye not, and to the wicked, Lift not up the horn; lift not up your horn on high, speak not with a stiff neck. All the horns of the wicked will I cut off, the horns of the righteous shall be lifted up (Ps. 75:4, 5, 10);

the "horns of the wicked" denote the power of falsity from evil; the "horns of the righteous," the power of truth from good.

[13] In Daniel:--

A fourth beast was seen, terrible and powerful and strong exceedingly, and it had iron teeth; it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet, and it had ten horns. I considered the horns, and behold another little horn came up among them, and three of the first horns were rooted up before it; and behold in this horn were eyes like the eyes of a man, and a mouth speaking great things I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the born spake I desired certitude concerning the fourth beast, and concerning the ten horns that were on his head, and concerning the other which came up, and three fell before it; and concerning the same horn that had eyes, and a mouth speaking great things; I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints. And he said, As for the fourth beast, it shall be a fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be diverse from all the kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. And as for the ten horns, out of this kingdom shall ten kings arise, and another shall arise after them, and he shall be diverse from the former ones, and he shall humble three kings; he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints; afterwards the judgment shall sit (Daniel 7:7, 8, 11, 19-26).

Here in the internal sense the perverted state of the church is treated of. The things which were here seen by Daniel, as the beast, the teeth of iron, the horn in which were eyes, and the horns that spoke, and those which made war with the saints, and that which spoke against the Most High, signify the state of falsity and of heresies within the church. That "horns" signify falsity powerful and prevailing, is evident from the mere fact that eyes are attributed to them, that is, understanding (n. 2701); and that they spoke, even against the Most High. By the "kingdoms" and "kings" are not signified kingdoms and kings, but doctrinal things O, falsity; as may be seen from their signification in the Word as being doctrinal things of truth, and in the opposite sense of falsity (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 2547).

[14] Again in Daniel:--

A ram was seen by him standing before the river, which had two horns; and the horns were high, but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. I saw the ram pushing with his horn westward, and northward, and southward, so that no beasts could stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and magnified himself. As I was considering, behold a be-goat of the goats came from the west over the face of the whole earth; this he-goat had a horn between his two eyes; he came to the ram the lord of the horns, and ran upon him In the fury of his power, and note him, and brake his two horns; and there was no power in the ram to stand before him. Afterwards the he-goat of the goats magnified himself exceedingly and when he was strong, his great horn was broken, and there came up four horns in place of it. Soon out of one of them went forth a little horn, and grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward beauty and it grew even to the army of the heavens, and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them. The ram with the two horns, they are the kings of Media and Persia; the he-goat is the king of Greece; the four horns in place of one are four kingdoms out of the nation (Daniel 8:1-27).

Here in the spiritual sense the state of the spiritual church is treated of, which is the " ram" (n. 2830); and the state of that church is described, how it gradually declines and is perverted. The "he-goat of the goats" denotes those who are in faith separate from charity, or in truth separate from good, who begin to uplift themselves against good, and at length against the Lord. The "horns of the ram" are the truths of the spiritual church both internal and external; the "horns of the he-goat of the goats" are truths which have gradually degenerated into falsities; and by the "kingdoms" and "kings" here mentioned are not signified kingdoms and kings, but truths and falsities, as already said; for the Lord’s Word in its essence does not treat of worldly and earthly, but of spiritual and heavenly things.

[15] In John:--

And there was seen another sign in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads, and ten horns, and upon his heads seven diadems; his tail drew a third part of the stars of heaven, and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:3, 4).

And again:--

I saw a beast coming up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and on his horns ten diadems, and upon his heads names of blasphemy. It was given unto him to make war with the saints, and to overcome them. And then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth, and he had two horns like a lamb (Rev. 13:1, 2, 7, 11).

Again in the same:--

I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet colored beast, full of names of blasphemy having seven heads and ten horns; it was the great Babylon. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth and they are seven kings; the ten horns are ten kings (Rev. 17:3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13).

That by the "horns" here in like manner as in Daniel are signified the powers of falsity, is evident.

AC 2833. And Abraham went, and took the ram. That this signifies their liberation by the Lord‘s Divine Human, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being here the Lord as to His Divine Human (for when Jehovah, or the angel of Jehovah, speaks with Abraham, then "Jehovah," or the "angel of Jehovah," is the Divine Itself, and "Abraham" is the Divine Human); and also from the signification of a "ram," as being the spiritual (n. 2830). It is hence manifest that Abraham’s going and taking the ram caught in the thicket by his horns, signifies the liberation of the spiritual by the Lord‘s Divine Human. That without the Lord’s coming into the world the spiritual could not possibly have been saved, see (n. 2661, 2716); and that they have salvation and liberation by the Lord‘s Divine Human, (n. 2716).

AC 2834. And offered him up for a burnt-offering in the stead of his son That this signifies their sanctification and adoration, is evident from the signification of "offering for a burnt-offering," as being to be sanctified (n. 2776), and from the signification of "in the stead of his son," as being adoption, namely, by the Lord’s Divine Human, which here is "Abraham" (n. 2833). The adoption of the spiritual is described in John:--

Jesus said, I am the vine, ye are the branches he that abideth in Me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit; for without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).

That a "vine" is the spiritual church, see (n. 1069).

AC 2835. Verse 14. And Abraham called the name of that place, Jehovah-will-see, as it is said to this day, In the mountain Jehovah will see. "And Abraham called the name of that place," signifies the quality of their state from the Lord‘s Divine Human; "Jehovah-will-see," signifies the Lord’s providence; "as it is said to this day," signifies what is perpetual; "in the mountain Jehovah will see," signifies charity, by means of which it was provided by the Lord that they should be saved.

AC 2836. Abraham called the name of that place. That this signifies the quality of their state (namely, of the spiritual) from the Lord‘s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," as being to know what the thing is, that is, its quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009); from the signification of " place," as being state (n. 1273-1277, 1376-1381, 2625); and from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord as to His Divine Human (n. 2833). Hence it is manifest that "Abraham called the name of that place," signifies the quality of the state of the spiritual from the Lord’s Divine Human. That the spiritual are saved by the Lord‘s coming into the world, see (n. 2661, 2716); also that they have illumination from the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 2716); and that it is provided that those should be saved who are in the faith of charity, that is, in charity, follows in this verse. This is the state which is signified by these words.

AC 2837. Jehovah-will-see. That this signifies the Lord‘s providence, is evident from the signification of "seeing," when predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, as being to foresee and provide (n. 2807). That "Jehovah" is the Lord, see (n. 1343, 1736, 2156, 2329). In the literal sense this is the naming of a place, but in the internal sense it is the quality of a state which is described; for times and spaces are merely of nature; and therefore when the sense of the letter of the Word passes from nature into heaven, the natural idea of those things altogether perishes, and becomes the spiritual idea that corresponds to them.

AC 2838. As it is said to this day. That this signifies what is perpetual, is evident from the signification of "today" in the Word explained in what follows. We read in several places in the Word, "Even to this day," or "to to-day;" as in what goes before, "He is the father of Moab even unto this day; and the father of Ammon unto this day" (Gen. 19:37, 38); and later in the same book, "The name of the city is Beer-sheba, even to this day" (Gen. 26:33). Also this, "The sons of Israel eat not the sinew of the part put out of place, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, even to this day" (Gen. 32:32). And also this, "This is the pillar of Rachel’s grave even unto this day" (Gen. 35:20). "Joseph made it a statute even to this day" (Gen. 47:26). In the historical sense these things regard the time when Moses lived; but in the internal sense by "this day," and by "to-day," there is signified perpetuity and eternity of state. That "day" is state may be seen above (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893); and thus "to-day" also, which is time present. That which is of time in the world, is eternal in heaven. That this might be signified, "to-day" is added, or "to this day," although it appears to those who are in the historical sense as if it involved nothing further. The like is said elsewhere in the Word (Josh. 4:9; 6:25; 7:26; Judges 1:21, 26).

[2] That "to-day" signifies perpetuity and eternity may be seen in David:--

I will tell of the decree: Jehovah hath said unto Me, Thou art My Son, this day have I begotten Thee (Ps. 2:7);

where "this day" manifestly denotes what is eternal. In the same:--

Forever O Jehovah Thy Word is settled in the heavens, Thy truth is unto generation and generation; Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth they abide this day according to Thy judgments (Ps. 119:89-91);

where also "this day" manifestly denotes what is eternal. In Jeremiah:--

Before I formed Thee in the belly, I knew Thee and before Thou camest forth out of the womb, I sanctified Thee; I gave Thee for a prophet unto the nations I have set Thee this day over the nations and over the kingdoms, and I have made Thee this day a defenced city, and an iron pillar, and walls of brass (Jeremiah 1:5, 10, 18);

here in the sense of the letter Jeremiah is treated of, but in the internal sense the Lord is meant; "I have set Thee this day, or today, over the nations and over the kingdoms, and I have made Thee this day a defenced city," means that it was from eternity. Of the Lord nothing else than what is eternal can be predicated.

[3] In Moses:--

Ye are standing this day all of you before Jehovah your God, to enter into the covenant of Jehovah thy God, and into His oath, which Jehovah thy God maketh with thee this day, that He may establish thee this day unto Himself for a people; and He will be a God unto thee; and not with you only, but with them who stand here with us this day before Jehovah our God, and with them who are not with us this day (Deut. 29:10, 12-14).

In the sense of the letter here "this day" is the time present when Moses spoke to the people; but that it nevertheless involves the time to come and what is perpetual, is evident; for to make a covenant with anyone, and with those who were there, and not there, involves perpetuity, and the perpetuity itself is what is meant in the internal sense.

[4] That "daily" and "this day" signify what is perpetual, is also evident from the sacrifice which was made every day. This, on account of the signification of "day," "daily," and "this day," was called the continual or perpetual sacrifice (Num. 28:3, 23; Deut. 8:13; 11:31; 12:11). This is still more plainly evident from the manna which rained from heaven, of which it is thus said in Moses:--Behold I will rain bread from heaven; and the people shall go out and gather a portion day by day; and let no man leave of it till the morning. What they left till the morning bred worms, and putrefied, except what was kept the day before the Sabbath (Exod. 16:4, 19, 20, 23). This was because the manna signified the Lord‘s Divine Human (John 6:31, 32, 49, 50, 58). And because it signified the Lord’s Divine Human, it signified heavenly food, which is nothing else than love and charity together with the goods and truths of faith. This food is given by the Lord in the heavens to the angels every moment, and thus perpetually and to eternity (n. 2493). This also is what is meant in the Lord‘s Prayer by "Give us this day our daily bread" (Matt. 6:11; Luke 11:3); that is, every instant to eternity.

AC 2839. In the mountain Jehovah will see. That this signifies charity, by means of which it is provided by the Lord that they should be saved, namely, the spiritual, is evident from the signification of a "mountain," as being love and charity (n. 795, 796, 1430). That "Jehovah will see" denotes the Lord’s providence or what is provided by the Lord, was said just above (n. 2837). Here charity is spoken of, and not love, on account of the difference between charity and love (n. 2023). That the spiritual are saved by charity, and not by faith separate from charity, is evident from many passages in the Word. With charity and with faith the case is this: charity without faith is not genuine charity, and faith without charity is not faith. That there may be charity, there must be faith; and that there may be faith, there must be charity; but the essential itself is charity; for in no other ground can the seed which is faith be implanted. From the conjunction of the two mutually and reciprocally is the heavenly marriage, that is, the Lord‘s kingdom. Unless faith is implanted in charity it is mere memory-knowledge; for it goes no further than the memory; there is no affection of the heart which receives it; but when it is implanted in charity, that is, in the life, it becomes intelligence and wisdom. Charity without faith, such as is with children and with upright Gentiles, is only ground in which faith is implanted-if not in the life of the body, still in the other life (n. 1802, 2280, 2290-2309, 2419, 2589-2604).

AC 2840. Verses 15, 16. And the angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven, and said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only one. "The angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven," signifies still greater consolation of the Lord from the Divine; "and said, My Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah," signifies irrevocable confirmation from the Divine "because thou hast done this thing," signifies the thing accomplished; "and hast not kept back thy son, thine only one," signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by the utmost of temptation.

AC 2841. The Angel of Jehovah called unto Abraham a second time out of heaven. That this signifies still greater consolation of the Lord, is evident from the signification of "calling out of heaven," as being to console and from the signification of the "angel of Jehovah," as being the Lord’s Divine Itself (n. 2821). This is said a "second time," because there is greater consolation. The first consolation is contained in (verses 12, 13, 14), where the subject is the Lord‘s providence that those from the human race who are called the spiritual should be adopted. The second consolation, which is greater, is contained in the (verses 17, 18), namely, that the spiritual should be multiplied as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand upon the sea shore; and that not they only should be saved, but also all who are in good. These were things of the Lord’s love, and therefore He had consolation from them. No one has consolation except from the things which are of his love.

AC 2842. And said, By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah. That this signifies irrevocable confirmation from the Divine, namely, concerning the things which follow, is evident from the signification of "saying by Myself have I sworn," and of "saith Jehovah;" all which involve confirmation, and indeed from the Divine, that is, from Himself. The Divine cannot confirm from any other source than from Itself; and what it confirms is irrevocable, because it is eternal truth. Whatever Jehovah or the Lord speaks is eternal truth (Matt. 24:35), for it comes from the very being of truth. But His confirming it as it were by an oath is not for the reason that it may be more true, but for the reason that it is said to such as do not receive truth Divine unless it is so confirmed; for they have no other idea of Jehovah or the Lord than as of a man, who can say, and change, as we frequently read in the Word; but in the internal sense it is very different. Every one may know that Jehovah or the Lord never confirms anything by an oath; but when the Divine truth itself, and its confirmation, passes down to a man of such nature, it is turned into the semblance of an oath. The case herein is as it was with the devouring fire and smoke that appeared upon Mount Sinai before the eyes of the people, when Jehovah or the Lord came down (Exod. 19:18; Deut. 4:11, 12; 5:19-21): His glory in heaven, even mercy itself, appeared in this manner before the people there, who were in evil and falsity (n. 1861); and the case is the same with many things called the sayings and doings of Jehovah that are spoken of in the Word. It may be seen from this that the expression, "by Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah," is significative of irrevocable confirmation from the Divine.

[2] That to "swear," when predicated of Jehovah, signifies to confirm with a man who is of such nature, may be seen from many other passages in the Word; as in David:--

Jehovah remembered His covenant forever, the word which He commanded to a thousand generations; which He made with Abraham, and His oath unto Isaac (Ps. 105:8, 9).

The case is the same with a covenant as with an oath, in that Jehovah or the Lord does not make a covenant with man, but when conjunction by love and charity is treated of, this is set forth in act as a covenant (n. 1864). In the same:--

Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a Priest forever, after the manner of Melchizedek (Ps. 110:4).

This is said concerning the Lord, and "Jehovah hath sworn" denotes irrevocable confirmation from the Divine, that is, that it is eternal truth.

[3] In the same:--

I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn unto David My servant, Thy seed will I establish forever, and build up thy throne to generation and generation (Ps. 89:3, 4).

This also is concerning the Lord: to "make a covenant with the chosen," and to "swear unto David," denote irrevocable confirmation or eternal truth; "David" denotes the Lord (n. 1888); to "make a covenant" regards the Divine good; to "swear," the Divine truth. In the same:--

My covenant will I not profane nor alter the thing that is gone out of My lips; once have I sworn by My holiness, I will not lie unto David (Ps. 89:34, 35);

where also "David" denotes the Lord; the "covenant" here likewise has regard to the Divine good; and the "thing that has gone out of My lips," to the Divine truth, and this on account of the marriage of good and truth which is in everything in the Word (n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712).

[4] In the same:--

Jehovah hath sworn unto David in truth, He will not turn from it, Of the fruit of thy body will I set upon thy throne, if thy sons will keep My covenant, and My testimony that I shall teach them (Ps. 132:11, 12);

"Jehovah hath sworn unto David in truth" manifestly denotes the confirmation of eternal truth; and therefore it is said, "He will not turn from it; "that by David is meant the Lord has been stated already; the oath was still "to David," because he was of such a character that he believed that the confirmation was concerning himself and his posterity; for David was in the love of himself and of his posterity, and hence believed that it was concerning him; that is, as said above, that his seed should be established forever, and his throne to generation and generation; but this was said of the Lord.

[5] In Isaiah:--

This is as the waters of Noah unto Me for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee (Isaiah 54:9);

where to "swear" denotes making a covenant and confirming it by an oath. That it was a covenant, and not an oath, may be seen in (Genesis 9:11). In the same:--

Jehovah hath sworn, saying, Surely as I have thought, so shall it come to pass (Isaiah 14:24).

In the same:--

Jehovah hath sworn by His right hand, and by the arm of His strength (Isaiah 62:8).

In Jeremiah:--

Hear ye the word of Jehovah, all Judah, that dwell in the land of Egypt; behold I have sworn by My great name, saith Jehovah, that My name shall no more be named in the mouth of any man of Judah, saying, As the Lord Jehovih liveth, in all the land of Egypt (Jeremiah 44:26).

In the same:--

By Myself have I sworn, saith Jehovah, that Bozrah shall become a desolation (Jeremiah 49:13).

In the same:--

Jehovah Zebaoth hath sworn by His soul, Surely I will fill thee with men as with the locust (Jeremiah 51:14).

In Amos:--

The Lord Jehovih hath sworn by His holiness, that behold the days shall come (Amos 4:2).

In the same:--

Jehovah hath sworn by the excellency of Jacob, Surely I will never forget any of their deeds (Amos 8:7).

[6] In these passages, "Jehovah swearing by His right hand," by His great name," by " Himself," by His "soul," by His "holiness," by the "excellency of Jacob," signifies the confirmation there is in Jehovah or the Lord. A confirmation by Jehovah can be given only from Himself. The "right hand of Jehovah," the "great name of Jehovah," the "soul of Jehovah," the "holiness of Jehovah," the "excellency of Jacob," signify the Lord‘s Divine Human: "swearing" thereby was confirmation.

[7] Jehovah or the Lord "swearing" to give the land to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or to their posterity, signifies in the internal sense the confirmation that He would give the heavenly kingdom to those who are in love to Him and faith in Him. It is they who are meant in the internal sense of the Word by the sons and the posterity of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, or of the fathers; which was also actually represented by the fact that the land of Canaan was given to their posterity, and that the church at that time with them represented the Lord’s heavenly kingdom, as the land itself also did. That "land" and the "land of Canaan" in the internal sense is the Lord‘s kingdom, see (n. 1413, 1437, 1607). It is from this that it is said in Moses:--

That ye may prolong your days upon the ground which Jehovah sware unto your fathers, to give unto them, and to their seed, a land flowing with milk and honey that your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, upon the ground which Jehovah sware unto your fathers, to give them, as the days of the heavens upon the earth (Deut. 11:9, 21).

From these passages it must now be evident that Jehovah’s "swearing" was representative of confirmation, and indeed of an irrevocable one. This is still more plainly manifest in Isaiah:--

By Myself have I sworn, the word of righteousness is gone forth from My mouth, and shall not return, that to Me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear (Isaiah 45:23).

[8] Moreover it was enjoined upon those who were of the representative Jewish Church, that when they confirmed covenants by an oath, and likewise vows, also promises, and sureties, they should "swear by the name of Jehovah." The reason why this was enjoined upon them, although it was only permitted, was that the confirmation of the internal man also would thus be represented; so that oaths at that time in the name of Jehovah, were as other things were, namely, representative. That it was enjoined, that is, permitted, is evident in Moses:--

Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, and Him shall thou serve, and shalt swear by His name ye shall not go after other gods (Deut. 6:13, 14).

Again in the same:--

Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God, Him shalt thou serve and to Him shalt thou cleave, and shalt swear by His name (Deut. 10:20).

In Isaiah:--

He who blesseth himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth, and he that sweareth in the earth shall swear by the God of truth (Isaiah 65:16).

In Jeremiah:--

If thou wilt return, O Israel, saith Jehovah, unto Me shall thou return; and if thou wilt put away thine abominations from before Me, waver not; and thou shalt swear, Jehovah liveth, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness (Jeremiah 4:1, 2).

In the same:--

If learning they will learn the ways of My people, to swear by My name, then they shall be built up in the midst of My people (Jeremiah 12:16).

That they also swore "by the name of Jehovah," or swore "to Jehovah," may be seen in Isaiah:--

Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, that are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, that swear by the name of Jehovah, and have made mention of the God of Israel, not in truth, and not in righteousness (Isaiah 48:1).

In the same:--

In that day there shall be five cities in the land of Egypt that speak the language of Canaan, and swear to Jehovah Zebaoth (Isaiah 19:18).

In Joshua:--

The princes of the congregation sware to the Gibeonites by Jehovah the God of Israel (Joshua 9:18, 19).

[9] From this it is evident that they were permitted to swear by the name of Jehovah, or by Jehovah; yet it is evident that this was nothing else than a representative of the confirmation of the internal man. But it is known that internal men, that is, those who have conscience, have no need to confirm anything by an oath; and that they do not thus confirm. To them oaths are a cause of shame. They can indeed say with some asseveration that a thing is so, and can also confirm the truth by reasons; but to swear that it is so, they cannot. They have an internal bond by which they are bound, namely, that of conscience. To superadd to this an external bond, which is an oath, is like imputing to them that they are not upright in heart. The internal man is also of such a character that he loves to speak and act from freedom, but not from compulsion; for with them the internal compels the external, but not the reverse. On this account they who have conscience do not swear; still less do they who have perception of good and truth, that is, celestial men. These do not even confirm themselves or one another by reasons, but merely say that a thing is so, or is not so (n. 202, 337, 2718); wherefore they are still further removed from taking an oath.

[10] For these reasons, and because oaths were among the representatives which were to be abrogated, the Lord taught that we are not to swear at all, in these words in Matthew:--

Ye have heard that it has been said, Thou shalt not forswear thyself but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths. But I say unto you, Swear not at all neither by the heaven, for it is God‘s throne nor by the earth, for it is His footstool nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great king neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your speech be, Yea, yea; nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil (Matthew 5:33-37).

By these words is meant that we are not to swear at all by Jehovah, nor by anything which is of Jehovah or the Lord.

AC 2843. Because thou hast done this thing. That this signifies the thing accomplished, is evident without explication.

AC 2844. And hast not withheld thy son, thine only one. That this signifies the unition of the Human with the Divine by the utmost of temptation, is evident from what was said above (n. 2827), where the same words occur, except that we do not here read "from Me," by which is signified that there will be a still further unition. That there was always a further unition of the Lord’s Human Essence with His Divine Essence, even to a plenary unition, may be seen above (n. 1864, 2033).

AC 2845. Verse 17. That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed, as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies. "That in blessing I will bless thee," signifies fructification from the affection of truth; "and in multiplying I will multiply," signifies derivations of truth therefrom; "thy seed," signifies the spiritual, who being in the good of faith are saved by the Lord‘s Divine Human; "as the stars of the heavens," signifies the multitude of the knowledges of good and truth; "and as the sand which is upon the sea shore," signifies the multitude of corresponding memory-knowledges; "and thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies," signifies that charity and faith shall come into the place where evil and falsity were before.

AC 2846. That in blessing I will bless thee. That this signifies fructification from the affection of truth, is evident from the signification of "being blessed," as meaning to be enriched with celestial and spiritual good (n. 981, 1096, 1420, 1422); here, to be made fruitful from the good of faith, or what is the same, from the affection of truth, because the spiritual are treated of. It is here said by Jehovah to Abraham, "in blessing I will bless thee," and by Abraham is represented the Lord as to His Divine Human, as before in this chapter; and yet the Lord Himself could not be blessed, because He is blessing itself; but He is said to be blessed, when in accordance with His love those abound who are saved; and therefore in the internal sense these are here signified, as is also evident from what immediately follows. Fructification is here spoken of, because this is predicated of affection; but multiplication, as next follows, is predicated of the truths which are therefrom.

AC 2847. In multiplying I will multiply. That this signifies the derivations of truth therefrom, is evident from the predication of "being multiplied," as being concerning truth; here therefore as meaning the derivations of truth from affection, as was said just above. That being "fructified" is predicated of good, and being "multiplied," of truth, see (n. 43, 55, 913, 983).

AC 2848. Thy seed. That this signifies the spiritual who are saved in the good of faith by the Lord’s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity, see (n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 1941); or what is the same, those of the human race who are in the faith of charity, that is, who are spiritual. They are also called by the Lord the "seed," and the "sons of the kingdom," in Matthew:--

He who soweth the good seed is the Son of man, but the seed are the sons of the kingdom (Matthew 13:37, 38).

AC 2849. As the stars of the heavens. That this signifies the multitude of the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the signification of the "stars," as being the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1808, 2495). The spiritual are they who in the Word are in various places compared to the stars, and this owing to the knowledges of good and truth which they have; but the celestial are not so compared, because they have not knowledges but perceptions; moreover the stars illumine the night, and the spiritual have a light of night (as from the moon and stars) in comparison with the light of day in which the celestial are. That the spiritual have comparative obscurity, see (n. 1043, 2708, 2715).

AC 2850. And as the sand which is upon the sea shore. That this signifies the multitude of corresponding memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of the "sea," as being memory-knowledges in general, or a gathering of them (n. 28, 2120); and from the signification of "sand," as being memory-knowledges specifically or in particular. Memory-knowledges are compared to "sand," because the little stones of which sand is made, in the internal sense signify memory-knowledges (n. 643, 1298). It is here said that they shall be multiplied "as the stars of the heavens," and also "as the sand of the sea shore," because the stars or knowledges have relation to the rational, but the sand of the sea shore or memory-knowledges to the natural. When the things of the rational man, namely, the goods and truths of knowledges, agree with those of the natural man, namely, with memory-knowledges, so that they make a one, or mutually confirm each other, they then correspond. To this correspondence the Lord reduces the rational and natural things of man when he regenerates him, or makes him spiritual. From this cause it is that both the stars of the heavens and the sand of the sea shore are here mentioned; otherwise one would have been sufficient.

AC 2851. And thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies. That this signifies that charity and faith shall succeed in the place where evil and falsity were before, is evident from the signification of "inheriting," as being to receive the Lord‘s life (n. 2658); here, to succeed in the place, because when charity and faith are in the place where evil and falsity were before, then the Lord’s life succeeds there; from the signification of "seed," as being charity and faith (n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 1941); from the signification of a "gate" (explained in what follows); and from the signification of "enemies," as being evils and falsities, or what is the same, those who are in evil and falsity: in the internal sense of the Word these are signified by "enemies" and "foes."

[2] As regards the signification of a "gate," there are in general two gates with every man; the one opens toward hell, and is opened to the evils and falsities therefrom; in this gate are infernal genii and spirits; the other gate opens toward heaven, and is opened to good and the truths therefrom; in this gate are angels. There is thus a gate which leads to hell, and a gate which leads to heaven. The gate of hell is opened to those who are in evil and falsity, and only through chinks round about above does anything of the light from heaven enter, by means of which they are able to think and reason; but the gate of heaven is opened to those who are in good and the truth therefrom.

[3] For there are two ways which lead into man‘s rational mind--a higher or internal one, through which good and truth from the Lord enter, and a lower or external one, through which evil and falsity come up from hell. The rational mind itself is in the middle, and to it these ways tend. That mind, from the goods and truths which are in it, is compared in the Word to a city, and is called a "city." And because it is compared to a city, and is called a "city," gates are attributed to it, and it is often described as being besieged and stormed by enemies, that is, by evil genii and spirits; and as being defended by angels from the Lord, that is by the Lord. The infernal genii and spirits, with their evils and falsities, cannot come further than to the lower or outer gate, and in no case into the city. If they could get into the city, or into the rational mind, all would be over with the man. But when they come so far as to seem to themselves to have taken that city by storm, it is then closed, so that good and truth no longer flow into it from heaven except as was said some little through chinks round about. From this it is that such persons no longer have anything of charity or anything of faith, but make good consist in evil, and truth in falsity. From this also it is that they are no longer truly rational, although they seem to themselves to be so (n. 1914, 1944). And it is from this that they are called dead men, although they believe that they are more alive than others (n. 81, 290). These things are so because the gate of heaven is closed to them. That it is closed to them manifestly appears and is perceived in the other life; as also on the other hand that the gate of heaven is open to those who are in good and truth.

[4] As regards the "gate of enemies" in particular, which is treated of in this verse, it is with man in his natural mind. When man is wholly natural, or not regenerate, evils and falsities occupy the gate; or what is the same, evil genii and spirits flow into it with cupidities of evil and persuasions of falsity (n. 687, 697, 1692); but when man becomes spiritual, or is being regenerated, then the evils and falsities, or what is the same, the evil genii and spirits, are driven away from the gate, or from the mind; then goods and truths, or charity and faith, take their place; which things are signified by its being said, "thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies." This takes place in particular with every man when he is being regenerated; and in like manner in the other life with those who come into the Lord’s kingdom; and it also takes place in the general body, or in the church, which is composed of many.

[5] This was represented by the sons of Israel expelling the nations from the land of Canaan. The latter is meant in the literal sense where it is said, "thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies;" but in the internal sense are signified the things which have been told. Hence in ancient times it became customary to speak thus when blessing those who were entering into marriage; as is also manifest from the benediction of Laban to his sister Rebekah, when she was going away betrothed to Isaac:--

Our sister, be thou thousands of ten thousands, and let thy seed inherit the gate of those that hate thee (Gen. 24:60).

[6] That such things are signified in the Word by the "gate of enemies" or of "those that hate," may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

I will kill thy root with famine, and I will slay them that remain of thee. Howl, O gate cry, O city thou art melted away O Philistia all of thee, for there cometh a smoke out of the north (Isaiah 14:30, 31);

to "kill the root with famine, and to slay them that remain," denotes to take away the goods and truths which had been stored up interiorly by the Lord. That "they that remain" mean these, see (n. 468, 530, 560-562, 661, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284). The "gate" denotes access to the interiors, or to the rational mind; the "city," that mind, or what is the same, the goods and truths in it (n. 402, 2268, 2450, 2451, 2712); "Philistia" denotes the memory-knowledge of the knowledges of faith, or what is the same, those who are in the memory-knowledge of them, but not in the goods of faith (n. 1197, 1198); "a smoke out of the north" signifies that there is falsity from hell. That "smoke" is falsity from evil, see (n. 1861).

[7] In the same:--

The city of emptiness shall be broken down, even house shall be shut up that no one may come in; there is a crying in the streets because of the wine; all gladness shall be desolated, the joy of the land shall be exiled, that which is left in the city shall be desolation, and the gate shall be smitten with devastation, for thus shall it be in the midst of the earth, among the people (Isa. 24:10-13);

the "city of emptiness which shall be broken down" denotes the human mind as being deprived of truth; that "every house shall be shut up," denotes being without good; that a "house" is good, see (n. 2233, 2234); the "crying in the streets because of the wine" denotes a state of falsity; that a "cry" is predicated of falsities, see (n. 2240); also that "wines‘ is truth, of which the cry is that there is none, (n. 1071, 1798); that "streets" are what lead to truths, (n. 2336) "gladness which is desolated" is predicated of truth; the "joy of the land which is exiled" is predicated of good; hence it is manifest what is signified by "that which is left in the city shall be desolation," and by "the gate shall be smitten with devastation;" the gate is said to be "devastated" when nothing but evils and falsities reign.

[8] In Jeremiah:--

The ways of Zion do mourn, because none come to the appointed feast all her gates are desolate, her priests do sigh, her virgins are afflicted, and she herself is in bitterness; her adversaries have become the head, her enemies are secure, because Jehovah hath afflicted her for the multitude of her transgressions her children are gone into captivity before the adversary (Lam. 1:4, 5);

"the ways of Zion mourning" denotes there being no longer truths from good; that "ways" are truths, see (n. 189, 627, 2333); "all the gates being desolated" denotes that all the approaches are occupied by falsities; "the enemies having become the head" denotes that evils reign.

[9] In the same:--

Jehovah hath made the rampart and the wall of the daughter of Zion to lament they languish together her gates are sunk into the earth He hath destroyed and broken her bars; her king and her princes are among the nations; the law is not; yea her prophets found no vision from Jehovah all thine enemies have opened their mouth against thee they hissed and gnashed the teeth they said, We have swallowed her up surely this is the day that we looked for; we have found, we have seen it (Lam. 2:8, 9, 16);

"the gates sunk down into the earth" denotes the natural mind occupied by evils and falsities; "her king and her princes being among the nations" denotes that truths are immersed in evils; that a "king" is truth in general, see (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069); also that "princes" are primary truths, (n. 1482, 1089); and that "nations" are evils, (n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868, 2588).

[10] In Moses:--

A nation from far, from the end of the earth, shall straiten thee in all thy gates, in all thy land; thus shall thine enemy straiten thee (Deut. 28:49, 52, 53).

This is among the curses which Moses foretold to the people if they should not remain in the precepts and statutes: a "nation from far from the end of the earth," in the internal sense, denotes evils and falsities, or those who are in evil and falsity; to "besiege in all the gates" denotes cutting off all access to good and truth.

[11] In Nahum:--

Behold, thy people in the midst of thee are women, the gates of thy land are set wide open to thine enemies, the fire hath devoured thy bars; draw thee water for the siege strengthen thy fortresses; go into the clay and tread the mortar, make strong the brickkiln (Nahum 3:13, 14);

"the gates of thy land being set wide open to thine enemies" denotes that evils occupy the place where there should be goods. In the book of Judges:--

The highways ceased, and they walked through byways, they went through crooked ways, the villages ceased in Israel. He chose new gods; then was war against the gates; was there a shield seen or a spear in forty thousands of Israel? (Judges 5:6-8);

the prophecy of Deborah and Barak; there being "war against the gates" denotes against goods and truths.

[12] In David:--

They that dwell in the gate plot against me, they that drink strong drink sing songs (Ps. 69:12);

"they that dwell in the gate" denotes evils and falsities, and also the infernals. In Ezekiel:--

In the visions of God he brought me to the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north. (He there saw the great abominations of the house of Israel.) He also brought me to the door of the gate of the house of Jehovah that looketh toward the north (he there also saw abominations) (Ezekiel 8:6, 14, 15);

"the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north" denotes the place where interior falsities are; "the door of the gate of the house of Jehovah toward the north" denotes the place where interior evils are; that the falsities and evils are interior ones, and that it is an interior sphere in which such spirits and genii are, see (n. 2121-2124).

[13] In David:--

Lo, sons are a possession of Jehovah, and the fruit of the womb is His reward; as arrows in the hand of a mighty man, so are sons of the youth. Happy is the man that hath filled his quiver with them they shall not be ashamed, for they shall speak with the enemies in the gate (Ps. 127:3-5);

"to speak with the enemies in the gate" denotes to have no fear of evils and falsities, and thus not of hell. In Isaiah:--

In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment, and for strength to them that turn back the battle to the gate; and these also are insane through wine, and through strong drink are gone astray (Isaiah 28:5-7).

In the same:--

They shall be cut off that make men to sin by a word, and lay a snare for him that reproveth in the gate; and make the just to turn aside to a thing of naught (Isaiah 29:20, 21).

In the same:--

Elam bare the quiver in a chariot of a man, and horsemen; Kir uncovered the shield; and the choice of thy valleys was full of chariots and horsemen placing they placed themselves at the gate, and he looked in that day to the armory of the house of the forest (Isaiah 22:6-8).

In Jeremiah:--

Judah hath mourned, and the gates thereof languished; they have mourned to the earth, and the cry of Jerusalem is gone up; their nobles have sent their little ones to the waters; they came to the pits, they found no waters (Jeremiah 14:2, 3).

In the same:--

The elders have ceased from the gate, the young men from their music (Lam. 5:14).

[14] It may be seen from these passages what is signified by the "gate of enemies," namely, that it is hell, or infernal spirits, who are continually attacking goods and truths. Their seat with man as before said is in his natural mind. But when a man is of such a character as to admit goods and truths, and thus angels, the infernal spirits are then driven away by the Lord from that seat; and on their being driven away, the gate of heaven or heaven itself is opened. This gate is also mentioned in the Word in various places; as in Isaiah:--

A song in the land of Judah We have a strong city, salvation will He appoint for walls and bulwarks; open ye the gates, and the righteous nation that keepeth fidelities shall enter in (Isaiah 26:1, 2).

In the same:--

Thus said Jehovah to His anointed, to Cyrus, whose right band I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open the doors before him, and the gates shall not be shut; I will go before thee, and will make the crooked places straight, and I will break in pieces the doors of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron (Isaiah 14:1, 2).

In the same:--

The sons of the stranger shall build up thy walls, and their kings shall minister unto thee they shall open thy gates continually, they shall not be shut day nor night; violence shall no more be heard in thy land, wasting and destruction within thy borders; and thou shalt call thy walls salvation, and thy gates praise (Isaiah 60:10, 11, 18).

In the same:--

Go through, go through the gates; prepare ye the way for the people, level, make level the highway say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold thy salvation cometh (Isaiah 62:10-12).

In Micah:--

They shall pass through the gate, and shall go out thereat, and their king shall pass on before them, and Jehovah in their beginning (Micah 2:13).

In David:--

Lift up your heads, O ye gates and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in. Who is this King of glory? Jehovah strong and mighty, Jehovah mighty in battle. Lift up your heads, 0 ye gates; lift them up, ye everlasting doors (Ps. 24:7-10).

In the same:--

Praise Jehovah, O Jerusalem praise thy God, O Zion: for He hath strengthened the bars of thy gates, He hath blessed thy children within thee (Ps. 147:12, 13).

[15] From these passages it is manifest that the "gate of heaven" is where angels are with man, that is, where there is an influx of good and truth from the Lord; and thus that as before said there are two gates. Concerning these two gates the Lord speaks thus in Matthew:--

Enter ye in by the strait gate for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be that go in thereat; because strait is the gate and narrow is the way that leadeth unto life, and few there be that find it (Matthew 7:12-14; Luke 13:23, 24).

Moreover the gates to the New Jerusalem and the gates to the new temple are much treated of in Ezekiel, and also by John in the Apocalypse, by which nothing else is meant than the entrances to heaven (Ezek. 40:6-49; 43:1, 2, 4; 44:1-3; 46:1-9, 12; 48:31-34; Rev. 21:12, 13, 21, 25; 22:14; Isa. 54:11, 12). Hence Jerusalem is called the "gate of the people" (Micah 1:9; Obad. 1:13).

AC 2852. Verse 18. And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast hearkened to My voice. "In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed," signifies the salvation of all who are in good; "because thou hast hearkened to My voice," signifies by the union of His Human Essence with His Divine Essence.

AC 2853. In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. That this signifies the salvation of all who are in good, is evident from the signification of "being blessed," as being to be enriched with celestial and spiritual good (n. 981, 1096, 1420, 1422); here, to be saved, because spoken of those who are saved (that "to be blessed" has a comprehensive meaning is well known); from the signification of "seed," as being the faith of charity (n. 1025, 1447, 1610); and from the signification of the "nations of the earth," as being those who are in good (n. 1159, 1258-1260, 1416, 1849).

[2] Moreover in these words there is contained the following arcanum: that through the church, which is here the "earth," (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262) those are saved who are out of the church; for as just stated, "thy seed" denotes the faith of charity; and no others are in the faith of charity than those within the church, for the faith of charity is truth of doctrine adjoined to good of life. The case is this: The Lord’s kingdom on earth consists of all those who are in good, who though scattered over the whole earth, are still one, and as members constitute one body. Such is the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens, where the whole heaven represents one man, which is therefore also called the Grand Man (n. 684, 1276); and what is wonderful and hitherto unknown, all parts of the human body correspond to societies in heaven. And therefore it is sometimes said that some societies belong to the province of the head, some to the province of the eye, others to that of the chest, and so on, which correspondence will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be spoken of by itself.

[3] The case is the same with the Lord‘s church on earth, where the church is like the heart and lungs; while those outside the church answer to the parts of the body which are supported and live from the heart and lungs. Hence it is manifest that without a church somewhere on the earth the human race could not subsist, as the body could not without the heart and lungs (n. 468, 637, 931, 2054). From this cause it is that whenever any church is consummated, that is, becomes no church because there is no longer any charity, a new one is of the Lord’s providence always raised up; as when the Most Ancient Church called "Man" perished, a new one was created by the Lord, which was called "Noah," and was the Ancient Church that was after the flood; and when this degenerated and became none, the Jewish and Israelitish representative Church was instituted; and when this became altogether extinct, the Lord then came into the world, and set up again a new one; and this for the purpose that there might be conjunction of heaven with the human race through the church. This is also what is signified by "in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed."

AC 2854. Because thou hast hearkened to My voice. That this signifies by the union of the Lord‘s Human Essence with His Divine Essence, is evident from all that precedes, of which this is the conclusion. To "hearken to the voice" signifies that He underwent the utmost of temptation, and thus united His Human Essence to His Divine Essence. That the Lord united His Human to His Divine and His Divine to His Human by continual temptations and victories, may be seen above (n. 1737, 1813); and that by this union He saved the human race (n. 1676, 1990, 2016, 2025). From this the human race has all its salvation. It is the common opinion that the Father sent the Son to suffer the hardest things even to the death of the cross; and thus that by looking upon the passion and merit of the Son, He has mercy upon the human race. But every one can know that Jehovah does not have mercy by any looking upon the Son, for He is mercy itself; but that the arcanum of the Lord’s coming into the world is that He united in Himself the Divine to the Human and the Human to the Divine; which could not be done except through the most grievous things of temptations; and thus that by that union it became possible for salvation to reach the human race, in which no celestial and spiritual, or even natural good, any longer remained; and it is this union which saves those who are in the faith of charity. It is the Lord Himself who shows the mercy.

AC 2855. Verse 19. And Abraham returned unto his boys; and they rose up, and went together to Beer-sheba; and Abraham dwelt in Beer-sheba. "Abraham returned unto his boys," signifies conjunction again with His former rational; "and they rose up," signifies a greater degree of elevation; "and went together to Beer-sheba," signifies advancement in the doctrine of charity and faith, which is Divine, and to which human rational things were adjoined; "and Abraham dwelt in Beersheba," signifies that the Lord is that doctrine itself.

AC 2856. Abraham returned unto his boys. That this signifies conjunction again with the former rational, is evident from the signification of the "boys," as being the former or merely human rational which was to serve the Divine rational (n. 2782, 2792); and from the signification of "returning to them," as being to be conjoined (n. 2795). That the Lord separated the merely human rational from Himself when He underwent the most grievous temptations, is evident from the explication of (verse 5) (n. 2791-2793, 2795); and that after the temptations He again conjoined Himself with that rational is evident from what has been said before (n. 2795), and from these things in this verse.

AC 2857. And they rose up. That this signifies a greater degree of elevation, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as, when mentioned in the Word, being some elevation which is signified (n. 2401); here, the elevation of the rational after temptation; for after temptations the rational was always elevated, and this takes place also with man. Every temptation in which a man overcomes, elevates his mind and the things which belong to his mind; for it confirms his goods and truths and superadds new ones (n. 1692, 1717, 1740, 2272).

AC 2858. And they went together to Beer-sheba. That this signifies advancement in the doctrine of charity and faith, which is Divine and to which human rational things were adjoined, is evident from the signification of "Beer-sheba," as being the doctrine of charity and faith which was Divine and to which human rational things were adjoined (n. 2614, 2723). The human rational things are signified by the "boys" (n. 2782, 2792, 2856); and that the doctrine to which they were adjoined was Divine, is signified by their going together with Abraham (n. 2767).

AC 2859. And Abraham dwelt in Beer-sheba. That this signifies that the Lord is that doctrine itself, is evident from the signification of "dwelling;" from the representation of Abraham; from the signification of "Beer-sheba" (explained before); and at the same time from the things which just precede. To "dwell in Beer-sheba" is to be in doctrine, but when predicated of the Lord it is to be doctrine; just as to dwell in heaven, which is also said of the Lord, signifies not only that He is in heaven, but also that He Himself is heaven; for He is the all of heaven (n. 551, 552). That the Lord is the Word is known, and therefore the Lord is doctrine (n. 2531), for all doctrine is from the Word. The all of doctrine in the Word is from the Lord, and is concerning the Lord. In the internal sense of the Word nothing but the Lord and His kingdom is treated of, as has been shown many times. It is the Lord‘s Divine Human of which the internal sense of the Word especially treats; and the all of doctrine in the Word as regards man is to worship Him and love Him.

AC 2860. Verses 20, 21, 22, 23. And it came to pass after these words that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor thy brother. Uz his first-born, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram. And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel. And Bethuel begat Rebekah: these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor Abraham’s brother. "It came to pass after these words," signifies the things done relating to those who are within the church; "that it was told Abraham, saying," signifies the Lord‘s perception; "Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor thy brother," signifies those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good: "Uz his first-born, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram; and Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel," signify various religions and their modes of worship; "Bethuel begat Rebekah," signifies from good the affection of truth; "these eight did Milcah bear to Nahor Abraham’s brother," signifies a second class of those who are saved.

AC 2861. It came to pass after these words. That this signifies the things done relating to those who are within the church, is evident from the signification of "words," as being actual things. In the original language things are called "words;" and thus "after these words" means after the things done. In what precedes, from verse 13 to this verse, the salvation of the spiritual by the Lord‘s Divine Human is treated of, and indeed those who are in good within the church. These are they who can be truly spiritual, because they have the Word, and thus the truths of faith. By truths of doctrine conjoined with good of life, man becomes spiritual. All spiritual quality is from this. But the nations without the church, because they have not the Word, and thus not the truths of faith, so long as they live in the world, although in the good of charity, are still not truly spiritual until they have been instructed in the truths of faith. And as most of these nations cannot be instructed in the world, those who have lived in mutual charity and in obedience are of the Lord’s providence and mercy instructed in the other life, and then receive the truths of faith easily, and become spiritual. That the state and lot of these nations is such in the other life, see (n. 2589-2604).

[2] As those within the church who are saved by the Lord‘s Divine Human are treated of in what precedes, in the things which follow to the end of this chapter those out of the church who are saved are treated of, and are signified by those who were born to Nahor, Abraham’s brother, from Milcah his wife and Reumah his concubine: this also follows in the series. He who has not become acquainted with the internal sense of the Word would suppose that these things relate merely to the genealogy of the house of Terah, being given on account of Rebekah who became Isaac‘s wife, and also on account of Bethuel, whose two granddaughters, Leah and Rachel, became Jacob’s wives. But as has been very often said and shown, all the names in the Word signify actual things (n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888); and unless they signified such things, the Word would not be Divine, but worldly. From this it is also evident that these things which follow relate in series to the Lord‘s spiritual church, but to that which is among the Gentiles; and this through Nahor, Abraham’s brother, in order that those who are in brotherhood from good may be signified (n. 2863).

AC 2862. And it was told Abraham, saying. That this signifies the Lord‘s perception, is evident from the signification of "telling," as being to think and reflect; and of "saying," as being to perceive-explained often before. The Lord’s reflecting and perceiving, treated of in the internal sense of the Word, cannot be expressed in the historical form in any other way than by "telling and saying." In itself also reflection and perception is an internal telling and saying.

AC 2863. Behold, Milcah, she also hath borne children unto Nahor thy brother. That this signifies those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good, is also evident from what was said before respecting Milcah and Nahor (n. 1363, 1369, 1370). For Terah had three sons, Abraham, Nahor, and Haran; and that they worshiped other gods may be seen above (n. 1356). Milcah was the daughter of Haran, who became Nahor‘s wife (n. 2369). And Haran died upon the faces of Terah in Ur of the Chaldees (n. 1365-1368). Hence it is evident what is signified by "Milcah" and "Nahor," namely, by " Milcah" the truth of those nations, and by "Nahor" their god.

[2] That there were truths among the Gentiles is evident from many things, for it is known that formerly there was wisdom and intelligence among the nations, as that they acknowledged one God, and wrote concerning Him in a holy manner; also that they acknowledged the immortality of the soul, and the life after death, and also the happiness of the good and the unhappiness of the evil; and further that they had for their law the precepts of the decalogue, namely, that God is to be worshiped, that parents are to be honored, that men must not kill, steal, commit adultery, nor covet the property of others; nor were they content to be of this character in externals, but were so in internals.

[3] It is the same at this day; the better behaved Gentiles from all parts of the earth sometimes speak better on such subjects than Christians do; nor do they merely speak better things, but also live according to them. These and many other truths are among the Gentiles, and conjoin themselves with the good which they have from the Lord, from the conjunction of which they are in a state to receive still more truths, because one truth recognizes another, and truths easily consociate themselves together, for they are connected with and related to each other. Hence it is that they who have been in good in the world easily receive the truths of faith in the other life. The falsities that are with them do not conjoin themselves with their good, but only apply themselves to it in such manner as to be separable from it. The falsities which have been conjoined remain, but those which have been merely applied are separated; and they are separated at the time when the men learn the truths of faith and imbue themselves with them. Every truth of faith removes and separates what is false, so that at length the man is averse to it and shuns it. From all this we can see what land of persons are signified by the sons whom Milcah bare to Nahor Abraham’s brother, namely, those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good.

AC 2864. Uz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram; and Chesed and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel. That these signify various religions and their modes of worship, is evident from the fact that as before said names signify actual things. The things which these names signify are religions and their modes of worship, as also are signified by the names which are found in Genesis 5 and 11. But what each name and each son here signifies, cannot so well be told, as they are merely named. Uz and Buz are also named in (Jeremiah 25:20, 23), but among several other names. Uz is also found in (Lamentations 4:21; Job 1:1); concerning whom see (Genesis 10:23), (n. 1233, 1234).

AC 2865. And Bethuel begat Rebekah. That this signifies from good their affection of truth, is evident from the representation of Bethuel and of Rebekah, treated of in chapter 24, which follows.

AC 2866. These eight did Milcah bear to Nahor, Abraham‘s brother. That this signifies a second class of those who are saved, is evident from the signification of "eight;" and from its being again said that "Milcah bare to Nahor, Abraham’s brother." Because the eighth day is the first day of the following week, therefore "eight" signifies something that is distinct from what has gone before (n. 2044); here therefore it denotes another class, and the number was added for the sake of this signification. Milcah‘s "bearing them to Nahor, Abraham’s brother," signifies those out of the church who are in brotherhood from good (n. 2863, 2865). Here, being the conclusion, it signifies the same, and in addition the fact that they are saved.

AC 2867. Verse 24. And his concubine, whose name was Reumah; she also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah. "His concubine whose name was Reumah," signifies Gentiles who are in idolatrous worship and in good; "she also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah," signifies their various religions: these constitute a third class of the spiritual who are saved.

AC 2868. His concubine, whose name was Reumah. That this signifies Gentiles who are in idolatrous worship and in good, is evident from the things which precede; for in the former place are the Gentiles who are signified by the sons who were born to Nahor from his wife, and in this place are the Gentiles signified by those born from his concubine. By those from the wife were signified the Gentiles out of the church who are in brotherhood from good (n. 2863); those now signified are those out of the church who are in idolatrous worship and in good; thus these are not from so legitimate a stock as the former. Nevertheless they are as if legitimate; for at that time children who were born of maidservants were adopted as legitimate (as is evident from the sons of Jacob who were born of the maidservants Bilhah and Zilpah, (Gen. 30:4-12); from whom tribes were derived equally as from those who were born of Leah and Rachel, and indeed without any difference). But that still there was a difference is evident from (Genesis 33:1, 2, 6, 7). The maidservants who were at that time given to the husband by the wife for the sake of procreating children were called concubines; as is manifest from Bilhah, Rachel‘s maidservant, who is also called Jacob’s concubine (Gen. 35:22). That men should procreate children from maidservants or concubines was tolerated at that time, in order that those who are out of the church might thus be represented, and also those who are in a lower degree within the church. The name of this concubine being said to be "Reumah" involves her quality (n. 1896, 2009); which here is exaltation, this being the meaning of the word "Reumah." Concerning the state and lot of the nations and peoples who are out of the church, see (n. 593, 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328, 1366, 2049, 2051, 2284, 2589-2604).

AC 2869. She also bare Tebah, and Gaham, and Tahash, and Maacah. That this signifies their various religions and the kinds of worship from them; and that these constitute a third class of the spiritual who are saved, is evident from what was said above (n. 2864, 2866, 2868).

CONCERNING MAN‘S FREEDOM

AC 2870. Few know what freedom is, and what non-freedom is. All that which is of any love and its delight appears to be freedom, and that which is contrary to these, non-freedom. What is of the love of self and the love of the world, and of their cupidities, appears to man as freedom, but it is infernal freedom; while what is of love to the Lord and of love toward the neighbor, consequently of the love of good and truth, is freedom itself, and is heavenly freedom.

AC 2871. Infernal spirits do not know that there is any other freedom than that which is of the love of self and the love of the world; that is, of the cupidities of commanding, of persecuting and hating all who do not serve them, of tormenting every one, of destroying the universe if they could for the sake of self; of taking away and claiming to themselves whatever is another’s. When they are in these and similar things, they are in their freedom, because they are in their delight Their life consists in this freedom to such a degree that if it were taken away from them, nothing more of life would remain to them than that of a newborn infant. This was also shown by living experience. A certain evil spirit was in the persuasion that such things could be taken away from him, and that in this way he could come into heaven; consequently that his life could be miraculously changed into heavenly life; on which account those loves together with their cupidities were taken away from him (which is done in the other life by dissociation), and he then appeared like an infant paddling with his hands, which he could scarcely move; and he was at the same time in such a state as to be less able to think than any infant, and unable to speak anything at all, or to know anything. But he was soon restored to his delight, and thus to his freedom. From this it is manifest that it is impossible for anyone to come into heaven who has procured a life for himself from the love of self and the world, and consequently who is in the freedom of these loves; for if that life were taken away from such a person, he would not have anything of thought and will remaining.

AC 2872. But heavenly freedom is that which is from the Lord, and in it are all the angels in the heavens. As before said this is the freedom of love to the Lord and mutual love, and thus of the affection of good and truth. The quality of this freedom may be seen from the fact that every one who is in it communicates his blessedness and happiness to another from inmost affection, and that it is a blessedness and happiness to him that he is able to communicate it. And because the universal heaven is such, it follows that every one is a center of all forms of blessedness and happiness, and that all these belong at the same time to each angel. The communication itself is effected by the Lord, by wonderful inflowings in an incomprehensible form, which is the form of heaven. This shows what heavenly freedom is, and that it is from the Lord alone.

AC 2873. How far distant heavenly freedom (which is from the affection of good and truth) is from infernal freedom (which is from the affection of evil and falsity), is evident from the fact that when the angels in heaven merely think about such freedom as is from the affection of evil and falsity, or what is the same, from the cupidities of the love of self and the world, they are immediately seized with internal pain; and on the other hand, when evil spirits merely think about the freedom which is from the affection of good and truth, or what is the same, from the desires of mutual love, they at once come into anguish; and what is wonderful, so opposite is the one freedom to the other, that the freedom of the love of self and the world is hell to good spirits; and on the other hand, the freedom of love to the Lord and mutual love is hell to evil spirits. Hence all in the other life are distinct according to their kinds of freedom, or what is the same, according to their loves and affections, consequently according to the delights of their life, which is the same as according to their lives; for lives are nothing else than delights, and these are nothing else than affections which are of the loves.

AC 2874. From this it is now evident what freedom is, namely, that it is to think and will from affection, and that the freedom is such as is the affection; also that the one freedom is infernal, and the other freedom heavenly, and that infernal freedom is from hell, whereas heavenly freedom is from the Lord. It is also evident that they who are in infernal freedom cannot come into heavenly freedom (which would be coming from hell into heaven) unless the whole of their life is taken away from them; also that no one can come into heavenly freedom except by reformation from the Lord; and that he is then introduced into it by the affection of good and truth, that is, by the good of life in which the truth of doctrine is being implanted.

AC 2875. The good of life, or the affection of good, is insinuated by the Lord by an internal way, without man‘s knowing anything about it; but the truth of doctrine, or faith, by an external way, into the memory, whence it is called forth by the Lord in His own time and according to His own order, and is conjoined with the affection of good. This is done in man’s freedom; for as before said man‘s freedom is from affection. Such is the insemination and inrooting of faith. Whatever is done in freedom is conjoined, but that which is done under compulsion is not conjoined; as may be seen from considering that by no possibility can anything be conjoined except that by which we are affected: affection is the very thing that receives; to receive anything contrary to the affection is to receive it contrary to the life. Hence it is manifest that truth of doctrine, or faith, cannot be received except by the affection of it. But such as is the affection, such is the reception. It is only the affection of truth and good that receives the truth of faith; for they agree, and because they agree, they conjoin themselves together.

AC 2876. As no one can be reformed except in freedom, therefore freedom is never taken away from a man, in so far as the appearance is concerned; for it is an eternal law that every one should be in freedom as to his interiors, that is, as to his affections and thoughts, in order that the affection of good and truth may be implanted in him.

AC 2877. Whenever the affection of truth and the affection of good are insinuated by the Lord, which is done without man’s knowledge, he then imbues himself with truth and does good in freedom, because from affection; for when anything is done from affection, then as before said there is freedom; and the truth of faith conjoins itself with the good of charity. Unless a man had freedom in everything he thinks and wills, the freedom of thinking truth and of willing good could never be insinuated by the Lord into anyone; for in order that a man may be reformed he must think truth as of himself, and do good as of himself; and what is done as of one‘s self is done in freedom. Unless this were so, there would never be any reformation or regeneration.

AC 2878. There are innumerable causes from which and on account of which a man loves to learn truth and to will good (very many from the world, and also very many from the body); and sometimes these things are not done for the sake of heaven, and still less for the sake of the Lord. A man is thus introduced by the Lord into truth and good by affections, and one man altogether differently from another, each one according to his disposition, innate and acquired. And as he is continually being introduced into truth and good by affections, and thus continually by freedom, and at length into the affections of spiritual truth and spiritual good, the Lord alone knows the times and the states, and He alone arranges and governs them in application to each one’s genius and life. This shows why man has freedom.

AC 2879. The Lord flows in through man‘s inmost with good, and there conjoins truth with it: their root must be in the inmost. Unless a man is in freedom interiorly as to all his affections and as to all his thoughts, he can never he so disposed that good and truth may take any root.

AC 2880. Nothing else appears to a man as his (or what is the same, as his own) except that which flows from freedom. The reason is that all affection which is of love is his veriest life; and to act from affection is to act from life, that is, from himself, and thus from what is his, or what is the same, from his own. In order therefore that man may receive an Own that is heavenly, such as have the angels in heaven, he is kept in freedom, and through freedom he is introduced into it, in the way already stated. It may be known to every one that to worship the Lord from freedom appears as if it were from one’s self, or from one‘s own; but that to worship Him under compulsion is not from one’s self, but from a force from without, or from some other source, compelling him to do it; thus that worship from freedom is worship itself, and that worship under compulsion is no worship.

AC 2881. If man could have been reformed by compulsion, there would not be any man in the universe who would not be saved; for nothing would be easier for the Lord than to compel man to fear Him, to worship Him, and indeed as it were to love Him; the means being innumerable. But as that which is done under compulsion is not conjoined, and thus is not appropriated, it is therefore the furthest possible from the Lord to compel anyone. So long as a man is in combats, or is one of the church militant, it appears as if the Lord compels the man, and thus that he has no freedom; for he is then continually combating against the love of self and of the world, thus against the freedom into which he was born and into which he has grown up; hence comes the appearance just referred to. But that in the combats in which be overcomes, the freedom is stronger than when out of combats (a freedom not from himself, but from the Lord, and still appearing as his), may be seen above (n. 1937, 1947).

AC 2882. Most of all does man believe that he has no freedom from the fact that he has learned that he cannot do good and think truth of himself. But let him not believe that anyone ever has or ever had any freedom of thinking truth and doing good of himself, not even the man who, from the state of perfection in which he was, was called a "likeness and image of God;" for the freedom of thinking the truth of faith, and of doing the good of charity, all flows in from the Lord. The Lord is Good itself and Truth itself; and is hence their fountain. All the angels are in such freedom, and indeed in the very perception that what we have just stated is the truth. The inmost angels perceive how much is from the Lord, and how much from themselves; and so far as it is from the Lord, they are in happiness; but so far as it is from themselves, they are not in what is happy.

AC 2883. In order therefore that a man may receive an Own that is heavenly, he must do good of himself, and think truth of himself; but still must know, and when reformed must think and believe, that all the good and all the truth are from the Lord, even as to the very least of all (and this because it is so) while its being given to man to think that it is from himself, is in order that the good and truth may become as his own.

AC 2884. The freedom of the love of self and of the world, and of their cupidities, is anything but freedom, being complete slavery; but still it is called freedom, just as love, affection, and delight are so called in both senses; and yet the love of self and of the world is anything but love, being hatred and so are its affection and delight. They are named according to what they appear; not according to what they are.

AC 2885. No one can know what slavery is and what freedom is, unless he knows the origin of them (which no one can know except from the Word), and unless he knows how the case is with man in regard to his affections which are of his will, and his thoughts which are of his understanding.

AC 2886. As to man‘s affections and thoughts, the case is this: No one, whoever he may be, whether man, spirit, or angel, can will and think from himself; but from others; nor can these others will and think from themselves, but all again from others, and so on; and thus each one from the First of life, which is the Lord. That which is unconnected has no existence. Evils and falsities have connection with the hells; from the hells come the willing and thinking of those who are in evils and falsities; and also their love, affection, and delight, consequently their freedom. But goods and truths have connection with heaven, and the willing and thinking of those who are in them is from heaven, and so also are their love, affection, and delight, and therefore their freedom. From this we may see whence comes the one freedom, and whence the other. That the case is really so is most fully known in the other life, but is at this day altogether unknown in the world.

AC 2887. With man there are evil spirits constantly, and also angels; by the spirits he communicates with the hells, and by the angels with the heavens. If these spirits and angels were to be taken away from him, he would in a moment be devoid of willing and thinking, thus of life. That this is so may seem a paradox; and yet it is most true. But concerning the spirits and angels who are with man, of the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere.

AC 2888. The truth is that the life of every one, both of man, of spirit, and also of angel, flows in solely from the Lord, who is life itself; and diffuses itself through the whole heaven and also through hell, thus into every one; and this in an order and series incomprehensible: but the life which flows in is received by each one according to his disposition. Good and truth are received as good and truth by the good; but good and truth are received as evil and falsity by the evil, and are also turned into evil and falsity in them. The case with this is comparatively like the light of the sun, which diffuses itself into all the objects of the earth, but is received according to the quality of each object, and becomes of a beautiful color in beautiful forms, and of a disagreeable color in disagreeable forms. In the world this is an arcanum, but nothing is better known in the other life. That I might know that influx is of such a nature, it has been given me to speak with the spirits and angels who were with me, and also to feel and perceive their influx; and this so often that I cannot number the times. But I know that the fallacy will prevail, the fallacy that is to say, that men will believe that they will from themselves, and think from themselves, and thus have life from themselves; whereas nothing is further from the truth.

AC 2889. Evil spirits cannot possibly apprehend that they do not live from themselves, and that they are only organs of life; still less that there is no life except that which is from good and truth; and still less that they do not begin to live until the life of the cupidities of evil and of the persuasions of falsity, in which they are, is extinguished. They believe that if they were deprived of these there could be nothing of life remaining; whereas the truth is that when they have lost the life of the cupidities of evil and of the persuasions of falsity, they then first begin to live; and that the Lord, together with the good and truth in which life solely consists, is not till then received; and that intelligence and wisdom, and thus the veriest life, then flow in, and are afterwards immensely increased; and this with delight, blessedness, and happiness, and thus with inmost joy, and with ineffable variety, to eternity.

AC 2890. The evil spirits who are with man, through whom he communicates with hell, regard him no otherwise than as a vile slave; for they infuse into him their cupidities and their persuasions, and thus lead him whithersoever they will. But the angels through whom man communicates with heaven, regard him as a brother, and insinuate into him affections of good and truth, and thus lead him by freedom, not whither they will, but whither it pleases the Lord. From this we can see of what kind the one freedom is, and of what kind the other; and that it is slavery to be led by the devil, and freedom to be led by the Lord.

AC 2891. Spirits fresh from this world severely torment themselves by trying to comprehend how no one can do good of himself, or think truth of himself, except from the Lord; believing that thus they would be like machines, having no control of anything; and that if this is really so they should let their hands hang down, and suffer themselves to be acted upon. But they were told that they ought by all means to think, to will, and to do good of themselves; and that in no other way could they have an Own that is heavenly, and heavenly freedom; but that still they should acknowledge that the good and truth are not from them, but from the Lord: and they are instructed that all the angels are in such an acknowledgment, nay, in the perception that it is so; and the more exquisitely they perceive that they are led by the Lord, and thus are in the Lord, the more are they in freedom.

AC 2892. He who lives in good, and believes that the Lord governs the universe, and that all the good which is of love and charity, and all the truth which is of faith, are from the Lord alone; nay, that life is from Him, and thus that from Him we live, move, and have our being, is in such a state that he can be gifted with heavenly freedom, and together with it with peace; for he then trusts solely in the Lord and has no care for other things, and is certain that all things are tending to his good, his blessedness, and his happiness to eternity. But he who believes that he governs himself is continually disquieted, being borne along into cupidities, and into solicitude respecting future things, and thus into manifold anxieties; and because he so believes, the cupidities of evil and the persuasions of falsity also adhere to him.

AC 2893. Good spirits wondered exceedingly that the man of the church at this day does not believe that all the evils and falsities within him flow in from hell, and all the goods and truths from the Lord; when yet he has learned this from the Word, and also from the doctrine of faith; and, when and one has done a grievous evil, everybody says that he has suffered himself to be led by the devil; and when anyone has done good, that he has suffered himself to be led by the Lord.


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