HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

Back | Next | Index | Home


AC GENESIS Chapter 23

AC 2894. We read in John:--

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light appeareth in the darkness, but the darkness comprehended it not. And the Word was made flesh and dwelt within us and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-5, 14).

Few know what is here meant by the "Word." That it is the Lord, is evident from the several particulars; but the internal sense teaches that it is the Lord as to His Divine Human that is meant by the "Word," for it is said: "the Word was made flesh and dwelt within us, and we beheld His glory." And because the Divine Human is meant by the "Word," all that Truth also is meant which relates to Him, and is from Him, in His kingdom in the heavens, and in His church on the earth. Hence it is said that "in Him was life, and the life was the light of men, and the light appeareth in the darkness." And because Truth is meant by the "Word," all revelation is meant, and thus also the Word itself or Holy Scripture.

AC 2895. As regards the Word specifically, it had existed in all times, but not the Word which we have at this day. There had been another Word in the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood, and another Word in the Ancient Church which was after the flood; then came the Word written by Moses and the prophets in the Jewish Church; and lastly the Word that was written by the Evangelists in the new church. The reason why there has been a Word at all times, is that by the Word there is communication of heaven with earth; and also because the Word treats of good and truth, from which man is to live happy forever; and on this account in the internal sense it treats of the Lord alone, because all good and truth are from Him.

AC 2896. The Word in the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood was not a written Word, but was revealed to very one who was of that church. For they were celestial men, and therefore were in the perception of good and truth, as the angels are (with whom moreover they were in company), so that they had the Word written on their hearts (n. 597, 607, 895, 920, 1114-1125). As they were celestial men, and had companionship with angels, all the things which they saw and apprehended by any of the senses were to them representative and significative of the celestial and spiritual things which are in the Lord‘s kingdom; so that they indeed saw worldly and earthly things with their eyes, or apprehended them by some other sense, but from them and by means of them they thought of celestial and spiritual things. In this way, and in no other, were they able to speak with angels; for the things with the angels are celestial and spiritual things, and when they come down to man they fall into such things as are with him in the world. That each one of the things in the world represents and signifies something in the heavens, has been shown from the first chapter of Genesis up to this point. Thence came the representatives and significatives which, when communication with angels began to cease, were collected by those meant by "Enoch," as was signified by the words (Gen. 5:24), " Enoch walked by himself with God, and was no more, for God took him (n. 521).

AC 2897. From this source was the Word in the Ancient Church which was after the flood. As the man of this church was spiritual and not celestial, he knew but did not perceive what the representatives and significatives involved; and as they involved Divine things, they came to be in use among those men, and were employed in their Divine worship; and this in order that they might have communication with heaven; for as before said all things in the world represent and signify such things as are in heaven. They also had a written Word, which consisted of Histories and Prophecies, like the Word of the Old Testament; but in process of time that Word was lost. The Histories were called "Wars of Jehovah," and the Prophecies were called "Enunciations," as is evident in Moses (Num. 21:14, 27), where they are quoted. Their histories were written in the prophetic style, and were for the most part made up histories, like those in the first eleven chapters of Genesis; as is plain from the quotations from them in Moses, where are these words:--

Therefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of Jehovah, Vaheb in Suphah, and the rivers of Arnon, and the slope of the rivers that inclineth toward the dwelling of Ar, and leaneth upon the border of Moab (Num. 21:14, 15).

[2] Their prophecies were written like the prophecies of the Old Testament, as is likewise plain from the quotations made from them also in Moses, where are these words:--

Wherefore the Enunciations (or the Prophetic Enunciators) say, Come ye to Heshbon, let the city of Sihon be built and established; for a fire is gone out of Heshbon, a flame from the city of Sihon; it hath devoured Ar of Moab, the lords of the high places of Arnon. Woe to thee, Moab; thou hast perished, O people of Chemosh; he hath given his sons as escapers, and his daughters into captivity, unto Sihon king of the Amorite. And we have shot at them; Heshbon is perished even unto Dibon, and we have laid waste even unto Nophah, which reacheth unto Medeba (Num. 21:27-30).

That these prophecies involve heavenly arcana, as do the prophecies of the Old Testament, is clearly manifest not only from their having been transcribed by Moses and applied to the state of things of which he was then writing, but also from the fact that nearly the same words are found in Jeremiah, inserted in the prophecies of that book; in which it is evident from what has been said about the internal sense of the Word, that there are as many heavenly arcana as there are words. The words in Jeremiah are:--

A fire is gone forth out of Heshbon, and a flame from among Sihon, and hath devoured the corner of Moab, and the crown of the head of the sons of tumult. Woe unto thee, O Moab, the people of Chemosh has perished, for thy sons are taken into captivity, and thy daughters into captivity (Jeremiah 48:45, 46).

From this also it is plain that Word also had an internal sense. Concerning the Ancient Church which was after the flood, see (n. 640, 641, 765, 1238, 1327, 2385).

AC 2898. That with them there were prophecies which in the internal sense treated of the Lord and of His kingdom, may be seen not only from what has been shown, but also from the prophecies of Balaam, who was from Syria, spoken of in Moses (Num. 23:7-10, 18-25; 24:3-10, 15-25), which are expressed in a style similar to the other prophecies of the Word, and plainly foretell the Lord’s coming, in these words:--

I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall come forth a Star out of Jacob, and a Scepter shall rise out of Israel and shall smite through the corners of Moab, and break down all the sons of Sheth (Num. 24:17).

These prophecies, like the former, are called "Parables (Enuntiata)," for the same word is used (Num. 23:7, 18; 24:3, 15, 20).

AC 2899. A Word afterwards followed in the Jewish Church that in like manner was written by representatives and significatives, so that it might have within it an internal sense understood in heaven, and that thus by the Word there might be communication, and the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens be united to the Lord’s kingdom on earth. Unless everything in the Word represents, and unless all the words by which everything therein is written, signify the Divine things pertaining to the Lord, thus the celestial and spiritual things belonging to His kingdom, the Word is not Divine; but being so it could not possibly be written in any other style; for by means of this style and not possibly by any other, human things and human words correspond to heavenly things and heavenly ideas, even to the least jot. From this it is that if the Word is read even by a little child, the Divine things therein are perceived by the angels (n. 1776).

AC 2900. In regard to the Word of the New Testament which is in the Evangelists, as the Lord spoke from the Divine itself, the several things spoken by Him were representative and significative of Divine things, thus of the heavenly things of His kingdom and church, as has been abundantly shown above.

GENESIS 23:1-20

1. And the lives of Sarah were a hundred years and twenty years and seven years, the years of the lives of Sarah.

2. And Sarah died in Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her.

3. And Abraham rose up from upon the faces of his dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying,

4. I am a sojourner and a dweller with you; give me a possession of a sepulchre with you, and I will bury my dead from before me.

5. And the sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him,

6. Hear us, my lord, thou art a prince of God in the midst of us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, from burying thy dead.

7. And Abraham rose up, and bowed himself to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth.

8. And he spake with them, saying, If it is with your soul that I should bury my dead from before me, hear me, and intercede for me with Ephron the son of Zohar.

9. That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; in full silver let him give it to me, in the midst of you, for a possession of a sepulchre.

10. And Ephron was sitting in the midst of the sons of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the ears of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying, 11. Nay, my lord, hear me; the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein I give it thee; to the eyes of the sons of my people give I it thee; bury thy dead.

12. And Abraham bowed himself before the people of the land.

13. And he spake unto Ephron in the ears of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me; I will give the silver of the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there.

14. And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him,

15. My lord, hear me; land of four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and thee? bury therefore thy dead.

16. And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver which he had spoken of in the ears of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver current with the merchant.

17. And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field and the cave which was therein, and every tree that was in the field, that was in all the border thereof round about, were made sure,

18. Unto Abraham for an acquisition to the eyes of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city.

19. And after this Abraham buried Sarah his wife, in the cave of the field of Machpelah, upon the faces of Mamre, the same is Hebron, in the land of Canaan.

20. And the field and the cave that is therein were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a sepulchre from the sons of Heth.

THE CONTENTS

AC 2901. In the internal sense a New Spiritual Church is here treated of, that was raised up by the Lord after the former church had altogether expired; and also the reception of faith with those who were of the church. "Sarah" here, is the truth Divine which expired; "burial," is raising up again; "Ephron and the sons of Heth," are those with whom the good and truth of the church were received "Machpelah which is before Mamre," is regeneration; Hebron in the land of Canaan," is a new church.

AC 2902. Truth Divine, that it expired, is treated of (verses 1-3); and that the Lord set up again a new church (verse 4); and was kindly received (verses 5, 6); from which there was joy (verses 7, 12); that their first state was obscure, and they believed the good of charity and the truth of faith to be from themselves (verses 8-11, 14, 15); but they were instructed that good and truth were not from themselves, but from the Lord (verse 13); and thus they were redeemed (verse 16); and regenerated (verses 17, 18); and thus there was a new church (verse 19); from the Gentiles (verse 20).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 2903. Verse 1. Add the lives of Sarah were a hundred years and twenty years and seven years, the years of the lives of Sarah. "The lives of Sarah were," signifies the times and states of the church as to the truths Divine that preceded; "a hundred years and twenty years and seven years," signifies their fullness; "the years of the lives of Sarah," signifies while any truth Divine remained on earth.

AC 2904. The lives of Sarah were. That this signifies the times and states of the church as to the truths Divine that preceded, is evident from the signification here of "lives;" and from the representation of "Sarah." "Lives," here, because they regard age and its periods, namely, infancy, youth, adult age, and old age, signify states, as do all times in general (n. 2625, 2788, 2837); and because the following verses treat of the church, therefore "lives" signify the times and states of the church. That " Sarah" is truth Divine, may be seen above (n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2172, 2173, 2198, 2507); from which it follows that by "the lives of Sarah were," in the internal sense are here signified the times and states of the church as to the truths Divine which preceded.

[2] That Sarah, while alive as Abraham‘s wife, represented the Lord’s Divine Truth conjoined with His Divine Good, may be seen from the places above cited; and because the Lord‘s Divine Truth was represented by her, so also the truth Divine of the church is signified; for in the church there is no other truth than that which is the Lord’s. Truth which is not from Him is not truth; as is also evident from the Word and from the doctrine of faith derived from it. It is evident from the Word, in John:--

A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from heaven (John 3:27).

And in another place:--

Without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:5).

And the same is evident from the doctrine of faith, in that the all of faith, that is, all truth, is from the Lord.

[3] All and each of the representatives and significatives in the Word, in the highest sense regard the Lord; hence is the very life of the Word; and as they regard the Lord, they regard His kingdom also, for the Lord is the all in His kingdom; the Divine things which are from the Lord in His kingdom make the kingdom. Therefore in so far as an angel, spirit, or man receives good and truth from the Lord, and believes that it is from the Lord, so far he is in His kingdom; but in so far as he does not receive and does not believe that it is from the Lord, so far he is not in His kingdom. Thus the Divine things that are from the Lord make His kingdom, or heaven; and this is what is meant by the Lord being the all in His kingdom.

AC 2905. A hundred years and twenty years and seven years. That this signifies their fullness, is evident from the signification of a "hundred," as being what is full (n. 2636); and of "twenty," or twice ten, as being also what is full (n. 1988); and of "seven," as being what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 881); thus it is the fullness or the end of what is holy belonging to the church that is here signified. That numbers in the Word all signify things, may be seen above, (n. 482, 487, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252).

[2] Their fullness, that is, the fullness of the states and times of the church, signifies their end; for the case with the church is like that of the ages of man, of which the first is childhood, the second youth, the third adult age, the fourth old age; the last, or old age, being called the fullness or end. It is also like the times and states of the year; of which the first is spring, the second summer, the third autumn, and the fourth winter; and this last is the end of the year. It is also like the times and states of the day, the first of which is dawn, the second noon, the third evening, and the fourth night; and when this has come, there is fullness or the end. To all these are the states of the church compared in the Word, and they are signified by the same; for by times are signified states (n. 2625, 2788, 2837).

[3] The good and truth with those who are of the church are wont to decrease in this manner; and when there are no longer any good and truth (or as is said, when there is no longer any faith, that is, no charity) then the church has come to its old age, or its winter, or its night; and its time and state then are called "decision," "consummation," and "fulfillment" (n. 1857). The same is signified when it is said of the Lord that He came into the world in the fullness of times, or when there was fullness; for there was then no longer any good, not even natural good; and consequently there was no truth. These are the things specifically signified by what is said in this verse.

AC 2906. The years of the lives of Sarah. That this signifies while any truth Divine remained, is evident from the signification of a "year," as being an entire period of the church from beginning to end; thus from the signification of the "years," as being periods (n. 2905); and from the signification of the "lives of Sarah," as being states as to truth Divine, of which also just above, (n. 2904); thus denoting here the limit when there was no longer any truth Divine remaining; which also follows from what immediately precedes.

[2] That a "year" signifies the entire time of a state of the church from beginning to end, or what is the same, an entire period; and consequently that "years" signify times or periods within the general period, may be seen from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:--

Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach good tidings unto the afflicted; He hath sent Me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and an opening of every kind to the bound, to proclaim the year of Jehovah‘s good pleasure, and the day of vengeance to our God (Isaiah 61:1, 2);

said of the Lord’s advent; the "year of Jehovah‘s good pleasure" denotes the time of a new church. In the same:--

The day of vengeance is in My heart, and the year of My redeemed is come (Isaiah 63:4);

this too is said of the Lord’s advent; the "year of the redeemed" denotes the time of a new church. In the same:--

It is the day of vengeance to Jehovah; the year of retributions for the controversy of Zion (Isaiah 34:8);

where the signification is similar.

[3] The same time is also called the "year of visitation" in Jeremiah:--

I will bring evil upon the men of Anathoth, in the year of their visitation (Jeremiah 11:23).

In the same:--

I will bring upon Moab the year of their visitation (Jeremiah 48:44).

Still more plainly in Ezekiel:--

After many days thou shalt be visited; in the futurity of years thou shalt come into the land that is brought back from the sword, that is gathered out of many peoples, upon the mountains of Israel, which shall be for a waste continually (Ezekiel 38:8);

"the futurity of years" denotes the last time of the church, which then becomes no church, those being rejected who before were of the church, and others received from elsewhere. In Isaiah:--

Thus hath the Lord said unto me, Yet within a year, according to the years of a hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall be consumed (Isaiah 21:16);

here also is meant the last time.

[4] In Ezekiel:--

Thou art become guilty in thy bind that thou hast shed, and art defiled in thine idols which thou hast made; and thou hast caused thy days to draw near, and art come even unto thy years; therefore have I made thee a reproach unto the nations, and a mocking to all the lands (Ezekiel 22:4);

"to come even unto the years" denotes to the end, when the Lord withdraws from the church. In Isaiah:--

Now hath Jehovah spoken, saying, "Within three years, as the years of a hireling, and the glory of Moab shall be brought into contempt, with all his great multitude, and the remnant shall he very small (Isaiah 16:14);

"within three years" also denotes the end of the former church. That "three" denotes what is complete, and a beginning, may be seen above (n. 1825, 2788).

[5] Similar is the signification of "seven," and also of "seventy" (n. 720, 728, 901); and therefore it is said in Isaiah:--

And it shall come to pass in that day that Tyre shall be forgotten seventy years, according to the days of one king; after the end of seventy years it shall be to Tyre as in the song of a harlot. And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years that Jehovah will visit Tyre, and she shall return to her harlot hire (Isaiah 23:15-17);

"seventy years" denotes the entire period, from the time at which the church began even till it expires; which is also meant by "the days of one king," for a "king" signifies the truth of the church (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069). The "seventy years" of captivity in which the Jews were, also involve something similar, of which likewise it is said in Jeremiah:--

These nations shall serve the king of Babel seventy years; and it shall come to pass when seventy years are fulfilled, I will visit their iniquity upon the king of Babel, and upon this nation, saith Jehovah (Jeremiah 25:11, 12; 29:10).

[6] That a "year," and also "years," denote the entire period of a church, or the time of its duration, may be seen still further in Malachi:--

Behold I send Mine angel, and he shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the angel of the covenant whom ye desire; behold He cometh, said Jehovah Zebaoth; and who may endure the day of His coming? Then shall the offering of Judah and Jerusalem be pleasant unto Jehovah, according to the days of an age, and according to the ancient years (Malachi 3:1, 2, 4);

where the advent of the Lord is treated of; the "days of an age" denote the Most Ancient Church; "ancient years," the Ancient Church; the "offering of Judah," worship from celestial love and the "offering of Jerusalem," worship from spiritual love; that Judah is not meant here, nor Jerusalem, is plain. In David:--

I have considered the days of old, and the years of the ages (Ps. 77:5);

where the "days of old" and the "years of the ages" denote the same churches. This is still more plain in Moses:--

Remember the days of an age, understand the years of generation and generation; ask thy father, and he will show thee; thine elders, and they will tell thee. When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man (Deut. 32:7, 8).

[7] That a "year" and "years" denote the full time of a church, is also plain in Habakkuk:--

O Jehovah, I have heard Thy fame, I was afraid; O Jehovah, revive Thy work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years make known; in anger remember mercy. God will come from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran (Habakkuk 3:2, 3);

This is said of the Lord‘s advent; "in the midst of the years" denotes in the fullness of times; and what is meant by the fullness of times" may be seen just above (n. 2905).

[8] As a "year" and "years" signify the full time between its two limits, which are the beginning and the end when predicated of the Lord’s kingdom on earth (that is, the church) so they signify what is eternal when predicated of the Lord‘s kingdom in heaven. As in David:--

O God, Thy years are to generation and generation; and Thou art He, and Thy years shall not be brought to an end. The sons of Thy servants shall continue, and their seed shall be established before Thee (Ps. 102:24, 27, 28).

In the same:--

Thou wilt add days to the days of the king, his years shall be as generation and generation; he shall dwell before God forever (Ps. 61:6, 7);

where "years" denote what is eternal, for this treats of the Lord and His kingdom.

[9] The lambs which were offered for burnt-offering and sacrifice being "sons of their year" (Lev. 12:6; 14:10; Num. 6:12; 7:15, 21, 27, 33, 39, 45, 51, 57, 63, 69, 75, 81), signified the celestial things of innocence in the Lord’s kingdom, which are eternal. And for this reason also the burnt-offering of calves that were "sons of a year" is mentioned as being most grateful (Micah 6:6).

[10] That in the internal sense a "year" does not signify a year, is also evident from the fact that the angels, who are in the internal sense of the Word, cannot have an idea of any year; but because a year is a full period of time in nature, which belongs to the world, therefore instead of a year they have an idea of what is full in respect to states of the church, and of what is eternal in respect to states of heaven; times with them are states (n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837).

AC 2907. Verse 2. And Sarah died in Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan; and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her. "Sarah died," signifies night as to the truths of faith; "in Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan," signifies in the church; "and Abraham came to mourn for Sarah, and to weep for her," signifies the Lord‘s state of grief.

AC 2908. Sarah died. That this signifies night as to the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of "dying," of "dead," and of "death," when these are predicated of the church, as denoting its last time, when all faith, that is, charity, has expired; which time, throughout the Word, is called "night" (n. 221, 709, 1712, 2353); that "dying" denotes ceasing to be such, may be seen above (n. 494). The same is further evident from the representation of Sarah, as being truth Divine (n. 2904), and thus it is plain that the signification is as has been said.

AC 2909. In Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan. That this signifies in the church, is evident from the signification of "Kiriath-arba," as being the church as to truth; and from the signification of "Hebron in the land of Canaan," as being the church as to good. In the Word, and especially in the prophetical parts, where truth is treated of, good is treated of also, because of the heavenly marriage in everything of the Word (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712); therefore here, when Kiriath-arba is mentioned, it is also said, "the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan." That the "land of Canaan" denotes the Lord’s kingdom, see (n. 1413, 1437, 1607); also that the places in that land were variously representative, (n. 1585, 1866).

[2] In regard to Kiriath-arba which is Hebron, it was the region where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob dwelt. That Abraham dwelt there, appears from what was said in a preceding chapter: "Abraham came and dwelt in Mamre, which is in Hebron" (Gen. 13:18). That Isaac dwelt there, appears from what is said in a later chapter: "Jacob came unto Isaac his father, to Mamre, to Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac sojourned" (Gen. 35:27). That Jacob dwelt there is evident from Joseph being sent to his brethren by Jacob his father, from the valley of Hebron (Gen. 37:14). From the representation of the three, as spoken of above, it is plain that Kiriath-arba which is Hebron represented the church before Jerusalem did.

[3] That every church in process of time decreases, until it has nothing left of faith and charity, and then is destroyed, was also represented by Kiriath-arba which is Hebron, in its being possessed by the Anakim, by whom were signified dire persuasions of falsity (n. 581, 1673). That it was possessed by the Anakim, may be seen in several places (Num. 13:21, 22; Josh. 11:21; 14:15; 15:13, 14; Judges 1:10); and that it came to its end or consummation and was destroyed, was represented by all things therein being given by Joshua to the curse (Josh. 10:36, 37; 11:21); and the Anakim being smitten by Judah and Caleb (Judges 1:10; Josh. 14:13-15; 15:13, 14). And that there was again a new church, was represented by Hebron being assigned to Caleb for an inheritance, as to field and villages (Josh. 21:12); but the city itself was made a city of refuge (Josh. 20:7; 21:13); and a priestly city for the sons of Aaron (Josh. 21:10, 11); in the inheritance of Judah (Josh. 15:54).

[4] Hence it is evident that Hebron represented the Lord‘s spiritual church in the land of Canaan. And likewise on this account David was required by the command of Jehovah to go to Hebron, and was there anointed to be king over the house of Judah; and after he had reigned there seven years and six months, he went to Jerusalem and took possession of Zion (2 Sam. 2:1-11; 5:5; 1 Kings 2:11); and then for the first time the spiritual church of the Lord began to be represented by Jerusalem, and the celestial church by Zion.

AC 2910. And Abraham came to mourn for Sarah and to weep for her. That this signifies the Lord’s state of grief on account of the night as to truths of faith in the church, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord (n. 1893, 1965, 1989, 2011, 2172, 2501, 2833, 2836). That to "mourn" and to "weep" signify a state of grief is evident without explication; to "mourn" has respect to grief on account of night as to good in the church, and to "weep" as to truths. These two verses treat of the end of the church; its end is when there is no longer any charity. This state is treated of in many places in the Word, especially in the Prophets, and in John in the Apocalypse; the Lord also describes this end by many things in the Evangelists, and calls it the "consummation of the age," and also "night."

[2] For with churches the case is this: In the beginning charity is fundamental with them; every one then loves another as a brother, and is affected from good, not for his own sake, but for the sake of the neighbor, the community, the kingdom of the Lord, and above all things for the Lord‘s sake. But in process of time charity begins to grow cold and to become naught. Afterwards comes hatred of one another; which, although it does not appear outwardly, because in civic society men are under laws, and are under outward bonds of restraint, still is nourished inwardly. These outward bonds of restraint come from the love of self and of the world; they are the love of honor and eminence, the love of gain and hence also of power, thus the love of reputation. Under these loves hatred against the neighbor conceals itself, which is of such a nature that men desire to have command over all, and to possess all things that are another’s; and when these desires are opposed, they treasure in their hearts contempt for the neighbor, they breathe revenge, they take delight in his ruin, and even practise cruelties so far as they dare. Into things like these does the charity of the church at its end at last decline, and then it is said of it that there is no longer any faith, for where there is no charity there is no faith, as has been shown many times.

[3] There have been a number of churches, known to us from the Word, that had such an end. The Most Ancient Church thus expired about the time of the flood; in like manner the Ancient Church which was after the flood; also a second Ancient Church, called the Hebrew Church; and at last the Jewish Church, which was by no means a church that commenced from charity, but was only the representative of a church, to the intent that by representatives communication with heaven might survive, until the Lord came into the world. Afterwards a new church was raised up by the Lord, called the Church of the Gentiles, which was internal, for interior truths had been revealed by the Lord; but this church is now at its end, because now there is not only no charity, but there is hatred instead of charity; which hatred, though it does not appear outwardly, yet is within, and breaks out whenever possible with anyone, that is, whenever outward bonds do not restrain.

[4] Besides these churches there have been very may others that are not so fully described, which in like manner decreased and destroyed themselves. There are many causes for such decrease and self-destruction; one is that parents accumulate evils, and by frequent practice, and at length by habit, they implant them in their nature, and so by inheritance transcribe them upon their offspring; for what parents acquire from actual life by frequent use is rooted in their nature and is transmitted by inheritance to posterity; and unless the posterity is reformed or regenerated, it is continued to successive generations and is all the time increasing; and thus the will becomes more prone to evils and falsities. But when a church is consummated and perishes, then the Lord always raises up a new church somewhere; but rarely, if ever from the people of the former church; but from nations that have been in ignorance. Concerning these in what follows.

AC 2911. Verse 3. And Abraham rose up from upon the faces of his dead, and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying. "Abraham rose up," signifies elevation; "from upon the faces of his dead," signifies in that night; "and spake unto the sons of Heth, saying," signifies those with whom there was to be a new spiritual church.

AC 2912. Abraham rose up. That this signifies elevation, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as implying some elevation (n. 2401, 2785); here elevation from grief, since a new church was about to be raised up in place of the former that perished. From upon the faces of his dead. That this signifies in that night, is evident from the signification of "dying," of "death," and of "dead," as denoting night in regard to the state of the church, concerning which see above, (n. 2908).

AC 2913. And spake unto the sons of Heth, saying. That this signifies those with whom there was to be a new spiritual church, is evident from the signification of "Heth," and of the "Hittites." There were many inhabitants of the land of Canaan, who are enumerated in various places in the Word, and among them the Hittites (Gen. 15:20; Exod. 3:8, 17; 13:5; 23:23; Deut. 7:1; 20:17; Josh. 3:10; 11:1, 3; 12:8; 24:11; 1 Kings 9:20). Most of these were from the Ancient Church, that this extended through many lands, and likewise through the land of Canaan, may be seen above, (n. 1238, 2385). All who were of that church acknowledged charity as the principal, and all their doctrinal things were of charity or of life. Those who elaborated doctrinal things of faith were called "Canaanites," and were separated from the other inhabitants of the land of Canaan (Num. 13:29); (n. 1062, 1063, 1076).

[2] Among the better inhabitants of the land of Canaan were the Hittites, as is evident from the fact that Abraham dwelt among them, and afterwards Isaac and Jacob, and had their burial place there; also from their bearing themselves piously and modestly toward Abraham, as is very plain from what is related of them in this chapter, particularly in (verses 5, 6, 10, 11, 14, 15). And thus by the Hittites, as by a well-disposed nation, is represented and signified the spiritual church, or the truth of the church. But with these, as with the rest of the Ancient church, it came to pass that in course of time they declined from charity or the good of faith; and consequently the falsity of the church is afterwards signified by them (Ezek. 16:3, 45). That still the Hittites were among the more honored, is evident from the fact that there were Hittites with David, as Abimelech (1 Sam. 26:6), and Uriah, who was a Hittite (2 Sam. 11:3, 6, 17, 21), whose wife was Bathsheba, of whom Solomon was born to David (2 Sam. 12:24). That "Heth" signifies the more external knowledges regarding life, which are the external truths of the spiritual church, may be seen above, (n. 1203).

[3] This verse treats of the new church that the Lord sets up anew when the former church expires; and the verses that follow treat of the reception of faith with them. A church among the sons of Heth is not treated of; but the raising up by the Lord of the spiritual church in general, after the former ceases or is consummated; the sons of Heth are merely those who represent and signify this. See what has been said above concerning churches, namely: That in process of time a church decreases and is contaminated (n. 494, 501, 1327, 2422): That it recedes from charity, and produces evils and falsities (n. 1834, 1835): That then the church is said to be laid waste and desolate (n. 407-411, 2243): That a church is set up anew with the Gentiles, and why (n. 1366). That in the church which is being vastated, there is always preserved something of the church as a nucleus (n. 468, 637, 931, 2422): That unless there were a church on earth, the human race would perish (n. 468, 637, 931, 2422): That the church is as the heart and lungs in the grand body, that is, in the human race (n. 637, 931, 2054, 2853): The quality of the spiritual church (n. 765, 2669): That charity constitutes the church, not faith separate (n. 809, 916): That if all had charity, the church would be one, although they should differ as to doctrinal things and worship (n. 1285, 1316, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844, 2385): That all men on earth who are in the Lord‘s church, though scattered through the world, still as it were make a one, as in the heavens (n. 2853): That every church is internal and external, and both together constitute one church (n. 409, 1083, 1098, 1100, 1242): That the external church is nothing, if there is no internal church (n. 1795): That the church is compared to the rising and the setting of the sun, also to the seasons of the year, and the times of the day (n. 1837): That the Last Judgment is the last time of the church (n. 900, 931, 1850, 2117, 2118).

AC 2914. Verse 4. I am a sojourner and a dweller with you; give me a possession of a sepulchre with you, and I will bury my dead from before me. "I am a sojourner and a dweller with you," signifies their first state, that although the Lord was unknown to them, still He could be with them; "give me a possession of a sepulchre with you," signifies that they might be regenerated; "and I will bury my dead from before me," signifies that thus He would come forth and rise again from the night which is with them.

AC 2915. I am a sojourner and a dweller with you. That this signifies their first state, that although the Lord was unknown to them still He could be with them, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord (frequently shown above) and from the signification of being a "sojourner with them," and of being a "dweller with them," as being unknown and yet with them. That this is the internal sense is plain from what precedes and what follows; for here a new church is treated of, and in this verse its first state, which is such that first of all the Lord is unknown to them; and yet because they live in the good of charity, and in what is just and equitable as to civil life, and in what is honorable and becoming as to moral life, they are such that the Lord can be with them; for the Lord’s presence with man is in good, and therefore in what is just and equitable, and further in what is honorable and be. coming (what is honorable being the complex of all the moral virtues; and what is becoming being simply its form) for these are goods which succeed in order, and are the planes in man on which conscience is founded by the Lord, and consequently intelligence and wisdom. But with those who are not in these goods (that is to say from the heart or affection), nothing of heaven can be inseminated; for there is no plane or ground, thus there is no recipient; and as nothing of heaven can be inseminated, neither can the Lord be present there. The Lord‘s presence is predicated according to the good, that is, according to the quality of the good; the quality of the good is according to the state of innocence, of love, and of charity, in which the truths of faith have been implanted or can be implanted.

AC 2916. Give me a possession of a sepulchre with you. That this signifies that they can be regenerated, is evident from the signification of a "sepulchre," which in the internal sense of the Word signifies life or heaven, and in the opposite sense death or hell. That it signifies life or heaven, is because the angels, who are in the internal sense of the Word, have no idea of a sepulchre because they have none of death; and therefore instead of a sepulchre they perceive nothing else than continuation of life, and thus resurrection-for man rises again as to his spirit, and is buried as to his body (n. 1854). And because burial" signifies resurrection, it also signifies regeneration, for regeneration is man’s first resurrection, as he then dies in respect to the former man, and rises again as to the new. By regeneration a man from being dead becomes alive; hence comes the signification of a "sepulchre" in the internal sense. That the idea of regeneration occurs to the angels when the idea of a sepulchre is presented, is plain also from what was said above about little children (n. 2299).

[2] That in the opposite sense a "sepulchre" signifies death or hell, is because the evil do not rise again into life; and therefore when the evil are treated of and a sepulchre is mentioned, no other idea then occurs to the angels than that of hell; this is the reason why hell in the Word is also called a "sepulchre."

[3] That a" sepulchre" signifies resurrection, and also regeneration, is plain in Ezekiel:--

Therefore prophesy, and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord Jehovah, Behold I will open your sepulchres, and cause you to come up out of your sepulchres, O My people and I will bring you to the ground of Israel. And ye shall know that I am Jehovah, when I have opened your sepulchres, and caused you to come up out of your sepulchres, O My people; and shall put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you on your own ground (Ezekiel 37:12-14);

where the Prophet treats of the bones that were made to live, and in the internal sense of regeneration. That he treats of regeneration is plainly evident, for it is said, "when I shall put My spirit in you and ye shall live, and I shall place you on your own ground." "Sepulchres" here denote the former man and his evils and falsities, to "open," and to "come up out of" which, is to be regenerated. Thus the idea of a sepulchre perishes and is as it were put off, when the idea of regeneration or of the new life comes in.

[4] That the sepulchres were opened, and many bodies of the saints that were sleeping arose and went forth out of their sepulchres after the Lord‘s resurrection, and entered into the holy city, and appeared unto many (Matt. 27:52, 53), involves what is similar, namely resurrection because of the Lord’s resurrection, and in a more interior sense every resurrection. That the Lord raised Lazarus from the dead (John 11:1-44) also involves the raising up of a new church from the Gentiles; for all the miracles wrought by the Lord, because they were Divine, involved states of His church. The signification also is singular where it is said that the man who was cast into the sepulchre of Elisha, when he touched his bones, revived (2 Kings 13:20, 21); for by Elisha was represented the Lord.

[5] As "burial" signified resurrection in general, and every resurrection, therefore the ancients were very solicitous about their burials and the places where they should be buried--as Abraham, that he should be buried in Hebron in the land of Canaan; also Isaac and Jacob, with their wives (Gen. 47:29-31; 49:30-32); and Joseph, that his bones should be carried from Egypt into the land of Canaan (Gen. 50:25; Exod. 13:19; Josh. 24:32); David, and the kings who came after him, that they should be buried in Zion (1 Kings 2:10; 11:43; 14:31; 15:8, 24; 22:50; 2 Kings 8:24; 12:21; 14:20; 15:7, 38; 16:20). The reason of this was that the lad of Canaan and Zion represented and signified the Lord‘s kingdom, and burial represented and signified resurrection; but that the place effects nothing in regard to resurrection must be evident to every one.

[6] That "burial" signifies resurrection to life, is also plain from other representatives, as that there should be no wailing for the wicked, and that they should not be buried but cast out (Jer. 8:2; 14:16; 16:4, 6; 20:6; 22:19; 25:33; 2 Kings 9:10; Rev. 11:9); and that wicked persons who had been buried should be cast forth from their sepulchres (Jer. 8:1, 2; 2 Kings 23:16-18). In the opposite sense however, a "sepulchre" signifies death or hell (Isa. 14:19-21; Ezek. 32:21-23, 25, 27; Ps. 88:5, 6, 11, 12; Num. 19:16, 18, 19).

AC 2917. I will bury my dead from before me. That this signifies that thus He would come forth and rise again from the night in which they were, is evident from the signification of "burying," as being to rise again (n. 2916); and from the signification of "dead," as being the state of shade or of night, that is, of ignorance (n. 2908, 2912), out of which the Lord comes forth and rises with man, when He is acknowledged. Before this He is in night, because He does not appear; He rises again with every one who is being regenerated.

AC 2918. Verses 5, 6. And the sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him, Hear us, my lord, thou art a prince of God in the midst of us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre from burying thy dead. "The sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him," signifies a reciprocal state with those who are of the new church; "Hear us," signifies reception; "my lord, thou art a prince of God in the midst of us," signifies the Lord as to the good and truth Divine with them; "in the choice of our sepulchres," signifies good pleasure as to regeneration; "bury thy dead," signifies that so they would come forth from night and be raised up into life; "none of us shall withhold his sepulchre from thee," signifies that they were all prepared to receive regeneration; "from burying thy dead," signifies so that they might come forth from night and be raised up.

AC 2919. The sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying unto him. That this signifies a reciprocal state with those who are of the new church, is evident from the signification of "answering," when assent is given to that which is asked, as being what is reciprocal; and from the signification of the "sons of Heth," as being those with whom there is to be a new spiritual church (n. 2913).

AC 2920. Hear us. That this signifies reception, is evident from the signification of "hear us" when it is a mode of answering to express assent, as being reception.

AC 2921. My lord, thou art a prince of God in the midst of us. That this signifies the Lord as to the good and truth Divine with them, is evident from the signification of "lord," and of a "prince of God;" and from the signification of "in the midst of us." That it is said "Lord" where good is treated of, is evident from the Word of the Old Testament; for there Jehovah is now called Jehovah, now God, now Lord, now Jehovah God, now the Lord Jehovih, now Jehovah Zebaoth; and this from a hidden cause which can be known only from the internal sense. In general, when the subject is the celestial things of love, or good, it is said "Jehovah;" but when it is the spiritual things of faith, or truth, it is said "God;" when both together are treated of, it is said "Jehovah God;" but when the Divine power of good or omnipotence is treated of, it is said "Jehovah Zebaoth," that is, "Jehovah of Armies," and likewise "Lord," so that " Jehovah Zebaoth" and "Lord" are of the same sense and signification. From this, namely, the power of good, men and angels are also called "lords;" and in the opposite sense those are called "servants" in whom there is no power, or who have power from the former. From all this it may be seen that here "my lord" in the internal sense signifies the Lord as to good; which will be illustrated from the Word in the passages that follow. "Prince of God," however, signifies the Lord as to the power of truth, or as to truth; as is evident from the signification of a "prince," or of "princes," as being primary truths (n. 1482, 2089); and also from its being said "prince of God," for it is said "God" where truth, and "Jehovah" where good is treated of, (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822). That "in the midst of us" means among them, or with them, is evident without explication.

[2] That in the Word of the Old Testament "Jehovah Zebaoth" and "Lord" are of the same sense and signification, is evident in Isaiah:--

The zeal of Jehovah Zebaoth shall perform this; the Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath fallen on Israel (Isaiah 9:7, 8).

And in another place:--

A mighty king shall rule over them, saith the Lord, Jehovah Zebaoth (Isaiah 19:4).

In Malachi:--

Behold the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the angel of the covenant whom ye desire behold He cometh, saith Jehovah Zebaoth (Malachi 3:1).

Still more plainly in Isaiah:--

I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up; above Him stood the seraphim; six wings and six wings for each; the one cried to the other, Holy, holy, holy, Jehovah Zebaoth. Woe is me, for I am undone, for mine eyes have seen the King, Jehovah Zebaoth. And I heard the voice of the Lord (Isaiah 6:1, 3, 5, 8);

from which it is plain that "Jehovah Zebaoth" and "the Lord" have the same meaning.

[3] But the name "Lord Jehovih" is used especially when the aid of omnipotence is sought and implored, as in Isaiah:--

Say unto the cities of Judah, Behold your God. Behold the Lord Jehovah will come in a strong one, and His arm shall rule for Him behold His reward is with Him and His work before Him. He shall feed His flock like a shepherd (Isaiah 40:9-11).

That the name "Lord Jehovih" is used when such and is sought, may be seen further in (Isa. 25:8; 40:10; 48:16; 50:4, 5, 7, 9; 61:1; Jer. 2:22; Ezek. 8:1; 11:13, 17, 21; 12:10, 19, 28; 13:8, 13, 16, 18, 20; 14:4, 6, 11, 18, 20, 21; Micah 1:2; Ps. 71:5, 16); and frequently elsewhere.

[4] And besides this in the Word of the Old Testament the name "Lord" involves the like as "Jehovah," namely, that it is said "Lord" when good is treated of; wherefore also "Lord" is similarly distinguished from "God" as "Jehovah" is distinguished from "God." As in Moses:--

Jehovah your God, He is God of gods and Lord of lords (Deut. 10:17).

In David:--

Give thanks unto the God of gods, for His mercy is forever; give thanks unto the Lord of lords, for His mercy is forever (Ps. 136:1-3).

[5] But in the Word of the New Testament, with the Evangelists and in the Apocalypse, "Jehovah" is nowhere named; but instead of "Jehovah" it is said "Lord," and this from hidden causes of which we shall speak below. That in the Word of the New Testament it is said "Lord," instead of "Jehovah," is very plain in Mark:--

Jesus answered, The first of all the commandments is, Hear O Israel, The Lord our God is one Lord; therefore thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy thought, and from all thy strength (Mark 12:29, 30).

The same is thus written in Moses:--

Hear O Israel, Jehovah our God is one Jehovah; and thou shalt love Jehovah thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy strength (Deut. 6:4, 5);

where it is plain that "the Lord" is said instead of "Jehovah." So too in John:--

I saw and behold there was a throne set in heaven, and one sitting upon the throne; and round about the throne four animals full of eyes before and behind; each one of them had six wings round about, and was full of eyes within; and they said, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty (Rev. 4:2, 6, 8).

But in Isaiah we read:--

I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up. Above Him stood the seraphim; six wings and six wings for each; the one cried to the other, Holy, holy, holy, Jehovah Zebaoth (Isaiah 6:1, 3, 5, 8).

Here "the Lord" is said instead of "Jehovah;" or "the Lord God Almighty" instead of "Jehovah Zebaoth"; that the "four animals" are seraphim or cherubim is plain in (Ezekiel 1:5, 13-15, 19; 10:15). That "the Lord" in the New Testament is "Jehovah," is also evident from many other passages, as in Luke:--

There appeared to Zacharias an angel of the Lord (Luke 1:11);

an "angel of the Lord" meaning an "angel of Jehovah." In the same:--

The angel said to Zacharias concerning his son, Many of the sons of Israel shall he turn unto the Lord their God (Luke 1:16);

"unto the Lord their God" meaning "unto Jehovah God." In the same:--

The angel said to Mary concerning Jesus, He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of David (Luke 1:32);

"the Lord God" here is instead of "Jehovah God." In the same:--

Mary said, My soul doth magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath exalted itself upon God my Saviour (Luke 1:46, 47);

here too "the Lord" is instead of "Jehovah." In the same:--

Zacharias prophesied, saying, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel (Luke 1:68);

"the Lord God," is instead of "Jehovah God." In the same:--

An angel of the Lord stood by the shepherds; and the glory of the Lord shone round about them (Luke 2:9);

an angel of "the Lord," and the glory of "the Lord," instead of an angel of "Jehovah," and the glory of "Jehovah." In Matthew:--

Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord (Matthew 21:9; 23:39; Luke 13:35; John 12:13);

"in the name of the Lord," instead of "in the name of Jehovah." Besides many other passages, as (Luke 1:28; 2:15, 22-24, 29, 38, 39; 5:17; Mark 12:10, 11).

[6] Among the hidden causes of their calling Jehovah "the Lord," were the following. If at that time it had been said that the Lord was the Jehovah so often named in the Old Testament (n. 1736), men would not have accepted it, for they would not have believed it; and moreover the Lord did not become Jehovah as to the Human also until He had completely united the Divine Essence to the Human Essence, and the Human to the Divine (n. 1725, 1729, 1733, 1745, 1815, 2156, 2751). The full unition was accomplished after the last temptation, which was that of the cross; and for this reason, after the resurrection the disciples always called Him "the Lord" (John 20:2, 13, 15, 18, 20, 25; 21:7, 12, 15-17, 20; Mark 16:19, 20); and Thomas said, "My Lord and my God" (John 20:28). And because the Lord was the Jehovah so often named in the Old Testament, He therefore also said to the disciples:--

Ye call Me Master and Lord, and ye say well, for I am (John 13:13, 14, 16);

and these words signify that He was Jehovah God; for He is here called "Lord" as to good, and "Master" as to truth. That the Lord was Jehovah is also meant by the words of the angel to the shepherds:--

Unto you is born this day a Saviour who is Christ the Lord (Luke 2:11);

He is called "Christ" as the Messiah, the Anointed, King; and "Lord" as Jehovah; "Christ" in respect to truth, and "Lord" in respect to good. One who does not closely study the Word could not know this, for he would think that our Saviour was called Lord, like others, from the common title of reverence; when yet He was so called because He was Jehovah.

AC 2922. In the choice of our sepulchres. That this signifies good pleasure as to regeneration, is evident from the signification of "choosing," of "choice," and of "chosen," as being what is wished for, or what is of good pleasure; and from the signification of a "sepulchre," as being resurrection and regeneration (n. 2916).

AC 2923. Bury thy dead. That this signifies that so they would come forth from night and be raised up into life, is evident from the signification of being "buried," as being to rise again, or to be raised up to life (n. 2916); and from the signification of the "dead," as being night in respect to the goods and truths of faith (n. 2908, 2912, 2917).

AC 2924. None of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre. That this signifies that they were all prepared to receive regeneration, is evident from the signification of a "sepulchre," as being regeneration (n. 2916), and from the signification of "not withholding," as being willingness to receive.

AC 2925. From burying thy dead. That this signifies that they might come forth from night and be raised up, is evident from the signification of being "buried," and of "dead," as being to be raised up from night in respect to the goods and truths of faith (n. 2923), where the same words occur.

AC 2926. Verses 7, 8. And Abraham rose up, and bowed himself to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth. Add he spake with them, saying, If it is with your soul that I should bury my dead from before me, hear me, and intercede for me with Ephron the son of Zohar. "Abraham rose up, and bowed himself," signifies the Lord’s joy on account of the kind reception; "to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth," signifies by those who were to be of the new spiritual church; "and he spake with them, saying," signifies thought and perception concerning them;‘ "if it is with your soul," signifies if from the affection of truth from the heart; "that I should bury my dead from before me," signifies that they desired to come forth from night and rise again; "hear me," signifies that they should comply; "and intercede for me with Ephron the son of Zohar," signifies those with whom the truth and good of faith could he received.

AC 2927. Abraham rose up, and bowed himself. That this signifies the Lord’s joy on account of the kind reception, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as involving something of elevation (n. 2101, 2785), (for the mind is elevated by gladness and joy, and it is therefore here said that he "rose also from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord; and from the signification of "bowing himself," as being to rejoice. Bowing is a movement of the body expressive both of humiliation and of joy; that here it is expressive of joy, and is on account of kind reception, is plain from what precedes and what follows.

AC 2928. To the people of the land, to the sons of Heth. That this signifies by those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of "people," as being those who are in truths, thus the spiritual (n. 1259, 1260); from the signification of the "land," as being the church (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118); and from the signification of the "sons of Heth," as being those who are of the new spiritual church (n. 2913). The "people of the land" are sometimes mentioned in the Word where it treats of Israel and of Jerusalem, and by them in the internal sense is signified the spiritual church, or those who are of the spiritual church; for by "Israel" and by "Jerusalem" this church is meant. When Judah and Zion are treated of, the term "nation" is used, for by "nation" is signified the celestial church; and this church is meant by "Judah" and by "Zion."

[2] That it is said the "people of the land" when Israel and Jerusalem are treated of (thus where it treats of the spiritual church), is evident from many passages in the Word; as in Ezekiel:--

Say unto the people of the land, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to the ground of Israel, They shall eat their bread in sadness, and shall drink their waters in devastation; that her land may be laid waste the cities that are inhabited shall be laid waste, and the land shall be desolate (Ezekiel 12:19, 20);

where in the internal sense Jerusalem and the ground of Israel denote the spiritual church; "bread" and "waters," charity and faith, or good and truth; the "land," the church itself, which is said to be "wasted" as to good, and "desolate" as to truth.

[3] In the same:--

Gog and his multitude shall the house of Israel bury, that they may cleanse the land seven months; and all the people of the land shall bury them (Ezekiel 39:11-13);

"Gog" denotes external worship separate from internal, which is idolatrous (n. 1151); the "house of Israel," the spiritual church in respect to good; the "people of the land," the same in respect to truth; the "land," the church itself. The "land" denotes the church for the reason that the land of Canaan represented the Lord‘s kingdom and thus the church, for the Lord’s kingdom on earth is the church.

[4] In the same:--

All the people of the land shall be for this oblation for the prince in Israel; and upon that day shall the prince prepare for himself and for all the people of the land a bullock for a sin-offering. The people of the land shall bow themselves at the door of the gate in the sabbaths and in the new moons; and the people of the land shall enter, in the appointed feasts (Ezek. 45:16, 22; 46:3, 9);

where the New Jerusalem, that is, the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, is treated of; they who are in it are the "people of the land;" the "prince" is truth Divine which is from the Lord.

[5] The sons of Heth are so called because by "sons" are signified truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623). Truths are predicated of the spiritual, because the spiritual are initiated into good by means of truths, that is, into charity by means of faith; and because they do good from the affection of truth, not knowing that it is good from anything else than because they are so instructed. Their conscience also is founded in these truths of faith (n. 1155, 1577, 2046, 2088, 2184, 2507, 2715, 2716, 2718).

AC 2929. And he spake with them, saying. That this signifies thought and perception concerning them, is evident from the signification of "speaking and saying," as being to think and perceive (n. 1898, 1919, 2080, 2271, 2287, 2506, 2515, 2552, 2619).

AC 2930. If it is with your soul. That this signifies if it is from the affection of truth from the heart, is evident from the signification of "soul" in the internal sense. In many passages of the Word it is said "from the heart and from the soul," or "from the whole heart and from the whole soul, and by this is signified that it is from all the will and all the understanding. That man has two faculties, namely, will and understanding, may be known to every one; also that the will is a separate faculty from the understanding, for we are able to understand good and truth and yet will what is evil and false. From the beginning man was so created that his will and understanding should make a one, so that he should not think one thing and will another, nor will one thing and think another. Such is the state with the celestial, and such it was in the celestial church, which was called "Man" or "Adam." But with the spiritual, or in the spiritual church, one faculty has been separated from the other, that is, the understanding from the will; and the man is reformed by the Lord as to the intellectual part, and in this there is formed a new will and a new understanding (n. 863, 875, 895, 897, 927, 928, 1023, 1044, 2256). The new will which is from the Lord, in this part, is what is called "heart," and the new understanding is what is called "soul;" and when it is said, "from all the heart and from all the soul," by this is meant from all the will and from all the understanding.

[2] This is what is meant by "heart and soul" in Moses:--

Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength (Deut. 6:5).

And again:--

Now, O Israel, what doth Jehovah thy God require of thee, but to fear Jehovah thy God, to walk in all His ways, and to love Him, and to serve Jehovah thy God with all thy heart and with all thy soul (Deut. 10:12; 11:13).

Again:--

This day Jehovah thy God commandeth thee to do these statutes and judgments; and thou shalt keep and do them with all thy heart and with all thy soul (Deut. 26:16).

in the book of Kings:--

David said to Solomon, Jehovah will establish His word which He spake concerning me, saying, If thy sons take heed to their way to walk before Me in truth, with all their heart and with all their soul; there shall not be cut off from thee a man from upon the throne of Israel (1 Kings 2:4).

In Matthew:--

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul (Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:29, 30).

[3] The same is also predicated of Jehovah or the Lord, because thence comes the affection of good which is of the will, and the affection of truth which is of the understanding, with the man of the church. As in Samuel:--

I will raise Me up a faithful priest, according to that which is in My heart and in My soul (1 Sam. 2:35).

And in Jeremiah:--

I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in this land in truth, with all My heart and with all My soul (Jeremiah 32:41).

And in other passages throughout the Word, "soul" signifies the affection of truth, as in Isaiah:--

With my soul have I desired Thee in the night; yea, with my spirit in the midst of me have I sought Thee early; for according to Thy judgments to the earth, the inhabitants of the world learn righteousness (Isaiah 26:9);

here "soul" denotes the affection of truth "spirit," the affection of good. That "judgments" are predicated of truths, and "righteousness" of good, (n. 2235).

[4] In the same:--

The fool speaketh folly, to make empty the hungry soul and to cause the thirsty for drink to fail (Isaiah 32:6);

the "hungry soul" denotes the desire for good, which the fool maketh empty; the "soul thirsty for drink"’ denotes the desire for truth, which the fool causeth to fail. In Jeremiah:--

Their soul shall be as a watered garden, and I will water the wearied soul, and every sorrowful soul will I fill (Jeremiah 31:12, 25);

here "soul" denotes the affection of good and of truth. Again:--

All her people sigh, they seek bread, they have given their pleasant things for food to restore the soul. The comforter that restoreth my soul is far from me; my sons are desolate. They sought food for themselves, to restore their soul (Lam. 1:11, 16, 19);

"soul" denotes the life of the affection of good and truth; "food," wisdom and intelligence.

[5] It is said that " soul" signifies the affection of truth from the heart, because there are affections of truth which are not from the heart; as those which are from the love of self or of being eminent, from the love of the world or of making gain, also from the love of meriting; from these in like manner there come forth affections of truth, but they are not genuine; being from the will of the flesh, and not from the heart: that which is from the heart is from the Lord. Moreover "soul" in the Word signifies in the universal sense all life (n. 1000, 1005, 1040, 1742), for in the universal sense the soul is that from which another thing is, and lives; thus the soul of the body is its spirit, for from this the body lives but the soul of the spirit is its still more internal life, from which it has wisdom and understanding.

AC 2931. That I should bury my dead from before me. That this signifies that they desired to come forth from night and to rise again, is evident from the signification of "burying," which is to rise again; and of "dead," as denoting night in respect to the goods and truths of faith (n. 2923, 2925), where the same words occur.

AC 2932. Hear me. That this signifies that they should comply, is evident from the signification of "hearing," as being to obey, or comply (n. 2542).

AC 2933. And intercede for me with Ephron the son of Zohar. That this signifies those with whom the truth and good of faith could be received, is evident from the fact that the field and the cave in the field, where Sarah was to be buried, belonged to Ephron; and as "burial" signifies regeneration (n. 2916), it follows that by "Ephron" are signified those with whom the truth and good of faith could be received. The sons of Heth also represent the same, inasmuch as they were of Ephron‘s city and were his people. By "interceding" is here signified to be prepared to receive.

AC 2934. Verse 9. That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath, which is in the end of his field; in full silver let him give it to me, in the midst of you, for a possession of a sepulchre. "That he may give me the cave of Machpelah, which he hath," signifies the obscurity of faith they have; "which is in the end of his field," signifies where there is little of the church "in full silver," signifies redemption by means of truth; "let him give it to me, in the midst of you, for a possession of a sepulchre," signifies possession thus, through regeneration.

AC 2935. That he may give me the cave of Machpelah. That this signifies obscurity of faith, is evident from the signification of a "cave," as being what is obscure (n. 2463); and from the signification of "Machpelah," as being faith that is in obscurity. A "cave" signifies obscurity because it is a dark place; when a cave of a mountain" is spoken of, it then means obscurity of good; but when it is said the "cave of the field of Machpelah," it then means obscurity of truth. As it is here said, the "cave of Machpelah," and Machpelah was where there was a field at the end of which was the cave, obscurity of truth is here meant, or what is the same, obscurity of faith; and hence also it is plain that "Machpelah" means faith which is in obscurity.

[2] Those who are being regenerated and being made spiritual are in the greatest obscurity as to truth. Good indeed flows in with them from the Lord, but not so much truth; wherefore between the Lord and the good with man there exist parallelism and correspondence, but not with the truth (n. 1832). The primary cause of this is that those here treated of do not know what good is; and even if they should know, still they do not believe from the heart; and so long as good is in obscurity with them, so long is truth, for all truth is from good. But to make this more clear: They know only very obscurely that the Lord is good itself, and that all is good which is of love to Him and of charity toward the neighbor, and that all is truth which asserts this and confirms it; indeed they even cherish doubts, and admit reasonings against these things; and so long as they are in such a state, the light of truth from the Lord cannot flow in; they even think of the Lord as another man, and not as God; and they think of love to Him from some worldly love; what the genuine affection of charity toward the neighbor is they scarcely know, nor indeed what charity is and what the neighbor, when yet these are essentials. Hence it is evident how far the spiritual are in obscurity; and they are still more so before regeneration, which is the state here treated of.

AC 2936. Which is in the end of his field. That this signifies where there is little of the church, is evident from the signification of the "end" or extremity, as being what is little; and from the signification of "field," as being the church, and also doctrine which is of the church (n. 368). That the "end" or extremity denotes little, may be seen from the description of land, ground, and fields, in the Word; their middle part signifies much, but the extremity signifies little; this extremity is also called the part round about. The reason is that the representative ceases at the extremity; thus here the "end of the field" signifies little of the church.

AC 2937. In full silver. That this signifies redemption through truth, is evident from the signification of "silver," as being truth (n. 1551); and from the signification of "let him give me in silver," or "for silver," as being to buy, and in the spiritual sense to redeem. That the spiritual are said to have been "bought with silver," may be seen above (n. 2048), that is, redeemed by truth. The reason of this is that they are regenerated, that is, are introduced to good, through the truth of faith; for the spiritual man has no perception of good, as the celestial man has; but truth is that by means of which he knows, and from which he afterwards acknowledges, that there is good; and when he acknowledges and believes, then it becomes good to him, and he is affected by it as good, which becomes such in quality as is the truth which he has. Hence it is that the spiritual are said to have been redeemed by means of truth. But still the quality of the good is not born and produced from truth, but from the influx of good into truth of that quality.

AC 2938. Let him give it to me, in the midst of you, for a possession of a sepulchre. That this signifies possession thus, through regeneration, is evident without explication; for that a "sepulchre" is regeneration was shown above (n. 2916).

AC 2939. Verse 10. And Ephron was sitting in the midst of the sons of Heth; and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham in the ears of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying. "Ephron was sitting in the midst of the sons of Heth," signifies those by whom the good and truth of faith could primarily be received; "and Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham," signifies their state of reception; "in the ears’ of the sons of Heth," signifies obedience; "of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying," signifies as to the doctrinal things through which there is faith.

AC 2940. Ephron was sitting in the midst of the sons of Heth. That this signifies those by whom the good and truth of faith could primarily be received, is evident from the representation of "Ephron," and also from the signification of the "sons of Heth," as being those with whom the truth and good of faith could be received, and with whom there could be a new church (n. 2913, 2933); and from the signification of "the midst"‘ or "in the midst," as being what is primary, or principal, and also inmost (n. 1074). That "the midst" in the internal sense signifies what is primary or principal, and also inmost, is from representatives in the other life; for when any good is represented by spiritual ideas, then what is best is presented in the midst, and what is less and less good is presented successively from the middle outward; and lastly at the circumference are those things which are not good; it is from this that "in the midst" denotes both what is primary or principal and what is inmost. In this manner likewise are represented the ideas of thought, and also affections, and all changes of state; the goods or evils being thus varied according to their situation in respect to the middle. The origin of this is from the form of spiritual and heavenly things, which is such.

AC 2941. And Ephron the Hittite answered Abraham. That this signifies their state of reception, is evident from the signification of "answering," when assent is given, as being reception; as is also plain from what now follows. Ephron is here called "the Hittite," so as to represent the spiritual church as the head and chief.

AC 2942. In the ears of the sons of Heth. That this signifies obedience, is evident from the signification of the "ear," as being obedience (n. 2542).

AC 2943. Of all that went in at the gate of his city, saying. That this signifies as to the doctrinal things through which there is faith, is evident from the signification of "gate," as being entrance, thus that which introduces; in like manner as "door," (n. 2145, 2152, 2356, 2385); and from the signification of "city," as being the truth of faith (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2451, 2712). Cities in the Ancient Church were not like the cities of later times and of the present day, that is, assemblages and gatherings of people; but they were the dwelling together of separate families. The family of one parent constituted a city, as for instance the city of Nahor, to which Abraham’s servant came when he was to betroth Rebekah to Isaac, (Gen. 24:10) was Nahor‘s family which was there; and Shalem, the city of Shechem, to which Jacob came when he journeyed from Paddan-aram, (Gen. 33:18; 34:2, 4, 6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 20, 24, 26) was the family of Hamor and Shechem, which was there; and so with the other cities of that time.

[2] And as they had learned from the most ancient people that nations and families represented the heavenly societies, and thus the things of love and charity (n. 655, 1159), so when a "city" is mentioned instead of a family and "people" instead of nation, truth is signified which is of faith. Hence also the "city of God" and the "holy city," in the genuine sense signify faith in the Lord; and as a walled town or city signified faith, the "gate" of the city signified doctrinal things, because these introduce to faith. This in the representative Jewish Church was also signified by the judges and the elders sitting in the gate of the city and judging there; as is plain from the historical parts of the Word; and also in Zechariah:--

These are the words that ye shall do: Speak ye every man the truth with his companion, judge truth and the judgment of peace in your gates (Zechariah 8:16).

Also in Amos:--

Hate the evil and love the good, and establish judgment in the gate (Amos 5:15).

A "gate" also signifies the way of access to the rational mind, and this mind is compared to a city, (n. 2851).

AC 2944. Verse 11. Nay, my lord, hear me; the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein I give it thee; to the eyes of the sons of my people give I it thee: bury thy dead. "Nay, my lord, hear me," signifies that first state, described before; "the field give I thee, and the cave that is therein I give it thee," signifies preparation by themselves as to the things that are of the church and of faith; "in the eyes of the sons of my people give I it thee," signifies according to the understanding of all; "bury thy dead," signifies that they may come forth from night and be raised up.

AC 2945. Nay, my lord, hear me. That this signifies that first state, described above (n. 2935, 2936), namely, that they were in obscurity of faith, is evident from the refusal, in that they were not willing to listen to Abraham, that he should give silver in full (verse 9), which means in the internal sense that they should be redeemed by the Lord), but desired to prepare themselves as to the things of the church and of faith, that is, to reform themselves. These words, "Nay, my lord, hear me," involve their state; that is, the state of their thought about redemption and reformation; for a proposal immediately follows.

AC 2946. The field give I thee, and the cave that is therein I give it thee. That this signifies preparation by themselves as to the things that are of the church and of faith, is evident from the signification of "field," as being the church (n. 368, 2936); from the signification of the "cave" therein, that is, in the field, as being obscurity of faith (n. 2935); and from the signification of "giving the field" and "giving the cave," or what is the same, not receiving silver from Abraham, as being not to desire to be redeemed by the Lord, but by themselves, and thus to desire to prepare themselves as to these things. Such is the first state of all who are being reformed and made spiritual, namely, that they do not believe that they are reformed by the Lord but by themselves, that is, they believe all of the will of good and of the thought of truth to be from themselves; they are also left in this state by the Lord, since in no other way can they be reformed. For if before they have been regenerated it should be said to them that they cannot do anything of good from themselves, or think anything of truth from themselves, they would then either fall into the error of thinking that they must wait for influx into the will and influx into the thought, and if this does not take place must attempt nothing; or into the error of thinking that if good and truth were from any other source than themselves, nothing would be imputed to them for righteousness; or into the idea that so they would be as it were machines, and not their own masters, or in control of themselves; or into some other error. It is therefore permitted them at that time to think that good and truth are from themselves.

[2] But after they are regenerate, then by degrees the knowledge is insinuated into them that the case is otherwise, and that all good and truth are solely from the Lord; and still further, when they are becoming more perfected, that whatever does not come from the Lord is evil and false. To the regenerate, if not in the life of the body still in the other life, it is given not only to know this, but also to perceive it; for all the angels are in the perception that it is so. (See what was said above on these subjects, namely, that all good and truth are from the Lord, (n. 1614, 2016); that all intelligence and wisdom are from the Lord, (n. 109, 112, 121, 124); that man of himself can do nothing of good and think nothing of truth, (n. 874-876); that nevertheless every one ought to do good as if from what is his own, and not hang down his hands, (n. 1712); and that if a man compels himself to resist evil and to do good, as from himself, he receives from the Lord a heavenly Own, (n. 1937, 1947).

AC 2947. To the eyes of the sons of my people give I it thee. That this signifies as to the understanding of all, is evident from the signification of the "eyes," as being the understanding (n. 2701); and from the signification of "sons of the people," as being all; "sons of the people" are those who for the first time are initiated into truths, for "people" are those who are in truths (n. 1259, 1260); therefore it is not said "to the eyes of my people," but "to the eyes of the sons of my people."

AC 2948. Bury thy dead. That this signifies that they may come forth from night and be raised up, is evident from the signification of being "buried," as being to rise again, or what is the same, to be raised up; and from the signification of "dead," as being night as to the goods and truths of faith (n. 2917, 2923, 2925, 2931), where are the same words.

AC 2949. Verses 12, 13. And Abraham bowed himself before the people of the land. And he spoke unto Ephron in the ears of the people of the land, saying, But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me; I will give the silver of the field; take it of me, and I will bury my dead there. "Abraham bowed himself before the people of the land," signifies the Lord’s joy on account of the good will of those who were of the new spiritual church; "and he spake unto Ephron," signifies influx with those who were able to receive; "in the ears of the people of the land," signifies even unto obedience as to the truths of the church; "but if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me," signifies more interior influx; "I will give the silver of the field; take it of me," signifies redemption as to the truths of the church which are from the Lord; "and I will bury my dead," signifies that thus they would come forth from night and be vivified.

AC 2950. Abraham bowed himself before the people of the land. That this signifies the Lord‘s joy on account of the good will of those who were of the new spiritual church, is evident from the signification of "bowing himself," here being to rejoice (n. 2927), from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord (concerning which quite often above); and from the signification of the "people of the land," as being those who are of the spiritual church, concerning which see above (n. 2928), where the same words occur; but it is there said that "he bowed himself to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth" (verse 7). The reason why the sons of Heth also are mentioned there, is that there those of the church are signified who are beginning to be initiated, who are also signified by the "sons of the people" (n. 2947); but here those are meant who are into, and therefore it is simply said the "people of the land," without the addition of the " sons of Heth;" and in the former passage there is signified joy on account of their kind reception, but here because of their good will. Reception comes first, because it is of the understanding; good will comes afterwards, because it is of the will (n. 2954).

AC 2951. And he spake unto Ephron. That this signifies influx with those who were able to receive, is evident from the signification of "speaking," as being to think (n. 2271, 2287), and likewise to will (n. 2626), and thus to flow in, because influx is thereby effected; and from the representation of Ephron, as being those with whom the truth and the good of faith could be received (n. 2933).

AC 2952. In the eyes of the people of the land. That this signifies even to obedience as to the truths of the church, is evident from the signification of the "ear," as being obedience (n. 2542, 2942) and from the signification of the "people of the land," as being those who are of the spiritual church and also the truths of this church (n. 1259, 1260, 2928).

AC 2953. But if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me. That this signifies more interior influx, is evident from the series of the discourse. That Abraham’s speaking to Ephron signified influx, was stated just above (n. 2951); and here the discourse is continued and the attention aroused by its being said, "but if thou wilt, I pray thee, hear me;" wherefore a more interior influx is signified The internal sense is of such a nature that the expressions and words are almost nothing; but their sense flowing from the series presents an idea, and indeed before the angels a spiritual idea, to which the external or literal sense serves as the object ex quo; for it is the ideas of man‘s thought which are the objects of spiritual thoughts with the angels; and in fact chiefly those ideas of thought with man that are from the Word, for the reason that all things in the Word are representative, and the words in both general and particular are significative; and it is at once observed that they are from the Word, because the spiritual and celestial things therein follow in their order in the most regular manner; and in both there is what is holy from the inmost sense, which treats solely of the Lord and His kingdom.

AC 2954. I will give the silver of the field; take it of me. That this signifies redemption as to the truths of the church which are from the Lord, is evident from the signification of "giving silver," as being to redeem by truth (n. 2937); for "silver" is truth (n. 1551); from the signification of "field," as being the church, and also the doctrine of truth (n. 368, 2936); and from the signification of "taking of me," as being what is reciprocal with those who are of the church; the reciprocal is faith that redemption is from the Lord alone. As regards redemption, it is the same as reformation and regeneration and the consequent deliverance from hell and salvation. The redemption or reformation and salvation of the men of the spiritual church is effected through truth; but that of the men of the celestial church through good. The reasons have been repeatedly stated above, namely, that the spiritual have nothing of the will of good, but in its stead have been gifted with the faculty of understanding what is good. The understanding of good is what is principally called truth, and indeed the truth of faith; but willing and thence doing this is what is called good. The spiritual therefore, through the understanding of good, or what is the same, through truth, are introduced into the will of good, or what is the same, into good; not however into anything of the will of good from themselves, for with them all the will of good has been lost (n. 895, 927, 2124); but into a new will which they receive from the Lord (n. 863, 875, 1023, 1043, 1044); and when they have received this will they are then called specifically the redeemed.

AC 2955. I will bury my dead. That this signifies that they would come forth from night and be vivified, is evident from the signification of being "buried," and of "dead," as given above (n. 2917, 2923, 2925, 2931, 2948). They are here said to be vivified, because they are in the course of receiving faith; for from faith, that is, from its good, they receive life; their life is from no other source. That "I will bury my dead" signifies emerging from spiritual night and being vivified, is also for the reason that when a former church is dead, a new one is raised up by the Lord in its place; thus life is given in place of death, and in place of night there comes morning; and also for the reason that with every one who is being reformed and is becoming spiritual, his "dead" is as it were buried, and that which is new, which is living, rises again: thus in place of night with him, or in place of darkness and cold, there arises morning with its light and its heat. Hence it is that the angels, who are in the Lord’s life, in place of man‘s idea about the burial of the dead, have an idea of resurrection and of new life. And this also is the case, for there is always some church on the earth; and when the old expires, and night comes on, then a new church arises elsewhere and there comes morning.

AC 2956. Verses 14, 15. And Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him, My lord, hear me; land of four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and thee? bury therefore thy dead. "Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him," signifies a state of reception; "My lord, hear me," signifies the first state of reception; "land of four hundred shekels of silver," signifies the price of redemption by means of truth; "what is that between me and thee?" signifies that he gave his assent, but still desired it to be from himself; "bury therefore thy dead," signifies here as before, emerging from night, and a consequent resuscitation.

AC 2957. Ephron answered Abraham, saying unto him. That this signifies a state of reception, is evident from the signification of "answering," when assent is given, as being to receive (n. 2941). That it is a state of reception which is here signified by "answering and saying," is evident from what follows.

AC 2958. My lord, hear me. That this signifies the first state of reception, is also evident from what follows, and also from what was said above (n. 2945) where the same words occur; there however there was denial, but here affirmation although there is still doubt, for in what follows presently it is said, "What is that between me and thee?" by which is signified that he gave assent, but still desired it to be from himself. And besides, "My lord, hear me," is merely a customary form of speech intended to excite reflection in another, yet still it involves a state of making an offer.

AC 2959. Land of four hundred shekels of silver. That this signifies the price of redemption by means of truth, is evident from the signification of "four hundred shekels" (concerning which presently); and from the signification of "silver" as being truth (n. 1551, 2048, 2937). That "four hundred shekels" signifies the price of redemption, is because "four hundred" signifies vastation; and "shekel" signifies the price. What vastation is may be seen above (n. 2455, 2682, 2694, 2699, 2701, 2704), namely, that it is twofold; of one kind when a church altogether perishes, that is, when there is no longer any charity or faith, and when it is said to be "devastated" or laid waste;" and of the other kind when they who are of the church are reduced to a state of ignorance, and also of temptation, in order that the evils and falsities with them may be separated and as it were dispersed. They who emerge from this kind of vastation are they who are specifically called the redeemed, for they are then instructed in the goods and truths of faith, and are reformed and regenerated by the Lord (concerning whom see the passages cited). Now whereas "four hundred" when predicated of time, as "four hundred years," signifies the duration and state of vastation, so when predicated of shekels it signifies the price of redemption; and when mention is made of silver at the same time, there is signified the price of redemption by means of truth.

[2] That "four hundred years" signifies the duration and state of vastation, may also be seen from what was said to Abram:--

Jehovah said unto Abram, Knowing thou shalt know that thy seed shall be a sojourner in a land that is not theirs, and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them four hundred years (Gen. 15:13);

where it seems that by "four hundred years" is meant the stay of the sons of Israel in Egypt. But that their stay in Egypt is not what is signified, but something else which is not manifest to anyone except from the internal sense, is evident from the fact that the stay of the sons of Israel in Egypt was but half of that time; as is clearly evident from the generations from Jacob to Moses for from Jacob came Levi; from Levi, Kohath; from Kohath, Amram; and from Amram, Aaron and Moses (Exod. 6:16-20). Levi and his son Kohath came with Jacob into Egypt (Gen. 46:11); Moses was of the second generation after this, and he was eighty years old when he spoke to Pharaoh (Exod. 7:7); from all which it is evident that from the coming of Jacob into Egypt to the going forth of his sons was about two hundred and fifteen years.

[3] It is still further evident that by "four hundred" in the Word something else is signified than what is meant by the number itself in the historic sense, from its being said:--

The dwelling of the sons of Israel which they dwelt in Egypt was four hundred and thirty years and it came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, in the selfsame day it came to pass that all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt (Exod. 12:40, 41);

when nevertheless the stay of the sons of Israel there was but half that number of years; but it was four hundred and thirty years counting from Abraham’s entrance into Egypt; and therefore it was so said for the sake of the internal sense that lies concealed in the words. In the internal sense, by the sojourning of the sons of Jacob in Egypt is represented and signified the vastation of the church; the state and duration of which is described by the number "four hundred and thirty years;" by "thirty" the state of vastation of Jacob‘s sons, that it was none at all, because they were such that they could not be reformed by any state of vastation, concerning the signification of the number thirty, (n. 2276); and by "four hundred years," the general state of vastation of those who were of the church.

[4] Therefore they who go forth from this vastation are they who are called the "redeemed," as is also plain from the words spoken to Moses:--

Wherefore say unto the sons of Israel, I am Jehovah, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of Egypt, and I will deliver you from their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments (Exod. 6:6).

So in another passage:--

Jehovah brought you out with a mighty band, and redeemed you out of the house of servants, from the band of Pharaoh king of Egypt (Deut. 7:8; 13:5).

And in another place:--

Thou shalt remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, but Jehovah thy God redeemed thee (Deut. 15:15; 24:18).

In Samuel:--

Thy people whom Thou hast redeemed to Thee out of Egypt (2 Sam. 7:23).

Because those who emerge from the state of vastation are called the "redeemed," therefore by "four hundred shekels" is signified the price of redemption.

[5] That a shekel" signifies the price or estimation is evident from the following passages in the Word; in Moses:--

And all thy estimation shall be in the shekel of the holiness (Lev. 27:25).

And in another place:--

When a soul hath committed a trespass, and sinned in error from the holy things of Jehovah, he shall bring his guilt-offering to Jehovah, a ram without blemish out of the flock, according to thy estimation, in silver of shekels, after the shekel of holiness (Lev. 5:15).

From these passages it is plain that by a "shekel" is signified the price or estimation. It is said the "shekel of holiness," because the price or estimation has regard to truth and good from the Lord; and truth and good from the Lord are the holy itself in the church. For this reason it is called the "shekel of holiness" in other places also (Exod. 30:24; Lev. 27:3; Num. 3:47, 50; 7:13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 43, 49, 55, 61, 67, 73; 18:16).

[6] That the "shekel" denotes the price of what is holy, is clearly evident in Ezekiel, where the Holy Land and the Holy City are treated of. It is there said of the shekel:--

The shekel shall there be twenty gerahs; twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh (pound) (Ezek. 45:12);

that here by "shekel," and by "pound," and by the numbers, are signified holy things, that is, good and truth, anyone can see; for the Holy Land, and the Holy City in it (or the New Jerusalem there treated of) is no other than the kingdom of the Lord, where neither shekel nor gerah nor pound, nor the counting by them, but the number itself, from its signification in the internal sense, determines the estimation or the price of what is good and what is true.

[7] In Moses:--

They shall give every man an expiation for his soul lest there should be a plague, half a shekel, after the shekel of holiness: the shekel is twenty gerahs and the half shekel for a therumah (an oblation) to Jehovah (Exod. 30:12, 13);

where ten gerahs, which are the "half shekel," denote the remains which are from the Lord. Remains are goods and truths stored up with man, and these are signified by "ten," (n. 576, 1738, 1906, 2284); and also that remains are goods and truths from the Lord stored up with man, (n. 1906, 2284). These therefore are called an "oblation to Jehovah," and it is said that by them there shall be an expiation for the soul. The reason why it is so often said that the shekel was twenty gerahs, as in the passages quoted, and also in (Lev. 27:25; Num. 3:47; 18:16), is that the "shekel which is twenty gerahs" signifies the estimation of the good of remains. That "twenty" signifies the good of remains may be seen above, (n. 2280). On this account the shekel was likewise a weight, according to which the value both of gold and of silver was estimated (Gen. 24:22; Exod. 38:24; Ezek. 4:10; 45:12); the value of gold, because "gold" signifies good (n. 113, 1551, 1552); and of silver, because "silver" signifies truth (n. 1551, 2048). From all this it is now plain that by "land of four hundred shekels of silver" is signified the price of redemption by means of truth. It is called "land" because the subject is the spiritual church, which is reformed and regenerated by means of truth from the Lord (n. 2954). That by "land" is signified the church, (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118).

AC 2960. What is that between me and thee? That this signifies that he gave his assent, but still desired it to be from himself, namely, his being prepared or reformed, is evident from the sense of the letter when applied to the internal sense which treats of reformation. Above, it was said by Ephron, "The field give I thee, and the cave that is therein I give it thee" (verse 11), by which was signified that they desired to prepare themselves in regard to the things which are of the church and of faith, that is, reform themselves; that such is the first state of those who are being reformed may be seen above (n. 2946). But when they progress further in the knowledges of truth or of faith, then comes their second state, in which they indeed give assent, but still desire it to be from themselves; this is the state treated of in this verse; but a third state is presently described, namely, the state of belief that they are reformed by the Lord. The cause of their being such in the beginning was stated above (n. 2946). But that when they advance in the knowledges of truth or of faith they indeed acknowledge that they are reformed by the Lord, but still desire it to be from themselves, is for the reason that the cloud of ignorance is only gradually dispersed, and that the confirmations of truth are strengthened with time, and that good is perfected by imbuements of the knowledges’ of truth. It is the good itself in which the truth has been implanted that causes them not only to acknowledge but also to believe that reformation is from the Lord. This is the third state; and it is followed by a fourth, namely, that in which they perceive it to be from the Lord. But there are few who come into this state in the life of the body, for it is an angelic state; but they who are regenerate come into it in the other life. Hence it is evident that in the internal sense is here described the man of the spiritual church, and what his state is while he is yet immature; also what it is when be begins to mature, and at last when he has matured.

AC 2961. Bury therefore thy dead. That this signifies an emerging from night, and a consequent resuscitation, is evident from the signification of "dead," as being night in regard to the truths of faith; and from the signification of "being buried," as being to be raised up (n. 2917, 2923, 2925, 2931, 2948, 2955). The reason why these words are said so often in this chapter, is that the subject treated of is the emerging from night in regard to the truths of faith, and the resuscitation (that is, the reformation and regeneration) of the spiritual church.

AC 2962. Verse 16. And Abraham harkened unto Ephron, and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver which he had spoken of in the ears of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver current with the merchant. "Abraham harkened unto Ephron," signifies confirmation for obeying; "and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver," signifies redemption; "which he had spoken of in the ears of the sons of Heth," signifies according to the capacity of those who are of the new church; "four hundred shekels of silver," signifies the price of redemption; "current with the merchant," signifies adapted to their state.

AC 2963. Abraham harkened unto Ephron. That this signifies confirmation for obeying, namely, by those with whom the good and truth of faith could be received, is evident from the signification of "hearkening," as being to obey (n. 2542); and from the representation of "Ephron," as being those with whom the good and truth of faith could be received (n. 2933). That the confirmation is with them, and by them, is plain from the words; for it is said that Abraham "harkened unto him."

AC 2964. And Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver. That this signifies redemption, is evident from the signification of "weighing silver," as being to purchase, and in the spiritual sense to redeem. The "silver" here is the same as the "four hundred shekels," by which is signified the price of redemption (n. 2959).

AC 2965. Which he had spoken of in the ears of the sons of Heth. That this signifies according to the capacity of those who are of the new church, is evident from the signification of "speaking in the ears," and of the "sons of Heth." In the internal sense to "speak" signifies both to perceive and to will (that it signifies to perceive, (n. 2619); that it signifies to will, (n. 2626). But the "ears" signify obedience (n. 2542); hence to "speak in the ears" denotes according to the capacity (for the capacity depends on the reception, and thus on the obedience accordingly as one perceives and wills) also from the signification of the "sons of Heth," as being those who are of the new spiritual church (n. 2913). (That the man of the church is reformed, that is, the truth of faith is implanted in him, and that this is conjoined with the good of charity, will be stated below in this verse, (n. 2967).

AC 2966. Four hundred shekels of silver. That this signifies the price of redemption, was shown above (n. 2959); but what the price of redemption is shall now be told. Redemption is of the Lord alone, and so too is the price of redemption; and this price is also predicated of the reception by man, with whom the price is great according to the reception. The price of redemption is the Lord‘s merit and righteousness through the most grievous temptations, whereby He united the Human Essence to the Divine, and the Divine Essence to the Human, and this by His own power; and by this unition saved the human race, and especially those who are of the spiritual church. That the Lord was made righteousness through the most grievous temptations, may be seen above, (n. 1813, 2025-2027); also that He united the Human Essence to the Divine Essence, and the Divine to the Human, (n. 1725, 1729, 1733, 1737, 1813, 2083); and that He did this from His own power, (n. 1616, 1921, 2025, 2026, 2083, 2500, 2523, 2632); and by this unition saved the human race, and especially those who are of the spiritual church, (n. 2661, 2716). These are the things which are signified by the "price of redemption."

[2] That this price is also predicated of the reception with man, with whom it is great in proportion to his reception, is evident from the fact that it is the Lord’s Divine which makes the church with man; for nothing is called the church that is not the Lord‘s own; for it is the good which is of love and charity, and it is the truth which is of faith, which make that which is called the church. That all good is from the Lord, and that all truth is from Him, is well known; good and truth that are from man are not good and truth; and from this it is plain that the price of redemption with a man is great in proportion to his reception.

[3] As with the Jews the Lord’s redemption was so little esteemed as to be scarcely anything, it is said in Zechariah:--

I said unto them, If it be good in your eyes, give me my hire, and if not, forbear. And they weighed my hire, thirty pieces of silver. And Jehovah said unto me, Cast it unto the potter, the goodly price that I was priced at of them (Zech. 11:12, 13).

And in Matthew:--

They took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of Him that was price, whom they had bought from the sons of Israel, and gave them for the potter‘s field, as the Lord appointed me (Matthew 27:9, 10).

That "thirty" denotes what is so little as to be scarcely anything, may be seen above (n. 2276); thus this passage denotes that the Jews placed no value on the merit and redemption of the Lord. But with those who believe all good and all truth to be from the Lord, the price of redemption is signified by "forty," and in a higher degree by "four hundred."

AC 2967. Current with the merchant. That this signifies adapted to their state, is evident from the signification of the "merchant," and thence of "current with the merchant." A "merchant" in the Word signifies those who have the knowledges of good and truth; and their "merchandise" signifies the knowledges themselves; hence "silver current with the merchant" signifies truth, as much as can be received; or what is the same, adapted to the state and capacity of each one. That these added words involve some arcanum, anyone may see.

[2] Concerning the signification of "merchant" and of "merchandise," something will be said presently; but as regards the thing itself the case is this. All who are being reformed and regenerated are gifted with charity and faith by the Lord, but each according to his capacity and his state; for there are evils and falsities with which man has imbued himself from infancy, which stand in the way of one person’s receiving a like gift with another; these evils and falsities must be vastated before the man can be regenerated; and in so far as there is a residue of heavenly and spiritual life after vastation, this can be enlightened with truth and enriched with good. It is the remains, which are goods and truths from the Lord stored up with man, that then receive life. These goods and truths are acquired from infancy even to the time of reformation, with one person more, with another fewer. These are reserved in his internal man; nor can they be brought forward until his external man has been reduced to correspondence, which is effected chiefly by temptations, and by many kinds of vastation; for until corporeal things, which are contrary to them, become quiescent (such as the things of the love of self and of the world), celestial and spiritual things, which are of the affection of good and truth, cannot flow in; this is the reason why every one is reformed according to his state and capacity. This also the Lord teaches in the parable concerning the man who went abroad:--

Who called his own servants and delivered unto them his goods; and unto one he gave five talents, to another two, to another one to each according to his several ability. He that received the five talents traded with them, and made other five talents in like manner he also that received the two, he also gained other two (Matt. 25:14-17).

So too concerning the ten servants, to whom were given ten pounds, that they might trade with them (Luke 19:12, 13).

[3] That a "merchant" signifies those who have the knowledges of good and truth; and that "merchandise" signifies the knowledges themselves, is evident from the passages that have just been quoted from Matthew and Luke, and also from those which now follow. In Ezekiel:--Say unto Tyre, O thou that dwellest at the entrances of the sea, that art the trader of the peoples unto many isles, Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches in silver, iron, tin, and lead, they furnished thy fairs. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders; in the soul of man and vessels of brass they furnished thy commerce. The sons of Dedan were thy traders; many isles were the mart of thy hand. Syria was thy merchant in the multitude of thy handiworks. Judah and the land of Israel, they were thy traders; in wheat, minnith and pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm, they furnished thy commerce. Damascus was thy merchant in the multitude of thy handiworks, by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches, in the wine of Helbon and wool of Zahar. Dan also and Javan furnished yarn in thy fairs. Dedan was thy trader in flowing garments for riding. The Arabian and all the princes of Kedar, they were the merchants of thy hand, in lambs, in rams, and goats, in these were they thy merchants. The traders of Sheba and Raamah, they were thy traders in the chief of all spices. Haran and Canneh, and Eden, the traders of Sheba; Asshur, Chilmad, were thy traders. These were thy traders in perfect things (Ezek. 27:3, 12, 13, 15-24). These things are said concerning Tyre; and by "Tyre" are signified the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201), as is plain from the several particulars. The "traffickings," and "merchandise," and the "wares" that are here mentioned, are nothing else than these knowledges; and for this reason Tyre is called the "dweller at the entrances of the sea". "Waters" are knowledges; and the "sea" is a collection of these, (n. 28); and is also called the "trader of the peoples unto many isles," that is, even to those who are more remotely in worship. "Islands" are the more remote kinds of worship, (n. 1158); also what is signified by "Tarshish," (n. 1156). The "silver, iron, tin, and lead," which are from thence, are truths in their order, even to the last which are sensuous. What "silver" signifies, see (n. 1551, 2048); also what "iron" signifies, (n. 425, 426); also what "Javan, Tubal, and Meshech," (n. 1151-1153, 1155). The "soul of man," and the "vessels of brass," therefrom, are the things which are of natural life (that "soul" signifies all life that is from the Lord, see (n. 1000, 1040, 1436, 1742); also that "vessels of brass" are the natural goods which receive that life, (n. 425, 1551). (What "Dedan" signifies has been stated, see (n. 1172); and what "Syria," (n. 1232, 1234). That "Judah and the land of Israel" are "traders in wheat, minnith and pannag, honey, oil, balm," signifies celestial and spiritual things from the Word. The other nations and their merchandise which are mentioned, are the various genera and species of truth and good, thus the knowledges which are with those who are signified by "Tyre." That they are knowledges from which come wisdom and intelligence, is plainly evident in the same Prophet, where it is thus said:--

Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyre, By thy wisdom, and by thine intelligence thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures; by the multitude of thy wisdom, by thy trading, thou hast multiplied thy riches, and thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches; therefore behold I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations (Ezek. 28:2, 4-7);

where it is manifestly evident that the wares with which they traded are the knowledges of good and truth; for from these, and from no other source, come wisdom and intelligence; and it is therefore said, "by thy wisdom and by thine intelligence thou hast gotten thee riches, and thou hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures." But when knowledges are for the sake of self, for gaining eminence and reputation, or wealth, then they have no life, and those who acquire them are altogether deprived of them; they are deprived of them in the life of the body by embracing falsities for truths and evils for goods; and in the other life they are wholly deprived even of those which are true; and from this it is said, "because thy heart is lifted up because of thy riches, therefore behold I will bring strangers upon thee" (that is, falsities) and "the terrible of the nations" (that is, evils).

[4]

[5] Also in another place in the same Prophet:--

Tyre is like one that is cut off from the midst of the sea; when thy traffickings went forth out of the seas, thou didst satiate many peoples; thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with the multitude of thy riches and of thy merchandise. Now thou art broken by the seas, in the depths of the waters; thy commerce and all thy company are fallen in the midst of thee he merchants among the peoples hiss at thee (Ezek. 27:32-34, 36).

Also in Isaiah:--

The prophecy concerning Tyre. Let the inhabitants of the isle be silent; the merchants of Zidon that pass over the sea have replenished thee and in (great) waters (the seed) of Shihor, the harvest of the river, was her revenue, and thou wast the mart of the nations. Who hath purposed this against Tyre that crowneth herself, whose merchants are princes? (Isaiah 23:2, 3, 8);

where the vastation of Tyre is treated of.

[6] Of Babylon in like manner are predicated "trading" and "merchandise," which are the knowledges of good adulterated, and the knowledges of truth falsified. As in the Revelation:--

Babylon hath made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her whoredom, and the kings of the earth have committed whoredom with her, and the merchants of the earth were made rich by the abundance of her delicacies. The merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her, for no man buyeth their merchandise any more the merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and pearl, and fine linen, and crimson, and silk, and scarlet. The merchants of these things who were made rich by her shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and mourning (Apoc. 18:3, 11, 15).

That "Babylon" is worship the externals of which appear holy while the interiors are profane, may be seen above (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306, 1326) and from this it is plain what its "tradings" and "merchandise" are.

[7] That a "merchant" is one who procures for himself knowledges of truth and good, and thence intelligence and wisdom, is evident from the Lord‘s words in Matthew:--

The kingdom of the heavens is like unto a merchant man seeking goodly pearls; who, when he had found one pearl of great price, went and sold all that he had and bought it (Matthew 13:45, 46)

the "goodly pearl" is charity, or the good of faith.

[8] That all the knowledges of good and truth are from the Lord, is taught in Isaiah:--

Thus said Jehovah, The labor of Egypt, and the merchandise of Cush and of the Sabeans, men of stature, shall pass over upon thee, and they shall be thine; they shall go after thee, in chains they shall pass over, and they shall bow themselves down to thee, they shall pray unto thee. Surely God is in thee, and there is no God else (Isaiah 45:14);

treating of the Divine Human of the Lord.

[9] From all this it may now be seen what is meant by "trading," that is, buying and selling; namely, that it is procuring for one’s self the knowledges of good and truth, and by means of them good itself. That this is from the Lord alone is taught in the same Prophet:--

Ho every one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver; come ye, buy and eat yea come, buy wine and milk without silver and without price (Isaiah 55:1, 2);

where "buying" denotes procuring for one‘s self; "wine" denotes spiritual truth (n. 1071, 1798); "milk," spiritual good (n. 2184). Any one may see that "coming to the waters" here is not coming to the waters, that "buying" is not buying, that "silver" is not silver, and that "wine and milk" are not wine and milk, but are that which is said to correspond to them in the internal sense; for the Word is Divine, and to its several expressions which are from the natural world and man’s sensuous things correspond Divine spiritual and celestial things. In this way and in no other is the Word Divinely inspired.

AC 2968. Verses 17, 18. And the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre, the field and the cave that was therein, and every tree that was in the field, that was in all the border thereof round about, were made sure unto Abraham for an acquisition to the eyes of the sons of Heth, of all that went in at the gate of his city. "The field of Ephron," signifies that which belonged to the church; "which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre," signifies the quality and amount of regeneration; "the field and the cave that was therein," signifies as to the good and truth of faith; "and every tree that was in the field," signifies interior knowledges of the church; "that was in all the border thereof round about," signifies exterior knowledges "were made sure unto Abraham for an acquisition," signifies that they were ascribed to the Lord alone "to the eyes of the sons of Heth," signifies according to their understanding; "of all that went in at the gate of his city," signifies as to all doctrinal things.

AC 2969. The field of Ephron. That this signifies that which belonged to the church, is evident from the signification of "field," as being the church and also doctrine (n. 368, 2936); and from the representation of "Ephron," as being those with whom the good and truth of faith, which belong to the church, could be received (n. 2933); hence the "field of Ephron" signifies that which belonged to the church.

AC 2970. Which was in Machpelah, which was before Mamre. That this signifies the quality and amount of regeneration, is evident from the signification of "Machpelah" as being regeneration by means of the truth which is of faith; and from the signification of "Mamre," as being its quality and amount. By "Machpelah" when the word "cave" is joined to it, or when it is said the "cave of Machpelah," is signified faith which is in obscurity (n. 2935); but by "Machpelah" when named without the word "cave," and it is stated afterwards that there is a "field with a cave" there, is meant regeneration; for by the "field" and "cave" are signified the good and truth of faith by which the regeneration is effected; and besides, Machpelah was a tract of land in which there was a sepulchre, by which last is signified regeneration (n. 2916). But "Mamre," because it was Hebron, as is said in (verse 19) that follows presently, and was in Hebron, as is said in (Genesis 13:18), signifies nothing else than the quality and amount, here, of regeneration, when joined with "Machpelah;" but of the church when joined with "Hebron;" and likewise of perception when joined with "oak-groves" (n. 1616). Thus "Mamre" is simply the determination of the state of the thing; for it was a place where Abraham dwelt (Gen. 13:18); and where Isaac dwelt, and to which Jacob came (Gen. 35:27).

AC 2971. The field and the cave that was therein. That this signifies as to the good and the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of "field" as being the church, also the good itself of the church. The celestial, or good, which is of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor, is compared to "ground," and also to "field;" it is also called "ground" and "field;" because the celestial or good is that which receives the truths of faith, which are compared to seeds and are also called seeds." The same is evident also from the signification of a "cave," as being the truth of faith which is in obscurity (n. 2935); it is said to be in obscurity because it is with the spiritual (n. 1043, 2708, 2715).

AC 2972. And every tree that was in the field. That this signifies interior knowledges of the church, is evident from the signification of a "tree," as being perceptions when the celestial church is treated of (n. 103, 2163), but knowledges when the spiritual church is treated of (n. 2722); here interior knowledges, because it is said "every tree that was in the field," and there then follows "that was in all the border thereof round about," by which is signified exterior knowledges; also from the signification of "field," as being the church (of which above). Mention is made of the tree that was in the field and in the borders thereof round about, on account of that internal sense; otherwise it would not be worthy of mention in a Word that is Divine.

AC 2973. That was in all the border thereof round about. That this signifies exterior knowledges, is evident from the signification of "borders" and of "round about," as being things which are exterior (n. 2936); so that here the "tree that was in the border round about" signifies exterior knowledges. Exterior knowledges are those of the ritual and doctrinal things that are the externals of the church; but interior knowledges are those of the doctrinal things that are the internals of the church. What the externals of the church are, and what the internal, has already been repeatedly stated.

[2] Moreover in various places in the Word mention is made of the "midst" and of that which is "round about;" as when speaking of the land of Canaan, that was called the "midst" where were Zion and Jerusalem, but the country "round about" was where the surrounding nations were. By the "land of Canaan" was represented the kingdom of the Lord; its celestial by "Zion," and its spiritual by "Jerusalem," where was the dwelling place of Jehovah or the Lord. The country "round about," even to the borders, represented the celestial and spiritual things flowing forth in their order and derived therefrom; and in the furthest boundaries the representatives of celestial and spiritual things ceased. These representatives had their origin from those in the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens; there the Lord as a Sun is in the midst; from this is all celestial flame and spiritual light; they who are nearest are in the highest light, but they who are more remote are in less light, and they who are most remote are in the least; and there are the boundaries, and hell begins, which is outside of heaven.

[3] With celestial flame and spiritual light the case is this: The celestial things of innocence and love, and the spiritual things of charity and faith, are in the like ratio as are the heat and light the angels have; for all the heat and light in the heavens are therefrom. It is from this therefore that the "midst" signifies the inmost, and the circumference signifies the outermost, and the things which proceed in order from the inmost to the outermost are in such degrees of innocence, love, and charity as is their distance from the center. And so it is in every heavenly society; they who are in the midst are the best of that kind, and the love and charity of that kind decreases with them according to their remoteness from the center; that is, it decreases with those who are at a distance from the center, in proportion to the distance.

[4] The case is the like with man; his inmost is where the Lord dwells with him, and from this inmost governs the things which are round about. When man suffers the Lord to dispose the things round about to correspondence with the inmost ones, then man is in such a state that he can be received into heaven; and then the inmost, the interior, and the external things act as one; but when man does not suffer the Lord to dispose the things round about to correspondence, then he recedes from heaven in the measure in which he does not suffer it. That the soul of man is in the midst, or in his inmost, and that the body is round about or in the outmosts, is well known; for it is the body that encompasses and invests his soul or his spirit.

[5] With those who are in celestial and spiritual love, good from the Lord flows in through the soul into the body, and thence the lady becomes full of light; but with those who are in bodily and worldly love, good from the Lord cannot flow in through the soul into the body, but their interiors are in darkness; whence also the body becomes full of darkness, according to what the Lord teaches in Matthew:--

The lamp of the body is the eye if the eye be single, the whole body is full of light but if the eye be evil, the whole body is full of darkness. If therefore the light be darkness, how great is the darkness (Matthew 6:22, 23);

by the "eye" is signified the intellectual which belongs to the soul (n. 2701).

[6] But the case is worse still with those whose interiors are darkness, and whose exteriors appear as full of light. These are such as outwardly counterfeit angels of light, but are devils inwardly, and they are called " Babel;" and when with such persons the things that are "round about" are destroyed, they are carried headlong into hell. These things were represented by the city Jericho, in that its walls fell and the city was given to the curse when the priests had gone about it seven times, and had sounded the trumpets (Joshua 6:1-17). They are meant also in Jeremiah:--

Set yourselves in array against Babel round about, all ye that bend the bow; sound the trumpet against her round about; she hath given her hand; her foundations are fallen; her walls are thrown down (Jeremiah 50:14, 15).

It is now plain what "round about" means. Moreover in the Word mention is sometimes made of that which is "round about" (Jer. 21:14; 32:44; 46:14; 49:5; Ezek. 36:3, 4, 7; Amos 3:11), and by the things "round about" are signified those which are exterior; concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more elsewhere.

AC 2974. Were made sure unto Abraham for an acquisition. That this signifies that they were ascribed to the Lord alone, that is, everything of regeneration as to both quality and quantity, in regard to the good and truth of faith, and therefore in regard to all knowledges interior and exterior, is evident from the representation of "Abraham" as being the Lord (of which frequently above); and from the signification of an "acquisition," as being His, and thus ascribed to Him alone. It is a primary article of faith that all good and all truth are the Lord‘s, thus from the Lord alone. The more interiorly anyone acknowledges this, the more interiorly he is in heaven; for in heaven it is perceived to be so, and there is there a sphere of perception that it is so; for they are in good which is from the Lord alone, and this is what is called being it, the Lord. The degrees of this perception decrease from the midst even to the circumferences (n 2973).

AC 2975. To the eyes of the sons of Heth. That this signifies to their understanding, that is to say, to the understanding of those who are of the new spiritual church, is evident from the signification of the "eyes," as being the understanding (n. 212, 2701) and from the signification of the "sons of Heth," as being those who are of the new spiritual church (n. 2913, 2928). It was said above (verse 16), that Abraham spake "in the ears" of the sons of Heth, by which was signified that it was according to their capacity (n. 2965, 2967) here however it is said "to the eyes" of the sons of Heth, by which is signified to their understanding. What was said before involves application to their will; but what is said here, to their understanding, for man is reformed as to both parts for if the will and understanding do not agree, even so as to make a one, the man has not been regenerated; that is, if good and truth, or what is the same, charity and faith, are not a one; for charity is of the will, and faith is of the understanding. It is because of this that it was before said "in the ears of the sons of Heth;" but here, " before the eyes of the sons of Heth."

AC 2976. Of all that went in at the gate of his city. That this signifies as to all doctrinal things, is evident from what was said above (n. 2943), where the same words occur.

AC 2977. Verse 19. And after this Abraham buried Sarah his wife, in the cave of the field of Machpelah, upon the faces of Mamre, the same is Hebron in the land of Canaan. "After this," signifies that it was so; "Abraham buried Sarah his wife," signifies that they received from the Lord truth conjoined with good; "in the cave of the field of Machpelah, upon the faces of Mamre,’ signifies that thus they were regenerated so far as they could be; "the same is Hebron," signifies that this was a new church; "in the land of Canaan," signifies which in the Lord‘s kingdom is one.

AC 2978. After this. That this signifies that it was so, is evident from the series, for here is the conclusion, namely, that they were regenerated, and thus a new spiritual church was set up again.

AC 2979. Abraham buried Sarah his wife. That this signifies that they received from the Lord truth conjoined with good, is evident from the signification of "burying," as being to regenerate (n. 2916, 2917); that man is regenerate when he has received from the Lord truth conjoined with good will be shown presently; from the representation of "Abraham," as being the Lord (of which often before); and from the representation of "Sarah as a wife," as being truth conjoined with good (n. 2063, 2065, 2507).

[2] With the regeneration of the spiritual man the case is this. He is first instructed in the truths of faith, and then he is held by the Lord in the affection of truth. The good of faith, which is charity toward the neighbor, is at the same time insinuated into him, but in such a way that he is scarcely aware of it; for it lies hidden in the affection of truth, and this to the end that the truth which is of faith may be conjoined with the good which is of charity. As time goes on, the affection of truth which is of faith increases, and truth is regarded for the sake of its end, that is, for the sake of good, or what is the same, for the sake of the life, and this more and more. Thus is truth insinuated into good, and when this takes place the man imbues himself with the good of life according to the truth that has been insinuated; and so he acts or seems to himself to act from good. Previous to this time, the truth of faith was principal, but afterwards the good of life becomes so.

[3] When this is the case the man is regenerate; but he is regenerate according to the quality and the amount of the truth that has been insinuated in good; and when truth and good act as one, he is regenerate according to the quality and the amount of the good: such is the case with all regeneration. Regeneration is effected to the end that man may be received into heaven. Heaven is nothing else than the marriage of truth and good, and of good and truth (n. 2508, 2618, 2728, 2729); and if the marriage of truth and good be not formed with a man, he cannot be in the heavenly marriage, that is, in heaven.

AC 2980. In the cave of the field of Machpelah, upon the faces of Mamre. That this signifies that thus they were regenerated so far as they could be, is evident from the signification of a "cave," as being the truth of faith that is in obscurity (n. 2935); from the signification of "field," as being the good of faith (n. 2971); from the signification of "Machpelah upon the faces of Mamre," or "before Mamre," as being the quality and the amount of regeneration (n. 2970); thus the signification is that they were regenerated by means of the truth and good of faith so far as they could be, that is, according to their capacity and understanding (n. 2913, 2928, 2975).

AC 2981. The same is Hebron. That this signifies that this is a new church, is evident from the signification of "Hebron," as being the spiritual church (concerning which see above in this chapter, (n. 2909). It was there said, "Kiriath-arba, the same is Hebron," for the reason that by "Kiriath-arba" is signified the church as to truth, and by "Hebron," the church as to good; but here Kiriath-arba is no longer mentioned, but Hebron, because the regenerated man is treated of, who no longer acts from truth, but from good (n. 2979).

AC 2982. In the land of Canaan. That this signifies which church is one in the Lord’s kingdom, is evident from the representation of the "land of Canaan," as being the kingdom of the Lord (n. 1413, 1437, 1585, 1607). With the churches of the Lord, the case is this: In ancient times there were many churches at the same time; and there were as at this day distinctions among them in regard to doctrinal matters; but still they made a one in the fact that they acknowledged love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor as the principal and very essential thing; and therefore that the purpose of doctrinal things was not to teach them how to think, but how to live. And when with each and all, love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor--that is, the good of life--is the essential thing then churches, however numerous the may be, make one church, all then being one in the Lord‘s kingdom. Such also is heaven; there are innumerable societies there, all distinct; but still they constitute one heaven, because in all there is love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor.

[2] But the case is wholly different with churches that call faith the essential of the church; supposing that it they know this and think this they are saved, no matter what their life may be. In this case the several churches do not make one church, nor indeed are they churches. The good of faith, that is, the very life of love and of charity according to the things of faith, is that which makes the church. Doctrinal matters are for the sake of life. Every one may know this: what are doctrinal matters except for the sake of all end? and what is the end but life? or that a man may become such as those doctrinal things teach? It is indeed said that the very faith itself which saves is confidence; but this confidence is quite impossible except in the good of life. Without the good of life there is no reception, and where there is no reception there is no confidence, except at times a certain apparent confidence, in suffering conditions of mind or body, when the cupidities of the love of self and of the world are at rest. But with those who are in evil of life, when this crisis passes or the condition is changed, such fallacious confidence altogether vanishes; for a confidence is found even with the wicked. But whoever desires to know the quality of his confidence, let him examine in himself the affections and ends, as well as the practices of his life.

AC 2983. Verse 20. And the field and the cave that is therein were made sure unto Abraham, for a possession of a sepulchre, from the sons of Heth. "The field and the cave that is therein," signifies the church and its faith; "were made sure unto Abraham for a possession of a sepulchre," signifies that it was from the Lord alone, through regeneration; "from the sons of Heth," signifies that it was of the Gentiles.

AC 2984. The field and the cave that is therein. That this signifies the church and its faith, is evident from the signification of a "field," as being the church (n. 2969, 2971); and from the signification of a "cave," as being faith (n. 2935, 2971). It is said "the church and its faith," because the church is so called from the good of charity and thus of life; and its faith is so called from the truth that is adjoined to that good.

AC 2985. Were made sure unto Abraham, for a possession of a sepulchre. That this signifies that it was from the Lord alone, through regeneration, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord (often shown before); and from the signification of a "possession," as being His, and thus belonging to the Lord alone (n. 2974) and from the signification of a "sepulchre," as being regeneration (n. 2916).

AC 2986. From the sons of Heth. That this signifies that it was a church from the Gentiles, is evident from the signification of the "sons of Heth." The sons of Heth were not those with whom the church was set up anew, but are those by whom the church is represented; for all things in the Word are representative; and they do not signify the persons who are named, but through them things of the Lord’s kingdom and church. That by the "sons of Heth" is signified a new church, or what is the same, those who are of the new church, has been stated above repeatedly; but that it was a new church of the Gentiles, or from the Gentiles, is plain from what was said by Abraham to the sons or Heth--"I am a sojourner and a dweller with you" (verse 4); by which is signified that the Lord was not known to them, but still that He could be with them (n. 2915). From this it is plain that by the "sons of Heth" is signified a church from the Gentiles; for it cannot be said of others that the Lord is unknown to them.

[2] Be it known, further, that when any church becomes no church, that is, "then charity perishes and a new church is being set up again by the Lord, this is effected rarely if ever with those with whom the old church has been; but with those with whom there was no church before, that is, with the Gentiles. So was it done when the Most Ancient Church perished; for then the new church called "Noah," that is, the Ancient Church which was after the flood, was set up among the Gentiles, that is, among those where there was no church before. So too when this church perished; then a semblance of a church was instituted among the posterity of Abraham from Jacob, thus likewise among the Gentiles; for Abraham when called was a Gentile (n. 1356, 1992, 2559); and Jacob‘s posterity in Egypt became still more Gentile, even to such an extent that they were absolutely ignorant of Jehovah, and consequently of all Divine worship. After this church had been consummated, the Primitive Church was set up from the Gentiles, the Jews being rejected; so too will it be with this church, which is called Christian.

[3] The reason why a new church will be set up by the Lord among the Gentiles, is that they have no principles of falsity contrary to the truths of faith, for they are ignorant of these truths. Principles of falsity imbued from infancy, and afterwards confirmed, must be shaken off before the man can be regenerated and become a church. In fact the Gentiles cannot by evils of life profane holy things, for no one can profane what is holy who knows not what it is (n. 593, 1008, 1010, 1059). As the Gentiles are in ignorance, and are free from stumbling blocks (or difficulties), they are in a better state for the reception of truths than those who are of the church; and all those among them who are in the good of life receive truths easily. Concerning these things see (n. 932, 1032, 1059, 1327, 1328, 1366, 2049, 2051, 2589-2604).

CONCERNING REPRESENTATIONS AND CORRESPONDENCES

AC 2987. Few know what representations and correspondences are, nor can anyone know this unless he knows that there is a spiritual world, and this distinct from the natural world; for there exists a correspondence between spiritual things and natural things, and the things that come forth from spiritual things in natural ones are representations. They are called correspondences because they correspond, and representations because they represent.

AC 2988. That some idea may be formed of representations and correspondences, it is only necessary to reflect on the things of the mind, that is, of the thought and will. These things so beam forth from the face that they are manifest in its expression; especially is this the case with the affections, the more interior of which are seen from and in the eyes. When the things of the face act as a one with those of the mind, they are said to correspond, and are correspondences; and the very expressions of the face represent, and are representations. The case is similar with all that is expressed by the gestures of the body, and with all the acts produced by the muscles; for it is well known that all these take place according to what the man is thinking and willing. The gestures and actions themselves, which are of the body, represent the things of the mind, and are representations; and in that they are in agreement, they are correspondences.

AC 2989. It may also be known that such forms do not exist in the mind as are exhibited in the expression, but that they are merely affections which are thus effigied; also that such acts do not exist in the mind as are exhibited by the acts of the body, but that it is thoughts which are thus figured. The things which are of the mind are spiritual, but those of the body are natural. From this it is evident that there exists a correspondence between spiritual things and natural things, and that there is a representation of spiritual thing in natural things; or what is the same, when the things of the internal man are effigied in the external man, then the things that appear in the external man are representative of the internal man; and the things that agree are correspondences.

AC 2990. It is also known, or may be known, that there is a spiritual world, and also a natural world. In the universal sense the spiritual world is where spirits and angels dwell; and the natural world is where men dwell. In particular, there is a spiritual world and a natural world with every man: his internal man being to him a spiritual world, and his external man being to him a natural world. The things that flow in from the spiritual world and are presented in the natural world, are in general representations; and in so far as they agree they are correspondences.

AC 2991. That natural things represent spiritual things, and that they correspond, may also be known from the fact that what is natural cannot possibly come forth except from a cause prior to itself. Its cause is from what is spiritual; and there is nothing natural which does not thence derive its cause. Natural forms are effects; nor can they appear as causes, still less as causes of causes, or beginnings; but they receive their forms according to the use in the place where they are; and yet the forms of the effects represent the things which are of the causes; and indeed these latter things represent those which are of the beginnings. Thus all natural things represent those which are of the spiritual things to which they correspond; and in fact the spiritual things also represent those which are of the celestial things from which they are.

AC 2992. It has been given me to know from much experience that in the natural world and its three kingdoms there is nothing whatever that does not represent something in the spiritual world, or that has not something there to which it corresponds. Besides many other experiences, this was made evident also from the following. On several occasions when I was speaking of the viscera of the body, and was tracing their connection from those which are of the head to those which are of the chest, and so on to those which are of the abdomen, the angels that were above me led my thoughts through the spiritual things to which those viscera correspond, and this so that there was not the least error. They thought not at all of the viscera of the body of which I was thinking, but only of the spiritual things to which these correspond. Such is the intelligence of angels that from spiritual things they know all things in the body in general and particular, even the most secret things, such as can never come to man’s knowledge; nay, they know everything there is in the universal world, without a mistake; and this because from spiritual things are the causes, and the beginnings of causes.

AC 2993. The case is similar with the things in the vegetable kingdom; for nothing whatever exists there that does not represent something in the spiritual world, and correspond thereto; as has been frequently given me to know by a like intercourse with angels. The causes also have been told me, namely, that the causes of all natural things are from spiritual things, and the beginnings of these causes are from celestial things; or what is the same, all things in the natural world derive their cause from truth which is the spiritual, and their beginning from good which is the celestial; and natural things proceed thence according to all the differences of truth and of good in the Lord‘s kingdom; thus from the Lord Himself, from whom is all good and truth. These things must needs appear strange, especially to those who will not or cannot ascend in thought beyond nature, and who do not know what the spiritual is, and therefore do not acknowledge it.

AC 2994. So long as he lives in the body, man can feel and perceive but little of this; for the celestial and spiritual things with him fall into the natural things in his external man, and he there loses the sensation and perception of them. Moreover the representatives and correspondences in his external man are such that they do not appear like the things in the internal man to which they correspond, and which they represent; therefore neither can they come to his knowledge until he has put off those external things. When this happens, blessed is the man who is in correspondence, that is, whose external man corresponds to his internal man.

AC 2995. As the men of the Most Ancient Church (n. 1114-1125) in every thing of nature saw something spiritual and celestial, insomuch that natural things served them merely as objects for thought about spiritual and celestial things, they were for this reason able to speak with angels, and to be with them in the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens at the same time that they were in His kingdom on earth, that is, in the church. Thus with them natural things were conjoined with spiritual things, and wholly corresponded. But it was otherwise after those times, when evil and falsity began to reign; that is, when after the golden age there commenced the iron age for then, as there was no longer any correspondence, heaven was closed; insomuch that men were scarcely willing to know that there was anything spiritual; and at last even that there is a heaven and a hell, and a life after death.

AC 2996. In this world it is a great secret, although in the other life nothing is better known to every spirit, that all things in the human body have a correspondence to those in heaven; insomuch that there is not the smallest particle in the body, to which something spiritual and celestial does not correspond; or what is the same, to which heavenly societies do not correspond, for these exist according to all the genera and species of spiritual and celestial things; and this in such an order that together they represent one man, even as to all his parts, in general and in particular, both the interior and the exterior. Hence it is that the universal heaven is also called the Grand Man; and hence it is that it has been so often said that one society belongs to one province of the body, another to another, and so on. The reason is that the Lord is the Only Man, and heaven represents Him; and the Divine good and truth that are from Him are what make heaven; and because the angels are therein, they are said to be in the Lord. But they who are in hell are outside this Grand Man, and correspond to things unclean, and also to bodily corruptions.

AC 2997. This may also in some degree be known from the fact that the spiritual or internal man (which is man‘s spirit and is called his soul) has in like manner a correspondence to his natural or external man; and that this correspondence is of such a nature that the things of the internal man are spiritual and celestial, while the things of the external man are natural and corporeal; as may appear from what was said above (n. 2988, 2989) about the expressions of the face and the acts of the body. Moreover as to his internal man, man is a little heaven, because created after the Lord’s image.

AC 2998. That such correspondences exist has become so familiar to me in the course of years that hardly anything can be more so; though the fact itself is such that man does not know of its existence, nor believes that he has any connection" with the spiritual world; when yet all his connection is from this correspondence; and without this connection neither himself nor any part of him could subsist a moment; for all his subsistence is from it. It has also been given me to know what angelic societies belong to each province of the body, and also of what quality they are; as for instance what societies and of what quality belong to the province of the heart, what and of what quality to the province of the lungs; what and of what quality to the province of the liver; and also what and of what quality belong to the different sensories, as to the eye, to the ears, to the tongue, and the rest; concerning which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy we shall speak singly.

AC 2999. Moreover nothing is possible in the created world that has not a correspondence to the things in the spiritual world, and therefore that does not in its own manner represent something in the Lord’s kingdom. From this comes the existence and subsistence of all things. If man knew how these things are circumstanced, he would never as is his wont attribute all things to nature.

AC 3000. Hence it is that all things in the universe both in general and in particular represent the Lord‘s kingdom; insomuch that the universe with all its constellations, atmospheres, and three kingdoms, is nothing else than a kind of theater representative of the Lord’s glory which is in the heavens. In the animal kingdom not only man, but also each particular animal, even the least and lowest, is representative; as for instance the little creatures that creep on the ground and feed on plants; these, when their time for wedding is at hand, become chrysalises, and presently, being supplied with wings they soar from the ground into the atmosphere, their heaven, and there enjoy their delight and their freedom, sporting together and feeding on the spoils of the flowers, laying their eggs and thus providing for a posterity; and being then in their state of heaven, they are also in their beauty. Every one can see that these things are representative of the Lord‘s kingdom.

AC 3001. That there is one only life, that of the Lord, which flows in and causes man to live, whether he be good or evil, is evident from what has been said and shown above, in the explication of the Word (n. 1954, 2021, 2536, 2658, 2706, 2886, 2889). To that life correspond the recipient things which are vivified by that Divine influx, and this in such a manner that they appear to themselves to live from themselves. This correspondence is that of life with the recipients of life. Such as are the recipients, so they live; those men who are in love and charity are in correspondence, for they are in agreement, and the life is received by them adequately; but those who are in things contrary to love and charity are not in correspondence, because the life itself is not received adequately; hence they have an appearance of life in accordance with their quality. This may be illustrated by many things; as by the organs of motion and of sense in the body, into which the life flows through the soul; according to the qualities of these, such are their actions and sensations. The same may be illustrated also by the objects into which light flows from the sun; the light producing colorings according to the quality of the recipient forms. But in the spiritual world all the modifications that come into existence from the influx of life are spiritual, whence come such differences of intelligence and wisdom.

AC 3002. From this also we can see how all natural forms, both animate and inanimate, are representative of spiritual and celestial things in the Lord’s kingdom that is, that in nature all things, in both general and particular, are representative in accordance with the measure and quality of their correspondence.

AC 3003. The subject of representations and correspondences will be continued at the close of the following chapter.


Back | Next | Index | Home