HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter 25

AC 3228. This chapter treats of the sons of Abraham by Keturah, and also of the sons of Ishmael, whose names are given; afterwards it treats of Isaac and Rebekah, in that Esau and Jacob were born to them, and finally that Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a pottage of lentils. Every one can see that these subjects are of such a nature as may indeed be of use for the church history of that time, but are of little value in regard to spiritual life, for the sake of which however the Word is given. What does it benefit a man to know who were the sons of Abraham by Keturah, and who were the sons of Ishmael? and that Esau, weary with hunting, craved the pottage of lentils, and that Jacob by means of it shrewdly procured the birthright for himself? And so in the following chapter, where it is said that the herdmen of Abimelech quarreled with the herdmen of Isaac concerning the wells they had dug, in about the same way as they had previously contended with the herdmen of Abraham (chapter 21). Moreover in some places there are mere lists of names, as that of the posterity of Esau (chapter 26); and the same in other chapters. In so far as these are historical matters there is so little of the Divine in them that you can in no wise say that that Word was Divinely inspired in regard to every expression, and even to every jot, that is, that it had been sent down from the Lord through heaven to the man who wrote it; for what has been sent down from the Lord is Divine in all things both in general and in particular. Thus there is nothing Divine in regard to historical things (since these are transactions of men) except from things contained deeply hidden in the historicals, all of which both in general and in particular treat of the Lord and His kingdom. The historicals of the Word are unlike all other historicals in the universe, in that they contain such things within them.

AC 3229. If the Word were the Word in regard solely to its historicals, that is; in regard to its external or literal sense, then all the historicals in it would be holy; and, what is more, many persons there mentioned would be regarded as holy, and the result would be (as has actually happened with many of them) that they would be worshiped as gods because they are treated of in the holiest of writings; for example, those who are called the patriarchs, namely, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and after them the fathers of the tribes, the twelve sons of Jacob, and later David and many others; and yet all these were men, and some of them had but little regard for Divine worship; and I am able to testify that they enjoy nothing beyond the common lot of humanity, and also that in the heavens they are quite unknown. But of the Lord‘s Divine mercy more will be said elsewhere concerning them and their state in the other life. From all this it is clearly evident that the external or literal sense is the Word solely from the internal or spiritual sense within it, and from which it is.

GENESIS 25:1-34

1. And Abraham added, and took a woman, and her name was Keturah.

2. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah.

3. And Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim.

4. And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah.

5. And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac.

6. And to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts; and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he was yet living, eastward to the land of the east.

7. And these are the days of the years of the lives of Abraham which he lived; a hundred years, and seventy years, and five years.

8. And Abraham expired and died in a good old age, an old man and sated, and was gathered to his peoples.

9. And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre;

10. The field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife.

11. And it came to pass after the death of Abraham that God blessed Isaac his son; and Isaac dwelt at Beer-lahai-roi.

12. And these are the births of Ishmael the son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian. Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham

13. And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, in their names, according to their births: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam;

14. And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa;

15. Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah:

16. These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, in their villages and in their castles; twelve princes of their peoples.

17. And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred years, and thirty years, and seven years; and he expired and died, and was gathered unto his peoples.

18. And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: he fell upon the faces of all his brethren.

19. And these are the births of Isaac, the son of Abraham: Abraham begat Isaac.

20. And Isaac was a son of forty years when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean, of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to himself for a woman.

21. And Isaac entreated Jehovah for his woman, because she was barren, and Jehovah was entreated of him, and Rebekah his woman conceived.

22. And the sons struggled together within her; and she said, If so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of Jehovah.

23. And Jehovah said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels, and the one people shall prevail over the other people, and the elder shall serve the younger.

24. And her days were fulfilled to bring forth, and behold twins were in her womb.

25. And the first came forth red all over like a hairy garment, and they called his name Esau.

26. And after that came forth his brother, and his hand laid hold on Esau‘s heel, and he called his name Jacob: and Isaac was a son of sixty years when she bare them.

27. And the boys grew up: and Esau was a man skillful in hunting, a man of the field; and Jacob was a perfect man, dwelling in tents.

28. And Isaac loved Esau, because his hunting was in his mouth; and Rebekah loved Jacob.

29. And Jacob boiled pottage, and Esau came from the field, and he was weary.

30. And Esau said to Jacob, Cause me to sup I pray of the red, this red, for I am weary; therefore he called his name Edom.

31. And Jacob said, Sell me as this day thy birthright.

32. And Esau said, Behold I am going to die, and for what is this birthright to me?

33. And Jacob said, Swear to me as this day; and he sware unto him, and he sold his birthright unto Jacob.

34. And Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentils; and he did eat and drink, and rose up and went away; and Esau despised the birthright.

THE CONTENTS

AC 3230. In the internal sense this chapter treats, First, of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, and its derivations (verses 1-4). That it was separated from the Lord‘s celestial kingdom (verses 5, 6). That the representative of the Lord by Abraham was ended (verses 7, 8). And that the representative of the Lord by Isaac and Ishmael began (verses 9-11).

AC 3231. Secondly, the spiritual church, which is represented by Ishmael, together with its derivations, is treated of (verses 12-18).)

AC 3232. Thirdly, the conception and birth of the Divine natural are treated of; as to good, which is meant by Esau; and as to truth, which is meant by Jacob (verses 19-25).

AC 3233. Fourthly, the priority of good and of truth in the church is treated of (verses 26-34).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 3234. Verse 1. And Abraham added, and took a woman, and her name was Keturah. "And Abraham added, and took a woman," signifies another state of the Lord, whom Abraham represents; Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial; Abraham and Keturah represented the Lord as to the Divine spiritual; thus Abraham here represents the Lord as to Divine good spiritual, and his woman as to Divine truth adjoined to this good; "and her name was Keturah," signifies the essence of this Divine truth.

AC 3235. And Abraham added, and took a woman. That this signifies another state of the Lord, whom Abraham represents, and that Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial, and Abraham and Keturah as to the Divine spiritual, is evident from the things hitherto said and shown concerning Abraham and Sarah his wife, and from those here related concerning Abraham and Keturah. But as it is said that Abraham here represents another state of the Lord, and that Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial, but Abraham and Keturah the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, it should be known what the Divine celestial is, and what the Divine spiritual.

[2] The Divine celestial and the Divine spiritual are such in respect to those who receive the Divine of the Lord, for the Lord appears to every one according to the nature of him who receives, as may be seen from what has been said above (n. 1838, 1861), and is clearly manifest from the fact that the Lord appears in one way to the celestial, but in another to the spiritual; for to the celestial He appears as a sun, but to the spiritual as a moon (n. 1529-1531, 1838). The Lord appears to the celestial as a sun, because they are in celestial love, that is, in love to the Lord; but to the spiritual as a moon, because they are in spiritual love, that is, in charity toward the neighbor. The difference is like that between the light of the sun in the daytime and the light of the moon by night; it is also like the difference between the heat of the one and the heat of the other, from which springs vegetation. This is what is meant in the first chapter of Genesis by the words:--

And God made two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night (Genesis 1:16).

[3] Speaking generally, the Lord’s kingdom is both celestial and spiritual; that is, it consists of those who are celestial, and of those who are spiritual. And it is because the Divine of the Lord appears to the celestial as celestial, and to the spiritual as spiritual, that it is here said that Abraham and Sarah represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial, and that Abraham and Keturah represented Him as to the Divine spiritual. But as scarcely any know what the celestial is and what the spiritual, or who the celestial and the spiritual are, see what has already been said and shown concerning them, namely: What the celestial is, and what the spiritual (n. 1155, 1577, 1824, 2048, 2184, 2227, 2507): Who are celestial and who are spiritual (n. 2088, 2669, 2708, 2715): That the celestial man is a likeness of the Lord and does good from love, and the spiritual man is an image of the Lord and does good from faith (n. 50-52, 1013): That the celestial perceive truth from good, and that they never reason concerning truth (n. 202, 337, 607, 895, 1121, 2715): That in the celestial man good is implanted in his will part, but in the spiritual man it is implanted in his intellectual part, and that in this part a new will is created in those who are spiritual (n. 863, 875, 895, 897, 927, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256): That the celestial from good itself see indefinite things, but that the spiritual, because they reason whether a thing is so, cannot attain to the first boundary of the light of the celestial (n. 2718): That the spiritual are in relative obscurity (n. 1043, 2708, 2715): That the Lord came into the world in order to save the spiritual (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834).

AC 3236. That Abraham here represents the Lord as to Divine good spiritual, and his woman as to Divine truth adjoined to this good, is evident from what has been said before concerning husbands and wives, namely, that the husband represents good and the wife truth, as Abraham and Sarah heretofore, (n. 1468, 1901, 2063, 2065, 2172, 2173, 2198, 2904); and as Isaac and Rebekah in the preceding chapter, (n. 3077). The reason why the husband represents good, and the wife truth, is that the church is compared to a marriage, and also is the marriage of good and truth. Good is what the husband represents, because it is in the first place; but truth is what the wife represents, because it is in the second place; therefore also in the Word the Lord is called a "bridegroom," a "man (vir)," a "husband;" and the church is called a "bride," a "woman," a "wife."

[2] What spiritual good is, and what the spiritual truth adjoined to this good, may be seen from the passages cited immediately above (n. 3235). Spiritual good in man is in general what is called the good of faith, and this is no other than charity toward the neighbor; but in order that it may be charity, it must come from the new will with which the spiritual man is gifted by the Lord. The spiritual truth adjoined to this good is what is called the truth of faith, and this is no other than that which regards charity first as the end for the sake of which it exists; and afterwards as the beginning from which it proceeds; but in order that it may be the truth of faith to the spiritual man, or faith, it must come from the new understanding with which he is gifted by the Lord; and the new understanding must have its light from the new will.

AC 3237. And her name was Keturah. That this signifies the essence of this Divine truth, is evident from the signification of "name," as being quality; and of "calling by name," as being to know of what quality one is (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009). But seeing that not quality, but being is predicated of the Divine, by "name" here is signified essence, and indeed the essence of the Divine truth which is signified here by "her," namely the woman. That here the "woman" is Divine truth, see (n. 3236). From this it is evident what Keturah in general involves.

AC 3238. Verses 2-4. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. And Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the sons of Keturah. "And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah," represents the general classes of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom in the heavens and on earth; "and Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan," signifies the derivations from the first class; "and the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim," signifies the derivations from the second class; "and the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah," signifies the derivations from the third class; "all these were the sons of Keturah," signifies as regards the doctrinal things and worships thence derived.

AC 3239. And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. That these represent the general classes of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom in the heavens and on earth, cannot so well be established from the Word, because none of these men are elsewhere mentioned, with the exception of Midian, of whom something will be said hereafter. Yet this may be seen from the fact that all persons named in the Word represent something; as is sufficiently evident from all those mentioned hitherto, from the first chapter of Genesis. That in the internal sense of the Word names, both of persons and of kingdoms, provinces, and cities, signify actual things, see (n. 768, 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888), and in many other places where this is in particular confirmed from the Word. The reason why none of these except Midian are mentioned elsewhere in the Word, is that they are of the sons of the east, who are sometimes mentioned in the Word. That in general the "sons of the east" signify those who are of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, see (verse 6).

[2] That these sons of Abraham by Keturah have this representation, is evident from the fact that Abraham and Keturah represent the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, namely, Abraham the Lord as to Divine good spiritual, and Keturah as to Divine truth spiritual conjoined with this good, concerning which see (n. 3235, 3236). From this it follows that their sons represent the general classes or lots of the kingdom which is from the Lord’s Divine spiritual. They are called general classes or lots because the Lord‘s kingdom is represented by land, which is distributed by lots among those to whom it is given to be possessed as an inheritance, just as the land of Canaan was allotted to the sons of Israel. There are in general twelve classes, for by "twelve" are signified all the things of charity and of the derivative faith, which are of the Lord’s kingdom, concerning which see (verse 16); but here there are six, thus one-half the number; but the half of a number involves the same as the whole, for provided a like thing is involved, multiplication and division do not vary the thing itself as to what is essential.

AC 3240. And Jokshan begat Sheba and Dedan. That this signifies the derivations from the first class, is evident from the representation of Jokshan and of his sons Sheba and Dedan, concerning whom something will be said in what follows. As here there are mere names, and the states and derivations of the Lord‘s spiritual church are signified by them, the nature of such states and derivations in general must be declared. The celestial church differs from the spiritual church in this respect: Those who are of the celestial church, and are called celestial, are in love, that is to say they are in the good and truth of love; while those who are of the spiritual church, and are called spiritual, are in faith, that is, they are in the good and truth of faith. The good which the celestial have is that of love to the Lord, and their truth is that of love to the neighbor; whereas the good which the spiritual have is that of charity toward the neighbor, and their truth is that of faith, in so far as this truth is doctrine concerning charity. This shows that the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, as well as His celestial kingdom, has good and truth, but with much difference.

[2] Be it known moreover that they who are in each kingdom are distinguished among themselves by good and truth, for the reason that there are some who are more in good and others who are more in truth. From this then come the derivations, that is, the derivations of good and the derivations of truth. In the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom the derivations of good are what are represented by the sons of Jokshan who are named in this verse; but the derivations of truth in this kingdom are what are represented by the sons of Midian who are named in the following verse. Now as there are two classes of the spiritual (those who are more in good, and those who are more in truth), they have therefore two kinds of doctrinals, namely, those of charity and those of faith; doctrinals of charity for those who are in the good of faith and are here signified by the sons of Jokshan; but doctrinals of faith for those who are in the truth of faith and are signified by the sons of Midian.

[3] Sheba and Dedan are those who constitute the first class, that is, those who in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom are in the good of faith, and who have doctrinals of charity. From this it follows that by "Sheba and Dedan" are signified the knowledges of celestial things, or what is the same, those who are in these knowledges, that is, who are in the doctrinals of charity; for doctrinals are knowledges, and the celestial of the spiritual man is that of charity. That " Sheba" and "Dedan" have this signification was shown in (n. 117, 1168, 1171, 1172); but there Sheba and Dedan are the great-grandsons of Ham, and are called sons of Raamah; but be it known that there were no such persons as Ham and Japheth and Shem, but that those who after the flood belonged to the church called "Noah" were distinguished as to goods and truths into three classes, and these were the names given to those classes (n. 736, 1062, 1065, 1140, 1141, 1162). Nevertheless there were nations that were so called, but these nations were descended from others, as it is here plainly said that Sheba and Dedan were descended from Jokshan, the son of Abraham by Keturah.

[4] That "Sheba" signifies those who are in the knowledges of celestial things, thus who are in the good of faith, is evident from the passages cited above (n. 117, 1171); and that "Dedan" has a similar signification is also evident from the passages cited (n. 1172), and further from the following. In Isaiah:--

The prophecy concerning Arabia: in the forest in Arabia shall ye spend the night, ye companies of Dedan; bring ye waters to meet him that is thirsty, ye inhabitants of the land of Tema, with the bread thereof meet him that wandereth, for they shall wander before swords, before an outstretched sword (Isa. 21:13-15).

"Spending the night in the forest," signifies being desolated as to good; for by " Arabia" are meant those who are in celestial things, that is, who are in the good of faith, and "spending the night there in the forest" is being no longer in goods, from which comes desolation, which is also described by "wandering before swords, before an outstretched sword." Celestial things, that is, the goods of faith, or what is the same, the works of charity in which they are, are signified by "bringing waters to meet him that is thirsty, and meeting with bread him that wandereth."

[5] In Jeremiah:--

I took the cup from the hand of Jehovah, and made all the nations drink unto whom Jehovah sent me: Jerusalem, and the cities of Judah, and her kings and her princes, to give them up to desolation; Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and his servants, and his princes, and all his people and Ill the kings of Tyre, and all the kings of Zidon; Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that are clipped at the corner (of the beard) all the kings of Zimri, and all the kings of Elam, and all the kings of Media, and all the kings of the north (Jer. 25:17-19, 22, 23, 25, 26).

Here also the desolation of the spiritual church is treated of, the different classes of which church are enumerated in order, and are signified by "Jerusalem," the "cities of Judah," "Egypt," "Tyre," " Zidon," "Dedan," "Tema," "Buz," " Zimri," "Elam," "Media"

[6] In Ezekiel:--

Sheba and Dedan and the merchants of Tarshish and all the young lions thereof shall say to thee, Art thou come to take the spoil? hast thou assembled thine assembly to take the prey? to carry away silver and old, to take away cattle and goods, to take great spoil? (Ezek. 38:13);

treating of Gog, by whom is signified external worship separate from internal, which is idolatrous (n. 1151); "Sheba and Dedan" denote the internal things of worship, namely, the goods of faith; "Tarshish" denotes a corresponding external worship; the "silver, gold, cattle, goods, spoil," which Gog, or the external of worship separate from the internal, desires to take away, are the knowledges of good and truth for which they fight, and which those defend who are signified by "Sheba and Dedan;" wherefore these are called "young lions." "Sheba" properly denotes those who are in the knowledges of good; "Dedan" those who are in the knowledges of truth from good.

AC 3241. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. That this signifies the derivations from the second class, is evident from the representation of Dedan, as being those who are in the good of faith, properly those who are in the truth of faith from good (n. 3240). That the derivations are from a second class is manifest. By these three sons of Dedan are especially signified the truths of faith from good; but what is signified by each can indeed be told, but cannot be confirmed by other passages from the Word, because the names are not mentioned elsewhere.

[2] In the kingdom of the Lord there are innumerable varieties as to goods and truths, and yet of these innumerable varieties one heaven is constituted; for the varieties are so many that no one society is exactly like another, that is, is never in the same good and truth (n. 684, 685, 690). The one heaven therein is constituted of the many varieties so disposed by the Lord that they agree, the agreement or harmony of the many being imparted by the Lord, by means of all referring themselves to Him (n. 551). The case herein is the same as with the organs, members, and viscera of the body, not one of which is exactly like another. They are all different and yet make a one, and this by reason of their all referring themselves to one soul, and through this to heaven, and thus to the Lord; for whatever is unconnected with the Lord is nothing. From this it is evident that the differences of truth and of good are innumerable in species; but their genera, and these the most general, which are spiritual churches, are signified by these sons and grandsons of Abraham.

[3] As they who are of the spiritual church have no perception of what is good and true, like those of the celestial church, but acknowledge as truths the things they have learned, they are on this account continually in dispute concerning them, reasoning whether a thing is true; and each person abides in that doctrine (and calls it true) which is of his own church. This is the source of so many differences. Moreover very many form their conclusions concerning things good and true from appearances and fallacies--one in one way, another in another, but none from any perception; they do not even know what perception is; and as their understanding is thus in obscurity as to the goods and truths of faith, it is not surprising that dissensions should arise concerning the most essential of all the things of faith, namely, concerning the Divine, the Human, and the Holy Proceeding of the Lord. The celestial perceive that these are not three, but One; but the spiritual abide in the idea of three, although they desire to think that they are One. Seeing then that there are dissensions concerning that which is the most essential, it is evident that the varieties and differences of doctrinal things must be in numerable. From this all may know whence come the derivations signified by those who are here named. But granting the existence of so many varieties and differences of doctrinal things (that is, of so many derivations), they nevertheless together form one church when all acknowledge charity as essential to the church; or what is the same, when they regard life is the end of doctrine; that is, when they inquire how the man of the church lives, and not so much what his sentiments are; for in the other life every one receives from the Lord a lot in accordance with his good of life, and not in accordance with his truth of doctrine separated from the good of life.

AC 3242. And the sons of Midian: Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. That this signifies the derivations from the third class, can be seen from the representation of Midian, as being those who are in the truth of faith; and as those who are in the truth of faith are "Midian," it follows that his "sons" are the derivations therefrom. With those who are in the truth of faith the case is this: No one is admitted into the Lord‘s kingdom unless he is in the good of faith, for the good of faith is of the life, and the life of faith remains, but not the doctrine of faith, except in so far as it makes one with the life; nevertheless they who are in the truth of faith (that is, who profess faith and call it essential, because they have so learned) and yet are in the good of life (that is, who are Christians in heart and not in profession only), are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom. For anyone may easily be persuaded that faith is the essential when he has been so taught by his instructors and has imbibed this opinion in his childhood, and because they who are reputed most learned and the heads of the church say so, some of whom are afraid to speak of the good of life because their life condemns them; moreover the things that belong to faith flow in perceptibly, but not so those which belong to charity.

[2] They therefore who are in the truth of faith and yet in the good of life, are they who are called Midian;" and the truths according to which they live are the "sons of Midian;" and as those who are in the truth of faith conjoined with its good are "Midian," so also in the opposite sense are those who are in falsity from not having the good of life, as can be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

The abundance of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah, all they from Sheba shall come they shall bring gold and frankincense, and they shall proclaim the praises of Jehovah (Isa. 60:6);

where the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom is treated of. The "dromedaries of Midian and Ephah" denote doctrinal things; doctrinal things of good are "gold;" those of truth are " frankincense;" both are the "praises of Jehovah;" hence also it is manifest what "Ephah" signifies. By the "Midianites" who drew Joseph out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites, and into Egypt to Potiphar, (Genesis 37:28, 36), are signified those who are in the truth of simple good.

[3] That by "Midian" are also signified those who are in falsity because they have not the goods of life, can be seen from what is said concerning Midian in Moses:--

The elders of Moab and the elders of Midian, with the rewards of divination in their hand, went to Balaam, and spake to him the words of Balak (Num. 22:4, 7).

In a good sense "Moab" denotes those who are in natural good and suffer themselves to be easily led astray; but in the opposite sense, those who adulterate goods (n. 2468). In a good sense "Midian" denotes those who are in the truth of simple good, as before said, and who thus allow themselves to be easily persuaded; in the opposite sense, as here, those who falsify truths. The falsifications are signified by "the rewards of divination in their hand;" and the deeds from these falsities, by their sending to Balaam in hostility to the sons of Israel, who denote the goods and derivative truths of faith.

[4] The like was signified by the whoredoms of the sons of Israel with the women of the Midianites, resulting in a plague, which was stayed by Phinehas thrusting his spear through the Midianitish woman and the man of Israel in the brothel (Num. 25:6-8); for by whoredoms were represented the falsifications of truth (n. 2466, 2729). And because falsifications of truth are what in the internal sense are signified by whoredoms, therefore by command twelve thousand of the sons of Israel smote the Midianites, slew their kings, and every male, and the women whom they had led captive that had known a man, and divided the spoil among themselves (Num. 25:16, 17; 31:1-54). The reason why there were twelve thousand, was that "twelve" signified all things of faith (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130), by which falsities are destroyed; the "kings" whom they killed are falsities, and so is "every male;" the "women that had known a man" are the affections of falsity; the "spoil" (as gold, silver, cattle) are the truths that were falsified; from all which it is evident that each and all of the things there mentioned are representative of the punishment and destruction of what is false by means of truths.

[5] It is similar in regard to what is said of the Midianites in the book of Judges, namely, that the sons of Israel, because they did evil in the eyes of Jehovah, were given into the hand of Midian seven years; and that the sons of Israel, by reason of Midian, made for themselves caves in the mountains, and also dens, and fortified places; and when Israel had sown, that Midian and Amalek and the sons of the east came up and ravaged the produce of their land; and afterwards that they were delivered by Gideon with three hundred men who lapped water with the tongue like a dog, and that those were sent home who bowed upon the knees and drank, besides other particulars (chapters 6, 7, 8). Here also the things mentioned each and all are representative of the falsification of truth, and of punishment on this account, even to their being destroyed by such things as are signified by lapping water with the tongue like a dog; but what each particular signifies in the internal sense it would be too tedious to unfold here; yet of the Lord’s Divine mercy it shall be told in its place. In Habakkuk:--

He beheld, and dispersed the nations; and the eternal mountains were scattered, the everlasting hills did bow. I saw the tents of Cushan under Aven, the curtains of the land of Midian did tremble (Habakkuk 3:6, 7);

where the advent of the Lord is treated of. The "tents of Cushan" denote a religiosity from evil; the "curtains of the land of Midian,‘ one from falsity.

AC 3243. All these were the sons of Keturah. That this signifies as regards the doctrinal things and worships thence derived, is evident from the signification of "sons," as being truths and doctrinal things (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623); and from the representation of Keturah, as being Divine truth spiritual conjoined with Divine good spiritual (n. 3236, 3237); thus those things which are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; and because the worship of this kingdom is according to doctrinal things, it follows that the "sons of Keturah" denote these things, and also the derivative worships.

AC 3244. Verses 5, 6. And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. And to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had Abraham gave gifts; and he sent them away from Isaac his son, while he was yet living, eastward to the land of the east. "And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac," signifies in the supreme sense all Divine things in the Divine rational; in the relative sense the celestial things of love in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom; "and to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts," signifies those who are spiritual adopted by the Lord’s Divine Human, that they have allotted places in His spiritual kingdom; "and he sent them away from Isaac his son," signifies the distinction and separation of those who are spiritual from those who are celestial; "while he was yet living," signifies to whom he could give life; "eastward to the land of the east," signifies to the good of faith.

AC 3245. And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. That this signifies in the supreme sense all Divine things in the Divine rational, and in the relative sense the celestial things of love in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Lord as to the Divine Itself; and from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord as to the Divine rational; and because in the internal sense the Lord is both "Abraham" and "Isaac," and the Lord made His rational Divine from His own Divine; hence it is that the words "Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac" signify all Divine things in the Divine rational. The things which precede and those which follow have regard to this fact--that in the Lord’s rational all things were made Divine. For in the internal sense, where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are treated of, the subject is the Lord‘s Human, and how it was made Divine.

[2] There are two things which properly constitute the Human, namely, the rational and the natural; the Lord’s rational was represented by Isaac, and His natural by Jacob; the Lord made them both Divine; how He made the rational Divine is contained in what was said of Isaac, but how He made the natural Divine is contained in what is said of Jacob in what follows. But this natural could not be made Divine until the rational had been made Divine, for by means of the rational the natural was made so; hence therefore it is that by the words before us are signified all Divine things in the Divine rational.

[3] Moreover all and each of the things which in the internal sense treat of the Lord, treat also of His kingdom and church, for the reason that the Divine of the Lord makes His kingdom. Therefore where the Lord is treated of, His kingdom is treated of also (n. 1965); but the internal sense concerning the Lord is the supreme sense, while the internal sense concerning His kingdom is the relative sense. The relative sense of these words--that Abraham gave all to Isaac--is that the celestial things of love are given to the Lord‘s celestial kingdom. For in the relative sense by "Isaac" is signified the celestial kingdom, inasmuch as by the rest of Abraham’s sons, those he had by Keturah, is signified the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, as shown above; and the same is signified by Ishmael, concerning whom hereafter.

AC 3246. And to the sons of the concubines that Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts. That this signifies the spiritual adopted by the Lord’s Divine Human, that they have allotted places in His spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of the "sons of the concubines," as denoting those who are spiritual; from the representation here of Abraham, as being the Lord‘s Divine Human; so that by the words "which Abraham had," is signified that the spiritual were adopted by the Lord’s Divine Human; and from the signification of the "gifts" which Abraham gave them, as being allotted places in the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom.

[2] From what has already been shown in several places (n. 3235) concerning those who constitute the Lord’s spiritual kingdom and are called the spiritual, it can be seen that they are not sons born of the marriage itself of good and truth, but of a certain covenant not so conjugial; they are indeed from the same father, but not from the same mother; that is, they are from the same Divine good, but not from the same Divine truth For as the celestial are from the very marriage of good and truth, they have good and thence truth; wherefore they never inquire what is true, but perceive it from good; and they discourse not about truth beyond affirming that it is so--according to what the Lord teaches in Matthew:--

Let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, Nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil (Matthew 5:37);

whereas the spiritual, because they are from a covenant not so conjugial, do not know from any perception what truth is, but call that true which they have been told to be so by parents and masters and therefore in them there is not the marriage of good and truth; but still the truth which they thus believe is adopted by the Lord for truth when they are in the good of life (n. 1832). Therefore it is that those who are spiritual are here called the "sons of the concubines," and by these are meant all the sons of Keturah hitherto enumerated, and also the sons of Hagar, who will be named immediately below, from the twelfth to the eighteenth verse.

[3] In former times, in order that both the celestial and the spiritual might be represented in marriages, it was permissible for a man to have a concubine in addition to a wife; such concubine being given to the husband by the wife, and she was then called his "woman," or was said to be "given to him for a woman," as when Hagar the Egyptian was given to Abraham by Sarah (Gen. 16:3); when Bilhah the handmaid was given by Rachel to Jacob (Gen. 30:4), and the handmaid Zilpah to Jacob by Leah (Gen. 30:9). They are there called "women," but elsewhere they are called "concubines," as Hagar the Egyptian in this verse, and Bilhah in (Genesis 35:22), also Keturah herself in (1 Chronicles 1:32).

[4] That those ancients had concubines besides a wife, as was the case not only with Abraham and Jacob, but also with their descendants, as Gideon (Judges 8:31), Saul (2 Sam. 3:7), David (2 Sam. 5:13; 15:16), and Solomon (1 Kings 11:3), was of permission, for the sake of the representation, namely, of the celestial church by a wife, and of the spiritual church by a concubine: this was of permission because they were such that they had no conjugial love, neither was marriage to them marriage, but only a carnal coupling for the sake of procreating offspring. To such there might be permissions without injury to conjugial love and consequently to its covenant; but never to those who are in good and truth, and who are or can become internal men; for as soon as man is in good and truth, and in thing internal, such things cease. For this reason it is not allowable for Christians, as it was for the Jews, to take to themselves a concubine together with a wife, for this is adultery. That the spiritual were adopted by the Lord‘s Divine Human, may be seen from what has been stated and shown before on the same subject (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834).

AC 3247. And he sent them away from Isaac his son. That this signifies the distinction and separation of those who are spiritual from those who are celestial, is evident from what has just been said, namely, that the sons of Abraham by Keturah and by Hagar the Egyptian who are called the "sons of the concubines," represent the spiritual; and that Isaac, in the relative sense, represents the celestial (n. 3245); and that these two classes were separated.

AC 3248. While he was yet living. That this signifies to whom he could give life, is evident from the signification of "while he was yet living," or "while he yet might live," as being to give life; for by Abraham is here represented the Lord as to the Divine Human. That the spiritual have life from the Lord’s Divine Human may be seen above (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834). When their life is from this source the Lord is said to "live" with them, even in common speech. Hence it is that in the internal sense by "while Abraham was yet living" is signified giving life. Life is given to those who are spiritual by means of the good of faith, which is meant by the words which now follow.

AC 3249. Eastward to the land of the east. That this signifies to the good of faith, is evident from the signification of the east" and the "land of the east," which will be treated of in what follows. The good of faith which is signified by the land of the east," is no other than that which in the Word is called charity toward the neighbor; and charity toward the neighbor is nothing else than a life according to the Lord‘s commandments. That this is signified by the "land of the east" may be seen above (n. 1250); therefore they who were in the knowledges of the good of faith were called "sons of the east." The land of the sons of the east was Aram of Syria. Aram or Syria represents the knowledges of good, (n. 1232, 1234); and Aram Naharaim, or Syria of the rivers, represents the knowledges of truth, (n. 3051). And as by the "Syrians" or "sons of the east" were signified those who were in the knowledges of good and truth, they were preeminently called the "wise," as in the first book of Kings, where it is said of Solomon:--

The wisdom of Solomon was multiplied above the wisdom of all the sons of the east (1 Kings 4:30);

and as in Matthew, where it is said of those who came to Jesus when He was born:--

Wise men from the east came to Jerusalem, saying, Where is He that is born king of the Jews? for we have seen His star in the east, and are come to worship Him (Matthew 2:1, 2).

For in Syria were the last remains of the Ancient Church, and therefore in that land there still remained the knowledges of good and truth, as can also be seen from Balaam, who not only adored Jehovah, but also prophesied concerning the Lord, and called Him the "Star out of Jacob, and the Scepter out of Israel" (Num. 24:17). That Balaam was of the sons of the east in Syria is manifest, for he says this of himself when he utters the declaration:--

From Syria hath Balak brought me, the king of Moab, from the mountains of the east (Num. 33:7).

That it was Aram or Syria where the sons of the east dwelt, is evident from the fact that when Jacob went into Syria he is said to have gone "to the land of the sons of the east" (Gen. 29:1).

AC 3250. Verses 7-10. And these are the days of the years of the lives of Abraham, which he lived; a hundred years, and seventy years, and five years. And Abraham expired and died in a good old age, an old man and sated, and was gathered to his peoples. And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; the field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife. "And these are the days of the years of the lives of Abraham, which he lived," signifies the state representative by Abraham of the Lord as to the Divine Itself; "a hundred years, and seventy years, and five years," signifies the things that belong to this state; "and Abraham expired and died," signifies the end of the representation by Abraham; "in a good old age, an old man and sated," signifies something new in the representation; "and was gathered to his peoples," signifies that these things were concerning Abraham; "and Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him," signifies that the representative of the Lord was now taken up by Isaac and Ishmael; "in the cave of Machpelah," signifies resurrection as to truth; "in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre," signifies as to good; it also signifies the spiritual, as above, who receive truth and good from the Lord’s Divine Human, and are saved; "the field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth," signifies the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom thence derived; "there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife," signifies resuscitation.

AC 3251. And these are the days of the years of the lives of Abraham, which he lived. That this signifies a state representative by Abraham of the Lord as to the Divine Itself, is evident from the signification of "days" and "years," as being states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788); and from the signification here of "lives," as also being states (n. 2904), here, states that were represented by Abraham; for all his life, as it is described in the Word, and the end of which is now treated of, was representative. That Abraham represented the Lord as to the Divine Itself, has been shown in the explications. In order that he might represent, he was called by the name Abraham, the letter h being inserted, which was taken from the name "Jehovah" (n. 2010). Abraham represented both the Divine Itself, which is called the "Father," and the Divine Human, which is called the " Son," thus he represented the Lord as to both the Divine Itself and the Divine Human, but that Divine Human which is from eternity, from which came forth and to which He reduced or brought the Human that was born in time, when He glorified it. This is the representation of the Lord by Abraham.

AC 3252. A hundred years, and seventy years, and five years. That this signifies the things that belong to this state, is evident from the fact that all numbers in the Word signify things (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252); and therefore so does this number, which signifies the things that are of the state now treated of. While the mind dwells solely on what is historical, it appears as if numbers, such as these of the years of the age of Abraham, do not involve any interior sense yet that they do involve such a sense is evident from all that has been shown above concerning numbers, and can be seen from the fact that in number simply as number there is nothing holy, and yet the least of all the things in the Word is holy.

AC 3253. And Abraham expired and died. That this signifies the end of the representation by Abraham, is evident from the signification of "expiring and dying," as being to cease or come to an end (n. 494); here, the end of the representation. For nothing of Abraham’s life which is described in the Word has reference to Abraham, except merely in the historical sense; but everything has reference to the Lord and His kingdom; and therefore when it is said of Abraham that he "expired and died," it cannot signify in the Word (that is, in its genuine sense) anything else than that the state representative of the Lord by Abraham came to an end.

AC 3254. In a good old age, an old man and sated. That this signifies something new in the representation, is evident from the signification in the internal sense of "old age," as being to put off what is old and put on what is new (n. 1854, 2198, 3016). The reason why what is new, or a new state, is signified in the internal sense by "old age," is that with the angels, for whom is the internal sense of the Word, there is no idea of time, thus no idea of such things as belong to time, as the ages of man--infancy, childhood, youth, adult age, and old age. But instead of all these they have an idea of states, thus instead of the time of infancy they have an idea of the state of innocence; instead of the time of childhood and youth they have an idea of the state of the affection of good and truth; instead of adult age they have an idea of the state of intelligence; and instead of old age an idea of the state of wisdom (n. 3183); and as at this time of life man passes from the things of time to those that are of a life without time, and thus puts on a new state, by "old age" is signified what is new, and in this case a new representative, because it is in relation to this with Abraham that "old age" is predicated, and also that he was "an old man and sated," as can be seen from what has just been said.

AC 3255. And was gathered to his peoples. That this signifies that these things were concerning Abraham, is evident from the signification of being "gathered to his peoples," as being to be no longer the subject; for to be gathered to his peoples is to go away from those among whom he has been hitherto, and pass to his own; thus in the present case to be no longer a representative. It was customary with the ancients when anyone died, to say that he was gathered to his fathers or to his peoples, and they understood by this form of expression that he actually went to his parents, relations, and kinsfolk in the other life. They derived this form of speech from the most ancient people, who were celestial men, for while living on earth these were at the same time with the angels in heaven, and thus knew how the case is, namely, that all who are in the same good meet and are together in the other life, and likewise all who are in the same truth. Of the former they said that they were "gathered to their fathers," but of the latter that they were "gathered to their peoples;" for with them "fathers" signified goods (n. 2803), and "peoples" signified truths (n. 1259, 1260). As the people of the Most Ancient Church were all in similar good, they dwell together in heaven (n. 1115); and the case is the same with many of the people of the Ancient Church, who were in similar truth (n. 1125, 1127).

[2] Moreover while a man lives in the body he is always as to his soul in some society of spirits in the other life (n. 1277, 2379); the man who is evil is in a society of infernal spirits; and the man who is good is in a society of angels. Thus every one is in a society of such spirits as he is in agreement with, either as to good and truth, or as to evil and falsity; and into this same society the man comes when he dies (n. 687). This is what among the ancients was signified by being "gathered to their fathers," or "to their peoples," as is here said of Abraham when he expired, and of Ishmael in this same chapter (Gen. 25:17); of Isaac (Gen. 35:29); of Jacob (Gen. 49:29, 33); of Aaron (Num 20:24, 26); of Moses (Num. 27:13; 31:2; Deut. 32:50); and of the first generation that entered into the land of Canaan (Judges 2:10). But in the internal sense of the Word, when anyone‘s life is treated of representatively, by being "gathered to his peoples" is signified that he is no longer the subject, as before said.

AC 3256. And Isaac and Ishmael his sons buried him. That this signifies that the representation of the Lord is now taken up by Isaac and Ishmael, can be seen from the signification of "burying." Being "buried" denotes to be resuscitated and to rise again, (n. 2916). As the representation of the Lord by Abraham is here treated of, as regards this state having come to an end, and that now the representation by Isaac and Ishmael begins, therefore by "burying" in this case is signified the resuscitation of this state; for the significations are determined in accordance with their application to the things of which they are predicated. The case with the representatives in the Word is that they are continuous, although they appear as if interrupted by the deaths of those who represent; their deaths however do not signify any interruption, but a continuation; and therefore their burials signify that the representative is resuscitated and continued in some one else.

AC 3257. In the cave of Machpelah. That this signifies resurrection as to truth, and that in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre, signifies resurrection as to good; and that these words also signify the spiritual, who receive truth and good from the Lord’s Divine Human and are saved, as stated above; and also that the field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth, signifies the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom thence derived; and that there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife, signifies resuscitation, can be seen from what has been before stated and shown concerning the signification of all these expressions, in chapter 23. (n. 2913, 2928, 2968-2971, 2975, 2980); and from the signification of "being buried" (n. 2916, 2917).

AC 3258. Verse 11. And it came to pass after the death of Abraham that God blessed Isaac his son; and Isaac dwelt at Beer-lahai-roi. "And it came to pass after the death of Abraham," signifies after the state and time of the representation of the Lord by Abraham; "that God blessed Isaac his son," signifies the beginning of the representation of the Lord by Isaac; "and Isaac dwelt at Beer-lahai-roi," signifies the Lord’s Divine rational in Divine light.

AC 3259. And it came to pass after the death of Abraham. That this signifies after the state and time of the representation of the Lord by Abraham, is evident from the signification of "dying," as being, when the representative life of anyone is treated of, the end of the representation (n. 3253); hence, in this case, "after the death of Abraham" signifies after the state and time of the representation of the Lord by Abraham.

AC 3260. That God blessed Isaac his son. That this signifies the beginning of the representation by Isaac, may be seen from the signification of the expression, "God blessed." Among the ancients, when a work was to be commenced, it was customary to say, "May God bless it;" and by this was signified the same as is meant by the expression of the wish, "May it be prosperous and happy;" and thus in a more remote sense, by, "May God bless," as well as by, "May it be prosperous and happy," there is signified a beginning, here the beginning of the representation by Isaac, because this follows immediately after the end of the representation by Abraham, which is signified by his death.

AC 3261. And Isaac dwelt at Beer-lahai-roi. That this signifies the Lord‘s Divine rational in Divine light, is evident from the signification of "dwelling," as being to live (n. 1293); and from the signification of "Beer-lahai-roi," as being Divine good rational born from Divine truth itself (n. 3194). Thus the proximate sense is that the Divine rational lived or was in the Divine good which was born from Divine truth itself; but it was not in it; and therefore it is not said "in Beer-lahai-roi," but "at (cum) Beer-lahai-roi," that is, when interpreted, "At the fountain of him that liveth and seeth me," which denotes with that Divine good. For Isaac dwelt in the land of the south, as stated in the foregoing chapter (Genesis 24:62), where we read "and Isaac came from coming to Beer-lahai-roi, and he dwelt in the land of the south;" and as by the "land of the south" in that place there is signified Divine light therefrom (n. 3195), therefore here also nothing else than this is signified.

AC 3262. Verse 12. And these are the births of Ishmael the son of Abraham, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham. "And these are the births of Ishmael the son of Abraham," signifies the derivations of the spiritual church represented by Ishmael; "whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah‘s handmaid, bare unto Abraham," signifies the birth of the spiritual man from Divine influx into the affection of memory-knowledges.

AC 3263. And these are the births of Ishmael the son of Abraham. That this signifies the derivations of the spiritual church represented by Ishmael, is evident from the signification of "births," as being the derivations of faith, thus of the church (n. 1145, 1255, 1330); from the representation of Ishmael, as being those who are rational and who are of the Lord’s spiritual church (n. 2078, 2691, 2699); and from the signification of the "sons of Abraham," as being those who are in truth from the Lord; for by "sons" are signified truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623), and by Abraham is represented the Lord as to the Divine Human also (n. 3251), from whom the spiritual have truth and good (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834).

[2] As regards the Lord‘s spiritual church, be it known that it exists throughout the universal world; for it is not confined to those who have the Word and thence know the Lord and some truths of faith; but it exists also with those who have not the Word and therefore are altogether ignorant of the Lord and consequently know no truths of faith (for all the truths of faith regard the Lord); the is to say, this church exists among the Gentiles who are remote from the church; for there are many among them who from rational light know that there is one God; that He has created all things and preserves all things; and also that from Him is all good, consequently all truth; and that likeness to Him makes man blessed; and moreover they live according to their religion, in love to that God and in love toward the neighbor; and from the affection of good they do works of charity, and from the affection of truth they worship the Supreme Being. The Gentiles who are of this character are they who belong to the Lord’s spiritual church; and although while in this world they do not know the Lord, yet within themselves they have the worship and tacit acknowledgment of Him when they are in good, for in all good the Lord is present; and therefore in the other life they easily acknowledge Him, and receive the truths of faith in Him more readily than Christians do who are not in good in this way, as may be seen from what has been disclosed from experience concerning the state and lot in the other life of the nations and peoples out of the church (n. 2589-2604). The natural light which these have has in it what is spiritual, for without that which is spiritual from the Lord, such things cannot possibly be acknowledged.

[3] From this it may now be seen what "Ishmael" signifies, and thereby who in the representative sense are the "Ishmaelites," namely those who are of the Lord‘s spiritual church, who as to life are in simple good, and therefore as to doctrine are in natural truth. Such also are signified by the "Ishmaelites" in the following passage concerning Joseph:--

Behold, a travelling company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing wax, resin, and stacte, going to carry it down to Egypt (Gen. 37:25);

where the Ishmaelites represent those who are in simple good, such as is that in which are the well-disposed Gentiles; "camels bearing wax, resin, and stacte," denote the interior goods of such people. The like is signified by the " Ishmaelites" in (Gen. 37:28; 39:1); and also in the book of Judges, where it is said that Gideon made a request:--

That ye would give me every man the earrings of his spoil. For they had golden earrings, because they were Ishmaelites (Judges 8:24);

"golden earrings" signify the things of simple good (n. 3103).

AC 3264. Whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham. That this signifies the birth of the spiritual man from Divine influx into the affection of memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of "bearing," as being to come into existence (n. 2621, 2629); from the representation of "Hagar the Egyptian," as being the life of the exterior man (n. 1896, 1909); and from the signification of "handmaid," as being the affection of memory-knowledges and of knowledges that is of the exterior man (n. 1895, 2691). It is said "Sarah‘s handmaid," because by Sarah is represented the Lord’s Divine truth, to which the affection of memory-knowledges and of the knowledges of truth is subordinate. As by Ishmael is represented the spiritual man, it is evident that by these words, "whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah‘s handmaid, bare unto Abraham," is signified the birth of the spiritual man from Divine influx into the affection of memory-knowledges.

[2] That man’s rational is born in this manner, see (n. 1895, 1896, 1902, 1910, 2094, 2557, 3030, 3074); consequently the spiritual is thus born, for this is not possible except in the rational, wherefore the spiritual man and the rational man are almost the same, those who are spiritual differing among themselves merely according to the quality of the reason and the consequent quality of life that prevails among them. That their birth or regeneration is from Divine influx into the affection of knowledges may also be seen above (n. 1555, 1904, 2046, 2063, 2189, 2657, 2675, 2691, 2697, 2979). See also what has been stated and shown above concerning Ishmael; namely, that by him was represented the Lord‘s first rational, which was not yet Divine (n. 1893); that afterwards the truly rational or spiritual were represented (n. 2078, 2691), and thereby the Lord’s spiritual church (n. 2699).

AC 3265. Verses 13-16. And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, in their names, according to their births the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam; and Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa; Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, in their villages and in their castles; twelve princes of their peoples. "And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael," signifies the qualities of their doctrinal things; "in their names, according to their births," signifies interior qualities according to the derivations of faith; "the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam; and Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa; Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah," signifies all things of the spiritual church, especially among the Gentiles; "these are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names," signifies doctrinal things and their quality; "in their villages," signifies the external things of the church; " and in their castles," signifies the internal things; "twelve princes of their peoples," signifies all the primary things of this Spiritual Church.

AC 3266. And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael. That this signifies the qualities of their doctrinal things, namely, of those who are spiritual, is evident from the signification of "name," as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006); from the signification of "sons," as being truths, and also doctrinal things (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623); and from the representation of Ishmael, as being those who are spiritual (n. 3263).

AC 3267. In their names, according to their births. That this signifies interior qualities according to the derivations of faith, is evident from the signification of "name," as being quality, or from the signification of "names," as being qualities (n. 3266), in this case interior qualities, because it is said, "these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, in their names," where "names" in the first place denote general qualities, and in the second place the qualities which are within the former, or which are interior in respect to those general qualities; and also because these qualities are according to the derivations of faith which are signified by "according to their births." "Births" signify the derivations of faith, thus of the church, (n. 1145, 1255, 1330, 3263).

[2] With the Lord‘s spiritual church the case is this: It is scattered throughout the whole world, and everywhere varies as to articles of belief, or the truths of faith; and these varieties are the derivations which are signified by the "births," and which come forth both at one and the same time and also one after another. It is the very same with the Lord’s spiritual kingdom in the heavens, in which there is variety as to the things of faith, and this to such a degree that there is not one society, nor even one person in a society, that in the things of the truth of faith has an idea altogether in agreement with the ideas of others (n. 3241) hut nevertheless the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom in the heavens is a one the reason of which is that with all there charity is the principal thing, for charity makes the spiritual church, and not faith, unless you call charity faith.

[3] He who is in charity loves his neighbor, and when the neighbor differs from him in matters of belief, he excuses it provided that his neighbor lives in good and truth. He also does not condemn the well-disposed Gentiles, although they are ignorant of the Lord, and do not know anything of the faith. For he who is in charity, that is, who lives in good, receives from the Lord truths of such a quality as agree with his good, and Gentiles receive such truths as in the other life may be bent into truths of faith (n. 2599-2603). But he who is not in charity, that is, who does not live in good, can never receive any truth; he may indeed know truth, but it is not implanted in his life; thus he may indeed have it in his mouth, but not in his heart. For truth cannot be conjoined with evil, and therefore those who know the truths which are called the articles of belief, and do not live in charity or in good, although they are in the church because born in it, are yet not of the church, for there is nothing of the church in them, that is nothing of good with which truth may be conjoined.

AC 3268. The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam; and Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa; Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. That these signify all things that belong to the spiritual church, especially among the Gentiles, is evident from the representation of those who are here named, some of whom are mentioned elsewhere in the Word, particularly in the prophetical books-as Nebaioth, Kedar, Dumah, and Tema-and who there signify such things as belong to the spiritual church, especially among the Gentiles moreover the same is manifest from their being twelve, for "twelve" signifies all things of faith, thus of the church, as will be shown hereafter; and for this reason it is said in the sixteenth verse that they were "twelve princes of their peoples."

[2] That by Nebaioth and Kedar are represented the things that belong to the spiritual church, especially among the Gentiles, namely its goods and derivative truths, is evident in Isaiah:--

The abundance of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come; they shall bring gold and frankincense, and they shall proclaim the praises of Jehovah. All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered together unto thee, the rams of Nebaioth shall minister unto thee they shall come up with acceptance on Mine altar (Isaiah 60:6, 7)

which in the supreme sense is said of the Lord, and in the relative sense of His kingdom. The "flocks of Kedar" denote spiritual good. A "flock" is spiritual good, (n. 343, 415, 2566). The "rams of Nebaioth" denote spiritual truth. A "ram" is spiritual, (n. 2833).

[3] That "Kedar" is Arabia is manifest from the following passages, and that Arabia was called "Kedar" from the son of Israel, is evident from the fact that in both verses lands or nations are enumerated all of which are named from the sons and grandsons of Abraham-as Midian, Ephah, and Sheba (verses 2-4); and here likewise Kedar and Nebaioth.

[4] In Ezekiel:

Arabia, and all the princes of Kedar, these were the merchants of thy hand in lambs, and rams, and he-goats, in these were they thy merchants (Ezek. 27:21);

treating of Tyre, that is, of those who are in the knowledges of good and truth. "Tyre" has this signification, (n. 1201). "Arabia" denotes spiritual good; the "princes of Kedar," spiritual truths; "lambs, rams, and he-goats" denote spiritual goods and truths.

[5] In Jeremiah:--

Arise ye, go up to Kedar, and lay waste the sons of the east. Their tents and their flocks shall they take they shall carry away for themselves their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels (Jer. 49:28, 29);

where the subject is the vastation of the spiritual church, meant by "Kedar and the sons of the east." "Tents and flocks" denote the goods of this church; "curtains and vessels," its truths; the holy things of worship are what are signified by "tents and flocks," and by "curtains and vessels;" and all the holy things of worship relate to good and truth

[6] But those who are not in truth, because not in good, are those who are represented by the "Arabians and Kedarites in the wilderness," as in Isaiah:--

Babylon shall not he inhabited forever, neither shall the Arabian pitch tent there (Isa. 13:19, 20).

In the same:--

Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift up their voice, the villages that Kedar doth inhabit (Isa. 42:11).

In Jeremiah:--

By the ways hast thou sat for them, as an Arabian in the wilderness (Jeremiah 3:2).

In David:--

Woe is me, that I sojourn in Meshech, that I dwell with the tents of Kedar (Ps. 120:5).

[7] In Isaiah:--

In the forest in Arabia shall ye lodge, O ye travelling companies of Dedanites. Bring ye waters to meet him that is thirsty ye Inhabitants of the land of Tema forestall the fugitive with his bread. For they shall wander before the swords, from before the drawn sword, from before the bent bow, and from before the grievousness of war. For thus hath the Lord said unto me, Yet within a year, according to the years of a hireling, and all the glory of Kedar shall be consumed; and the residue of the number of bows of the mighty men of the sons of Kedar (Isa. 21:13-17).

To" lodge in the forest of Arabia" denotes vastation as to truth; "the travelling companies of Dedanites" denote those who are in knowledges (n. 3240, 3241); "the inhabitants of the land of Tema" denote those who are in simple good, such as is that of the well-disposed Gentiles. It is evident that these were called "Tema" from Ishmael’s son. "Kedar" denotes those who are in simple truth; of whom it is said that they shall "wander from before swords, and from before the grievousness of war," by which is signified that they will not endure temptation combats, because they are no longer in good.

[8] In Jeremiah:--

Pass over to the isles of Kittim, and see and send unto Kedar, and consider diligently, and see whether there hath been done such a thing, whether a nation hath changed gods, which yet are no gods (Jeremiah 2:10, 11)

the "isles of Kittim" denote those who are more remote from worship, that is, Gentiles who are in simple good, and thereby in natural truth (n. 1156, 1158); that "Kedar" also denotes the same is manifest.

[9] In the same:--

Then took I the cup from the hand of Jehovah, and made all the nations to drink, unto whom Jehovah had sent me; Dedan, and Tema, and Buz, and all that are clipped at the corner of the beard and all the kings of Arabia, and all the kings of the west, that dwell in the wilderness (Jer. 25:17, 23, 24);

where also the vastation of the spiritual church is treated of, and Tema and Arabia are named along with several others, from which it is manifest that by "Tema," as by "Arabia," those are signified who are of the spiritual church; but to Arabia are attributed kings and cities, while princes and villages are ascribed to Kedar.

[10] Besides these, Dumah also is mentioned in (Isaiah 21:11). The reason why by these nations are signified the things that belong to the spiritual church, is that the Ancient Church, which was spiritual, was also among them (n. 1238, 2385); their doctrinals and rituals differed, and yet they were one church because they did not make faith, but charity, essential. In course of time however, as charity ceased, even that which there was of the church with them was lost; yet there still remained a representative of the church by them, with variety according to what there had been of the church with them. Hence it is that wherever they are named in the Word, they themselves are not signified, but only that of the church in general which had been there.

AC 3269. These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names. That this signifies doctrinal things and their quality, is evident from the signification of "sons," as being truths, and also doctrinal things; and of "name," as being quality (n. 3266).

AC 3270. In their villages. That this signifies the external things of the church, is evident from the signification of villages," as being those things which are the externals of faith, thus of the church; the external things of the church are rituals, the internal things are doctrinal things, provided that these are not merely of memory-knowledge, but also of life. External things were represented by villages because these were outside of the cities; but internal things by the cities themselves. "Cities" are doctrinal things, (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216).

AC 3271. And in their castles. That this signifies internal things, is evident from the signification of "castles," as being the internal things of faith; here, of the church, because they are especially predicated of the Gentiles, who had no truth of faith, but only rational and natural truth. These truths are called "castles" when the truths of faith are called "cities." In the original tongue the words that signify villages and castles also signify courts and palaces; and "courts" are similarly the external things of the church, and "palaces" the internal.

AC 3272. Twelve princes of their peoples. That this signifies all the primary things of this spiritual church, is evident from the signification of "twelve," as being all things of faith or of the church (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130); from the signification of "princes," as being things primary (n. 1482, 2089); and from the signification of "peoples," as being those who are in truths (n. 1259, 1260), thus those who are of the spiritual church, for these are said to be in truths. That all numbers in the Word signify actual things, may be clearly seen from the number "twelve," which so often occurs. This number, wherever it occurs in the Word, signifies all; as for instance the "twelve tribes" in the Old Testament, and the "twelve apostles" in the New, signify all things of faith, and thus all things of the church. So here "twelve princes" signify all the primary things of this church, and these are represented by so many sons of Ishmael.

[2] That "twelve" has this signification may be seen from the passages adduced in the sections above cited, as also from the following passages in the Word. In John:--

I heard the number of those who were sealed out of every tribe of the sons of Israel. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand (Rev. 7:4, 5);

and so on; where by "twelve thousand sealed out of every tribe" nothing else is signified than that all who are in faith, that is, who are in the good of faith, are saved. Again:--

A woman encompassed with the sun, and the moon under her feet and upon her head a crown of twelve stars (Rev. 12:1);

the "woman" denotes the church (n. 252, 253); the "sun," celestial love; and the "moon," spiritual love (n. 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495); the "twelve stars" denote all things of faith. "Stars" are the knowledges of good and truth which are of faith, (n. 2495, 2849).

[3] Again:--

The holy city, New Jerusalem, had twelve gates, and upon the gates twelve angels, and names written thereon, which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel. And the wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. And he measured the city with the reed, twelve thousand furlongs. And he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits (twelve times twelve), which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel. And the twelve gates were twelve pearls (Rev. 21:2, 12, 14, 16, 17, 21);

here by the "holy city" nothing else is signified than the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom; and by "gates," "wall," "foundations" are signified the things of charity and faith; and by "twelve," so often mentioned, are signified all of these things; that neither twelve tribes nor twelve apostles are signified, must be evident to every one. Again:--

In the midst of the street of it, and on this side of the river and on that was the tree of life, bearing twelve fruits, yielding its fruit every month (Rev. 22:2);

the "twelve fruits" are all things of charity.

[4] In Matthew:--

Jesus said, Verily I say unto you, that ye who have followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28);

here apostles are not meant by "apostles," nor thrones by "thrones," nor tribes by "tribes," but all things that are of faith (n. 2129). Moreover in the Word of the Old Testament, where "twelve tribes" are mentioned, it is all things of the church that are signified; and the case is the same with the "twelve stones according to the names of the twelve tribes of Israel" in the Urim and Thummim (Exod. 28:21); and with the "twelve loaves" of the show bread set in order upon the table (Lev. 24:5, 6); and so in other instances. That all things of faith are contained also in the very names of the twelve sons of Jacob or Israel, will be seen, of the Lord’s Divine mercy in what follows in chapters 29 and 30.

AC 3273. Verses 17, 18. And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, a hundred years, and thirty years, and seven years; and he expired and died, and was gathered unto his peoples. And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, us thou goest toward Assyria, he fell upon the faces of all his brethren. "And these are the years of the life of Ishmael," signifies a state representative by Ishmael of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom; "a hundred years, and thirty years, and seven years," signifies the things of this state; "and he expired and died," signifies the end of the representation by Ishmael; "and was gathered unto his peoples," signifies that these things are concerning Ishmael; "and they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria," signifies the extension of intelligence; "he fell upon the faces of all his brethren," signifies contentions concerning truth, but that he was superior.

AC 3274. And these are the years of the life of Ishmael. That this signifies a state representative by Ishmael of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of "years" and of "lives," as here being representative states (n. 3251); and from the representation of Ishmael, as being the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom (n. 2699, 3263, 3268).

AC 3275. A hundred years, and thirty years, and seven years. That this signifies the things of this state, is evident from what was said above (n. 3252) concerning the age of Abraham.

AC 3276. And he expired and died. That this signifies the end of the representation by Ishmael, is evident also from what was said above (n. 3253), where the same words occur, with the same internal sense. In like manner, that he was gathered unto his peoples, signifies that these things are concerning Ishmael, may also be seen above (n. 3255).)

AC 3277. And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria. This signifies the extension of intelligence; and he fell upon the faces of all his brethren, signifies contentions respecting truth, but that he was superior; as is evident from what is said above (n. 115, 1951), where these expressions are explained.

AC 3278. Verses 19, 20. And these are the births of Isaac, the son of Abraham: Abraham begat Isaac. And Isaac was a son of forty years when he took Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean, of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to himself for a woman. "And these are the births of Isaac, the son of Abraham," signifies the Lord’s Divine rational from which is the Divine natural; " Abraham begat Isaac," signifies the Divine rational from the Divine Itself; "and Isaac was a son of forty years," signifies from His own power by temptation combats "when he took Rebekah," signifies the conjunction of Divine truth; "the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean, of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to himself for a woman," signifies the quality and state.

AC 3279. And these are the births of Isaac, the son of Abraham. That this signifies the Lord‘s Divine rational, from which is the Divine natural, is evident from the signification of "births " as being derivations (n. 1145, 1255, 1330), namely, derivations of faith when faith is treated of, and derivations of the church when the church is treated of, just as above the derivations of the spiritual church were signified by the "births" of Ishmael (n. 3263). But here, since the "births" are predicated of the Lord, it is Divine births that are meant, namely, that from the Divine Itself is born the Divine rational, which is signified by Isaac being begotten by Abraham; and that from the Divine rational is the Divine natural, which is signified by Esau and Jacob being from Isaac; for by Esau and Jacob the Lord’s Divine natural is represented-by Esau as to good, and by Jacob as to truth-as will be shown in what now follows. This is what is here signified by the "births."

AC 3280. Abraham begat Isaac. That this signifies the Divine rational from the Divine Itself, is evident from the representation of Abraham, as being the Divine Itself; and from the representation of Isaac, as being the Divine rational, as already frequently explained.

AC 3281. And Isaac was a son of forty years. That this signifies from His own power by temptation combats, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Divine rational, as already frequently explained; from the signification of "forty," as being temptations (n. 730, 862); and from the signification of "years," as being states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788). Hence the internal sense of these words is that the Lord made His rational Divine also as to truth, by temptation combats, thus by His own power. That the Lord by His own power through temptations admitted into Himself made all the human in Himself Divine, was shown above, (n. 1616, 1663, 1668, 1690, 1787, 2083, 2523, 2632, 2776, 3030, 3043, 3141).

AC 3282. When he took Rebekah. That this signifies the conjunction of Divine truth, is evident from the representation of Rebekah, as being Divine truth adjoined to Divine good in the rational, the birth of which from the natural man was treated of in the preceding chapter.

AC 3283. The daughter of Bethuel the Aramean, of Paddan-aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean, to himself for a woman. That this signifies the quality and state, is evident from the representation of Bethuel and Laban, and from the signification of "Aram" and "Paddan-aram," as being those things which involve the origin as to quality and state of the Divine truth represented by Rebekah; but what is represented by each, namely, by Bethuel and by Laban, and what is signified by "Aram" or Syria, was explained in the preceding chapter. The reason why these things are again said, is that in the following sections the Lord‘s natural is treated of. The Lord’s natural could not be made Divine until truth had been adjoined to His rational, and until this had been made Divine; for the influx into the natural must needs be from the Divine good of the rational through the Divine truth therein; seeing that all the life of the natural man, as regards knowing and acting intelligently, is therefrom; for the rational is that which ordinates all things in the natural, and according to the orderly arrangement of things therein has them conveniently in view; the rational being like a higher sight, which when it looks into the memory-knowledges of the natural man, looks upon a field as it were beneath itself. The light of this sight is the light of truth, but the origin of the light is from good in the rational. But more on this subject hereafter.

AC 3284. Verses 21-23. And Isaac entreated Jehovah for his woman, because she was barren, and Jehovah was entreated of him, and Rebekah his woman conceived. And the sons struggled together within her; and she said, If so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of Jehovah. And Jehovah said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels, and the one people shall prevail over the other people, and the elder shall serve the younger. "And Isaac entreated Jehovah," signifies the communication of the Divine which was the Son with the Divine which was the Father; "for his woman, because she was barren," signifies that the Divine natural was not yet; "and Jehovah was entreated of him," signifies the effect; "and Rebekah his woman conceived," signifies that it was from Divine truth as a mother "and the sons struggled together within her," signifies combat as to which; "and she said, If so, why am I thus?" signifies straitness; "and she went to inquire of Jehovah," signifies a state of communication; "and Jehovah said unto her," signifies perception from the Divine; "two nations are in thy womb," signifies the natural as to interior and exterior good, that there is conception; "and two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels," signifies that truth is thence derived; "and the one people shall prevail over the other people," signifies that at first truth will be superior to the good of truth; "and the elder shall serve the younger," signifies that for a time the good of truth will be inferior.

AC 3285. And Isaac entreated Jehovah. That this signifies the communication of the Divine which is the Son with the Divine which is the Father, is evident from the signification of "entreating," as being to communicate; for entreaty or prayer is nothing but communication; and from the representation of Isaac, as being the Divine rational; the Divine which is the Son is Isaac, that is, the rational when truth is conjoined with it; but the Divine which is the Father here is "Jehovah." This communication was in the Lord, for the Father was in the Son, and the Son in the Father (John 14:10, 11).

AC 3286. For his woman, because she was barren. That this signifies that the Divine natural was not yet, is evident from the signification of a "woman," as being Divine truth conjoined with the good of the rational, which truth was in the preceding chapter shown to be represented by Rebekah; and from the signification of "barren," as being that the Divine natural was not yet. For the case herein is this: The Divine natural had its origin from the Divine good of the rational as a father, and from the Divine truth therein as a mother; and when the Divine natural is not yet, then the truth of the rational is said to be "barren," here a "barren woman."

[2] As regards man, the case is that when he is being regenerated, good is insinuated by the Lord into his rational (that is, good will to the neighbor), to which will or good is adjoined truth from the natural man; but when this has been done, the natural is not yet regenerate, as may be known from the fact that the internal or rational man often fights with the external or natural man; and so long as there is combat the natural is not regenerate; and when this is not regenerate, the rational is barren as to truth. Such is the case in general; and in like manner in every particular in which the rational dissents from the natural, the rational is said in that particular to be barren as to truth.

[3] The work of regeneration is chiefly concerned in bringing about the correspondence of the natural man to the rational man, not only in general, but also in particular; and the natural man is reduced to correspondence by the Lord through the rational, in that good is insinuated into the rational, and in this good as in ground truths are implanted, and then by means of rational truths the natural is reduced to obedience; and when it obeys, then it corresponds and in so far as it corresponds, so far is the man regenerate.

AC 3287. And Jehovah was entreated of him. That this signifies the effect, is evident without explication, because when Jehovah has been entreated, the prayer then comes to pass, or is effected.

AC 3288. And Rebekah his woman conceived. That this signifies from Divine truth as from a mother, is evident from the representation of Rebekah, as being the Divine truth of the rational, treated of in the preceding chapter; and from the signification of "conceiving," as being the first beginning of the Divine natural as from a mother; for, as just said, the Divine natural had its origin from the Divine good of the rational as a father, and from the Divine truth of the rational as a mother. That this is the case is known to scarcely anyone, and this ignorance is the greater because few are aware that the rational is distinct from the natural; for only those know this who are truly rational, and they alone are truly rational who have been regenerated by the Lord; whereas they who have not been regenerated do not comprehend this, for to them the rational is the same as the natural.

AC 3289. And the sons struggled together within her. That this signifies combat as to which, is evident from the signification of "struggling," as being combat; and from the signification here of "sons," as being the natural as to good and as to truth; for that Esau and Jacob, who were the sons, represent the Lord‘s Divine natural, Esau the Divine natural as to good, and Jacob as to truth, will become evident from what follows. This struggling or combat is treated of in this chapter, being concerning the priority, as to whether good or truth is prior, or what is the same, whether charity which is of good, or truth which is of faith, is prior. From the earliest times there has been much contention in the spiritual church concerning this question; and because this priority is treated of in what follows, it is said that the "sons struggled within her," and by this is signified combat as to which.

AC 3290. And she said, If so, why am I thus? That this signifies straitness, is evident from the sense of these words, in that they are words of straitness, and indeed straitness on account of the struggle, that is, the combat between the brothers; "if so," signifies if they combated about this matter; "why thus," signifies that there ought not to be combat on this account; "I," or, "why am I," signifies that if they combated about this matter they would not receive influx from rational truth; and thereby would come straitness.

AC 3291. And she went to inquire of Jehovah. That this signifies a state of communication, is evident from the signification of "inquiring," as being when said of the Lord a communication; for it was Jehovah in Himself who was inquired of; in the historical sense however this communication is expressed by "praying" (n. 3285); and the state of communication by inquiring."

AC 3292. And Jehovah said unto her. That this signifies perception from the Divine, is thence evident; and also from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2506, 2515, 2552); thus " Jehovah saying," signifies to perceive from the Divine.

AC 3293. Two nations are in thy womb. That this signifies the natural as to interior and exterior good, that there is conception, is evident from the signification of "nations," as being goods, especially the goods of the church (n. 1159, 1258, 1260, 1416, 1849); and that here the goods which are in the natural are signified, is evident from the fact that Esau and Jacob, who were then in the womb, represent the Lord’s Divine natural, as will become very evident from what follows, where they are treated of. The natural, like the rational, consists of good and truth; the good in the natural is all that which is of natural affection, and is called delight; but the truth is all that which is of the memory, and is called memory-knowledge. These two must be in the natural for there to be any natural. By itself, memory-knowledge abstractedly from any delight which is of affection, is not anything; for the natural has its life from the delight within it; and from this derives its ability to know anything; whereas delight, which is the good of the natural, is something without memory-knowledge; but only such a vitality as infants have. In order therefore for the natural to be human it must consist of both, the one being perfected by the other; but it has its real life from good.

[2] As regards this good which is here treated of, it is twofold, interior and exterior; the interior good communicates with the interior man, that is, with the rational; while the exterior good communicates with the external man, that is, with the things of the body, and makes the life in the external senses, and also in the actions. Without this twofold communication, man cannot live either as to the reason or as to the body. It is the interior communication which abides with man after death, and then makes his natural life, for a spirit also has natural life, inasmuch as his spiritual life is terminated in the natural as in an ultimate plane; for immediately after death a man is not able to think spiritually, except from the things that belong to his natural. The exterior communication however is that which a man has while he lives in the body, but this ceases by the death of the body. All this shows what is signified by "two nations in the womb," namely the natural as to interior and exterior good. "In the womb," in the internal sense, signifies conception, therefore it is here said "that there is conception."

AC 3294. And two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels. That this signifies that truth is thence derived, is evident from the signification of "people," as being truth (n. 1259, 1260); and from the signification of being "separated from the bowels," as being to originate thence. In the Word, where birth is treated of, when it is from the mother it is expressed as "coming forth from the womb" or "belly;" but when from the father, as being "separated from the bowels." For the womb and the loins are predicated of the things of love, that is, of good; but when the expression "separated from the bowels" is used, the origin of truth is signified; therefore here, when good is treated of, it is said that "two nations are from thy womb;" and when truth is treated of, that "two peoples shall be separated from thy bowels," whereby is signified, in the internal sense, the origin of truth from good. "Two peoples" are spoken of, because as good is interior and exterior (n. 3293), so also is truth. Interior truth in the natural is that which is conjoined with the interior good of the natural; but exterior truth is that which is conjoined with the exterior good of the natural; the interior truth is called natural truth, but the exterior truth is called sensuous. But how the case is with these kinds of truths, will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy appear from what follows, where Jacob is treated of; for by Jacob is represented this truth as to both kinds.

AC 3295. And the one people shall prevail over the other people. That this signifies that at first truth shall be superior to the good of truth, is evident from the signification of "people," as being truth (n. 3294); and from the signification of "prevailing over," as being superior. The "people" referred to in the first place signifies truth, but the "people" referred to in the second place, the good of truth; the good of truth being that good which comes forth from truth, and which in its first coming forth is truth, but is called good because it appears as good. Hence it is that by "people’ is also signified this good, which in its first coming forth is called the good of truth. In order to have some idea of this good, we must know that before a man has been regenerated he does good from truth; but after he has been regenerated he does good from good; or more clearly, before a man has been regenerated he does good from the understanding; but after he his been regenerated, from the will. The good therefore that is from the understanding is not in itself good, but truth, whereas the good which is from the will is good. For example: one who does not honor his parents, but from the commandment of the decalogue learns to honor them, when first he honors them, does it from the commandment; and as this honor is from the commandment it is not in itself good, because it is not from love, but is either from obedience to the law, or from fear of the law. Nevertheless it is called the good of truth, but in its first coming forth it is truth; for at that time the man does not do good, but truth; whereas when the man honors his parents from love, then it is good. The same is true in all other cases.

AC 3296. And the elder shall serve the younger. That this signifies that for a time the good of truth should be inferior, is evident from the signification of the "elder," as being good; from the signification of "serving," as being inferior; and from the signification of the "younger," as being truth. How the case herein is may be seen from what follows, where it is described under the representation of Esau and Jacob; for as before said by Esau is represented good, and by Jacob, truth. That there was struggling or combat concerning priority and dominion, is described in the internal sense by Jacob‘s taking away from Esau the birthright, and also his blessing; yet that this was done only for a time is manifest from Isaac’s prophecy concerning Esau And upon thy sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck (Gen. 27:40).

[2] These things have an internal sense, and what they signify cannot be known without the internal sense (namely, what is signified by two nations being in the womb, and by two peoples being separated from the bowels, and by one people prevailing over the other, and the elder serving the younger), is evident; and that they signify what has been said, is evident from what follows, where much will be said on this subject. Moreover it can with difficulty be believed that these expressions involve such things unless it is known how the case is with good and truth, and concerning the birth of the one from the other, and the change of state in man when he is being regenerated. In the internal sense indeed the Lord is treated of, and here how He made His natural Divine; nevertheless in the representative sense the regeneration of man is also treated of; for man‘s regeneration is an image of the Lord’s glorification (n. 3043, 3138, 3212); that is, in regeneration as in a certain image it appears how the Lord glorified His Human, or what is the same, made it Divine. For as the Lord altogether changed His human state into the Divine, so also in man, when He regenerates him, the Lord utterly changes the man‘s state, for He makes his old man new.

AC 3297. Verses 24-26. And her days were fulfilled to bring forth, and behold twins were in her womb. And the first came forth red all over like a hairy garment, and they called his name Esau. And after that came forth his brother, and his hand laid hold on Esau’s heel, and he called his name Jacob: and Isaac was a son of sixty years when she bare them. "And her days were fulfilled to bring forth," signifies the first state of the effect; "and behold twins were in her womb," signifies that both were conceived together; "and the first came forth red all over like a hairy garment," signifies the natural good of the life of truth; "and they called his name Esau," signifies its quality; "and after that came forth his brother," signifies truth; "and his hand laid hold on Esau‘s heel," signifies the lowest of the good of the natural, to which it adhered with some power; "and he called his name Jacob," signifies the doctrine of truth of the natural; "and Isaac was a son of sixty years when she bare them," signifies the state of the Divine rational at that time.

AC 3298. And her days were fulfilled to bring forth. That this signifies the first state of the effect, is evident from the signification of "days," as being states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788); that these were "fulfilled to bring forth signifies the first state of the effect; for in the spiritual sense to "bring forth" has respect to good and truth, and in this sense means to come into existence (n. 2621, 2629). With good and truth the case is the same as with offspring, in that they are conceived, are in the womb, are born, and afterwards grow to maturity. After conception the efficient (that is, the conceived seed) begins to produce the effect, which takes place in the womb; when these states have been fulfilled, and the time for bringing forth is near, then the effect commences, and is called the first of the effect, for then the offspring begins to act as of itself, and to exert itself to attain that very state which is called the state of the effect.

AC 3299. And behold twins were in her womb. That this signifies that both were conceived together, is evident from the signification of "twins," as being both, namely good, which is represented by Esau, and truth, which is represented by Jacob; and from the signification of "in the womb," as being conception (n. 3293). As to both the good and the truth of the natural being conceived together, the case is this: Whatever is born derives its being from a father and its manifestation from a mother; it must have both in order to become something. The natural as to good is conceived from the good of the rational as a father, and as to truth is conceived from the truth of the rational as a mother (n. 3286, 3288). It is good which gives life, but through truth. Both these are called soul, but still good is principally the soul, while truth clothes it as with a kind of tender vessel or body, so that the good is in the truth. This is what is signified by "twins being in her womb."

AC 3300. And the first came forth red all over like a hairy garment (tunica). That this signifies the natural good of the life of truth, is evident from the signification of "coming forth," as being to be born; from the signification of "red," as being the good of life, as will be shown presently; and from the signification of a "hairy garment," as being the truth of the natural, which also will be shown presently. This being the "first" signifies that as to essence good is prior, as before said (n. 3299); and it is said "like a hairy garment" in order to signify that good is clothed with truth, as with a tender vessel or body, as also before said (n. 3299). In the internal sense of the Word a "garment (tunica)" signifies merely that which invests something else, wherefore also truths are compared to garments (n. 1073, 2576).

[2] That "red," or "ruddy," signifies the good of life, is because all good is of love, and love itself is celestial and spiritual fire, and is also compared to fire and likewise is called "fire" (n. 933-936). So also is love compared to blood, and is called "blood" (n. 1001); and because they are both red, the good which is of love is signified by "red" or "ruddy," as may also be seen from the following passages in the Word. In the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel:--

He shall wash his raiment in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes; his eyes are redder than wine, and his teeth are whiter than milk (Gen. 49:11, 12);

where Judah is treated of, by whom is there signified the Lord, as must be evident to every one. "Raiment" and "vesture" in this passage signify the Lord’s Divine natural; "wine" and "the blood of grapes" signify the Divine good and Divine truth of the natural. Of the former it is said that "his eyes are redder than wine;" of the latter that "his teeth are whiter than milk;" it is the conjunction of good and truth in the natural which is thus described.

[3] In Isaiah:--

Who is this that cometh from Edom? Wherefore art Thou red in Thine apparel, and Thy garments like him that treadeth in the winevat? (Isa. 63:1, 2);

here "Edom" denotes the Divine good of the lord‘s Divine natural, as will appear from what follows; "red in Thine apparel" denotes the good of truth; "garments like him that treadeth in the wine-vat," the truth of good. In Jeremiah:--

Her Nazirites were purer than snow, they were whiter than milk; they were more ruddy in bone than rubies, their polishing was of sapphire (Lam. 4:7).

By the "Nazirites" was represented the Lord as to the Divine Human, especially as to the Divine natural; thus the good therein by their being "more ruddy in bone than rubies."

[4] As "red" signified good, especially the good of the natural, therefore in the Jewish Church, in which each and all things were representative of the Lord, and thence of His kingdom (consequently of good and truth, because the Lord’s kingdom is from these), it was commanded that the covering of the tent should be of the skins of red rams (Exod. 25:5; 26:14; 35:7, 23; 36:19); and also that the water of expiation should be made of the ashes of a red heifer burned (Num. 19:2, 9). Unless the color red had signified something celestial in the Lord‘s kingdom, it would never have been commanded that the rams should be red, and the heifer red. That holy things were thereby represented, every one acknowledges who holds the Word to be holy. Inasmuch as the color red had such a signification, the coverings of the tent were interwoven and coupled together with threads of scarlet, crimson, and blue (Exod. 35:6).

[5] As almost all things have also an opposite sense, as has before been frequently stated, "red" in like manner then signifies the evil which is of the love of self; and this because the cupidities of the love of self are compared to fire and are called "fire" (n. 934, 1297, 1527, 1528, 1861, 2446); and in like manner they are compared to blood and are called "blood" (n. 374, 954, 1005). Hence in the opposite sense "red" has this signification; as in Isaiah:--

Jehovah said, Though your sins he as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow; though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18).

In Nahum:--

The shield of the mighty men (of Belial) is made red, the valiant men are made crimson, in the fire of torches are the chariots in the day (Nahum 2:3).

In John:--

And there was seen another sign in heaven; and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his heads seven diadems (Rev. 12:3).

Again:--

And I saw and behold a white horse, and he that sat thereon had a bow; and there was given unto him a crown and he went forth conquering and to conquer. And another horse came forth that was red; and to him that sat thereon it was given to take peace from the earth, and that they should kill one another; and there was given unto him a great sword. Afterwards there came forth a black horse and at last a pale horse, whose name was death (Rev. 6:2, 4, 5, 8).

AC 3301. That a "hairy garment (tunica)" signifies the truth of the natural, is evident from the signification of a "garment (tunica)" as being that which invests something else, and here therefore it signifies truth, because this invests good; for truth is as a vesture (n. 1073, 2576); or what is nearly the same, truth is a vessel receiving good (n. 1469, 1496, 1832, 1900, 2063, 2261, 2269); and also from the signification of "hairy," as being the natural in respect to truth. "Hair," or the "hair of the head," is frequently mentioned in the Word, and there signifies the natural; the reason is that hair is an excrescence in the outermost parts of man, just as is the natural also relatively to his rational and to the interior things thereof. It appears to man, while he lives in the body, that the natural is his all, but this is so far from being true that the natural is rather an excrescence from his internals, as hair is from the things of the body. The two also proceed from the internals in almost the same way. Hence it is that men who in the life of the body have been merely natural, in the other life; when presented to view in accordance with that state, appear as if covered with hair over almost the whole face. Moreover man’s natural is represented by the hair of the head; when it is from good, it is represented by becoming and carefully arranged hair; but when not from good, by unbecoming and disheveled hair.

[2] It is from this representative that in the Word "hair" signifies the natural, especially as to truth; as in Zechariah:--

And it shall come to pass in that day that the prophets shall be ashamed, a man by reason of his vision, when he hath prophesied, neither shall they wear a hairy tunic to deceive (Zechariah 13:4).

"Prophets" denote those who teach truths, here those who teach falsities (n. 2534); "vision" denotes truths, here falsities; a "hairy tunic" denotes the natural as to truth; and because there was no truth, but rather falsity, it is said, "to deceive." Prophets were clothed with such raiment in order to represent that truth, because it is external. Therefore also Elijah the Tishbite from such clothing is called a "hairy man" (2 Kings 1:8); and John, who was the last of the prophets, had "raiment of camel‘s hair" (Matt. 3:4). "Camels" are memory-knowledges in the natural man, (n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145); and also memory-knowledges are the truths of the natural, (n. 3293).

[3] That the "hair of the head" signified the natural as to truth is plainly evident from the Nazirites, to whom it was commanded that during all the days of their Naziriteship no razor should pass upon their head, until the days were fulfilled during which they separated themselves to Jehovah, and then they should let down the locks of their head, and that then they should shave the head of their Naziriteship at the door of the tent of meeting, and should put the hair upon the fire which was under the eucharistic sacrifice (Num. 6:5, 18). The Nazirites represented the Lord as to the Divine Human; and thence the man of the celestial church, who is a likeness of the Lord (n. 51); and the natural of this man is represented by the hair; and therefore, when the Nazirites were sanctified they were to put off their old or former natural man, into which they were born, and were to put on a new man; which was signified by the command that when the days had been fulfilled during which they were to separate themselves to Jehovah, they were to let down the locks of their head, and put them upon the fire under the sacrifice. For the state of the celestial man is such that he is in good, and from good knows all truths, and never thinks and speaks from truths about good, still less does he think and speak about good from memory-knowledges (n. 202, 337, 2715, 2718, 3246). Moreover celestial men are such that before they put off that state they are in’ a natural so strong as to truth that they are able to battle with the hells; for it is truth that fights, and never good, as the hells cannot make even a distant approach to good. Such is the case with truth and good, (n. 1950, 1951).

[4] From this it is evident whence Samson had strength from his hair; concerning whom it is said:--

The angel of Jehovah appeared to the woman saying, Behold thou shalt conceive, and bear a son, and no razor shall come upon his head for the child shall be a Nazirite unto God from the womb (Judges 13:3, 5);

and afterwards it is related that he told Delilah that if he should be shaven, his strength would depart from him, and be would. be rendered weak; and after he had been shaven his strength departed, and the Philistines seized him; and afterwards, when the hair of his head began to grow again after he was shaven, his strength returned, so that he pulled down the pillars of the house (Judges 16). Who does not see that in these things there is a heavenly arcanum, which no one knows unless he has been instructed concerning representatives; namely, that the Nazirite represents the celestial man, and that so long as he had hair he represented the natural of this man, which as before said is in truth thus powerful and strong. And as at that time all representatives that were commanded by the Lord had such force and effect, this was the source of Samson‘s strength. But Samson was not a sanctified Nazirite like those described above, namely, as having put on a state of good instead of truth. The effect of his strength by reason of his hair was principally from his representing the Lord, who from the natural man as to truth fought with the hells and subdued them, and this before He put on the Divine good and truth even as to the natural man.

[5] From this also it is evident why it was commanded that the high-priest, upon whose head was poured the oil of anointing, and whose hand was consecrated to put on the garments, should not shave his head, nor rend his clothes (Lev. 21:10); and similarly that the priests the Levites (where the new temple is treated of) were not to shave their heads, nor let down their hair (Ezek. 44:20); namely, that they might represent the Lord’s Divine natural as to the truth which is from good, and which is called the truth of good. That "hair," or a "head of hair," signifies the natural as to truth, is evident also from the prophecies of the Word, as in Ezekiel:--

I set thee as the bud of the field, whence thou didst grow, and didst grow up into beauties of beauties; the breasts have become firm, and thine hair was grown (Ezek. 16:7)

where Jerusalem is treated of, which here signifies the Ancient Church, which in process of time had become perverted. The "breasts become firm" denote natural good; the "hair that was grown," natural truth.

[6] In Daniel:--

I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit. His raiment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like the pure wool; His throne was fiery flames (Daniel 7:9).

And in John:--

In the midst of the lampstands One like unto the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the paps with a golden girdle. And His head and His hair were white as white wool, as snow; and His eyes were as a flame of fire (Rev. 1:13, 14);

"hair white like pure wool" denotes the Divine natural as to truth. In the Word, and in the rituals of the Jewish Church, truth itself was represented by white, which being from good, is called "pure wool" The reason why the representation of truth is by white, and the representation of good by red, is that truth is of light, and good is of the fire from which the light proceeds.

[7] Like other expressions in the Word, "hair" has also an opposite sense, and signifies the natural as to truth perverted, as in Isaiah:--

In that day shall the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, in the passages of the river, with the King of Assyria, the head and the hair of the feet; and it shall also consume the beard (Isa. 7:20).

In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, take thee a sharp sword, a barber‘s razor shalt thou take unto thee, and shalt cause it to pass upon thine head, and upon thy beard; and take thee balances to weigh, and divide the hairs. A third part shalt thou burn with fire in the midst of the city thou shalt take a third part and smite with the sword round about the city and a third part thou shalt scatter to the wind and thou shalt take thereof a few in number, and bind them in thy skirts and of these again shalt thou take, and cast them into the midst of the fire, and burn them in the fire therefrom shall a fire come forth unto all the house of Israel (Ezekiel 5:1-4).

In this manner it is representatively described that there is no longer any interior and exterior natural truth, which is signified by the "hair" and the "beard." That concupiscences have destroyed it is signified by its being "burned with fire;" that reasonings have destroyed it is signified by "smiting with the sword round about the city;" that false principles have destroyed it, is signified by "scattering it to the wind." The meaning of this passage is similar to what the Lord teaches in Matthew, that of the seed, which is truth, some fell among thorns, some on the rock, and some upon the way (Matthew 13:1-9).

[8] That the "hair of the head" signifies the unclean truths and falsities which are of the natural man, was represented also by the command that when a woman that had been taken captive from the enemy was to be married, she was to be brought into the house, the hair of her head was to be shaved, her nails were to be pared, and the raiment of her captivity was to be put off (Deut. 21:12, 13); also that when the Levites were consecrated, the water of expiation was to be sprinkled upon them, they were to cause a razor to pass over all their flesh, and their clothes were to be washed, and thus they were to be cleansed (Num. 8:7); and also that Nebuchadnezzar was driven out from men to eat grass like oxen, and his body to be wet with the dew of heaven, until his hair grew like eagles’ feathers, and his nails like birds‘ claws (Dan. 4:33). That in leprosy the colors of the hair and beard were to be observed, as to whether they were white, reddish, yellow, black, and also those of the garments; and that he who was cleansed from leprosy should shave off all the hair of the head, beard, and eyebrows (Lev. 13:1-59; 14:8, 9), signified unclean falsities from what is profane, which in the internal sense is "leprosy."

[9] "Baldness" however signified the natural in which there was nothing of truth, as in Isaiah:--

He is gone up to Bayith, and to Dibon, to the high places, to weep over Nebo, and Moab shall howl over Medeba; on all their heads is baldness, every beard is shaved (Isa. 15:2).

In the same:--

It shall come to pass that instead of braided work there shall be baldness, and branding instead of beauty (Isa. 3:24).

That the children who said to Elisha, "Go up, thou bald-head; go up, thou bald-head," were torn in pieces by bears from the wood (2 Kings 2:23, 24) represented those who blaspheme the Word, speaking as if there were no truth in it; for Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word (n. 2762). From this it is now manifest how much power there was at that time in representatives.

AC 3302. And they called his name Esau. That this signifies its quality, namely, the quality of the natural as to good, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," or of "calling by name," as being to know what the thing is, thus its quality (n. 144, 145, 440, 768, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3237); and from the fact that all names whatever in the Word in the internal sense denote actual things (n. 1224, 1888); and such is the case with the name Esau. That "Esau" signifies the Lord’s Divine natural as to Divine good when first conceived, is evident from what has been already said, and from what follows concerning Esau, as also from other parts of the Word; but as Esau and Edom have nearly the same signification, with the difference that "Edom" is the Divine natural as to good to which are adjoined the doctrinal things of truth, therefore at (verse 30), where Esau is called "Edom," of the Lord‘s Divine mercy this will be confirmed by passages from the Word.

AC 3303. And after that came forth his brother. That this signifies truth, is evident from the signification of "brother," as being good, and also truth, for these are called "brothers." That charity is the "brother" of faith, or good the "brother" of truth, may be seen above (n. 367). So on the other hand faith is the "brother" of charity, or truth the "brother" of good; also in the natural, the affection of good is called "brother," and the affection of truth "sister" (n. 3160); likewise, "husband and wife," and "man (vir) and woman;" but these always relatively to the states treated of.

AC 3304. And his hand laid hold on Esau’s heel. This signifies the lowest of the good of the natural to which it adhered with some power, which is evident from the signification of "band," as being power (n. 878); and it is predicated of truth, (n. 3091); from the signification of "laying hold of," as being to adhere; from the signification of "heel," as being the lowest of the natural (n. 259); and from the representation of Esau, as being the good of the natural (n. 3302). Hence it is evident that "his hand laid hold on Esau‘s heel" signifies the lowest of the good of the natural to which truth adhered with some power.

[2] As regards truth adhering with some power to the lowest good of the natural, the case is this: The natural, or the natural man, when being regenerated, has its conception as to good and truth from the rational, or through the rational from the spiritual; through this from the celestial; and through this from the Divine. Thus does the influx follow in succession, and beginning from the Divine descends until it terminates in the lowest of the natural, that is, in the worldly and corporeal. When the lowest natural is affected with faults by what is hereditary from the mother, truth cannot be united to good, but can only adhere to it with some power; nor is truth united to good until these faults have been driven away. This is the reason why although good is indeed born with man, truth is not; and therefore infants are devoid of any knowledge of truth; and truth has to be learned, and afterwards conjoined with good (n. 1831, 1832). Hence also it is said that they "struggled together in the midst of her," that is, they fought (n. 3289). From this it follows that from the first conception truth supplants good, as is said of Jacob in regard to Esau:--

Is not he named Jacob? for he hath supplanted me these two times (Gen. 27:36).

And in Hosea:--

To visit upon Jacob his ways, according to his doings will he recompense him; in the womb he supplanted his brother (Hosea 12:2, 3).

[3] They who keep the mind solely in the historicals, and who are not able to withdraw it from them, do not know but that these and former passages simply foretell the events which came to pass between Esau and Jacob, and this conviction is confirmed also by what follows. But the Word of the Lord is of such a nature that the historicals are in their own series, while the spiritual things of the internal sense are in theirs; so that the former may be viewed by the external man, and the latter by the internal man, and that in this way there may be a correspondence between the two, namely, between the external man and the internal; and this by means of the Word, for the Word is the union of earth and heaven, as has been frequently shown. Thus in every one who is in a holy state while reading the Word, there is a union of his external man which is on the earth, with his internal man which is in heaven.

AC 3305. And he called his name Jacob. That this signifies the doctrine of truth of the natural, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," or of "calling by name;" as being quality (n. 3302). The quality that is represented by Jacob is the doctrine of truth of the natural, as may be seen from the representation of Esau, as being the good of life of the truth of the natural (n. 3300), and from many places in the Word, where he is named. There are two things which constitute the natural, as there are two that constitute the rational, nay, that constitute the whole man, one of which is of life, and the other of doctrine. That which is of life belongs to the will, while that which is of doctrine belongs to the understanding. The former is called good, and the latter truth. This good is that which is represented by Esau, and the truth by Jacob; or what is the same, the good of life of the truth of the natural is that which is represented by Esau, and the doctrine of truth of the natural is that which is represented by Jacob. Whether you say the good of life of the truth of the natural and the doctrine of truth of the natural, or those who are in these things, it is the same; for the good of life and the doctrine of truth cannot exist apart from their subject. If they have no subject they are a kind of abstract affair which nevertheless has regard to the man in whom this may be. Wherefore by "Jacob" are here signified those who are in the doctrine of truth of the natural.

[2] They who abide in the mere sense of the letter believe that by "Jacob" in the Word is meant all that people which was descended from Jacob, and for this reason they apply to that people all things that have been said historically and prophetically concerning Jacob. But the Word is Divine chiefly in this respect, that all things in it both in general and in particular do not regard one nation or one people, but the universal human race; namely, that which is, which has been, and which will be; and also that which is still more universal, namely, the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens; and in the supreme sense, the Lord Himself. It is for this reason that the Word is Divine. If it had regard merely to one nation, then it would be human, and there would be nothing more of the Divine in it than there was of the holy of worship with that nation; and every one may know that there was none of this with the people called "Jacob;" from which it is evident that by "Jacob" in the Word is not meant Jacob, and also that by "Israel" is not meant Israel; for almost everywhere in the prophecies, when Jacob is named, Israel is named also, and no one can know what is specifically meant by the one, and what by the other, except from the sense which lies more deeply concealed and contains within it the arcana of heaven.

[3] That by "Jacob" therefore in the internal sense is signified the doctrine of truth of the natural; or what is the same, those who are in this doctrine, of whatever nation they may be; and that in the supreme sense the Lord is meant, is evident from the following passages. In Luke:--

The angel said unto her, Fear not, Mary for thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son, and shalt call his name Jesus. He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Most High and the Lord God shall give unto Him the throne of his father David; and He shall reign over the house of Jacob forever; and of His kingdom there shall be no end (Luke 1:30-33).

Here by the "house of Jacob" is not meant the Jewish nation or people, can be seen by all, for the Lord‘s kingdom was not over that people, but over all in the universe who have faith in Him, and who from faith are in charity. Hence it is evident that by "Jacob" as here named by the angel is not meant the people of Jacob; and consequently neither in other places, by the "seed of Jacob," the "sons of Jacob," the "land of Jacob," the "inheritance of Jacob," the "king of Jacob," and the "God of Jacob," which expressions so often occur in the Word of the Old Testament, are these intended.

[4] The case is the same in respect to "Israel," as in Matthew:--

The angel of the Lord appeareth to Joseph in a dream, saying, Arise and take the young child and his mother, and flee into Egypt that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called My Son (Matthew 2:13, 15);

and in the Prophet it is said:--

When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called My son out of Egypt (Hos. 11:1).

That in this passage "Israel" is the Lord, is very evident; and yet from the sense of the letter it cannot be known but that the "child Israel" means the earliest descendants of Jacob, who came into Eat and were afterwards called out thence. It is the same in other passages where "Jacob" and "Israel’ are named, although this does not appear from the sense of the letter, as in Isaiah:--

Hear O Jacob My servant; and Israel, whom I have chosen; thus saith Jehovah who made thee, and formed thee from the womb, who will help thee; Fear not O Jacob My servant, and thou Jeshurun whom I have chosen for I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and streams upon the dry ground; I will pour My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thine offspring; this one shall say, I am Jehovah‘s and this shall call himself by the name of Jacob and that one shall write with his hand unto Jehovah, and surname himself by the name of Israel (Isa. 44:1-3, 5);

where "Jacob" and "Israel" evidently denote the Lord; and the "seed," and " offspring of Jacob," those who are in faith in Him.

[5] In the prophecy concerning the sons of Israel in Moses:--

Joseph shall sit in the strength of his bow, and the arms of his hands shall be made strong by the bands of the Mighty One of Jacob; from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel (Gen. 49:24);

where also the "Mighty One of Jacob" and the "stone of Israel" clearly denote the Lord. In Isaiah:--

My glory will I not give to another; attend unto Me, O Jacob, and Israel My called, I am He; I am the first, I also am the last (Isa. 48:11, 12);

here also " Jacob" and "Israel" signify the Lord. In Ezekiel:--

I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel his companions, and I will add them upon him with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they shall be one in My hand. I will take the sons of Israel from among the nations, whither they he gone, and will gather them from every side, and bring them upon their own land and I will make them one nation in the land, upon the mountains of Israel and one king shall be king to them all, and they shall be no more two nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more at all. My servant David shall be king over them, and they all shall have one shepherd. And they shall dwell on the land that I have given unto Jacob My servant, wherein your fathers dwelt and they shall dwell therein, they and their sons, and their sons’, forever; and David My servant shall be prince to them forever: I will make a covenant of peace with them, it shall be an everlasting covenant with them and I will place them, and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them for evermore. My tabernacle also shall be with them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. And the nations shall know that I Jehovah do sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in the midst of them for evermore (Ezekiel 37:19, 21, 22, 24-28);

here again it is clearly manifest that by "Joseph," "Ephraim," "Judah," "Israel," "Jacob," and "David," are not meant these persons, but in the supreme sense Divine spiritual things which are in the Lord, and which are the Lord‘s in His kingdom and church. That David was not to be, as is said, their king and prince forever, every one may know; but that by "David" is meant the Lord may be seen above (n. 1888). It may also be known that Israel will not be gathered together from wherever they have been dispersed, and will not be sanctified, and the sanctuary placed in the midst of them forever, as is said; but this is to be with those who in the representative sense are signified by "Israel;" and who, as is known, are all the faithful.

[6] In Micah:--

Assembling I will assemble O Jacob, all of thee; gathering I will gather the remnant of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah (Micah 2:12);

where the meaning is similar. In Isaiah:--

Jacob shall cause to take root those who come; Israel shall blossom and bud; and they shall fill the face of the world with produce (Isa. 27:6);

where also the meaning is similar. In the same:--

Thus saith Jehovah who redeemed Abraham, to the house of Jacob; Jacob shall not now be ashamed, neither shall his face now wax pale for when he seeth his children, the work of My hands, in the midst of him, they shall sanctify My name; yea, they shall sanctify the Holy One of Jacob, and shall stand in awe of the God of Israel. They also that err in spirit shall know intelligence (Isa. 29:22-24).

In the same:--

Thus saith Jehovah to His anointed, to Cyrus, chose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him, and I will loose the loins of kings; to open the door before him, and the gates shall not be shut I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight I will break in pieces the doors of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron; I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am Jehovah, who am called by thy name, the God of Israel, for Jacob My servant’s sake, and Israel Mine elect. I have called thee by thy name, I have surnamed thee when thou didst not know Me (Isa. 45:1-4);

where also the Lord is plainly treated of. In Micah:--

In the last days it shall come to pass that the mountain of the house of Jehovah shall be established as the head of the mountains: and many nations shall go, and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of Jehovah, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us of His ways, and we will walk in His paths; for out of Zion shall go forth the doctrine, and the Word of Jehovah from Jerusalem (Micah 4:1, 2).

In David:--

Jehovah loveth the gates of Zion more than all the dwellings of Jacob glorious things shall be preached in thee, O city of God (Ps. 87:2, 3).

In Jeremiah:--

They shall serve Jehovah their God, and David their king, whom I will raise up unto them. And thou, fear thou not, O Jacob My servant, saith Jehovah; neither be dismayed, O Israel; for lo I will save thee from afar (Jeremiah 30:9, 10).

In Isaiah:--

Listen O isles unto me; and hearken ye peoples from far; Jehovah hath called me from the womb from the bowels of my mother hath He made mention of my name; and He said unto me, Thou art My servant Israel, in whom I will be made glorious (Isa. 49:1, 3).

Again:--

Then shalt thou delight thyself in Jehovah, and I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth, and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob (Isa. 58:14).

Again:--

I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of My mountains, that Mine elect may possess it, and My servants shall dwell there (Isa. 65:9).

[7] In the supreme sense of all these passages by "Jacob" and "Israel" is meant the Lord; and in the representative sense the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, and the church which is a church from the doctrine of truth and the life of good. By "Jacob" are meant those who are in the externals of this church; and by "Israel" those who are in its internals. From these and many other passages it is evident that by "Jacob" is nowhere meant Jacob, neither by "Israel," Israel; and in the same way, by "Isaac" is not meant Isaac, nor by "Abraham," Abraham, where they are named; as in Matthew:--

Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham, and Israel, and Jacob, in the kingdom of the heavens (Matthew 8:11).

In Luke:--

Ye shall see Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets in the kingdom of God (Luke 13:28);

and again:--

Lazarus was carried by the angels into Abraham’s bosom (Luke 16:20, 22).

For in heaven they know nothing of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and when these words are read by man, the angels perceive nought but the Lord as to the Divine and the Divine Human; and by "reclining with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," they perceive nought but being with the Lord; and by being "in Abraham‘s bosom," nought but being in the Lord. But it was thus said because at that time man was so far removed from internal things that he did not know and was not willing to know otherwise than that all things in the Word are according to the letter; and when the Lord spoke with men according to the letter, it was that they might receive faith, and also that there might even then be an internal sense within, by which there could be the conjunction of man with Himself. This being the case, it may appear what is signified in the Word of the Old Testament by the "God of Jacob," and by the "Holy One of Israel," namely, the Lord Himself. The "God of Jacob" is the Lord, (2 Sam. 23:1; Isa. 2:3; 41:21; Micah 4:2; Ps. 20:1; 46:7; 75:9; 76:6; 81:1, 4; 84:8; 94:7; 114:7; 132:2; 146:5). The "Holy One of Israel" is the Lord, (Isa. 1:4; 5:19, 24; 10:20; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19; 30:11, 12, 15; 31:1; 37:23; 41:14, 16, 20; 43:3, 14; 45:11; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 54:5; 55:5; 60:14; Jer. 50:29; Ezek. 39:7; Ps. 71:22; 78:41; 89:18).

AC 3306. And Isaac was a son of sixty years when she bare them. That this signifies the state of the Divine rational at that time, evident from what has been said above concerning numbers (n. 3252, 3275). But what the number "sixty" involves may be seen from the simple numbers of which it is composed, namely, five and twelve, for five times twelve are sixty; what "five" signifies may be seen above (n. 649, 1686); and what "twelve" (n. 3272). It is composed also of six and ten, for six times ten are sixty. What "six" signifies may be seen above (n. 720, 737, 900); and what "ten" (n. 576, 2284, 3107). It is composed also of two and thirty, for twice thirty are sixty. What "two" signifies may be seen above (n. 720, 900, 1335, 1686); and what "thirty" (n. 2276). As the number "sixty" is composed of these simple numbers, it involves the things signified by them in their order, all of which signify the state in which the Lord’s Divine rational then was. These things are manifest before the angels in clear light from the Lord; but before man, especially one who believes that no arcanum is concealed in the numbers mentioned in the Word, they cannot be unfolded; both on account of his incredulity, and also because so many contents cannot be reduced into a series suitable to man‘s apprehension.

AC 3307. Verses 27, 28. And the boys grew up: and Esau was a man skillful in hunting, a man of the field; and Jacob was a perfect man, dwelling in tents. And Isaac loved Esau, because his hunting was in his mouth; and Rebekah loved Jacob. "And the boys grew up," signifies the first state; "and Esau was a man skillful in hunting," signifies the good of life from truths sensuous and of memory-knowledge; "a man of the held," signifies the good of life from doctrinal things; "and Jacob was a perfect man," signifies truth; "dwelling in tents," signifies the derivative worship; "and Isaac loved Esau, because his hunting was in his mouth," signifies that the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine rational loved the good of truth; "`and Rebekah loved Jacob," signifies that the Divine truth of the Divine rational loved the doctrine of truth.

AC 3308. The boys grew up. That this signifies the first state, namely, of the conjunction of good and truth, is evident from the signification of "growing up," when predicated of good and truth in respect to origin and progress, as being the first state of the latter, namely, of progress, concerning which hereafter; and from the signification of the "boys," as being good and truth; for good is represented by the "boy Esau," and truth by the "boy Jacob," as before shown. The case with good and truth is the same as with offspring, in that they are conceived, are in the womb, are born, grow up, and also advance in age even to the last. That they are conceived, are in the womb, and are born, pertains to the state of origin; but that they grow up, and advance in age even to the last, pertains to the state of progress. The state of progress advances in succession from the birth, and is a state of the conjunction of good and truth. The first of this state is that which is here signified by "growing up." This state commences immediately after birth, and is continued even to the last of life; and with those who are in good, after the life of the body to eternity. The angels are thus being continually perfected.

AC 3309. And Esau was a man skillful (sciens) in hunting. That this signifies the good of life from truths sensuous and of memory-knowledge, is evident from the representation of Esau, as being the good of life; and from the signification of a "man skillful in hunting," as being those who are in the affection of truth. For a "man skillful" is predicated of the affection of truth, or of those who are in the affection of truth; whereas "hunting" signifies the truths themselves, but truths which are of the natural man from which are goods. And as the truths of the natural man are those which are called memory-knowledges (n. 3293); and these are chiefly of two kinds or degrees, namely, sensuous truths, and truths in the form of memory-knowledge, both are here signified by "hunting." Sensuous truths are those in which children are, and truths in the form of memory-knowledge are those in which the same children are as they grow up. For no one can be in truths of memory-knowledge unless he is first in sensuous truths, inasmuch as the ideas of the former are procured from the latter; and from these may afterwards be learned and comprehended truths still more interior, which are called doctrinal truths, and which are signified by a "man of the field".

[2] That by "hunting" are signified truths sensuous and of memory-knowledge, in which are instructed and by which are affected those who are in the good of life, is because "hunting," in a wide sense, means the things taken by hunting; such as rams, kids, she-goats, and the like; and which are spiritual goods, as may be seen above (n. 2180, 2830); and also because the arms used in hunting, which were quivers, bows, and darts, signify the doctrinal things of truth (n. 2685, 2686, 2709). That such are the things which are signified by "hunting," is evident from what is said to Esau by his father Isaac in a subsequent chapter:--

Take I pray thy weapons, thy quiver and thy bow, and go out to the field, and hunt me a hunting, and make me savory meat, such as I have loved (Gen. 27:3, 4);

and to Jacob, who is there taken for Esau, in the same chapter:--

Bring to me that I may eat of my son‘s hunting, that my soul may bless thee (Gen. 27:25);

from which it is evident what is signified by "hunting."

[3] Hence it is that to "hunt" signifies to teach and also to persuade, and this in both senses, that is, from the affection of truth, and from the affection of falsity; from the affection of truth in Jeremiah:--

I will bring them back into their land that I gave unto their fathers; behold I will send for many fishers, saith Jehovah, and they shall fish them; and after this I will send for many hunters, and they shall hunt them from every mountain and from every hill, and out of the clefts of the rocks (Jeremiah 16:15, 16);

where "fishers" denote those who teach from sensuous truths (n. 40, 991); and "hunters," those who teach from truths of memory-knowledge, and also from doctrinal things. "Upon every mountain and upon every hill," signifies teaching those who are in the affection of good and in the affection of truth. "Mountain and hill" have this signification, (n. 795, 796, 1430). The like is involved in "hunting in the field" (Gen. 27:3). That "hunting" signifies also persuading from the affection of falsity, appears in Ezekiel:--

Behold I am against your pillows, wherewith ye there hunt the souls to make them fly away, and I will tear off your coverings, and will deliver My people out of your hand, and they shall be no longer in your hand to be hunted (Ezek. 13:20, 21).

Concerning the signification of "hunting" in this sense, (n. 1178); but to this kind of hunting, "nets" are usually attributed.

AC 3310. That "a man of the field" signifies the good of life from doctrinal things, is evident from the signification of "field." In the Word frequent mention is made of "earth" or "land," of "ground," and of "field;" and by "earth" or "land," when used in a good sense, is signified the Lord’s kingdom in the heads and on earth, thus the church, which is His kingdom on earth. The like is signified by "ground," but in a more restricted sense (n. 566, 662, 1066-1068, 1262, 1413, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928). The same is signified also by "field," but in a sense still more restricted (n. 368, 2971); and as the church is not the church from doctrinal things except in so far as these have respect to the good of life as their end; or what is the same, unless these doctrinal things are conjoined with the good of life, therefore by "field" is principally signified the good of life; and in order that this may be of the church, there must be doctrinal things from the Word which have been implanted in this good. Without doctrinal things there is indeed good of life, but not as yet the good of the church, thus not as yet good truly spiritual, except only in the capacity of becoming so; as is the case with the good of life among the Gentiles who have not the Word, and therefore are ignorant of the Lord.

[2] That a "field" is the good of life in which are to be implanted the things which are of faith, that is, spiritual truths which are of the church, is very evident from the Lord‘s parable in Matthew:--

The sower went forth to sow, and as he sowed, some fell upon the hard way, and the birds came and devoured them and others fell upon stony places where they had not much earth, and straightway they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth; and when the sun was risen, they were scorched, and because they had no root, they withered away; and others fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up and choked them; but others fell upon the good ground and yielded fruit, some a hundred-fold, some sixty-fold, some thirty-fold: he that hath an ear to hear, let him hear (Matthew 13:3-9; Mark 4:3-9; Luke 8:5-8).

Here four kinds of earth or ground in a field-that is, in the church-are treated of. That the "seed" is the Word of the Lord, thus truth, which is said to be of faith, and that the "good ground" is the good which is of charity, is evident, for it is the good in man that receives the Word; the "hard way" is falsity; a "stony place" is truth that has no root in good; "thorns" are evils.

[3] As regards the good of life from doctrinal things, which is signified by "a man of the field," the case is this: They who are being regenerated, at first do what is good from doctrinal things, for of themselves they do not know what is good, but learn it from the doctrinal things of love and charity; from these they know who the Lord is; who is the neighbor; what love is, and what charity; thus what good is. When they are in this state they are in the affection of truth, and are called "men (viri) of the field but afterwards when they have been regenerated, they do not do what is good from doctrinal things, but from love and charity, for they are then in the good itself which they have learned through doctrinal things, and then are called "men (homines) of the field." The case herein is as with one who by nature inclines to adulteries, thefts, and murders, but who learns from the commandments of the decalogue that such things are of hell, and so abstains from them. In this state he is affected by the commandments because he is afraid of hell, and from these and likewise from many things in the Word he learns how he ought to direct his life; and in this case when he does what is good, he does it from the commandments. But when he is in good, he begins to be averse to the adulteries, thefts, and murders to which before he had been inclined; and when he is in this state, he no longer does what is good from the commandments, but from good, which then is in him. In the former state he learns good from truth; in the latter state he teaches truth from good.

[4] The same is the case also with spiritual truths, which are called doctrinal things, and are still more interior commandments; for doctrinal things are the interior truths that belong to the natural man. The first truths are of sense, the next are of memory-knowledge, the interior ones are of doctrine. These doctrinal truths are founded upon truths of memory-knowledge, for man can form and retain no idea, notion, or conception of them except from memory-knowledges. But truths of memory-knowledge are founded upon truths of the senses, for without sensuous things no memory-knowledges can be comprehended by man. These truths, namely, those of memory-knowledge and of sense, are what are signified by "a man skillful in hunting;" but doctrinal truths are those which are signified by a "man of the field." In this way do these truths follow in succession with man; and therefore until he is of adult age, and through truths of sense and of memory-knowledge is in doctrinal truths, no man is able to be regenerated, for he cannot be confirmed in the truths of doctrine, except by means of ideas derived from the things of memory-knowledge and of sense. For nothing is possible in man’s thought, even as to the deepest arcanum of faith, that is not attended with a natural and sensuous idea, although the man is for the most part ignorant of the nature of it; but in the other life, if be desires it, it is presented to view before his understanding, and even, if be so wishes, before his sight; for however incredible it may appear, in the other life such things can be presented to the sight.

AC 3311. And Jacob was a perfect man. That this signifies truth, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the doctrine of natural truth (n. 3305); and from the signification of "perfect," as being predicated of those who are in truth, thus of truth (n. 612).

AC 3312. Dwelling in tents. That this signifies the derivative worship, is evident from the signification of "tents," as being the holy of love, and thence of worship (n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152). That "tents" signify the holy of worship, is because in the most ancient time the man of the church who was in love to the Lord and thence in holy worship, dwelt in tents, and there performed his holy worship; and because at that time the holy of love and thence the holy of worship began to be represented by tents, it was commanded that they should make a Tent according to the pattern shown to Moses upon Mount Sinai, and should therein institute their Divine worship. Hence also the feast of tabernacles, and their then dwelling in tents, was for the sake of the representation of the holy worship which belonged to the man of the celestial church; and this shows that by "dwelling in tents" is signified worship.

AC 3313. And Isaac loved Esau, because his hunting was in his mouth. That this signifies that the Divine good of the Divine rational loved the good of truth, is evident from the representation of Isaac, as being the Lord‘s Divine rational as to Divine good (n. 3012, 3013, 3194, 3210); and from the representation of Esau, as being the Lord’s Divine natural as to the good therein (n. 3300, 3302); and from what follows concerning Edom and from the signification of "hunting" as being the good of life from natural truths (n. 3309). "In his mouth" signifies that it was in His natural affection; for in the word that is said to be "in the heart" which is interior and proceeds from good, and that to be "in the mouth" which is exterior and proceeds from truth; and as the good of truth, which is here represented by Esau and is signified by "hunting," is exterior good-that is, is in natural affection, and proceeds from truth-therefore it is said to have been "in Isaac‘s mouth."

AC 3314. A Rebekah loved Jacob. That this signifies that the Divine truth of the Divine rational loved the doctrine of truth, is evident from the representation of Rebekah, as being the Divine truth of the Divine rational (n. 3012, 3013, 3077, and the whole preceding chapter, where Rebekah is treated of); and from the representation of Jacob, as being the doctrine of natural truth, and in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine natural as to truth (n. 3305). That the Divine good of the Divine rational loved the good which was in the natural, and the Divine truth of the Divine rational loved the truth which was in the natural, stands thus: It is good and truth that constitute the rational, and it is also good and truth that constitute the natural; the good of the rational flows in without truth--thus immediately--into the good of the natural; and also through truth, thus mediately; whereas the good of the rational flows in through the truth of the rational into the truth of the natural, thus mediately; and also through the good of the natural into the truth there, thus also immediately. Hence it is that there is a closer conjunction of the good of the rational with the good of the natural, than with its truth; which conjunction is signified by "Isaac loving Esau;" and that there is a closer conjunction of the truth of the rational with the truth of the natural, than with its good, which conjunction is signified by "Rebekah loving Jacob."

[2] These things are indeed such as can with difficulty be apprehended, for the reason especially that the world, even the learned world, is ignorant of the most general truths upon the subject--as that the rational is distinct from the natural, and that it is good and truth which constitute beth the rational and the natural; and still less is it known that the rational must flow into the natural in order for man to be able to think, and to will as he thinks. As these most general truths are unknown, the influx spoken of above can with difficulty be comprehended; and yet these are matters in regard to which the angels have light, and perceive things innumerable, and this attended with the delight in which they are when it is given them at the same time to think concerning the Lord‘s Divine in respect to the Human. The man who is in good and in whom there is what is angelic while he is in the body, is also gifted with some light from the Lord on these and similar subjects; but he who is not in good feels a loathing when thinking of such things, and the more so the more he thinks of them as applied to the Divine that pertains to the Lord’s Human. It is better therefore that those who are of such a nature should remove their mind from such subjects; for they comprehend nothing of them, and even reject them; saying at heart, What is this to me? it will bring me neither honors nor gain.

AC 3315. Verses 29, 30. And Jacob boiled pottage, and Esau came from the field, and he was weary. And Esau said to Jacob, Cause me to sup I pray of the red, this red, for I am weary; therefore he called his name Edom. "And Jacob boiled pottage," signifies a chaotic mass of doctrinal things; "and Esau came from the field," signifies the pursuit of the good of life; "and he was weary," signifies a state of combat; "and Esau said to Jacob," signifies the Lord‘s perception from the good of the natural; "Cause me to sup I pray of the red," signifies a longing for doctrinal things; "this red," signifies that which is apparently good; "for I am weary, signifies here as before a state of combat; "therefore he called his name Edom," signifies his quality therefrom as to good, to which were adjoined the doctrinal things of truth.

AC 3316. And Jacob boiled pottage. That this signifies a chaotic mass of doctrinal things, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the doctrine of natural truth (n. 3305), thus the doctrinal things which are in the natural man; and from the signification of "pottage," as being a chaotic mass of such things. "Boiling it," signifies amassing, for in the original tongue the expression is proper to pottage, as if it had been said that he "pottaged pottage," that is, he amassed it. The first state of the conjunction of good and truth is that which is described in this and the following verses, down to the end of the chapter.

[2] The first state of the man who is being regenerated, or in whom truth is being conjoined with good, is that first of all in his natural man, or in its storehouse called the memory, there are amassed the doctrinal things of truth without any certain order. The doctrinal things at that time therein may be compared to some undigested and uncompounded mass, and to a kind of chaos. But this is to the end that they may be reduced to order, for whatever is to be reduced to order is at first in this state of confusion; and this is what is signified by the pottage which Jacob boiled, that is, amassed. These doctrinal things are not reduced to order by themselves, but by the good which flows into them, and the good reduces them into order in exact proportion to the amount and the quality of its action upon them. When good first longs for and desires these doctrinal things, to the end that it may conjoin them with itself, it manifests itself under the appearance of the affection of truth. This is what is signified by Esau’s saying to Jacob, "cause me to sup I pray of the red, this red."

[3] These things do indeed appear remote from the sense of the letter, nevertheless when these words are read by man, and are apprehended by him according to the sense of the letter, the angels who are then with him have no idea at all of pottage, or of Jacob, or of Esau, or of what is red, or of supping of what is red, but instead thereof they have a spiritual idea which is altogether different and remote from such natural ideas, and into this spiritual idea these natural things are instantly turned. It is the same with other things in the Word; as for example when man reads of bread, the angels have no perception of bread, but instantly instead of bread they perceive celestial love and all that belongs thereto, that is, to love to the Lord; and when wine is read of in the Word, they do not perceive wine, but instead of wine spiritual love and all that belongs thereto, that is, to love toward the neighbor. So when pottage or pulse is read of, they do not perceive pottage or pulse, but doctrinal things not yet conjoined with good, thus an inordinated mass of them. This shows the nature and quality of the angelic thought and perception, and how remote it is from the thought and perception of man. If man thought in like manner when he is in a holy state, as when he attends the Holy Supper, and instead of bread perceived love to the Lord, and instead of wine love toward the neighbor, he would be in thought and perception like that of the angels, who would then approach nearer to him, till at last they could consociate their thoughts, but only so far as the man was at the same time in good.

[4] That "pottage" or "pulse" signifies a chaotic mass, is evident also from what is said in the book of Kings concerning the sons of the prophets and Elisha:--

Elisha came back to Gilgal, and there was a famine in the land and the sons of the prophets were sitting before him; and he said to his lad, Set on the great pot and boil pottage for the sons of the prophets; and one went out into the field to gather herbs, and he found a vine of the field and gathered from it gourds of the field his garment full, and came and shred them into the pot of pottage, because they knew not; and they poured out to the men to eat; and it came to pass, in their eating of the pottage, that they cried out and said, O man of God there is death in the pot! and they could not eat; and he said, Take ye meal and he put it into the pot, and said, Pour out for the people; and they did eat, and there was no evil word in the pot (2 Kings 4:38-41).

In the internal sense these words signify things altogether different from that which they signify in the sense of the letter. A " famine in the land" signifies a scarcity of the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1460); the "sons of the prophets‘ signify those who teach (n. 2534); "pottage" signifies an ill-assorted mass of memory-knowledges; and " meal," the truth which is from good, or the spiritual which is from the celestial (n. 2177); thus that Elisha put meal in the pot, and there was then no evil in it, signifies that that chaotic mass was amended by means of spiritual truth from the Lord’s Word; for Elisha represented the Lord as to the Word (n. 2762). Apart from this spiritual sense, this story concerning the pottage and the change in it by the meal, would not have been worthy of relation in the most holy Word. It was for the sake of the representation of such things that this miracle was wrought, as also is the case with the rest of the miracles in the Word, all of which have Divine things concealed within them.

AC 3317. And Esau came from the field. That this signifies the pursuit of the good of life, is evident from the representation of Esau, as being the good of life of natural truth (n. 3300); and from the signification of "coming from the field," as being the pursuit of good; for meditating in the field denotes cogitating in good (n. 3196), because a "field" denotes the good of the church (n. 2971).

AC 3318. And he was weary. That this signifies a state of combat, is evident from the significative of "weary," or "weariness," as being the state after combat; here, a state of combat, because the subject is the conjunction of good with truth in the natural man. That " weary" here signifies a state of combat, cannot appear except from the series of things in the internal sense, and especially from the consideration that good cannot be conjoined with truth in the natural man without combats, or what is the same, without temptations. That it may be known how the case herein is in respect to man, it shall be briefly told.

[2] Man is nothing but an organ, or vessel, which receives life from the Lord; for man does not live from himself (n. 290, 1954, 2021, 2536, 2706, 2886-3001). The life which inflows with man from the Lord is from His Divine love. This love, or the life thence derived, inflows and applies itself to the vessels which are in man‘s rational, and to those which are In his natural. In consequence of the hereditary evil into which man is born, and of the actual evil which he acquires, these vessels are in a contrary position within him relatively to the inflowing life, yet in so far as the life which flows in can dispose the vessels to receive it, it does so dispose them. These vessels in the rational man, and in the natural, are what are called truths, but in themselves they are merely perceptions of the variations of form of these vessels, and of the changes of state according to which in divers ways these variations come forth, being effected in the most subtle substances, by methods inexpressible (n. 2487). Good itself, which has life from the Lord, or which is life, is that which flows in and disposes.

[3] When therefore these vessels, which are to be varied as to forms, are as before said in a contrary position and direction in respect to the life, it is evident that they must be reduced to a position In accordance with the life, or into compliance with it. This cannot possibly be effected so long as the man is in that state Into which he is born, and to which he has reduced himself; for the vessels are not obedient, being obstinately resistant, and hardening themselves against the heavenly order according to which the life acts; for the good which moves them, and with which they comply, is of the love of self and of the world; which good, from the gross heat that is in it, causes them to be of such a quality; and therefore before they can be rendered compliant and fit to receive anything of the life of the Lord’s love, they must be softened. This softening is effected by no other means than temptations; for temptations remove all that is of the love of self and of contempt for others in comparison with self, consequently all that is of self-glory, and also of hatred and revenge on this account. When therefore the vessels have been somewhat tempered and subdued by temptations, they begin to become yielding to, and compliant with, the life of the Lord‘s love, which continually flows in with man.

[4] Hence then it is that good begins to be conjoined with truths; first in the rational man, and afterwards in the natural; for as before said truths are nothing else than perceptions of the variations of form according to states that are continually being changed; and these perceptions are from the life which flows in. This is the reason why man is regenerated, that is, made new, by temptations; or what is the same, by spiritual combats and that he is afterwards gifted with another nature; being made mild, humble, simple, and contrite in heart. From these considerations it may now be seen what use temptations promote, namely, that good from the Lord may not only flow in, but may also dispose the vessels to obedience, and thus conjoin itself with them. That truths are vessels receptive of good, may be seen above (n. 1496, 1832, 1900, 2063, 2261, 2269). Here therefore, because the subject is the conjunction of good and truth in the natural man, and the first of conjunction takes place by means of combats, which are those of temptations, it is evident that by "he was weary" is signified a state of combat.

[5] But as regards the Lord, who in the supreme sense is here treated of, He by the most grievous temptation combats reduced all things in Himself into Divine order, insomuch that there remained nothing at all of the human which He had derived from the mother (n. 1444, 1573, 2159, 2574, 2649, 3036), so that He was not made new as are other men, but altogether Divine. For the man who is made new by regeneration still retains in himself an inclination to evil, and even evil itself; but is withheld from evil by an influx of the life of the Lord’s love, and this with a force exceeding great; whereas the Lord utterly cast out all the evil that was hereditary to Him from the mother, and made Himself Divine, even as to the vessels, that is, as to truths. This is that which in the Word is called "glorification."

AC 3319. And Esau said to Jacob. That this signifies the Lord‘s perception from the good of the natural, is evident from the signification of "saying," as being to perceive (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2862); and from the representation of Esau, as being the Lord as to the good of the natural (n. 3300, 3302), and below concerning Edom; and from the representation of Jacob, as being the truth of the natural (n. 3305), concerning which there is now perception.

AC 3320. Cause me to sup I pray of the red, this red. That this signifies a longing for doctrinal things, and that the red signifies that which is apparently good, is evident from the signification of "supping," as being to be communicated and conjoined (n. 3089); and therefore "cause me to sup I pray" signifies to long for the conjunction with himself of truth or of doctrinal things; and from the signification of "red" as being good (n. 3300); here, what is apparently good, because doctrinal things however disposed appear in the external form as good, although inwardly they are but a chaotic mass (n. 3316). The reason why these things are mentioned, is also that it was from this that Esau had the name Edom, for in the original tongue "red" is "Edom;" and this in order that by "Edom" may be signified the good to which are adjoined the doctrinal things of truth.

AC 3321. For I am weary. That this signifies a state of combat, is evident from the signification of " weary," or of "weariness," as being a state of combat (n. 3318). Mention is here again made of being weary, for the sake of confirmation that the conjunction of good with truth in the natural is effected by spiritual combats, that is, by temptations. In regard to the conjunction of good with truth in the natural, the case in general is this: Man’s rational receives truths before his natural; and this to the end that the Lord‘s life, which as before said is of love, may flow in through the rational into the natural, and dispose the natural, and reduce it to obedience. For the rational is purer, and the natural grosser; or what is the same, the rational is interior and the natural exterior; and as may be known it is according to order that the interior or purer can flow into the exterior or grosser, but not the reverse.

[2] Hence it is that man’s rational can be accommodated to truths and receive them before his natural, as may be plainly seen from the fact that with one who is to be regenerated the rational man battles much with the natural; or what is the same, the internal man with the external. For as also is known, the internal man can see truths and also will them, but the external refuses assent and resists; for in the natural man there are memory-knowledges which are in a great measure derived from the fallacies of the senses, and which not withstanding their being false the man believes to be true; there are also things innumerable which the natural man does not apprehend; for he is relatively in shade and thick darkness, and that which he does not apprehend, he believes either not to exist, or not to be so; there are likewise cupidities which are of the love of self and of the world, and all things that favor these he calls truths; and when the man yields to these the dominion, all things that result are contrary to spiritual truths. There are also in the natural man reasonings that are grounded in falsities impressed from infancy. Moreover, man apprehends by manifest sense what is in his natural man, but not so what is in his rational, until he has put off the body. This also causes him to believe the body to be every thing; and all that does not fall into the natural sense, he scarcely believes to be anything.

[3] From such causes and many others, it results that the natural man receives truths much later, and with greater difficulty, than does the rational man. Hence arises combat, which continues for a considerable time, not ceasing until the vessels recipient of good in the natural man have been softened by temptations, as before shown (n. 3318); for truths are nothing but vessels recipient of good (n. 1496, 1832, 1900, 2063, 2261, 2269), which vessels are harder in proportion as man is more fixedly confirmed in the things which have been mentioned; and if the man is to be regenerated, the more fixedly he has been confirmed, the more grievous is the combat. As the case with the natural man is such that the conjunction of truths with good therein is effected through the combats of temptations, it is therefore here repeated, "I am weary."

AC 3322. Therefore he called his name Edom. That this signifies his quality therefrom as to good, to which were adjoined the doctrinal things of truth, is evident from the signification of "calling a name," or of "calling by name," as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006); and from the representation of Edom. There is frequent mention in the Word of Esau, and also of Edom; and by "Esau" is there signified the good of the natural before the doctrinal things of truth have been thus conjoined with this good, and also the good of life from influx out of the rational; and by "Edom is signified the good of the natural to which have been adjoined the doctrinal things of truth. But in the opposite sense, " Esau" signifies the evil of the love of self before falsities have been thus adjoined to this love; and "Edom" signifies the evil of this love when falsities have been adjoined to it. As has been frequently shown, most names in the Word have also an opposite sense, because the same things that in the churches have been good and true, in process of time through various adulterations degenerate into what is evil and false.

[2] That such things are signified by "Esau" and "Edom" may be seen from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bozrah? this that is glorious in His apparel, marching in the multitude of His strength. Wherefore art you red in thine apparel, and Thy garments like him that treadeth in the wine-press? I have trodden the wine-press alone, and of the peoples there was no man with Me. I looked, but there was none to help, I was amazed that there was none to uphold, and Mine own arm brought salvation unto Me (Isa. 63:1, 3, 5);

where it is clearly evident that "Edom" is the Lord; and that it is the Lord as to the Divine good of the Divine natural is manifest, for the subject is the conjunction of good and truth in the Lord‘s Human, and also the temptation combats by which He conjoined them. That "garments" here are the truths of the natural man, or truths relatively inferior, may be seen above (n. 2576) and that "red" is the good of the natural (n. 3300). That the Lord by His own power, through temptation combats, conjoined truths in the natural with good, is described by, "I have trodden the wine-press alone, and of the peoples there was no man with Me. I looked but there was none to help, I was amazed that there was none to uphold, and Mine own arm brought salvation unto Me." "Arm" denotes power, (n. 878).

[3] In the book of Judges:--

O Jehovah when Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when Thou marchedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dropped, the clouds also dropped water; the mountains flowed down (Judges 5:4, 5);

to "march out of the field of Edom" signifies nearly the same as, in Isaiah, to "come out of Edom." In like manner in Moses:--

Jehovah came from Sinai, and rose from Seir unto them (Deut. 33:2).

Again:--

I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall come up a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise out of Israel; and Edom shall be a possession, Seir also shall be a possession of his enemies, while Israel doeth valiantly. And he shall have dominion over Jacob, and shall destroy the remnant from the city (Num. 24:17-19);

treating of the coming of the Lord into the world, whose Human Essence is called a "star out of Jacob," and a "scepter out of Israel." "Edom" and " Seir," which should be a "possession," signify the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine natural; their being the "possession of his enemies" signified that this should succeed in the place of those things which were before in the natural; dominion then over truths therein is meant by "having dominion over Jacob, and destroying the remnant from the city." "Jacob" signifies the truth of the natural, (n. 3305); and "city" signifies what is doctrinal, (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216). Dominion is said to be had over these when they are subordinated and subjected to good; for before this they are called "enemies," because they continually resist, as was shown above (n. 3321).

[4] In Amos:--

In that day will I raise up the tabernacle of David that is fallen, and close up the breaches thereof; and I will raise up his ruins, and I will build it as in the days of eternity that they may possess the remnant of Edom, and all the nations that were called by My name (Amos 9:11, 12);

the "tabernacle of David" denotes the church and worship of the Lord; the "remnant of Edom," those who are in good within the church; the "nations that were called by His name," those who are in good out of the church. "Nations" are those who are in good, (n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 1849). In David:--

Upon Edom will I cast my shoe. Who will bring me into the fortified city? who will lead me unto Edom? wilt not Thou, O God? (Ps. 60:8, 10);

where "Edom" denotes the good of the natural, as is evident from the signification of "shoe," as being the lowest natural (n. 1748).

[5] In Daniel:--

At the time of the end shall the king of the south thrust at him; and the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind with a chariot, and shall overflow and pass through; and when he shall come into the beauteous land many shall be overthrown; but these shall be rescued out of his hand, Edom and Moab, and the firstfruits of the sons of Ammon (Daniel 11:40, 41);

where the last state of the church is treated of; the "king of the north" denotes falsities, or what is the same, those who are in falsities "Edom," those who are in simple good, which is such good as exists with those who constitute the Lord‘s external church; in like manner "Moab" and the "sons of Ammon" (n. 2468); and because both, namely, "Edom" and "Moab," signify those who are in good, therefore in many passages both are named together; but the difference is that "Edom" is the good of the natural to which are adjoined the doctrinal things of truth, while "Moab" is natural good such as exists with those in whom these have not been conjoined; the two appear alike in the external form, but not in the internal.

[6] From this it is now evident why it was said:--

Thou shalt not abhor an Edomite, for he is thy brother; thou shalt not abhor an Egyptian, because thou wast a sojourner in his land (Deut. 23:7);

as by an "Edomite" is signified the good of the natural, and by an "Egyptian," the truths thereof which are those of memory-knowledge (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462), therefore both are mentioned in a good sense. This shows why Jehovah said to Moses that they should not contend with the sons of Esau, and there should not be given of their land to the sons of Jacob so much as for the sole of the foot to tread upon (Deut. 2:4-6).

[7] But in the opposite sense by "Esau" and "Edom" are represented those who turn aside from good through the fact that they altogether despise truth, and are unwilling that anything of the truth of faith should be adjoined, which is chiefly owing to the love of self; and therefore in the opposite sense such persons are signified by "Esau" and "Edom;" as was also represented by the circumstance that the king of Edom went forth with a numerous people and a strong hand, and refused to permit Israel to pass through his border (Num. 20:14-22). This evil of the love of self, which is of such a nature as not to admit the truths of faith, thus neither the doctrinal things of truth, is described in various passages of the Word by "Esau" and "Edom," and at the same time the state of the church when it becomes of this quality as in Jeremiah:--

Against Edom. Is wisdom no more in Teman? Is counsel perished from the intelligent? Is their wisdom become of an ill savor? Flee ye; they have turned themselves away, they have gone into the deep to dwell, inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him. I will make Esau bare, I will reveal his hidden things, and he shall not be able to hide himself; his seed is laid waste, and his brethren, and his neighbors. Leave thy fatherless children, I will preserve them alive and let thy widows trust in Me. Edom shall become a waste, every one that passeth by it shall be amazed, and shall hiss at all the plagues thereof (Jer. 49:7, 8, 10, 11, 17).

[8] In David:--

They say, Let the name of Israel be no more in remembrance; for they consult together with one heart; against thee do they make a covenant, the tents of Edom and the Ishmaelites, Moab, and the Hagarenes (Ps. 73:4-6).

In Obadiah:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih concerning Edom, Behold I have made thee small among the nations; thou art greatly despised. The pride of thine heart hath deceived thee, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, in the height of thy habitation that saith in thine heart, Who shall bring me down to the earth? Though thou mount on high as the eagle, and though thou settest thy nest among the stars, I will bring thee down from thence. How are they of Esau searched out! their hidden things discovered! Shall I not in that day destroy the wise men out of Edom, and the intelligent from the mount of Esau? From the slaughter on account of the violence of thy brother Jacob shame shall cover thee, and thou shalt be cut off forever. The house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame, and the house of Esau for stubble; and they shall enkindle them, and devour them; and there shall not be any residue to the house of Esau; and they of the south shall possess the mount of Esau (Obadiah 1:1-10, 18, 19).

In this passage "Esau" and "Edom" denote the evil of the natural man originating in the love of self, which despises and rejects all truth, whence comes its devastation.

[9] In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, set thy face against mount Seir, and prophesy against it, and say unto it, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, I am against thee, O Mount Seir, and I will stretch out Mine hand against thee, and I will make thee a waste and a devastation. Because thou hast had an enmity of eternity, and hast given over the sons of Israel to the hands of the sword, in the time of their calamity, in the time of the iniquity of the end. Because thou hast said, These two nations, and these two lands, shall be mine, and we will possess it, and Jehovah is there. And thou shalt know that I Jehovah have heard all thy blasphemies, which thou hast spoken against the mountains of Israel. Thou shalt be a waste, O Mount Seir and all Edom, all of it (Ezek. 35:2, 3, 5, 10, 12, 15);

where it is very evident that in the opposite sense "Edom" denotes those who despise, reject, and vilify spiritual goods and truths, which are the "mountains of Israel."

[10] Again:--

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, If I have not spoken in the fire of My jealousy against the remains of the nations, and against all Edom, which have given My land unto themselves for a possession, with the joy of all their heart, with despite of soul (Ezek. 36:5);

where the sense is the same; to "give the land unto themselves for a possession" denotes to vastate the church, that is, the good and truth of the church.

[11] In Malachi:--

The word of Jehovah against Israel. I have loved you, saith Jehovah; yet ye say, Wherein hast Thou loved us? Is not Esau Jacob’s brother? yet I loved Jacob, but Esau I hated, and I make his mountain a waste (Malachi 1:1-3);

where "Esau" denotes the evil of the natural that does not admit spiritual truth which is "Israel" (n. 3305), and what is doctrinal of truth which is "Jacob" (n. 3305); and on this account he is vastated, which is being "hated" (that "hating" is nothing else, is manifest from what was adduced above from the Word concerning Esau and Edom in a good sense); but when truth does not suffer itself to be adjoined to good, then evil is on the other hand predicated of Jacob, as in Hosea:--

To visit upon Jacob according to his ways; according to his works will He recompense him; in the womb he supplanted his brother (Hosea 12:2, 3).

AC 3323. Verses 31-33. And Jacob said, Sell me as this day thy birthright. And Esau said, Behold I am going to die, and for what is this birthright to me? And Jacob said, Swear to me as this day; and he sware unto him, and he sold his birthright unto Jacob. "And Jacob said," signifies the doctrine of truth; "sell me as this day thy birthright," signifies that as to time the doctrine of truth was apparently prior; "and Esau said, Behold I am going to die," signifies that he would afterwards rise again; "and for what is this birthright to me," signifies that in this case there would be no need of priority; "and Jacob said," signifies the doctrine of truth; "swear to me as this day, and he sware unto him," signifies confirmation " and he sold his birthright unto Jacob," signifies that in the meantime priority was granted.

AC 3324. And Jacob said. That this signifies the doctrine of truth, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the doctrine of natural truth (n. 3305); or what is the same, those who are in the doctrine of truth. In these verses down to the end of this chapter, the subject treated of is the right of priority, as to whether it is of truth or of good; or what is the same, whether it is of the doctrine of truth or of the life of good; or what is still the same, whether it is of faith in so far as this is truth of doctrine, or whether it is of charity in so far as this is good of life. When man draws a conclusion from natural perception, he believes that faith, in so far as it is truth of doctrine, is prior to charity in so far as this is good of life, because he perceives how the truth of doctrine enters, but not how the good of life; for the former enters by an external, that is, a sensuous way, while the latter enters by an internal way; and also because he cannot know otherwise than that as truth teaches what is good, it is prior to good; and also because the reformation of man is effected through truth and according to truth, insomuch that man is perfected as to good in proportion to the amount of truth that can be conjoined with it, consequently good is perfected through truth; and what is more, because man can be in truth, and think and speak from it, and this with apparent zeal, although he is not at the same time in good; yea, he may even from truth be confident of his salvation. These and many other considerations lead man to suppose, when judging from the sensuous and natural man, that the truth which is of faith is prior to the good which is of charity; but all these are reasonings from fallacies, based on the appearance to the sensuous and natural man.

[2] The good itself which is of life is prior; the good which is of life being the very ground in which truths are to be sown; and such as is the ground, such is the reception of the seeds, that is, of the truths of faith. Truths may indeed be first stored up in the memory, like seeds in a granary, or with birds in their crops; but they do not belong to the man unless the ground is prepared; and such as is the ground, that is, such as is the good, such is their germination and fructification. But see on this subject what has been already shown in many places, which will be here cited in order that it may be known what good is and what truth, and that the priority belongs to good and not to truth:--

[3] Why there is no distinctive idea as between good and truth (n. 2507). That good flows in by an internal way unknown to man, while truth is procured by an external way down to man (n. 3030, 3098) That truths are vessels recipient of good (n. 1496, 1832, 1900, 2063, 2261, 2269, 3068, 3318). That good acknowledges its truth, with which it may be conjoined (n. 3101, 3102, 3179); and that most exquisite exploration is made and precaution taken lest falsity be conjoined with good, and truth with evil (n. 3033, 3101, 3102). That good makes for itself the truth with which it may be conjoined, because it does not acknowledge anything as truth except that which agrees with it (n. 3161). That truth is nothing else than that which is from good (n. 2434).

[4] That truth is the form of good (n. 3049). That truth has in itself an image of good; and in good the very effigy of itself from which it exists (n. 3180). That the seed which is truth is rooted in the good which is of charity (n. 880). That faith is impossible except in its life, that is, in love and charity (n. 379, 389, 654, 724, 1608, 2343, 2349). That from love and charity man can look to the truths which pertain to the doctrinal things of faith, but not the reverse; and that to look from faith, and not from love and charity, is to look behind one‘s self, and to turn back (n. 2454). That truth is made alive in accordance with the good of each person, thus in accordance with the state of innocence and charity in man (n. 1776, 3111). That the truths of faith can be received only by those who are in good (n. 2343, 2349). That they who are in no charity cannot acknowledge the Lord, thus not any truth of faith; and that if they profess such acknowledgment, it is something external without an internal, or is from hypocrisy (n. 2354). That there is no faith where there is no charity (n. 654, 1162, 1176, 2429). That wisdom, intelligence, and memory-knowledge are the sons of charity (n. 1226). That the angels are in intelligence and wisdom because they are in love (n. 2500, 2572).

[5] That angelic life consists in the goods of charity, and that the angels are forms of charity (n. 454, 553). That love to the Lord is a "likeness" of Him, and charity toward the neighbor an "image" of Him (n. 1013). That through love to the Lord the angels perceive whatever is of faith (n. 202). That nothing lives except love and affection (n. 1589). That they who have mutual love, or charity, have the Lord’s life (n. 1799, 1803). That love to the Lord and the neighbor is heaven itself (n. 1802, 1824, 2057, 2130, 2131). That the presence of the Lord is according to the state of love and charity (n. 904). That all the commandments of the decalogue, and all things of faith, are in charity (n. 1121, 1798). That knowledge of the doctrinal things of faith effects nothing unless the man has charity, for doctrinal things look to charity as their end (n. 2049, 2116). That neither the acknowledgment of truth, nor faith, is possible unless the man is in good (n. 2261). That the holy of worship is according to the quality and quantity of the truth of faith implanted in charity (n. 2190).

[6] That there is no salvation by faith, but by the life of faith, which is charity (n. 2228, 2261). That the heavenly kingdom is given to those who have the faith of charity (n. 1608). That in heaven all are regarded from their charity and the derivative faith (n. 1258). That none are admitted into heaven except by willing good from the heart (n. 2401). That they are saved who are in faith, provided that in their faith there is good (n. 2261, 2442). That the faith which has not been implanted in the good of life altogether perishes in the other life (n. 2228). That if the faith of thought were saving, all would be brought into heaven; but because the life opposes they cannot be brought in (n. 2363). That they who hold as a principle that faith alone saves, contaminate truths by the falsity of this principle (n. 2383, 2385). That the fruit of faith is good work, good work is charity, charity is love to the Lord, love to the Lord is the Lord (n. 1873). That the fruits of faith are fruits of the good which is of love and charity (n. 3146).

[7] That the trust or confidence which is said to be saving faith is not possible except with those who are in the good of life (n. 2982). That good is the life of truth (n. 1589). When it is that truths are said to have gained life (n. 1928). That good from the Lord flows into truths of every kind, but it is of the greatest importance that they should be genuine truths (n. 2531). That good and truth from the Lord flow in just in proportion as that which is evil and false is removed (n. 2411, 3142, 3147). That good cannot flow into truth so long as the man is in evil (n. 2388). That truth is not truth until it is accepted by good (n. 2429). That there is a marriage of good and of truth in things all and each (n. 2173, 2503, 2507). That the affection of good is of life, and the affection of truth is for the sake of life (n. 2455). That truth tends to good, and proceeds from good (n. 2063).

[8] That by influx truths are called forth out of the natural man, elevated, and implanted in good in the rational man (n. 3085, 3086). That when truth is conjoined with a man, it is appropriated to him (n. 3108). That in order that truth may be conjoined with good, there must be consent by the understanding and by the will, and when by the will, then conjunction takes place (n. 3157, 3158). That the rational as to truth is acquired by means of knowledges; and that truths are appropriated when they are conjoined with good; and that they are then of the will, and for the sake of life (n. 3161). That truth is not at once initiated and conjoined with good, but during the whole life, and also afterwards (n. 3200). That as light without heat produces nothing, so the truth of faith produces nothing without the good of love (n. 3146). What the idea of truth without good is; and what its light is in the other life (n. 2228). That faith separated is like the light of winter; and faith from charity like the light of spring (n. 2231). That they who in act separate truth, which is faith, from charity, cannot have conscience (n. 1076, 1077). The reason why men have separated faith from charity, and have declared that faith saves (n. 2231).

[9] That during man‘s regeneration the Lord insinuates good into the truths that are in him (n. 2183, 2189). That man is not regenerated by means of truth, but by means of good (n. 989, 2146, 2183, 2189, 2697). That during man’s regeneration the Lord goes to meet and fills with the good of charity the truths that are in him (n. 2063). That they who are in the good of life, and not in the truth of faith, as is the case with Gentiles and infants, receive the truths of faith in the other life, and are regenerated (n. 989); concerning the Gentiles (n. 932, 1032, 2049, 2284, 2589-2604); concerning infants (n. 2290-2293, 2302-2304). That man is regenerated by means of the affection of truth; and that when he is regenerated he acts from the affection of good (n. 1904). That in one about to be regenerated the seed can take root only in good (n. 880, 989). That the light of a regenerate man is from charity (n. 854). That the same truths in one person may be true, in another less true, and in others may even be falsities, and that this is according to the good which is of the life (n. 2439). What the difference is between the good of infancy, the good of ignorance, and the good of intelligence (n. 2280). Who can come into the knowledges of truth and into faith, and who cannot (n. 2689).

[10] That the church is not a church unless the truths of doctrine are implanted in the good of life (n. 3310). That what is doctrinal does not make the church, but charity (n. 809, 916, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844). That the doctrinal things of a church are nothing, unless its members live according to them (n. 1515). That the doctrine of faith is the doctrine of charity (n. 2571). That the church is from charity, and not from faith separated (n. 916). That every one may know from charity whether he has the internal of worship (n. 1102, 1151, 1153). That the church of the Lord throughout the world is everywhere various as to truths, but that it is one through charity (n. 3267). That the church would be one if all had charity, even though its members differed as to ritual and doctrinal matters (n. 809, 1285, 1316, 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844). That out of many would be made one church, if all accounted charity and not faith as being that which is essential of the church (n. 2982). That there are two kinds of doctrinal things, the doctrinal things of charity and the doctrinal things of faith; and that in the Ancient Church there were the doctrinal things of charity, which at this day are among the things that are lost (n. 2417).

[11] In what ignorance of truth they are who are not in the doctrinal things of charity (n. 2435). And whereas at this day faith is made the essential of the church, men do not even see, nor attend to the things the Lord so often said concerning love and charity (n. 1017, 2373). That the good which is of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor, is superior and prior to the truth which is of faith; and not the reverse (n. 363, 364).

AC 3325. Sell me as this day thy birthright. That this signifies that as to time the doctrine of truth was apparently prior, is evident from the signification of "selling," as being to claim for one‘s self; and from the signification of "as this day," meaning as to time, for in the internal sense of the Word "this day" signifies that which is perpetual and eternal (n. 2838); and in order that it might not be so in the present case it is said "as this day," thus by "as" it becomes only apparently so; and from the signification of "birthright," as being prior, namely that the doctrine of truth, which is represented by Jacob, is so (n. 3305).

[2] By prior, or priority, which is signified by "birthright," is meant not only priority of time, but also priority of degree; that is, as to which should have the dominion, good or truth. For such is always truth before it has been conjoined with good, or what is the same, such are always those who are in truth, that before they are regenerate they believe truth to be both prior and superior to good, and so indeed it then appears. But when in them truth has been conjoined with good, that is, when they have been regenerated, they then see and perceive that truth is posterior and inferior; and then in them good has dominion over truth, which is signified by what Isaac his father said to Esau:--

Behold of the fatness of the earth shall be thy dwelling, and of the dew of heaven from above; and on thy sword shalt thou live, and thou shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck (Gen. 27:39, 40).

[3] But as within the church there are more not being regenerated than being regenerated; and as they who are not being regenerated draw conclusions from the appearance, therefore there has been a dispute even from ancient times as to whether the priority belongs to truth or to good. With those who have not been regenerated, and also with those who have not been fully regenerated, the opinion has prevailed that truth is prior, for as yet they have no perception of good; and so long as anyone has no perception of good, he is in shade or in ignorance in relation to these things. But they who have been regenerated, being in good itself, are able from the consequent intelligence and wisdom to observe what good is, and that it is from the Lord, and that it flows in through the internal man into the external, and this continually, the man being altogether unconscious of it; and that it adjoins itself to the truths of doctrinal things that are in the memory; consequently that in itself good is prior, although before it had not appeared so. Such then was the source of the dispute concerning the priority and superiority of the one over the other which was represented by Esau and Jacob; and also by Perez and Zarah, the sons of Judah by Tamar (Gen. 38:28-30); afterwards also by Ephraim and Manasseh the sons of Joseph (Gen. 48:13, 14, 17-20); and this because the spiritual church is of such a nature that it must be introduced through truth into good, and at this time be devoid of the perception of good, except such and so much as lies concealed in the affection of truth, at which time good cannot be discriminated from the delight of the love of self and of the world, which is at the same time in that affection, and is believed to be good.

[4] But that good is the firstborn, that is, the good of love to the Lord, and of love toward the neighbor, for there is no other good than that which is good from these loves, is evident from the fact that there is life in good, but none in truth except the life which is from good; and that good flows into truths and causes them to live may sufficiently appear from what has been stated and shown above concerning good and truth (n. 3324). Wherefore all are called "firstborn" who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, and these were also represented in the Jewish Church by what is firstborn, that is, they are meant by it in the relative sense, because the Lord is the Firstborn, and all that are firstborn are His likenesses and images.

[5] That the Lord as to the Divine Human is the Firstborn, is evident from David:--

He shall call unto Me, Thou art my Father, my God, and the Rock of my salvation. I also will make him the firstborn, high above the kings of the earth. My mercy will I keep for him for evermore, and My covenant shall be faithful with him. His seed also will I make to endure forever, and his throne as the days of the heavens (Ps. 89:26-29);

where the Lord is treated of. And in John:--

From Jesus Christ who is the faithful witness, the Firstborn of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth (Rev. 1:5).

In order that all that had been written and represented concerning Him might be fulfilled, He was likewise by birth the firstborn (Luke 2:7, 22, 23).

[6] That they too, as being His images and likenesses, are called the "firstborn" of the Lord who are in love to Him and in charity toward the neighbor, is evident in John:--

The hundred and forty and four thousand bought from the earth: these are they who were not defiled with women, for they are virgins; these are they who follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth; these were bought from among men, the firstfruits (firstborn) unto God and the Lamb. And in their mouth was found no guile; for they are without spot before the throne of God (Rev. 14:3-5).

The "hundred and forty and four," or twelve times twelve, denote those who are in the faith of charity (n. 3272); "thousands" denote those who are innumerable, that is, all such (n. 2575) "virgins" denote the good of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor (n. 2362, 3081), thus those who are in innocence, which is also signified by. "following the Lamb;" for the Lord is called "the Lamb" from innocence. Hence they are said to be the "firstfruits," or firstborn.

[7] From the above passages it is manifest that the Lord as to the Divine Human was represented in the Jewish Church by that which was firstborn; and also they who are in love to Him, for these are in the Lord. But what is firstborn has in the Word a twofold representation, representing the Lord both as to Divine celestial love, and as to Divine spiritual love. The Lord’s Divine celestial love is relative to the celestial church, or to those who are of this church and are called celestial from love to the Lord; the Lord‘s Divine spiritual love is relative to the spiritual church, or to those who are of this church and are called spiritual from love toward the neighbor. The Lord’s Divine love is toward all, but inasmuch as it is variously received by men, in one way by the celestial man and in another by the spiritual man, it is said to be relative.

[8] Concerning the firstborn that represented the Lord as to Divine celestial love, and also those relatively who were of the celestial church, it is thus written in Moses:--

The firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto Me. Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen and with thy flock; seven days it shall be with its dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it Me; and ye shall be men of holiness unto Me (Exod. 22:29-31);

that it should be seven days with the dam, was because the "seventh day" signified the celestial man (n. 84-87); and because from this "seven" signified what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 881); that it should be given to Jehovah on the eighth day, was because the "eighth day" signified what was continuous from a new beginning, namely, what was continuous of love (n. 2044). Again:--

The firstling among beasts which is made a firstling to Jehovah, no man shall sanctify it; whether it be ox or sheep it is Jehovah‘s (Lev. 27:26).

Again:--

The first ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto Jehovah, shall be for thee (Aaron). Everything that openeth the womb of all flesh which they offer unto Jehovah, both of man and beast, shall be thine. Nevertheless the firstborn of man shalt thou surely redeem; and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem. The firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy; thou shalt sprinkle their blood upon the altar, and shalt burn their fat for an offering made by fire for an odor of rest to Jehovah (Num. 18:13, 15, 17).

Again:--

All the firstling males that are born of thy herd and of thy flock thou shalt sanctify unto Jehovah thy God; thou shalt do no work with the firstling of thine ox, nor shear the firstling of thy flock. If it have any blemish, as if it be lame or blind, any evil blemish whatsoever, thou shalt not sacrifice it unto Jehovah thy God (Deut. 15:19, 21).

[9] Inasmuch as the firstborn represented the Lord, and those who are the Lord’s by virtue of love to Him, therefore the tribe of Levi was accepted instead of every firstborn, and this because Levi represented the Lord as to love. "Levi" also signifies love, for "Levi" is "adhesion" and "conjunction," and in the internal sense adhesion and conjunction are love, on which subject of the Lord‘s Divine mercy hereafter (Gen. 29:34). Concerning the Levites it is written in Moses:--

Jehovah spake to Moses, saying, And I behold I will take the Levites from the midst of the sons of Israel instead of all the firstborn that openeth the womb among the sons of Israel, and the Levites shall be Mine; for all the firstborn are Mine; in the day that I smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, I hallowed unto Me all the firstborn in Israel, from man even to beast; Mine they shall be (Num. 3:11-13).

Again:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, Number all the firstborn males of the sons of Israel, from the son of a month and upward, and take the number of their names. And thou shalt take the Levites for Me (I am Jehovah) instead of all the firstborn among the sons of Israel, and the beast of the Levites instead of all the firstlings among the beast of the sons of Israel (Num. 3:40, 41; 8:14, 16-18);

and it is said (Num 8:19) that the Levites were given to Aaron, because Aaron represented the Lord as to the priesthood, that is, as to the Divine love. The priesthood represented the Lord’s Divine love (n. 1728, 2015).

AC 3325a.

[10] But concerning the firstborn who represented the Lord as to Divine spiritual love, and also those relatively who are of the spiritual church, it is written in Jeremiah:--

They shall come with weeping, and with prayers will I lead them; I will bring them to fountains of waters, in the way of what is upright, wherein they shall not stumble and I will be to Israel for a father, and Ephraim shall be My firstborn (Jer. 31:9);

where a new spiritual church is treated of, "Israel" denoting spiritual good; "Ephraim," spiritual truth, who is called the "firstborn" because a church about to be planted is treated of, in which the intellectual which is of truth is apparently the firstborn; for Ephraim succeeded in the place of Reuben, and was made the firstborn (Gen. 48:5, 20; 1 Chron. 5:1) and this because by Joseph, whose sons were Ephraim and Manasseh, was represented the Lord as to Divine spiritual love. But that "Israel" is essentially the "firstborn," that is, denotes spiritual good, is evident from Moses:--

Jehovah said to Moses, Thou shalt say unto Pharaoh, Thus saith Jehovah, Israel is My son, My firstborn, and I have said unto thee, Let My son go, that he may serve Me; and thou hast refused to let him go; behold I will slay thy son, thy firstborn (Exod. 4:21-23);

where "Israel" in the supreme sense signifies the Lord as to Divine spiritual love, but in the relative sense those who are in spiritual love, that is, in charity toward the neighbor.

[11] In the spiritual church, in the beginning, or when it is about to be planted, the doctrine of truth is the firstborn with the external church, and the truth of doctrine is the firstborn with the internal church; or what is the same, the doctrine of faith is the firstborn with the external church, and faith itself with the internal church. But when the church has been planted, that is, in those with whom it exists in life and practice, the good of charity is the firstborn with the external church, and charity itself with the internal. But when the church does not suffer itself to be planted, as is the case when the man of the church can no longer be regenerated, by successive steps it recedes from charity and turns away to faith, being no longer studious of life but of doctrine; and when this is the case it casts itself into shades and falls into falsities and evils, and thus becomes no church, and is of itself extinguished. This was represented by Cain, in that he slew his brother Abel. "Cain" is faith separate from charity, and "Abel" is charity, which he extinguished, (n. 340, 342, 357, 362). The same was afterwards represented by Ham and his son Canaan, in that he mocked at his father Noah (n. 1062, 1063, 1076, 1140, 1141, 1162, 1179); afterwards by Reuben the firstborn of Jacob, in that he defiled his father‘s bed (Gen. 35:22); and lastly by Pharaoh and the Egyptians, in that they ill-treated the sons of Israel. That all of these were cursed is evident from the Word. Concerning Cain it is said:--

Jehovah said, what hast thou done? the voice of thy brother’s blood crieth unto Me from the ground; and now cursed art thou from the ground, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother‘s bloods from thy hand (Gen. 4:10, 11).

Concerning Ham and Canaan:--

Ham the father of Canaan saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren. And Noah awoke from his wine, and he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be to his brethren (Gen. 9:22, 24, 25).

And concerning Reuben:--

Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my strength, and the beginning of my power, excellent in honor, and excellent in might unstable as water, thou shalt not excel because thou wentest up to thy father’s bed, then defiledst thou my couch (Gen. 49:3, 4);

and therefore he was deprived of the birthright (1 Chron. 5:1).

[12] That the same was represented by Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and that therefore their firstborn and firstborn beasts were slain, is evident from their representation, as being memory-knowledges (n. 1164, 1165, 1186), by which--when man enters into the arcana of faith, and no longer believes anything but that which he can apprehend in accordance with the senses and memory-knowledge--be then perverts and extinguishes the things of the doctrine of faith, and especially the things of charity. This is what is represented in the internal sense by the firstborn of men and firstborn of beasts in Egypt being slain, concerning which it is written in Moses:--

I will pass through the land of Egypt in that night, and will smite all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from man even to beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments; I am Jehovah. And the blood shall be to you for a sign upon the houses where ye are, and when I see the blood I will pass over you, and there shall no plague be upon you for a destroyer, when I smite the land of Egypt (Exod. 12:12, 13);

the "firstborn of Egypt" denotes the doctrine of faith and of charity which as before said is perverted by means of memory-knowledges; the " gods of Egypt" on whom judgments were to be executed, are falsities; there being "no plague as a destroyer where blood was upon the houses," signifies in the supreme sense where the Lord is as to Divine spiritual love, and in the relative sense, where spiritual love is, that is, charity toward the neighbor (n. 1001).

[13] Moreover concerning Pharaoh and the Egyptians it is thus written:--

Moses said, Thus saith Jehovah, About midnight I will go out into the midst of Egypt; and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon the throne, unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beast. And against any of the sons of Israel shall not a dog move his tongue, from man even to beast (Exod. 11:4-7).

And again:--

It came to pass at midnight that Jehovah smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne, unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the house of the pit; and all the firstborn of beast (Exod. 12:29);

that this was done at midnight was because "night" signifies the last state of the church, when there is no longer any faith because there is no charity (n. 221, 709, 1712, 2353). In David:--

He smote all the firstborn in Egypt, the beginning of strength in the tents of Ham (Ps. 78:51).

Again:--

Israel also came into Egypt, and Jacob sojourned in the land of Ham. God smote all the firstborn in their land, the beginning of all their strength (Ps. 105:23, 36).

The worship of the Egyptians from principles of what is false that originate from truth separated from good, or what is the same, from faith separated from charity, is called the "tents of Ham." "Tents" signify worship (n. 414, 1102, 1566, 2145, 2152, 3312); and "Ham" is faith separated from charity, (n. 1062, 1063, 1076, 1140, 1141, 1162, 1179).

[14] By this is further confirmed what is signified by the firstborn of Egypt being slain; and because all the firstborn were slain, in order that the firstborn might nevertheless represent the Lord as to Divine spiritual love, and at the same time those who are in this love, it was commanded at the time of the exodus that all the firstborn should be sanctified, concerning which we read in Moses:--

Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Sanctify unto Me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the sons of Israel, both of man and of beast--it is Mine. Thou shall cause to pass over unto Jehovah all that openeth the womb, and every firstling which thou hast, the progeny of a beast, the males shall be Jehovah‘s. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb and if thou wilt not redeem it, thou shalt break its neck; and all the firstborn of man among thy sons thou shall redeem. And it shall be when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying, What is this? that thou shall say unto him, By a strong hand Jehovah brought us out from Egypt, from the house of bondmen; and it came to pass when Pharaoh hardened himself against letting us go, that Jehovah slew all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of man even to the firstborn of beast. Therefore I sacrifice to Jehovah all that openeth the womb, being males, but all the firstborn of my sons I redeem (Exod. 13:1, 2, 12-15; 34:19, 20; Num. 8:17).

From this it is now evident what is signified in the spiritual sense by "birthright."

AC 3326. And Esau said, Behold I am going to die. That this signifies that he should afterwards rise again, is evident from the representation of Esau, as being the good of the natural (n. 3302, 3322); and from the signification of " dying," as being the last of a state when anything ceases to be (n. 2908, 2912, 2917, 2923); and because the end of a former state is the beginning of a subsequent one, by "going to die" is here signified to rise again afterwards, in like manner as is signified by being "buried" To be "buried" denotes to rise again, (n. 2916, 2917, 3256). That he should rise again afterwards, denotes that good would obtain the priority or dominion over truth, after truth as to time had apparently held the priority.

AC 3327. And for what is this birthright to me? That this signifies that in this case there would be no need of priority, is evident without explication.

AC 3328. And Jacob said. That this signifies the doctrine of truth, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the doctrine of truth (n. 3324).

AC 3329. Swear to me as this day; and he sware unto him. That this signifies confirmation, is evident from the signification of " swearing," as being to confirm (n. 2842); and because the confirmation was in respect to a time, it is not said "this day," but " as this day" (n. 3325).

AC 3330. And he sold his birthright unto Jacob. That this signifies that in the meantime priority was granted, namely, to the doctrine of truth which is "Jacob," is evident from the signification of "birthright," as being priority (n. 3325); and that this was granted in the meantime, is manifest from what was said and shown above (n. 3324, 3325). That in the spiritual man in the beginning truth has the dominion, is chiefly because in his first state there are delights of the love of self and of the world which he believes to be good, and which apply themselves to his truths, and for the most part produce the affection of truth in him; for he then thinks that truths may be serviceable to him either for honor, or for gain, or for reputation in the world, or even for merit in the other life. All these things excite this affection of truth in him, and also enkindle it; and yet they are not good, but evil. Nevertheless the Lord permits that such things should influence him in that first time, because otherwise he could not be regenerated. Intelligence and wisdom come in time; in the meanwhile through these truths the man is introduced into good, that is, into charity; and when he is in this, then for the first time he perceives what is good, and acts from good, and then judges and draws conclusions from this good concerning truths and those which do not accord with this good he calls false, and rejects. Thus he rules over truths as a master over his servants.

AC 3331. Verse 34. And Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentils; and he did eat and drink, and rose up and went away; and Esau despised the birthright. "And Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentils," signifies the good of life gifted with the good of truth and the good of doctrinal things; "and he did eat and drink," signifies appropriation; "and rose up," signifies elevation thence; "and went away," signifies life; "and Esau despised the birthright," signifies that in the meantime the good of life made no account of priority.

AC 3332. And Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentils. That this signifies the good of life gifted with the good of truth and the good of doctrinal things, is evident from the representation of Esau, as being the good of life (n. 3300, 3322); and from the signification of "bread," as being the good of love in general, both celestial and spiritual (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177), thus also the good of truth, for this is spiritual good; and from the signification of "pottage of lentils," as being the good of doctrinal things; for "pottage" signifies a chaotic mass of doctrinal things (n. 3316), and "lentils" the good thereof. That Jacob gave them to Esau, in the internal sense signifies that these goods come through the doctrine of truth, which is represented by Jacob (n. 3305).

[2] In this last verse, by these words and those which follow there is described the progress as to truth and good of the spiritual man when being regenerated, namely, that he first learns the doctrinal things of truth, next is affected by them (which is the good of the doctrinal things), then that by taking a mental view of these doctrinal things he is affected with the truths in them (which is the good of truth), and lastly that he wills to live according to them, which is the good of life. In this way the spiritual man when being regenerated advances from the doctrine of truth to the good of life. But when he is in the good of life the order is inverted, and from this good he looks to the good of truth, from this to the good of doctrinal things, and from this to the doctrinal things of truth. From this it may be known how man from being a sensuous man becomes spiritual, and of what quality he is when he becomes spiritual.

[3] That these goods, namely, the good of life, the good of truth, and the good of doctrinal things, are distinct from each other can be seen by those who carefully consider the matter. The good of life is that which flows from the will; the good of truth is that which flows from the understanding; and the good of doctrinal things is that which flows from memory-knowledge. The good which is doctrinal has these other goods within it.

[4] That "lentils" signify the good of doctrinal things, is evident from the fact that wheat, barley, beans, lentils, millet, spelt, are such things as mean bread, but with a difference according to the species that "bread" in general denotes good is manifest from what has been stated and shown above (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177) thus different species of good are signified by the cereals in question, the more noble species of good by "wheat and barley," but the less noble by "beans and lentils;" as is also manifest from Ezekiel:--

Take thou also unto thee wheat, and barley, and beans, and lentils, and millet, and spelt, and put them into one vessel, and make thee bread thereof (Ezek. 4:9).

AC 3333. And he did eat and drink. That this signifies appropriation, is evident from the signification of "eating," as being the appropriation of good (n. 2187, 2343, 3168); and from the signification of "drinking," as being the appropriation of truth (n. 3069, 3089, 3168).

AC 3334. And rose up. That this signifies elevation thence, is evident from the signification of "rising up," as involving elevation wherever mentioned (n. 2401, 2785, 2912, 2927); and also from the fact that man is said to be "uplifted" when being perfected as to spiritual and celestial things; that is, as to the truth which is of faith, and the good which is of love and charity (n. 3171).

AC 3335. And went away. That this signifies life, is evident from the signification of "going," as being to advance into the things of good, that is, into those of the life, for all good is of life; nearly as is signified by "departing," "sojourning," and "advancing" (n. 1293, 1457).

AC 3336. And Esau despised the birthright. That this signifies that in the meantime the good of life made no account of the priority, is evident from the signification of "despising," as being to make no account of; from the representation of Esau, as being the good of life (n. 3300, 3322); and from the signification of "birthright," as being priority (n. 3325). That it is in the meantime, or for a time, may be seen above (n. 3324, 3325, 3330). Hence it is manifest that by " Esau despising the birthright" is signified that in the meantime the good of life made no account of the priority. In order that what is related in this chapter concerning Esau and Jacob may be apprehended in regard to its signification in the internal sense, the thought must be removed entirely from the historicals, thus from the persons of Esau and Jacob; and instead of them must be substituted the things they represent, namely, the good of the natural and its truth; or what is the same, the spiritual man who is being regenerated by means of truth and good; for in the internal sense of the Word names signify nothing else than actual things. When the good of the natural and its truths are thought of instead of Esau and Jacob, it is then evident how the case is with man’s regeneration by means of truth and good, namely, that in the beginning truth apparently has the priority with him, and also the superiority, although in itself good is prior and superior.

[2] In order that it may be still more clearly evident how the case is with this priority and superiority, something further shall be said. It is easy to see that nothing can possibly enter into man‘s memory and remain there, unless there is a certain affection of love which introduces it. If there is no affection, or what is the same, no love, there will be no observation. It is this affection, or love, with which the thing that enters connects itself, and being connected remains; as is evident from the fact that when a similar affection or love returns, the thing itself recurs, and is presented to view along with other things that had before entered by virtue of a similar affection or love; and this in a series. From this comes man’s thought; and from this thought his speech. In like manner also when the thing itself returns, if this is effected by objects of the senses, or by objects of the thought, or by the discourse of another, the affection also with which the thing had entered is reproduced. This is the teaching of experience, and on reflection every one may be confirmed in it.

[3] The doctrinal things of truth enter in like manner into the memory; and the things that at first introduce them are affections of various loves, as before said (n. 3330). Genuine affection, which is of the good of charity, is not then observed; but still it is present; and so far as it can be present, it is adjoined by the Lord to the doctrinal things of truth; and so far also they remain adjoined. When therefore the time comes that the man can be regenerated, the Lord inspires the affection of good, and through this excites the things which have been adjoined by Him to this affection, which things are called in the Word "remains;" and then by means of this affection (that is, of the affection of good), by successive steps the Lord removes the affections of other loves, consequently also the things that have been connected with them. And thus the affection of good, or what is the same, the good of life, begins to have the dominion. It indeed had the dominion before, but this could not appear to the man; for in so far as a man is in the love of self and of the world, the good which is of genuine love does not appear. From this it may now be seen what is signified in the internal sense by the things historically related concerning Esau and Jacob.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCES AND REPRESENTATIONS

AC 3337. What correspondences are, and what representations, may appear from what has been said and shown above, namely, that there are correspondences between the things which are of the light of heaven and those which are of the light of the world; and that the things which take place in those which are of the light of the world are representations (n. 3225). But what the light of heaven is and what is its quality cannot be very well known to man, because he is in the things that are of the light of the world; and in so far as he is in these, the things that are in the light of heaven appear to him as darkness, and as nothing. It is these two lights which--life flowing in--produce all the intelligence of man. The imagination of man consists solely of the forms and appearances of such things as have been received by bodily vision wonderfully varied, and so to speak modified; but his interior imagination, or thought, consists solely of the forms and appearances of such things as have been drawn in through the mind‘s vision still more wonderfully varied, and so to speak modified. The things which come forth from this source are in themselves inanimate, but become animate through the influx of life from the Lord.

AC 3338. Besides these lights there are also heats, which likewise are from two fountains--the heat of heaven coming from its sun, which is the Lord; and the heat of the world from its sun, which is the luminary visible to our eyes. The heat of heaven manifests itself to the internal man under the form of spiritual loves and affections; but the heat of the world manifests itself to the external man under the form of natural loves and affections. The former heat produces the life of the internal man, but the latter that of the external man; for without love and affection man cannot live at all. Between these two heats also there are correspondences. These heats become loves and affections through the influx of the Lord’s life; and hence they appear to man as if they were not heats, although they are; for unless as to both the internal and the external man, man derived heat from this source he would fall down dead in a moment. These facts must be evident to everybody from the circumstance that in proportion as man is inflamed with love, he grows warm; and in proportion as love recedes, he grows torpid. It is this heat from which the will of man lives, and it is the light above spoken of from which comes his understanding.

AC 3339. In the other life these lights, and also these heats, appear to the life. The angels live in the light of heaven, and also in the heat above described; from the light they have intelligence, and from the heat they have the affection of good. For in their origin the lights which appear before their external sight are from the Lord‘s Divine Wisdom; and the heats which are also perceived by them are from His Divine love; and therefore the more the spirits and angels are in the intelligence of truth and the affection of good, the nearer they are to the Lord.

AC 3340. To this light there is an opposite darkness, and to this heat there is an opposite cold in these live the infernals. Their darkness is from the falsities in which they are, and their cold is from the evils; and the more remote they are from truths, the greater is their darkness; and the more remote they are from good, the greater is their cold. When it is permitted to look into the hells where such infernals are, there appears a dark cloud in which they have their abode; and when any exhalation flows out thence, there are perceived insanities that exhale from falsities, and hatreds that exhale from evils. A light is indeed sometimes granted them, but it is a deceptive one; and this is extinguished with them, and becomes darkness, the moment they look at the light of truth. Heat also is sometimes granted them, but it is like that of an unclean bath; and this is changed into cold with them as soon as they observe anything of good. A certain person was let into that dark cloud where the infernals are, in order that he might know how the case is with those who are there; he being protected by the Lord by means of angels. Speaking from thence with me he said that there was there so great a rage of insanity against good and truth, and especially against the Lord, that he was amazed that it could possibly be resisted; for the Infernals breathed nothing but hatred, revenge, and slaughter, with such violence that they desired to destroy all in the universe; so that unless this rage was continually repelled by the Lord, the whole human race would perish.

AC 3341. Inasmuch as the representations in the other life cannot take place except by means of differences of light and shade, he it known that all light, consequently all intelligence and wisdom, are from the Lord; and that all shade, consequently all insanity and folly, are from that which is their own in man, spirit, and angel; from these two origins flow forth and are derived all the variegations which are of light and shade in the other life.

AC 3342. All the speech of spirits and of angels is also effected by means of representatives; for by wonderful variations of light and shade they vividly present before the internal and at the same time before the external sight of him with whom they speak, all they are thinking about, and insinuate it by suitable changes of the state of the affections. The representations that come forth in such speech are not like those before described, but are quick and instantaneous, being simultaneous with the ideas that belong to their speech. They are like something that is described in a long series, while at the same time it is exhibited in an image before the eyes, for, wonderful to say, all spiritual things themselves whatever can be representatively exhibited by forms of imagery that are incomprehensible to man, within which are things of the perception of truth, and still more interiorly those of the perception of good. Such things are also in man, for man is a spirit clothed with a body; as is evident from the fact that all speech perceived by the ear, on ascending toward the interiors, passes into forms (ideas) not unlike those of sight, and from these into intellectual forms or ideas, and thus becomes a perception of the sense of the expressions. Whoever rightly reflects upon these things may know from them that there is in himself a spirit which is his internal man, and also that after the separation of the body he will possess such a speech, because he is in the very same during his life in the world, although it does not appear to him that he is in it, by reason of the obscurity and darkness which earthly, bodily, and worldly things induce.

AC 3343. The speech of the angels of the interior heaven is still more beautifully and pleasantly representative; but the ideas which are representatively formed are not expressible by words, and if they should be expressed by any, they would surpass not only apprehension, but also belief. Spiritual things, which are of truth, are expressed by modifications of heavenly light, in which are affections, which are wonderfully varied in innumerable ways; and celestial things, which are of good, are expressed by variations of heavenly flame or heat; so that they move all the affections. Into this interior speech also man comes after the separation of the body, but only the man who during his life in this world is in spiritual good, that is, in the good of faith, or what is the same, in charity toward the neighbor; for he has this speech within himself, though he is unaware of it.

AC 3344. But the speech of the angels of the still more interior or third heaven, although also representative, is yet such as to be inconceivable by any idea, and consequently is indescribable. Even this perfect form of speech (idea) is also within man, but in the man who is in celestial love, that is, in love to the Lord; and after the separation of the body he comes into it as if born into it, although as before said nothing of it could be comprehended by him under any idea during his life in the body. In short, by means of representatives adjoined to ideas, speech becomes as it were alive; least of all with man, because he is in the speech of words but more so with the angels of the first heaven; still more so with the angels of the second heaven; and most of all with the angels of the third heaven, because these are most nearly in the Lord’s life. In itself whatever is from the Lord is alive.

AC 3345. From what has been said it is evident that there are kinds of speech successively more interior, but yet of such a nature that the one comes forth from the other in order, and also that the one is within the other in order. The nature of man‘s speech is known, and also his thought from which the speech flows, the analytics of which are of such a nature that they can never be explored. The speech of good spirits, that is, of the angels of the first heaven, together with the thought from which it flows, is more interior, and contains within it things still more wonderful and unexplorable. The speech of the angels of the second heaven together with the thought from which again this flows, is still more interior, containing within it things still more perfect and unutterable. But the speech of the angels of the third heaven together with the thought from which again this flows, is inmost, containing within it things absolutely unutterable. And although all these kinds of speech are of such a nature that they appear different from one another, nevertheless there is but one speech, because the one forms the other, and the one is within the other; moreover that which comes forth in the exterior is representative of the interior. A man who does not think beyond worldly and bodily things cannot believe this, and therefore supposes that the interior things with him are nothing, although in fact they are everything; and the exterior things, that is, the worldly and corporeal things that he makes everything, are relatively scarcely anything.

AC 3346. In order that I might know these things, and know them with certainty, of the Lord’s Divine mercy it has been granted me for several years to speak almost constantly with spirits and angels; and with spirits (that is, with the angels of the first heaven in their own speech; also at times with the angels of the second heaven in their speech; but the speech of the angels of the third heaven has only appeared to me as a radiation of light, in which there was perception from the flame of good within it.

AC 3347. I have heard angels speaking concerning human minds, and concerning their thought and the derivative speech. They compared them to the external form of man, which comes forth and subsists from the innumerable forms that are within--as from the brains, the medulla, the lungs, the heart, liver, pancreas, spleen, stomach, and intestines, besides many other organs, as those of generation in both sexes from the innumerable muscles encompassing these organs; and lastly from the integuments; and from all these being woven together from vessels and fibers, and indeed from vessels and fibers within vessels and fibers, from which come the ducts and lesser forms; thus that the body is composed of things innumerable; all of which nevertheless conspire, each in its own way, to the composition of the external form, in which nothing appears of the things that are within. To this external form they compared human minds, and their thoughts and the derivative speech. But angelic minds they compared to those things which are within, which are relatively illimitable, and also incomprehensible. They also compared the faculty of thinking to the faculty that belongs to the viscera of acting according to the form of the fibers, saying that the faculty is not of the fibers, but of the life in the fibers; just as the faculty of thinking is not of the mind, but of life from the Lord flowing into it. When such comparisons are made by angels they are at the same time exhibited by means of representatives, whereby the interior forms above spoken of are presented visibly and intellectually, in respect to their smallest incomprehensible parts, and this in a moment; but comparisons made by means of spiritual and celestial things, such as take place among the celestial angels, immeasurably surpass in the beauty of wisdom those made by means of natural things.

AC 3348. Spirits from another earth were with me for a considerable time; and I described to them the wisdom of our globe, and told them that among the sciences pursued by the learned is that of analytics, with which they busy themselves in exploring what is of the mind and its thoughts, calling it metaphysics and logic. But I said that men have advanced little beyond terms, and certain shifting rules; and that they argue concerning these terms--as what form is; what substance; what the mind; and what the soul; and that by means of these general shifting rules they vehemently dispute about truths. I then perceived from these spirits that when men inhere in such things as terms, and think concerning these matters by artificial rules, they take away all sense and understanding of a subject.

[2] They said that such things are merely little black clouds interposed before the intellectual sight; and that they drag down the understanding into the dust. They added that with them it is not so, but that they have clearer ideas of things in consequence of being unacquainted with such analytics. I was also permitted to see how wise they are. They represented the human mind in a marvelous manner as a heavenly form; and its affections as spheres of activity in agreement with it; and this so skillfully that they were commended by the angels. They represented also in what manner the Lord bends those affections which in themselves are not delightful, into such as are delightful.

[3] Learned men of our earth were present, and could not in the least comprehend these things, although in the life of the body they had discoursed much on such subjects in a philosophical way and when the spirits just referred to in turn perceived their thoughts, in that they inhered in mere terms, and were inclined to dispute on every point as to whether it is so, they called such things feculent froth.

AC 3349. From what has been said thus far it may be seen what correspondences are, and what representatives; but in addition to what has been said and shown at the end of the preceding chapters (n. 2987-3003, 3213-3227), see also what is said of them elsewhere; namely, That all things in the sense of the letter of the Word are representative and significative of what is in the internal sense (n. 1404, 1408, 1409, 2763): That the Word through Moses and the prophets was written by means of representatives and significatives, and that in order to possess an internal sense by which there might be communication of heaven and earth it could not be written in any other style (n. 2899): That the Lord Himself for this reason spoke by representatives, as well as for the reason that He spoke from the Divine Itself (n. 2900): What has been the source of the representatives and significatives in the Word and in rituals (n. 2179): That representatives originated from the significatives of the Ancient Church, and these from the things perceived by the Most Ancient Church (n. 920, 1409, 2896, 2897): That the most ancient people had their representatives from dreams also (n. 1977): That Enoch denotes those who collected the perceptive matters of the most ancient people (n. 2896): That continually in heaven there are representatives of the Lord and His kingdom (n. 1619): That the heavens are full of representatives (n. 1521, 1532): That the ideas of the angels are changed in the world of spirits into various representatives (n. 1971, 1980, 1981): Representatives by means of which children are introduced into intelligence (n. 2299): That the representatives in nature are from the Lord‘s influx (n. 1632, 1881): That in universal nature there are representatives of the Lord’s kingdom (n. 2758): That in the external man there are things which correspond to what is internal, and things which do not correspond (n. 1563, 1568).

AC 3350. In order to show more plainly the nature of representatives, I may adduce one additional instance. I heard a host of angels of the interior heaven who together or in consort were forming a representative. The spirits about me could not perceive it, except from a certain influx of interior affection. It was a choir, in which many angels together thought the same thing, and spoke the same thing. By representations they formed a golden crown gemmed with diamonds around the Lord‘s head; which was effected all at once by means of a rapid series of representations, such as are those of thought and speech spoken of above (n. 3342-3344); and wonderful to say, although there were a host they nevertheless all thought and spoke as a one, thus they all represented as a one; and this because no one was desirous to do anything from himself, still less to preside over the rest and lead the choir; for whoever does this is of himself instantly dissociated. But they suffered themselves to be led mutually by each other, thus all individually and collectively by the Lord. All the good who come into the other life are brought into such harmonious agreements.

[2] Afterwards there were heard many choirs, which exhibited various things representatively, and although there were many choirs, and many in each choir, still they acted as a one; for from the form of various things there resulted a one, in which was heavenly beauty. Thus the universal heaven, which consists of myriads of myriads, can act as a one by being in mutual love; for thereby they suffer themselves to be led by the Lord; and wonderful to say the greater their numbers, that is, the greater the number of the myriads who constitute heaven, so much the more distinctly and perfectly are things done in general and in particular; and the more also in proportion as the angels are of a more interior heaven; for all perfection increases toward the interiors.

AC 3351. They who formed the choirs on this occasion belonged to the province of the lungs, thus to the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, for they inflowed gently into the respiration; but the choirs were distinct, some pertaining to the voluntary respiration, and some to the involuntary.

AC 3352. A continuation concerning correspondences and representatives, especially those in the Word, will be found at the close of the following chapter.


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