HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

Back | Next | Index | Home


AC GENESIS Chapter29

AC 3751. By way of preface to the preceding chapter an explication was given of what the Lord foretold in (Matthew 24:15-18) concerning the last time of the church.  Following this order there are now to be unfolded--by way of preface to the present chapter--the contents of the succeeding verses:--

But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! and pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the Sabbath; for then shall be great affliction, such as was not since the beginning of the world even until now, neither shall be.  And except those days should be shortened there should no flesh be preserved; but for the elect‘s sake those days shall be shortened (Matthew 24:19-22).

AC 3752. No one can possibly comprehend the signification of these words unless he is enlightened by the internal sense. That they are not said concerning the destruction of Jerusalem appears from many things in the chapter, as from this:--Except those days should be shortened there should no flesh be preserved; but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened; and from the following:--After the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken; and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man; and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with Power and glory; and from other passages.  That neither are the words now under consideration said concerning the destruction of the world, is also evident from many things contained in the same chapter; as from those which precede:--He that is on the housetop, let him not come down to take anything out of his house; and he who is in the field, let him not return back to take his garments; and also from these now brought under consideration:--Pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the Sabbath; and from the following:--Then shall two be in the field the one shall be taken, and the other left; two women shall be grinding at the mill, the one shall be taken, and the other left.  But it is evident that the words in question are said concerning the last time of the church, that is, concerning its vastation; for the church is said to be vastated when there is no longer any charity.

AC 3753. Everyone who thinks about the Lord with reverence and who believes that the Divine was in Him, and that He spoke from the Divine, is able to know and believe that the above words, like the rest the Lord taught and spoke, were not spoken of one nation only, but of the universal human race; and not of its worldly, but of its spiritual state; and also that the Lord‘s words comprehended the things which are of His kingdom and of the church, for these are Divine and eternal. Whoever believes in this manner, concludes that these words: ”Woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days,“ do not signify those who are with child and give suck; and that the words: ”Pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the Sabbath,“ do not signify any flight on account of worldly enemies and so in regard to the rest.

AC 3754. In the preceding verses there were treated of three states of the perversion of good and truth in the church; and in the present verses a fourth state is treated of, which is also the last.  Concerning the first state it was shown that it was that men began no longer to know what was good and true, but disputed among themselves concerning good and truth, whence came falsities (n. 3354).  Concerning the second state, that it I was that men began to despise good and truth, and also to hold them in aversion, and thus that faith in the Lord was about to expire, according to the degrees in which charity was about to cease (n. 3487, 3488).  Concerning the third state, that it was a state of desolation of the church in respect to good and truth (n. 3651, 3652).  Concerning the fourth state, we are now to show that it is that of the profanation of good and truth. That this state is here described, may be seen from all the particulars in the internal sense, which is as follows.

AC 3755. But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days; signifies those who have been imbued with the good of love to the Lord and the good of innocence.  ”Woe“ is a form of expression signifying the danger of eternal damnation; ”to be with child“ is to conceive the good of heavenly love; ”to give suck“ is also a state of innocence; ”those days“ denote the states in which the church then is. 

[2] And pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath; signifies removal from those things, that it be not done precipitately, in a state of too much cold or of too much heat.  ”Flight“ is removal from a state of the good of love and of innocence, just now spoken of; ”flight in the winter“ is removal therefrom in a state of too much cold; cold” is when there is aversion to love and innocence, which is induced by the loves of self; “flight on the sabbath” is removal from them in a state of too much heat; “heat” is external sanctity, while within are the love of self and the love of the world. 

[3] For then shall be great affliction, such as was not since the beginning of the world even until now, neither shall be; signifies the highest degree of the perversion and vastation of the church in respect to good and truth, which is profanation; for profanation of what is holy occasions death eternal and much more grievous than any other states of evil, and so much the more grievous in proportion as the goods and truths profaned are of a more interior kind; and inasmuch as such interior goods and truths are open and known in the Christian Church, and are profaned, it is said that “then shall be great affliction such as was not from the beginning of the world even until now, neither shall be.” 

[4] And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be preserved; but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened; signifies the removal of those who are of the church from interior goods and truths to exterior, so that those may still be saved who are in the life of good and truth; by the “days being shortened,” is signified a state of removal; by “no flesh being preserved,” is signified that otherwise none could be saved; by “the elect” are signified those who are in the life of good and truth.

AC 3756. That this is the internal sense of these words could be fully shown--as that by “those who are with child” are signified those who first become imbued with good; and that by “those who give suck” are signified those who become imbued with a state of innocence; that by “flight” is signified removal from good and innocence by “winter,” aversion to such goods through the love of self taking possession of the interiors and by “flight on the sabbath,” profanation, which takes place when there is holiness in externals, and the love of self and the world within.  But as the same words and similar expressions occur throughout in what follows, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy their signification shall then be shown to be such as is here stated.

AC 3757. But as regards the profanation of what is holy, few know what it is; yet this can be seen from what has been already stated and shown concerning it, namely, that those are able to profane holy things who know, acknowledge, and become imbued with good and truth; but not those who do not acknowledge, and still less those who do not know them (n. 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 3398): Thus that they who are within the church can profane holy things, but not they who are without it (n. 2051): That they who are of the celestial church can profane holy goods, and that they who are of the spiritual church can profane holy truths (n. 3399): That therefore interior truths were not disclosed to the Jews, lest they should profane them (n. 3398): That the Gentiles can least of all profane (n. 2051): That profanation is a commingling and conjunction of good and evil, and also of truth and falsity (n. 1001, 1003, 2426): That this was signified by the eating of blood, which was so severely prohibited in the Jewish Church (n. 1003): That therefore in so far as possible men are withheld from the acknowledgment and faith of good and truth, unless they are able to remain therein (n. 3398, 3402); and that on this account they are kept in ignorance (n. 301-303); and that worship also becomes external (n. 1327, 1328): That internal truths are not revealed until the church has been vastated, because then good and truth can no longer be profaned (n. 3398, 3399): That this was the reason why the Lord then first came into the world (n. 3398): How great a danger there is from the profanation of what is holy and of the Word (n. 571, 582).

GENESIS 29:1-35

1. And Jacob lifted up his feet, and went to the land of the sons of the east.

2. And he saw, and behold a well in the field, and behold there three droves of the flock lying by it; for out of that well they watered the droves; and a great stone was upon the well’s mouth.

3. And all the droves were gathered together thither; and they rolled the stone from the well‘s mouth, and watered the flock, and they put the stone in its place again upon the well’s mouth.

4. And Jacob said unto them, My brethren whence are ye? And they said, Of Haran are we.

5. And he said unto them, Know ye Laban the son of Nahor? And they said, We know him.

6. And he said unto them, Hath he peace?  And they said, Peace; and behold Rachel his daughter cometh with the flock.

7. And he said, Behold as yet the day is great, it is not time for the cattle to be gathered together: water ye the flock, and go and feed them.

8. And they said, We cannot until all the droves are gathered together, and they roll the stone from the well‘s mouth; then shall we water the flock.

9. While he was yet speaking with them, Rachel came with the flock which was her father’s, for she was a shepherdess.

10. And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother‘s brother, and the flock of Laban his mother’s brother, that Jacob came near, and rolled the stone from the well‘s mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother’s brother.

11. And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice and wept.

12. And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father‘s brother, and that he was Rebekah’s son; and she ran and told her father.

13. And it came to pass, when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister‘s son, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house; and he told Laban all these things.

14. And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh.  And he dwelt with him a month of days.

15. And Laban said unto Jacob, Because thou art my brother shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought?  Tell me, what shall be thy reward?

16. And Laban had two daughters, the name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel.

17. And Leah’s eyes were weak, and Rachel was beautiful in form and beautiful in look.

18. And Jacob loved Rachel, and he said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter.

19. And Laban said, It is better that I should give her to thee than give her to another man; abide with me.

20. And Jacob served seven years for Rachel, and they were in his eyes as a few days, for the love he had to her.

21. And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my woman, for my days are fulfilled, and I will come to her.

22. And Laban gathered together all the men of the place, and made a feast.

23. And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him, and he came to her.

24. And Laban gave her Zilpah his handmaid, unto his daughter Leah for a handmaid.

25. And it came to pass in the morning that behold it was Leah; and he said unto Laban, What is this that thou hast done unto me? Did not I serve with thee for Rachel? and why let thou defrauded me?

26. And Laban said, It is not so done in our place, to give the younger before the firstborn.

27. Fulfill this week, and we will give thee her also, for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.

28. And Jacob did so, and fulfilled this week, and he gave him Rachel his daughter for a woman.

29. And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be to her for a handmaid.

30. And he came also unto Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah, and served with him yet seven other years.

31. And Jehovah saw that Leah was hated, and He opened her womb, and Rachel was barren.

32. And Leah conceived and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben, for she said, Because Jehovah hath seen my affliction, for now my man will love me.

33. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and said, Because Jehovah hath heard that I was hated, and hath given me this one also; and she called his name Simeon.

34. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and said, Now this time will my man cleave to me, because I have borne him three sons; therefore she called his name Levi.

35. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and she said, This time I will confess Jehovah therefore she called his name Judah; and she stood still from bearing.

THE CONTENTS

AC 3758. In the internal sense of this chapter by “Jacob” is described the Lord‘s natural-how the good of truth therein was conjoined with kindred good from a Divine origin, which good is Laban;“ at first through the affection of external truth, which is ”Leah;“ and then through the affection of internal truth, which is ”Rachel.“

AC 3759. Afterwards by the birth of the four sons of Jacob by Leah is described in the supreme sense the ascent from external truth to internal good; but in the representative sense the state of the church, which is such that it does not acknowledge and receive the internal truths that are in the Word, but external truths; and this being the case, it ascends to interior things according to this order, namely, that at first it has the truth which is said to be of faith; next, practice according to this truth; afterwards the consequent charity; and finally celestial love.  These four degrees are signified by the four sons of Jacob borne of Leah, namely, Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 3760. Verse 1. And Jacob lifted up his feet, and went to the land of the sons of the east.  ”And Jacob lifted up his feet,“ signifies the elevation of the natural; ”and went to the land of the sons of the east,“ signifies to the truths of love.

AC 3761. And Jacob lifted up his feet.  That this signifies the elevation of the natural, is evident from the signification of ”lifting up,“ as being elevation; and from the signification of the ”feet,“ as being the natural, concerning which in what follows.  The elevation here signified is that treated of in this chapter, which is from external truth to internal good.  In the supreme sense it is shown how the Lord elevated His natural even to the Divine, according to order, by ascending from external truth through the degrees to internal good; and in the representative sense, how the Lord makes new the natural of man when He regenerates him, according to a similar order. That the man who is being regenerated in adult age advances according to the order described in the internal sense in this and the following chapters, is known to few, for the reason that few reflect upon it, and also that few at this day can be regenerated. For these are the last times of the church, when there is no longer any charity, consequently not any faith and this being the case, it is not even known what faith is, although it is on the lips of all that man is saved by faith.  Still less is it known what charity is; and as these two are known merely as terms, and are unknown in respect to their essence, it is on this account said that few can reflect upon the order according to which man is made new, or is regenerated, and also that few can be regenerated.

[2] Because the natural is here treated of, and this is represented by Jacob, it is not said that he ”arose,“ and went to the land of the sons of the east, but that he ”lifted up his feet.“ Both expressions signify elevation. ”Arising“ has this signification (n. 2401, 2785, 2912, 2927, 3171). But the reason why it is here said, ”he lifted up his feet,“ is that this is said with respect to the natural for ”feet“ signify the natural (n. 2162, 3147). That ”feet“ signify the natural, or natural things, comes from the correspondence with the Grand Man which has been spoken of at the close of the preceding chapters, in which Grand Man they who belong to the province of the feet are those who are in natural light and but little in spiritual; consequently the parts under the feet, as the soles and the heels, signify the lowest natural things (n. 259); and hence the shoe, which is also occasionally mentioned in the Word, signifies the corporeal natural which is the ultimate (n. 1748).

AC 3762. And went to the land of the sons of the east.  That this signifies to the truths of love (that is, elevation thereto) is evident from the signification of the ”land of the sons of the east.“ That Aram, or Syria, was called the ”land of the sons of the east,“ is evident, because it was thither that Jacob betook himself (n. 3249).  That by ”Syria“ in general are signified the knowledges of good, was shown above (n. 1232, 1234); but specifically, by ”Aram-naharaim“ (that is, ” Syria of the rivers“) are signified the knowledges of truth (n. 3051, 3664).  In this case however it is not said that he went ”to Aram,“ or ” Syria,“ but ”to the land of the sons of the east,“ in order to signify what is treated of in this chapter throughout, namely, an ascent to the truths of love.  Those truths are called the truths of love which have been elsewhere termed celestial truths, for they are knowledges that relate to charity toward the neighbor and love to the Lord in the supreme sense, in which the Lord is treated of, they are the truths of Divine love.

[2] These truths, that relate to charity toward the neighbor and to love to the Lord, must be learned before it is possible for a man to be regenerated; and must also be acknowledged and believed; and in so far as they are acknowledged, believed, and ingrafted in the life, so far the man is regenerated, and in so far they are at the same time implanted in the man’s natural, in which they a re as in their own ground.  They are first implanted therein through instruction by parents and teachers; next from the Word of the Lord; and afterwards through the man‘s own reflection about them; but by these means they are merely stored up in the memory of the natural man, being classed among the knowledges therein, but still not acknowledged, believed, and ingrafted, unless the life is in accordance with them; for in this case the man comes into affection, and in so far as he comes into affection from life, so far these truths are implanted in his natural as in their ground.  The truths which are not thus implanted are indeed with the man, but are merely in his memory as a matter of mere knowledge or history, which serves no other purpose than to be talked about and made the means of getting a reputation which is to serve for the acquisition of riches and honors.  But in this case these truths are not implanted.

[3] That by the ”land of the sons of the east“ are signified the truths of love, thus the knowledges of truth which tend to good, may be seen from the signification of ”sons,“ as being truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623); and from the signification of the ”east,“ as being love (n. 101, 1250, 3249). Their ”land“ is the ground in which they are. That the ” sons of the east“ are those who are in the knowledges of truth and good, and consequently in the truths of love, may be seen also from other passages in the Word.  As in the first book of Kings:--

The wisdom of Solomon was multiplied more than the wisdom of all the sons of the cast, and than all the wisdom of the Egyptians (1 Kings 4:30);

where by the ”wisdom of the sons of the east“ are signified the interior knowledges of truth and good, thus those who are in them; but by the ”wisdom of the Egyptians“ is signified the memory-knowledge of the same, which is in a lower degree. By the ”Egyptians“ are signified memory-knowledges in general, (n. 1164, 1165, 1462).

[4] In Jeremiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah, Arise ye, go up against Kedar, lay waste the sons of the east.  Their tents and their flocks they shall take they shall take their curtains, and all their vessels, and their camels (Jer. 49:28, 29).

That by the ”sons of the east“ are here meant those who are in the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the fact that they were to take their tents and flocks, also their curtains and all their vessels, and likewise their camels; for by ”tents“ are signified the holy things of good (n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312); by ”flocks,“ the goods of charity (n. 343, 2566); by ”curtains,“ holy truths (n. 2576, 3478); by ”vessels,“ truths of faith and memory-knowledges (n. 3068, 3079); by ”camels,“ memory-knowledges in general (n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145). Thus by the ”sons of the east“ are signified those who are in these things, that is, who are in the knowledges of good and truth.

[5] That the wise men from the east who came to Jesus at His birth were of those who were called the ”sons of the east,“ is evident from the fact that they were in the knowledge that the Lord was to be born, and that they knew of His advent by a star which appeared to them in the east, concerning which things we read in Matthew:--

When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, behold there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying, Where is He that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen His star in the east, and are come to worship Him (Matthew 2:1, 2).

That from ancient times such a prophetic knowledge had existed among the sons of the east, who were of Syria, is evident from Balaam’s prophecy concerning the Lord‘s advent, in Moses:--

I see Him, but not now I behold Him, but not nigh there shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise up out of Israel (Num. 24:17).

That Balaam was from the land of the sons of the east, that is, from Syria, is evident from these words:--

Balaam uttered his enunciation and said, Balak hath brought me from Syria, out of the mountains of the east (Num. 23:7).

Those wise men who came to Jesus at His birth are called magi,   but wise men were so called at that time, as is evident from many passages; such as (Gen. 41:8; Exod. 7:11; Dan. 2:27; 4:6, 7; 1 Kings 4:30);

and from the Prophets throughout.

[6] That in the opposite sense the ”sons of the east“ signify the knowledges of evil and falsity, thus those who are in them, is evident in Isaiah:--

The envy of Ephraim shall depart, and the enemies of Judah shall be cut off they shall fly on the shoulder of the Philistines toward the sea and together shall they spoil the sons of the east (Isa. 11:13, 14).

In Ezekiel:--

Against the sons of Ammon. Behold I have delivered thee to the sons of the east for a possession, and they shall set their ordinances in thee (Ezek. 25:3, 4).

And in the book of Judges:--

When Israel sowed, Midian came up, and Amalek, and the sons of the east; they came up against him (Judges 6:3).

”Midian“ denotes those who are in falsity because not in the good of life (n. 3242); ”Amalek,“ those who are in falsities with which they assault truths (n. 1679); the ”sons of the east,“ those who are in the knowledges of falsity.

AC 3763. Verses 2, 3. And he saw, and behold a well in the field, and behold there three droves of the flock lying by it; for out of that well they watered the droves, and a great stone was upon the well’s mouth.  And all the droves were gathered together thither; and they rolled the stone from the well‘s mouth, and watered the flock, and they put the stone in its place again upon the well’s mouth.  ”And he saw,“ signifies perception and behold a well,” signifies the Word; “in the field,” signifies for the churches and behold there three droves of the flock lying by it,“ signifies the holy things of churches and of doctrinal things for out of that well they watered the droves,” signifies that the memory-knowledge is thence derived “and a great stone was upon the well‘s mouth,” signifies that it was closed; “ and all the droves were gathered together thither,” signifies that all churches and their doctrinal things were thence derived; “and they rolled the stone from the well’s mouth,” signifies that they opened it; “and watered the flock,” signifies that thence came doctrine “and they put the stone in its place again upon the well‘s mouth,” signifies that meanwhile it was closed.

AC 3764. And he saw.  That this signifies perception, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to perceive, concerning which below, at (verse 32), when treating of Reuben, who was so named from “seeing.”

AC 3765. And behold a well.  That this signifies the Word, is evident from the signification of a “well,” as being the Word, and also doctrine from the Word (n. 2702, 3096, 3424).  The Word is here called a well,“ because the natural is treated of, which regarded in itself apprehends the Word solely as to the literal sense; whereas the Word is called a” fountain“ when the rational is treated of, by which the Word can be perceived according to the internal sense.

AC 3766. In the field.  That this signifies for the churches, is evident from the signification of a ”field,“ as being the church as to good (n. 2971).  In the Word the church is signified by ”land,“ ”ground,“ and ”field,“ but with a difference.  The reason why ”field“ signifies the church, is that the church as a field receives the seeds of good and truth; for the church has the Word, from which come these seeds; and this is the reason why everything in a field signifies that which is of the church, such as sowing, reaping, standing corn, wheat, barley, and other things, and this also with a difference.

AC 3767. And behold there three droves of the flock lying by it. That this signifies the holy things of churches and of doctrinal things, is evident from the signification of ”three,“ as being that which is holy (n. 720, 901); and from the signification of ”droves of the flock,“ as being those things which are of the church, thus doctrinal things; specifically, a ”flock“ signifies those who are within the church, and who learn and become imbued with the goods which are of charity, and the truths which are of faith; and in this case a ”shepherd“ signifies one who teaches these things; but in general a ”flock“ signifies all those who are in good, thus who belong to the Lord’s church in the universal world; and inasmuch as all these are introduced into good and truth by means of doctrinal things, therefore by a ”flock“ are also signified doctrinal things.  For in the internal sense the things which determine the quality of a man, and the man himself who is of such a quality, are meant by the same expression; for the subject, which is man, is understood from that by virtue of which he is man.

[2] For this reason it has been repeatedly stated that names signify actual things, and also signify those to whom such things appertain, as that ”Tyre“ and ”Zidon“ signify the knowledges of good and truth, and also those who are in such knowledges; and that ”Egypt“ signifies memory-knowledge, and ”Asshur“ reasoning, yet there are also understood those who are in these; and so with every other name.  But the speech in heaven among the angels is effected by means of actual things, without the idea of persons; thus by universals and this for the reason that in this way they comprise countless things in their discourse; and especially is this the case because they attribute all good and truth to the Lord, and nothing to themselves; the result of which is that the ideas of their speech are not determined to any but the Lord alone. From all this we can now see whence it is that a ”flock“ is said to signify churches, and also doctrinal things.  Droves of a flock are said to be ”lying by the well,“ because the doctrinal things are from the Word. A ”well“ denotes the Word, (n. 3765).

AC 3768. For out of that well they watered the droves.  That this signifies that the memory-knowledge is thence derived; that is, from the Word, is evident from the signification of a ”well,“ as being the Word (n. 3765) and from the signification of ”watering,“ or ”giving to drink,“ as being to be instructed (n. 3069); and from the signification of ”droves,“ as being the memory-knowledge of doctrinal things (n. 3767). Hence it is evident that by ”watering the droves out of the well“ is signified that the memory-knowledge of the doctrinal things of good and truth is from the Word.  In what now follows concerning Jacob, the Lord is treated of in the supreme sense-how He made His natural Divine, and in this chapter the initiation is treated of; and in the internal representative sense those who are being regenerated are treated of-how the Lord renews their natural man, and in this chapter the initiation is treated of; therefore the subject here treated of is the Word and the doctrine thence derived; for initiation and regeneration are effected by means of doctrine from the Word. And inasmuch as these things are signified by a ”well“ and by ”three droves of the flock,“ therefore these are mentioned historically, which would have been of too trifling import to be mentioned in the Divine Word unless they had signified such things.  What they enfold is evident, namely, that all the memory-knowledge and doctrine of good and truth are from the Word.

[2] The natural man can indeed know, and also perceive, what good and truth are, but only natural and civic good and truth; but spiritual good and truth he cannot know, because this must come from revelation, thus from the Word. For example: a man may know from the rational that is possessed by everyone that his neighbor ought to be loved, and that God ought to be worshiped; but how the neighbor is to be loved, and how God is to be worshiped, thus what spiritual good and truth are, can be known only from the Word-as that good itself is the neighbor, consequently they who are in good, and this according to the good in which they are; and that good is the neighbor because the Lord is in good, and therefore in the love of good the Lord is loved.

[3] In like manner they who have not the Word cannot know that all good is from the Lord, and that it inflows with man, and causes the affection of good, and that this affection is called charity; neither can they who have not the Word know who is the God of the universe; and that He is the Lord is hidden from them; when yet the inmost of affection or of charity, consequently the inmost of good, must look to Him.  From this it is evident what spiritual good is, and that this cannot be known except from the Word.  With regard to the Gentiles, so long as they are in the world they indeed do not know this, nevertheless while they live in mutual charity with one another, they thence derive such a capacity that in the other life they can be instructed concerning such matters, and they also easily receive and become imbued therewith (n. 2589-2604).

AC 3769. And a great stone was upon the well‘s mouth.  That this signifies that the Word was closed, is evident without explication.  The Word is said to be closed when it is understood solely as to the sense of the letter, and when all that is in this sense is taken for doctrine.  And it is still more closed when those things are acknowledged as doctrinal things which favor the cupidities of the love of self and of the world; for these especially roll a great stone upon the mouth of the well, that is, close up the Word; and then mankind do not know, neither do they desire to know, that there is any interior sense in the Word, when yet they may see this from many passages where the sense of the letter is unfolded as to the interior sense; and also from the doctrinal things received in the church, to which by various explications they refer all the sense of the letter of the Word.

[2] What is meant by the Word being closed may be seen especially from the Jews, who explain each and all things according to the letter, and thence believe that they are chosen in preference to all nations on the face of the earth, and that the Messiah will come to bring them into the land of Canaan and exalt them above all nations and peoples of the earth; for they are immersed in earthly corporeal loves, which are such that they altogether close up the Word as to interior things.  Therefore also they do not yet know whether there is any heavenly kingdom, whether they shall live after death, what the internal man is, nor even that there is anything spiritual; still less do they know that the Messiah has come to save souls.  That the Word is closed with them, may be sufficiently evident also from the fact that although they live among Christians, they do not receive the least of their doctrinal things-according to the following words in Isaiah:--

Say to this people, Hearing, hear ye, and do not understand and seeing, see ye, and do not perceive. Make the heart of this people fat, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes.  And I said, Lord, how long? And He said, Until the cities be waste without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the ground be wasted to a solitude (Isa. 6:9-11; Matt. 13:14, 15; John 12:40, 41).

[3] For in so far as a man is immersed in loves of self and of the world, and in the cupidities of these loves, so far the Word is closed to him; for these loves have self as their end, which end kindles a natural lumen, but extinguishes heavenly light, so that men sharply see the things of self and the world, but not at all those of the Lord and His kingdom; and when this is the case, they may indeed read the Word, but it is with the end of acquiring honors and riches, or for appearance’ sake, or from the love and consequent habit of it, or from piety, and yet not from a purpose of amending the life.  To such persons the Word is in various ways closed; to some so much that by no means are they willing to know anything but what their doctrinal things dictate, whatever these may be.

[4] For example: should anyone say that the power of opening and shutting heaven was not given to Peter, but to the faith of love, which faith is signified by Peter‘s keys, inasmuch as the love of self and of the world opposes this, they will by no means acknowledge it.  And should anyone say that saints ought not to be worshiped, but the Lord alone, neither do they receive this.  Or if anyone should say that by the bread and wine in the Holy Supper is meant the Lord’s love toward the universal human race, and the reciprocal love of man to the Lord, this they do not believe.  Or should anyone assert that faith is of no avail unless it is the good of faith, that is, charity, this they explain inversely; and so with everything else.  They who are of this character cannot see one whit of the truth that is in the Word, nor are they willing to see it, but abide obstinately in their own dogma; and are not even willing to hear that there is an internal sense wherein is the sanctity and glory of the Word, and even when they are told that it is so, from their aversion thereto they loathe the bare mention of it. Thus has the Word been closed, when yet it is of such a nature as to lie open even into heaven”, and through heaven to the Lord, and it is closed solely in relation to man, in so far as he is in the evils of the love of self and of the world in respect to his ends of life, and in the consequent principles of falsity. From this it is evident what is signified by a great stone being upon the well‘s mouth.

AC 3770. And all the droves were gathered together thither.  That this signifies that all churches and their doctrinal things are thence derived, is evident from the signification of “ droves,” as being churches, and also the doctrinal things that belong to churches (n. 3767, 3768).  That these are from the Word is signified by the droves being gathered together thither.

AC 3771. And they rolled the stone from the well’s mouth.  That this signifies that they opened it, is evident from what has been said above (n. 3769) concerning the signification of a “great stone upon the well‘s mouth,” as being that the Word was closed.  Thus it is manifest that their rolling the stone from the well’s mouth signifies that they opened it.

AC 3772. And watered the flock.  That this signifies that the doctrine was thence derived, is evident from the signification of “watering,” or of “giving to drink,” as being to instruct (n. 3069, 3768); and from the signification of a “flock,” as being those who are in the goods and truths of faith (n. 343, 3767). Thus “to water the flock” is to instruct out of the Word, consequently it is doctrine.

AC 3773. And they put the stone in its place again upon the well‘s mouth.  That this signifies that meanwhile it was closed, is evident from what has been said (n. 3769, 3771) concerning the stone upon the well’s mouth.  As regards the Word being opened to the churches, and being afterwards closed, the case is this: in the beginning of the setting up of any church, the Word is at first closed to the men of it, and is afterwards opened, the Lord so providing; and thus they learn that all doctrine is founded on the two commandments-that the Lord is to be loved above all things, and the neighbor as themselves. When these two commandments are regarded as the end, the Word is opened; for all the Law and the Prophets, that is, the whole Word, so depend on these commandments that all things are derived from them and therefore all have reference to them.  And whereas the men of the church are then in the principles of truth and good, they are enlightened in everything they see in the Word; for the Lord is then present with them by means of angels, and teaches them although they are unaware of this), and also leads them into the life of truth and good.

[2] This may be seen also from the case of all churches, in that they were such in their infancy, and worshiped the Lord from love, and loved the neighbor from the heart.  But in process of time churches withdraw from these two commandments, and turn aside from the good of love and charity to the so-called things of faith, thus from life to doctrine and in so far as they do this, so far the Word is closed.  This is what is signified in the internal sense by the words:  Behold a well in the field, and behold there three-droves of the flock lying by it; for out of that well they watered the droves; and a great stone was upon the well‘s mouth.  And all the droves were gathered together thither; and they rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the flock, and they put the stone in its place again upon the well‘s mouth.“

AC 3774.  Verses 4-6. And Jacob said unto them, My brethren whence are ye?  And they said, Of Haran are we.  And he said unto them, Know ye Laban the son of Nahor?  And they said, We know him.  And he said unto them, Hath he peace? And they said, Peace; and behold Rachel his daughter cometh with the flock.  ”And Jacob said unto them,“ signifies the truth of good; ”My brethren whence are ye?“  signifies charity there, from what origin is it? ”and they said, Of Haran are we,“ signifies from the good of a common stock; ”and he said unto them, Know ye Laban the son of Nahor?“ signifies, Have they the good of this stock? ”and they said, We know him,“ signifies affirmation; ”and he said unto them, Hath he peace?“  signifies, is not this good from the Lord’s kingdom? ”and they said, Peace,“ signifies affirmation; ”and behold Rachel his daughter,“ signifies the affection of interior truth; ”cometh with the flock,“ signifies interior doctrinal things.

AC 3775. And Jacob said unto them.  That this signifies the truth of good, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the Lord‘s Divine natural, concerning which see above. inasmuch as all things in general and particular, wherever they may be, have relation to good and truth (n. 3166, 3513, 3519), so also have those in the natural; and because during man’s regeneration the good and truth in the natural are at first in a different state from what they are during the progress and at the end of it, therefore by Jacob is represented the natural as to truth and good according to the state at the time here, in respect to the truth of good.  But to explain in detail these various things in every case would be to render the subject obscure, especially with those who have not a distinct idea concerning truth and good, and still less concerning the truth through which is good, and the truth which is from good.

AC 3776. My brethren whence are ye?  That this signifies charity there, from what origin is it? is evident from the signification of ”brethren,“ as being those who are in good, and thence as being good itself, consequently charity (n. 367, 2360, 3303, 3459); and from the signification of ”whence are ye?“  as being from what origin is it?  All this shows that whatever in the sense of the letter involves a question and is determined to persons, in the internal sense falls into an idea undetermined to any person; for in heaven among the angels the historicals of the letter vanish when they leave man and enter heaven; so that Jacob‘s question to the men of Haran, ”My brethren whence are ye?“  signifies charity there, from what origin is it?

[2] The case herein is as follows-The charity the external form of which appears as charity is not always charity in the internal form.  its quality and its source are known from its end.  The charity that comes from a selfish or worldly end in its internal form is not charity, neither ought it to be called charity; but the charity that regards as its end the neighbor, the general good, heaven, and thus the Lord, is real charity, and has within it the affection of doing good from the heart, and the derivative delight of life which in the other life becomes bliss.  It is of the utmost importance to know this, in order that man may know what the Lord’s kingdom is in itself.  Inquiry concerning this charity, or what is the same thing, concerning this good, is now treated of in these verses; and here it is first asked from what origin was the charity there; which is signified by, ”My brethren whence are ye?“

AC 3777. And they said, Of Haran are we.  That this signifies from the good of a common stock, is evident from the signification of ”Haran,“ as being the collateral good of a common stock (n. 3612).

AC 3778. And he said unto them, Know ye Laban the son of Nahor? That this signifies, Have they the good of this stock? is evident from the representation of Laban, as being the collateral good of a common stock (n. 3612, 3665); and from the representation of Nahor, as being that common stock from which is the good represented by Laban; that ”to know,“ in the internal sense signifies to be therefrom, is manifest from the series.  How the case is with the representation of collateral good by Nahor, Bethuel, and Laban, shall be briefly stated. Terah, who was the father of three sons-Abram, Nahor, and Haran (Gen. 11:27), represents the common stock from which come churches.  Terah himself was indeed an idolater, but representatives do not regard the person but the thing (n. 1361). And because the representative Jewish Church commenced in Abraham, and was renewed among his descendants from Jacob, therefore Terah and his three sons put on the representation of churches-Abram the representation of a genuine church, such as exists with those who have the Word; but Nahor his brother the representation of a church such as exists among the Gentiles who have not the Word. That the Lord‘s church is scattered throughout the universal earth, and that it exists among those Gentiles also who live in charity, is manifest from what has been shown here and there concerning the Gentiles.

[2] This therefore is the reason why by Nahor, his son Bethuel, and Bethuel’s son Laban, there is represented the collateral good of a common stock, that is, the good in which they are who are of the Lord‘s church among the Gentiles.  This good differs from the good of a common stock in the direct line of descent, in this respect-that the truths which are conjoined with their good are not genuine, but most of them are external appearances which are called fallacies of the senses; for these Gentiles have not the Word whereby they can be enlightened. In its essence indeed good is only one, but it receives its quality from the truths implanted in it, and thereby becomes various. The truths that to the Gentiles appear as truths are in general that they should worship some God from whom they seek their good and to whom they attribute it, and so long as they live in the world they do not know that this God is the Lord; also that they should adore their God under images, which they account holy; besides many other things.  Nevertheless these things are no hindrance to their being saved equally with Christians, provided they live in love to their God and in love toward the neighbor for thus in the other life they have a capacity to receive interior truths (n. 932, 1032, 1059, 2049, 2051, 2284, 2589-2604, 2861, 2863, 3263).  This shows what is here meant by the collateral good of a common stock.  That by Nahor are represented those out of the church who are in brotherhood by virtue of good, may be seen above (n. 2863, 2866, 2868); that by Bethuel is represented the good of the Gentiles of the first class (n. 2865, 3665); and by Laban the affection of external or corporeal good, and properly the collateral good of a common stock (n. 3612, 3665).

[3] With this good the case is that first of all it serves man as a means of procuring for himself spiritual good, for it is external corporeal, and is grounded in external appearances which in themselves are fallacies of the senses.  In childhood man acknowledges nothing else as truth and good, and although he is taught what internal good and truth are, still he has no other idea concerning them than a corporeal one; and because such is the first idea, therefore such good and truth are the first means by which interior truths and goods are introduced.  This is the arcanum which is here represented by Jacob and Laban.

AC 3779. And they said, We know him.  That this signifies affirmation, may be seen without explication.

AC 3780. And he said into them, Hath he peace?  That this signifies, Is not this good from the Lord’s kingdom? is evident from the signification of ”peace,“ concerning which in what follows.  In the historical sense inquiry is made concerning Laban, as to whether he hath peace, but in the internal sense the inquiry is concerning the good which is represented by Laban.  That Laban represents the collateral good of a common stock, that is, such good as exists among the Gentiles, who are in the general church, that is, in the Lord‘s kingdom, (n. 3778).  From this it is evident what is signified by the words, Is not this good from the Lord’s kingdom?”

[2] In regard to peace, in the supreme sense it signifies the Lord Himself, and hence in the internal sense His kingdom, and it is the Lord‘s Divine inmostly affecting the good in which are those who are therein.  That these things are signified in the Word by “peace,” is evident from many passages; as in Isaiah:--

Unto us a Child is born, unto us a Son is given and the government shall be upon His shoulder and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace.  Of the increase of His government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon His kingdom (Isa. 9:6, 7);

where the “Prince of Peace” manifestly denotes the Lord; and “the increase of His government and peace” denotes the things which are in His kingdom, thus His kingdom itself. Again:--

The work of righteousness shall be peace, and the labor of righteousness quietness and security forever; and My people shall dwell in a habitation of peace (Isa. 32:17, 18);

in which passage the Lord’s kingdom is treated of, where peace, quietness, and security succeed each other; a “habitation of peace” denotes heaven.

[3] Again:--

The angels of peace weep bitterly the paths are laid waste, the wayfaring man hath ceased (Isa. 33:7, 8);

“angels of peace” denote those who are in the Lord‘s kingdom, thus that kingdom itself, and in the supreme sense the Lord; the “paths being laid waste, and the wayfaring man ceasing,” signifies that there is no longer truth anywhere. “Paths” and “ways” are truths, (n. 627, 2333).  Again:--

How delightful upon the mountains are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace that saith unto Zion, Thy God   reigneth (Isa. 52:7);

where “he that bringeth good tidings and publisheth peace” denotes the Lord’s kingdom.  Again:--

The mountains shall depart, and the hills be removed but My mercy shall not depart from thee, neither shall the covenant of My peace be removed (Isa. 54:10).

Again:--

The way of peace have they not known and there is no judgment in their tracks (Isa. 59:8).

In Jeremiah:--

I will take away My peace from this people, saith Jehovah, even compassion and mercy (Jer. 16:5).

[4] Again:--

The folds of peace are laid waste, because of the burning of the anger of Jehovah (Jer. 25:37).

Again:--

The prophet who prophesieth of peace, when the word of the prophet   shall come to pass, then shall the prophet be known, that Jehovah hath sent him (Jer. 28:9).

Again:--

I know the thoughts that I think toward you, saith Jehovah, thoughts of peace (Jer. 29:11).

So in Haggai:--

The glory of this latter house shall be greater than that of the former; for in this place will I give peace (Haggai 2:9).

And in Zechariah:--

They shall be a seed of peace the vine shall give her fruit, and the earth shall give her increase, and the heavens shall give their dew (Zech. 7:12).

In David:--

Keep integrity   and behold the upright, because the end for that man is peace (Ps. 37:37).

In Luke:--

Jesus saith to His disciples, Into whatsoever house ye enter, first say, Peace be to this house. And if the son of peace be there, your peace shall rest upon it; but if not, it shall turn to you again (Luke 10:5, 6).

In John:--

Peace I leave with you, My peace I give unto you not as the world giveth, give I unto you (John 14:27).

Again:--

Jesus said, These things have I spoken unto you that in Me ye may have peace (John 16:33).

[5] In all these passages in the supreme sense “peace” signifies the Lord; and in the representative sense His kingdom, and good from the Lord therein, thus the Divine which flows into good, or into the affections of good, which also causes joy and happiness from the inmost.  From this it is manifest what is meant by these words of the benediction:--

Jehovah lift up His faces upon thee and give thee peace (Num. 6:26);

and what by the salutation used of old, “Peace be unto you;” and the same addressed by the Lord to the apostles (John 20:19, 21, 26).  See also what is said concerning peace elsewhere (n. 92, 93, 1726, 2780, 3170, 3696).

AC 3781. And they said, Peace.  That this signifies affirmation, is evident without explication, for it is an affirmative reply.

AC 3782. And behold Rachel his daughter.  That this signifies the affection of interior truth, is evident from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of interior truth; and of Leah, as being the affection of exterior truth, concerning which in what follows.

AC 3783. Cometh with the flock.  That this signifies interior doctrinal things, is evident from the signification of a “flock,” as being the church, and also doctrinal things (n. 3767, 3768, 3772); in the present case interior doctrinal things, because it is said of Rachel that she “came with the flock.”

AC 3784. Verses 7, 8. And he said, Behold as yet the day is great, it is not time for the cattle to be gathered together: water ye the flock, and go and feed them.  And they said, We cannot until all the droves are gathered together, and they roll the stone from the well‘s mouth; then shall we water the flock. “And he said, Behold as yet the day is great,” signifies that now the state was advancing; “it is not time for the cattle to be gathered together,” signifies that the goods and truths of the churches and of doctrinal things could not as yet be gathered into a one; “water ye the flock and go and feed them,” signifies instruction therefrom to a few; “and they said, We cannot until all the droves are gathered together,” signifies that they ought to be together; “and they roll the stone from the well’s mouth,” signifies that thus the things of the Word are disclosed; “ then shall we water the flock,” signifies that then they are instructed.

AC 3785. And he said, Behold as yet the day is great.  That this signifies that the state was now advancing, is evident from the signification of “day,” as being state (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462); that “ Behold as yet it is great,” denotes that it is advancing, is manifest from the series.

AC 3786. It is not time for the cattle to be gathered together. That this signifies that the goods and truths of the churches and of doctrinal things could not yet be gathered into a one, is evident from the signification of “time,” as being state in general (n. 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356); from the signification of “being gathered together,” as being to be in a one; and from the signification of “cattle,” as being in general the goods and truths of churches and of doctrinal things.  That “cattle” in general have this signification, is because in the rituals of the representative church, and in the Word, animals signify the affections of good or of truth; as may be seen from what has been shown above (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 2679, 2697, 2979, 3203, 3502, 3508, 3510, 3665, 3699, 3701).

[2] The case is the same in general with the church when it is being set up again-the doctrinal things of good and truth must be collected into a one, for it is on these that it is built.  Moreover doctrinal things have a connection with and mutual respect to each other, and therefore unless they are first collected into a one, there will be a defect, and that which is lacking must be supplied by man‘s rational; and how blind and illusory this is in spiritual and Divine things, when its conclusions are from itself, has been abundantly shown above.  For this reason there has been given to the church the Word, which contains all the doctrinal things of good and truth.  In this regard, with a man who is being regenerated, the case is the same with the church in general as it is with the church in particular; for such a man is the church in particular.  That the doctrinal things of good and truth which belong to the church must needs first be together in a man before he is regenerated, has been shod above.  This then is what is signified in the internal sense by “Behold as yet the lay is great, it is not time for the cattle to be gathered together.”

AC 3787. Water ye the flock, and go and feed them.  That this signifies instruction therefrom to a few, is evident from the signification of “ watering the flock,” as being to instruct from the Word (n. 3772); and from the signification of the words, “go and feed them,” as being the derivative life and doctrine. “To go” signifies life, (n. 3335, 3690); and “to feed” signifies doctrine, (n. 343). The arcanum which here lies hidden is that there are few who ever arrive at a full state (n. 2636); thus who can be regenerated.

AC 3788. And they said, We cannot, until all the droves are gathered together.  That this signifies that they ought to be together, is evident from the signification of “gathering,” as being to be made into a one, that is, to be together, as above (n. 3786); and from the signification of “droves,” as being doctrinal things (n. 3767, 3768).  What these words imply may be seen from what was said above (n. 3786, 3787).

AC 3789. And they rolled the stone from the well’s mouth. That this signifies that thus the things which are of the Word are disclosed, is evident from the signification of “rolling away the stone,” as being to be disclosed (n. 3769, 3771, 3773); and from the signification of the “well,” as being the Word (n. 3424, 3765).

AC 3790. Then shall we water the flock.  That this signifies that in this case they are instructed, is evident from the signification of “watering the flock,” as being to instruct (n. 3772, 3787).  This is also manifest from what goes before.

AC 3791. Verses 9-11. While he was yet speaking with them, Rachel came with the flock which was her father‘s, for she was a shepherdess.  And it came to pass when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother, and the flock of Laban his mother‘s brother, that Jacob came near, and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother‘s brother.  And Jacob kissed Rachel, and If’ led up his voice and wept.  “While he was yet speaking with them,” signifies thought on that occasion; “Rachel came with the flock,” signifies the affection of the interior truth which is of the church and of doctrine; “which was her father‘s,” signifies from good in respect to origin; “for she was a shepherdess,” signifies that the affection of interior truth teaches what is in the Word; “and it came to pass when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother’s brother,” signifies the acknowledgment of the affection of that truth in regard to its origin; “and the flock of Laban his mother‘s brother,” signifies the church and the doctrine therefrom; “that Jacob came near, and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth,” signifies that the Lord from natural good has opened the Word as to its interiors; “and watered the flock of Laban his mother‘s brother,” signifies instruction; “and Jacob kissed Rachel,” signifies love toward interior truths; “and lifted up his voice and wept,” signifies the ardor of love.

AC 3792. While he was yet speaking with them.  That this signifies thought on that occasion, is evident from the signification in the historicals of the Word of “to speak,” as being to think (n. 2271, 2287, 2619).  That it signified thought on that occasion is manifest, because at the very time when he was speaking with them, or what is the same thing, “while he was yet speaking with them,” Rachel came.

AC 3793. Rachel came with the flock.  That this signifies the affection of the interior truth which is of the church and of doctrine, is evident from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of interior truth; and from the signification of a “flock,” as being the church and also doctrine (n. 3767, 3768, 3783). That it may be known how the case is with the representation of Rachel as being the affection of interior truth, and of Leah as being the affection of exterior truth, it shall be briefly stated that the natural which is represented by Jacob consists of good and truth, and that in this natural, as in all things of man and of universal nature in general and particular there must be the marriage of good and truth.  Without this marriage nothing is produced-all production and all effect being therefrom.  This marriage of good and truth however does not exist in man’s natural when he is born, because man alone is not born into Divine order; he does indeed possess the good of innocence and of charity, which in his earliest infancy flows in from the Lord, but there is no truth with which this good may be coupled.  As he advances in years, this good which in infancy had been insinuated into him by the Lord is drawn in toward the interiors, and is there kept by the Lord, in order that it may temper the states of life which he afterwards puts on.  This is the reason why without the good of his infancy and first childhood man would be worse and more fierce than any wild beast.  When this good of infancy is being drawn in, evil comes in its place and enters into man‘s natural, and with this evil falsity couples itself, and there takes place in the man the conjunction, and as it were the marriage, of evil and falsity.  In order therefore that man may be saved, he must be regenerated, and evil must be removed, and good from the Lord insinuated, and according to the good which he receives, truth is insinuated into him, for the purpose of effecting the coupling, or as it were the marriage of good and truth.

[2] These are the things represented by Jacob, and by his two wives, Rachel and Leah.  Jacob therefore now puts on the representation of the good of the natural, and Rachel the representation of truth; but as all the conjunction of truth with good is wrought by means of affection, it is the affection of truth to be coupled with good that is represented by Rachel. Moreover in the natural, as in the rational, there is an interior and an exterior; Rachel representing the affection of interior truth, and Leah the affection of exterior truth.  Laban, who is their father, represents the good of a common stock, but the Collateral good, as before stated; which good is that which in a collateral line corresponds to the truth of the rational, which is signified by “Rebekah” (n. 3012, 3013, 3077).  Hence the daughters from this good represent the affections in the natural, for these are as daughters from this good as from a father. And as these affections are to be coupled with natural good, they represent the affections of truth; the one the affection of interior truth, and the other the affection of exterior truth.

[3] As regards the regeneration of man in respect to his natural, the case is altogether the same as it is with Jacob and the two daughters of Laban, Rachel and Leah; and therefore whoever is able to see and apprehend the Word here according to its internal sense, sees this arcanum disclosed to him.  But no one can see this except the man who is in good and truth.  What ever perception others may have of things therein relating to moral and civic life, and however intelligent they may thereby appear, still they can see nothing of this nature so as to acknowledge it; for they do not know what good and truth are, but suppose evil to be good and falsity to be truth; and therefore the moment that good is mentioned, the idea of evil is presented; and when truth is mentioned, the idea of falsity; consequently they perceive nothing of these contents of the internal sense, but as soon as they hear them darkness appears and extinguishes the light.

AC 3794. Which was her father’s.  That this signifies from good in respect to origin, is evident from the representation of Laban, who here is the “father,” as being the collateral good of a common stock (n. 3612, 3665, 3778); and also from the signification of “father,” as being good (n. 3703).

AC 3795. For she was a shepherdess (or, “she was one who feeds.”) That this signifies that the affection of interior truth teaches what is in the Word, is evident from the signification of a “shepherd,” or one that feeds the flock, as being one who leads and teaches (n. 343); and from the representation of Rachel, who in the present case is “she,” as being the affection of interior truth (n. 3793).  The reason this teaching is said to be from the Word is that she came to the well with the flock; and that the “well” signifies the Word may be seen above (n. 3765).  Moreover it is the affection of interior truth which teaches; for from this affection the church is a church, and a shepherd or pastor is a pastor, The reason why in the Word a“ shepherd,” and “one that feeds” signifies those who lead and teach, is that a “flock” signifies those who are led and taught, consequently churches, and also doctrines of the church (n. 3767, 3768, 3783).  That a “shepherd” and a “flock” have such a signification is well known in the Christian world, for so they who teach and they who learn are called, and therefore it is needless to confirm this from the Word.

AC 3796. And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother‘s brother.  That this signifies the acknowledgment of the affection of that truth in regard to its origin, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as here being to acknowledge, as is evident from the series or connection; and from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of interior truth (n. 3793).  “The daughter of Laban his mother’s brother” implies its origin, namely, that it was from collateral good, which was joined in brotherhood with the rational truth represented by Rebekah, the mother of Jacob.

[2] As regards the affections of truth and of good the case is this: The genuine affections of truth and of good which are perceived by man are all from a Divine origin, because from the Lord; but on the way, as they descend, they diverge into various and diverse streams, and there form for themselves new origins; for as they flow into affections not genuine but spurious, and into the affections of evil and falsity in the man, so are they varied.  In the external form these affections often present themselves like the genuine ones; but in the internal form they are of this spurious character.  The sole characteristic from which they are known is their end; if as regards their end they are for the sake of self or the world, then these affections are not genuine; but if as regards their end they are for the sake of the good of the neighbor, the good of societies, the good of our country, and especially if for the good of the church and the good of the Lord‘s kingdom, then they are genuine, because in this case they are for the sake of the Lord, inasmuch as the Lord is in these goods.

[3] It is therefore the part of a wise man to know the ends that are in him.  Sometimes it appears as if his ends were for self when yet they are not so; for it is the nature of man to reflect upon himself in everything, and this from custom and habit.  But if anyone desires to know the ends that are within him, let him merely pay attention to the delight he perceives in himself from the praise and glory of self, and to the delight he perceives from use separate from self; if he perceives this latter delight, he is in genuine affection.  He must also pay attention to the various states in which he is, for the states themselves very much vary the perception.  A man can explore these things in himself, but not in others; for the ends of each man’s affection are known to the Lord alone.  This is the reason why the Lord said:--

Judge not, that ye be not judged; condemn not, that ye be not condemned (Luke 6:37);

for a thousand persons may appear to be in a like affection in respect to truth and good, and yet everyone of them be in an affection unlike in respect to origin, that is, in respect to end.

[4] That the end determines the quality of the affection, that is to say, whether it is genuine, spurious, or false, is because a man‘s end is his very life; for a man has that for his end which is of his life, or what is the same, of his love.  then the good of his neighbor, the general good, the good of the church and of the Lord’s kingdom, is the end, then as to his soul the man is in the Lord‘s kingdom, thus in the Lord; for the Lord’s kingdom is nothing else than a kingdom of ends and uses for the good of the human race (n. 3645).  The angels themselves who are with man are solely in his ends.  In so far as a man is in such an end as that in which is the Lord‘s kingdom, so far the angels are delighted with him, and conjoin themselves with him as with a brother; but in so far as a man is in the end of self, so far the angels retire, and evil spirits from hell draw near, for there reigns in hell no other end than this; from all of which we can see how important it is to explore and know from what origin the affections are, and this can be known solely from the end.

AC 3797. And the flock of Laban his mother’s brother.  That this signifies the church and the doctrine therefrom, is evident from the signification of a “flock,” as being the church and doctrine (n. 3767, 3768, 3783).  The reason why Laban is here called “his mother‘s brother,” is that thereby is likewise signified an acknowledgment in respect to the origin, as stated just above.

AC 3798. That Jacob came near, and rolled the stone from the well’s mouth.  That this signifies that the Lord from natural good uncovered the Word as to things interior, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the Lord‘s Divine natural, as before shown, here, in respect to the good therein; and from the signification of “rolling the stone from the well’s mouth,” as being to uncover the Word in respect to its interiors (n. 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789).  The reason why the supreme internal sense here is that the Lord from natural good uncovered the Word as to its interiors, is that Jacob here represents good in the natural; for Jacob puts on the representation of good, because now truth was to be adjoined thereto by means of the affection which Rachel represents (n. 3775, 3793); and because it is from good that the Word is uncovered in respect to its interiors (n. 3773).  That it is from good that the Word is uncovered is very manifest, because it is from the love in which each man is that he sees the things which are of that love, and that which he sees he calls truths, because they are in agreement with that love.  There is in each man‘s love the light of his life, for love is like a flame from which light issues such therefore as is the love or flame, such is the man’s light of truth.  They who are in the love of good can see that which is of this love, consequently the truths that are in the Word, and this in accordance with the amount and the quality of their love of good; for in this case light or intelligence flows in from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord.  For this reason it is that as before said no one can see and acknowledge the interiors of the Word unless he is in good as to life.

AC 3799. And watered the flock of Laban his mother‘s brother. That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of “watering the flock,” as being instruction (n. 3772).  The reason why Laban is here a third time called “his mother’s brother,” is that the origin is pointed out from which came the flock and Rachel, that is to say, from which come the doctrine and the affection of interior truth.

AC 3800. And Jacob kissed Rachel.  That this signifies love toward interior truths, is evident from the signification of“ kissing,” as being unition and conjunction from affection (n. 3573, 3574), consequently love, because regarded in itself love is unition and conjunction from affection; and from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of interior truth (n. 3793).  Hence it is evident that by “Jacob kissed Rachel,” is signified love toward interior truths.

AC 3801. And lifted up his voice and wept.  That this signifies the ardor of love, is evident from the signification of “lifting up the voice and weeping,” as being the ardor of love; for weeping belongs to sorrow, and also to love, and is the highest degree of each of them.

AC 3802. Verses 12, 13. And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father‘s brother, and that he was Rebekah’s son; and she ran and told her father. And it came to pass when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister‘s son, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house; and he told Laban all these words.  “And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father’s brother,” signifies the affinity of the good which is “Jacob” and of the good which is “ Laban;” “and that he was Rebekah‘s son,” signifies the conjunction of these affinities; “and she ran and told her father,” signifies acknowledgment by means of interior truths; “and it came to pass when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister’s son,” signifies the acknowledgment of the related good; “that he ran to meet him,” signifies agreement; “and embraced him,” signifies affection; “and kissed him,” signifies initiation; “and brought him to his house,” signifies to conjunction; “and he told Laban all these words,” signifies from truths.

AC 3803. And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father‘s brother.  That this signifies the affinity of the good which is “Jacob” and of the good which is “Laban,” is evident from the signification of “telling,” as being to make known; and from the representation of Jacob, as being good; and from the representation of Rachel to whom this was made known, as being the affection of interior truth (n. 3793); and from the signification of “brother,” who here is Jacob, as being good (n. 367, 2360, 3303, 3459); and from the signification of “father,” who here is Laban, as also being good (n. 3703). From all this and also from the series it is evident that by “Jacob told Rachel that he was her father’s brother,” is signified the affinity of the good which is “Jacob” and of the good which is “Laban.” But to set forth this affinity itself, and the consequent conjunction of the two through the affection of interior truth (which is “Rachel”) would be to make the subject more obscure, because few know what the good of the natural is, and that this is distinct from the, good of the rational; or what is the collateral good of a common stock; or again what is the affection of interior truth. He who by his own investigation has not acquired for himself some idea concerning these things, receives but a faint idea, if any, from description; for a man receives only so much from others as he either has of his own, or acquires for himself by looking into the matter in himself; all the rest passes away.  Suffice it to know that there are innumerable affinities of good and truth, and that the heavenly societies are in accordance therewith (n. 685, 917, 2739, 3612).

[2] The reason why Jacob calls himself the brother“ of Laban, when yet he was his sister‘s son, is that all are brethren from good and for the same reason Laban in his turn calls Jacob ”brother“ (verse 15).  It is good which makes blood relationship, and which conjoins; for good is of love, and love is spiritual conjunction. This is the reason why in the ancient churches all those who were in good were called brethren, and even in the Jewish Church but inasmuch as this church esteemed all others vile, and supposed themselves alone to be the chosen, they called only those brethren who were born Jews, and all others they called either companions or strangers.  The primitive Christian Church also called all brethren who were in good, but afterwards only those who were within their own congregation. But the name ”brother“ vanished away from among Christians, together with good, and when truth succeeded in the place of good, or faith in the place of charity, then they could no longer from good call one another brethren, but neighbors.  This also is the effect of the doctrine of faith without the life of charity, in that brotherhood with one of lower station than themselves seems to be beneath them; for with such persons brotherhood does not derive its origin from the Lord, and consequently from good; but from self, and consequently from honor and gain.

AC 3803a. And that he was Rebekah’s son.  That this signifies the conjunction of these affinities, is evident without explication; for Rebekah, who was the mother of Jacob and the sister of Laban, was she from whom was the conjunction.

AC 3804. And she ran and told her father.  That this signifies acknowledgment by means of interior truths, is evident from the signification of ”running and telling,“ as being the affection of making known, in the present case from acknowledgment; and from the signification of her ”father,“ as being the good which is signified by ”Laban.“ That the acknowledgment was by means of interior truths, is represented by Rachel, who signifies the affection of interior truth.  From this it results that by these words is signified acknowledgment by means of interior truths.  The case herein is this: The good which Jacob represents (which is the good of the natural), like all good in general, is known and acknowledged as to its existence, but not as to its quality, except by means of truths; for good receives its quality from truths, and thus by means of truths is known and acknowledged.  Good does not become the good which is called the good of charity until truths are implanted in it, and such as are the truths that are implanted in it, such good does it become.

[2] For this reason the good of one person, although it may appear precisely similar to that of another, is yet not the same; and with all persons whatsoever in the universe the good of one is different from that of another.  It is the same with human faces, in which for the most part the affections are portrayed, and throughout the whole human race none are exactly alike.  Truths themselves constitute as it were the face of beauty, the good of which is from the form of truth, but it is good that affects.  Such are all angelic forms, and such would man be if from interior life he were in love to the Lord, and in charity toward his neighbor.  He was created into such forms, because into the likeness and image of God; and such forms as to their spirits are they who are regenerated, however they may appear as to the body.  From this it is evident what is meant by good being acknowledged by means of interior truths.

AC 3805. And it came to pass when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister‘s son.  That this signifies the acknowledgment of the related good, is evident in like manner from what results from the signification of these words in the internal sense; it is reciprocal acknowledgment which is thus described.  It is evident that the subject here treated of is the good’s choice, which choice precedes the marriage of good and truth.

AC 3806. He ran to meet him.  That this signifies agreement, is evident from the signification of ”to run to meet,“ as being agreement, for it looks to conjunction; concerning which below.  It is well known that agreement or similitude conjoins.

AC 3807. And embraced him.  That this signifies affection, is evident from the signification of ”embracing,“ as being affection; for interior affection falls into this gesture, every affection having gestures in the body which correspond to it.  That affection in general is expressed by embracing, is well known.

AC 3808. And kissed him.  That this signifies initiation, is evident from the signification of” kissing,“ as being conjunction from affection (n. 3573, 3574, 3800), here, initiation into this conjunction, for initiation is precedent to conjunction.

AC 3809. And brought him to his house.  That this signifies to conjunction, is evident from the signification of ”bringing to a house,“ as being to himself; for in the internal sense man himself is called a ”house“ (n. 3128, 3142, 3538); and this from good, which properly is a ”house“ (n. 2233, 2234, 3652, 3720). In the present case therefore the signification is to the good which is represented by Laban; so that by ”bringing to his house“ is here signified conjunction.  There is here fully described in the internal sense the process of the conjunction of natural good which is ”Jacob,“ with collateral good which is ”Laban.“ The following five things constitute this process; namely, mutual acknowledgment, agreement, affection, initiation, and conjunction.  Mutual acknowledgment was signified by Rachel running and telling her father, and by Laban hearing the report of Jacob his sister‘s son (n. 3804, 3805); agreement was signified by Laban running to meet him (n. 3806); affection by Laban embracing him (n. 3807); initiation by his kissing him (n. 3808); and conjunction by his bringing him to his house, as here stated.

AC 3810. And he told Laban all these words.  That this signifies from truths, that is, that the acknowledgment, agreement, affection, initiation, and conjunction were therefrom, is evident from the series, and also from the words as explained according to the internal sense, whereof this is the conclusion (n. 3804).

AC 3811. Verses 14, 15. And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh.  And he dwelt with him a month of days.  And Laban said unto Jacob, Because thou art my brother, shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought?  Tell me, what shall be thy reward?  ”And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh,“ signifies conjoined in respect to truths and to goods; ”and he dwelt with him a month of days,“ signifies a new state of life; ”and Laban said unto Jacob, Because thou art my brother,“ signifies because they have blood relationship from good; ”shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought? tell me what shall be thy reward,“ signifies that there must be a means of conjunction.

AC 3812. And Laban said to him, Surely thou art my bone and my flesh.  That this signifies conjoined in respect to truths and to goods, is evident from the signification of the words, ”thou art my bone and my flesh,“ as being conjunction.  The ancients had this form of speaking concerning those who were of one house, or of one family, or in some relationship-” my bone and my flesh“ (n. 157); and hence by these words is signified conjunction.  The reason why it signifies as to truths and as to goods, is that all spiritual conjunction is effected by these, and all natural conjunction has relation to the same.  Moreover by ”bone and flesh“ is signified what is man’s own; by ”bone,“ the own of his understanding, and by ”flesh“ the own of his will; thus by ”bone“ is signified what is his own in respect to truth, for this is of the understanding; and by ”flesh“ is signified what is his own in respect to good, for this is of the will (n. 148, 149).

[2] As regards man‘s own in general it is of two kinds, one infernal and the other heavenly; that which is infernal is received by man from hell, and that which is heavenly from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord; for all evil, as well as all the derivative falsity, flows in from hell; and all good, and the derivative truth, from the Lord.  This is known to men from the doctrine of faith, but scarcely one in ten thousand believes it.  For this reason man appropriates to himself or makes his own the evil which flows in from hell, and the good which flows in from the Lord does not affect him, consequently is not imputed to him.  The reason why man does not believe that evil flows in from hell, and good from the Lord, is that he is in the love of self, which love carries this with it, insomuch that it is exceedingly indignant when it is said that everything inflows.  This therefore is the reason why all that is man’s own is nothing but evil (n. 210, 215, 694, 731, 874-876, 987, 1023, 1044, 1047). But that man believes that evil is from hell and good from the Lord comes from the fact that he is not in the love of self, but in love toward his neighbor and in love to the Lord, for this love is attended with such a belief.  Thus it is that man receives from the Lord a heavenly own (n. 155, 164, 731, 1023, 1044, 1937, 1947, 2882, 2883, 2891).

[3] In both senses this own is signified by ”bone and flesh;“ and consequently by ”bones“ in the Word is signified truth, and in the opposite sense falsity, and by ”flesh“ good, and in the opposite sense evil.  That this is the signification of ”bones,“ may be seen from the following passages.  In Isaiah:--

Jehovah shall lead thee continually, and shall satisfy thy soul in droughts, and shall make strong thy bones that thou mayest be like a watered garden (Isa. 58:11);

where ”making strong the bones“ signifies to make alive the own of the understanding, that is, to enlighten it with intelligence; whence it is said, ”that thou mayest be like a watered garden.“ A ”garden“ signifies intelligence, (n. 100, 108, 1588). Again:--

Then ye shall see, and your heart shall rejoice, and your bones shall flourish like the grass (Isa. 66:14);

where by ”bones flourishing like the grass,“ the like is signified as above.

[4] In Jeremiah:--

Her Nazirites were whiter than snow, they were fairer than milk; their bones were more ruddy than gems, a sapphire was their polishing; their form is darker than blackness, they are not known in the streets their skin cleaveth to their bone, it is withered, it is become like wood (Lam. 4:7, 8);

the ”Nazirite“ denotes the celestial man (n. 3301); ”whiter than snow and fairer than milk“ denotes to be in celestial truth; and because this truth is from the love of good, it is said that ”their bones were more ruddy than gems.“ ”Whiteness“ and ”fairness“ are predicated of truth, (n. 3301); ”ruddiness,“ of good, (n. 3300); ”gems,“ of truths which are from good, (n. 114). By ”their skin cleaving to their bone“ is described a changed state as to the celestial things of love, namely, that there was no flesh on the bones, that is, no longer any good; for then all truth becomes like skin which cleaves to the bone; it is ”withered and become like wood.“

[5] In Ezekiel:--

Utter a parable against the rebellious house, and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Set on the caldron, set it on, and also pour waters into it gathering the pieces thereof into it, every good piece, the thigh and the shoulder fill-it with the choice bones; taking the choice of the flock and let there be also a hearth of bones under it; let the bones also be boiled in the midst of it (Ezek. 24:3-5, 10);

where a ”caldron“ signifies violence offered to good and truth, wherefore it is called a city of bloods” (Ezek. 24:6) the pieces, the good piece, the thigh, and the shoulder gathered into it,“ are flesh, by which are meant goods; the ”choice bones“ with which the caldron was filled, denote truths a ” hearth of bones,“ the affection of truth; the ”bones being boiled in the midst of it,“ violence offered to truths.  Everyone can see that Divine arcana are stored within this parable; and also that these arcana can in no wise be known unless it is known what is signified in the internal sense by a ” caldron“ or ”pot,“ by ”pieces,“ by ”thigh and shoulder,“ by ”choice bones,“ by a ”hearth of bones,“ and by ”boiling.“ In Micah:--

Is it for you to know judgment, who hate the good, and love the evil who pluck off their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones; who have eaten the flesh of My people, and have flayed their skin from off them and have broken their bones, and have divided them as into the pot, and as flesh in the midst of the caldron? (Micah 3:1-3);

where the signification is the same.

[6] In Ezekiel:--

He brought me out in the spirit of Jehovah, and set me down in the midst of the valley, which was full of bones.  And He said unto me, Shall these bones live?  He said unto me, Prophesy upon these bones, and say unto them, O ye dry bones hear the word of Jehovah; thus saith the Lord Jehovih unto these bones, Behold I will cause breath to enter into you that ye may live I will lay sinews upon you, and will cause flesh to come up upon you, and will cover you with skin, and put breath in you that ye may live.  I prophesied, and the bones came together, bone to its bone; and I beheld and lo there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up, and skin covered them above and there was no breath in them and breath came into them, and they revived, and stood upon their feet (Ezek.  37:1, 3-8, 10).

The subject here treated of in general is the setting up again of the church among the Gentiles; and in particular, the regeneration of man: ”dry bones“ denote the own of the understanding, which is inanimate before it receives the life of good from the lord, but is thereby animated or made alive; the ”flesh which the Lord causes to come up upon the bones“ is the own of the will, which is called the heavenly or celestial own, and thus signifies good; ”breath“ is the Lord‘s life, and when this inflows into that good of the man which he seems to himself to will and do from his own, the good is then vivified, and from the good the truth, and out of the dry bones there is made a man.

[7] In David:--

All my bones are unloosed, my heart is become like wax, I can number all my bones. They have parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture have they cast a lot (Ps. 22:14, 17, 18);

where the subject is the Lord’s temptations as to Divine truths, which were the Lord‘s own, and hence are called ”my bones;“ and as to Divine good, which was the Lord’s own, and hence is called ”my heart.“ The ”heart“ signifies good, (n. 3313, 3635). And because ”bones“ signify these truths, the numbering of which denotes to desire to dissipate them through reasonings and falsities, therefore there immediately follow the words, ”they parted my garments, and cast a lot upon my vesture;“ for ”garments“ also signify truths, but exterior ones (n. 297, 1073, 2576); ”dividing them and casting a lot upon the vesture,“ involves the like as also in (Matthew 27:35).  Again:--

My soul exulteth in Jehovah it shall be glad in His salvation. All my bones shall say, Who is like unto Thee? (Ps. 35:9, 10);

where it is evident that in the spiritual sense ”bones“ denote the own of the understanding.  Again:--

Thou shalt cause me to hear joy and gladness the bones which Thou hast bruised shall exult (Ps. 51:8);

where the ”exulting of the bones which were bruised“ signifies re-creation through truths after temptations.

[8] As ”bone“ signified the own of the understanding, that is, the own as to truth, and in the supreme sense the Divine truth which was the Lord‘s own, it was for this reason ordained as a statute of the passover that they should not break a bone of the paschal lamb; concerning which we read in Moses:--

In one house shall it be eaten thou shall not carry forth of the flesh abroad out of the house; neither shall ye break a bone thereof (Exod. 12:46).

And in another place:--

They shall not leave of it until the morning, nor break a bone thereof (Num. 9:12);

”not to break a bone,“ in the supreme sense signifies not to do violence to truth Divine; and in the representative sense, not to do violence to the truth of any good whatever; for the quality of good and the form of good are from truths, and truth is the support of good, as bones are of flesh.

[9] That the Word, which is Divine truth itself, vivifies the dead, was represented by the man reviving and standing upon his feet who when cast into the sepulchre of Elisha, touched his bones (2 Kings 13:21). Elisha represented the Lord as to truth Divine, or the Word, (n. 2762). That in the opposite sense ”bones“ signify the falsity which is from man’s own, is manifest from the following passages.  In Jeremiah:--

In that time they shall bring out the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets, and the bones of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, out of their sepulchres; and they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the army of the heavens, which they had loved, and which they had served (Jer. 8:1, 2).

In Ezekiel:--

I will lay the carcases of the sons of Israel before their idols, and I will scatter your bones round about your altars (Ezek. 6:5).

In Moses:--

God who brought him forth out of Egypt; he hath as it were the strength of a unicorn: he shall eat up the nations his enemies, and shall break their bones, and shall destroy their arrows (Num. 24:8).

In the second book of Kings:--

Josiah the king brake in pieces the pillars, and cut down the groves, and filled their place with the bones of man he took the bones out of the sepulchres, and burned them upon the altar that he might defile it he sacrificed all the priests of the high places who were there, upon the altars, and burned men‘s bones upon them (2 Kings 23:14, 16, 20).

In Moses:--

The soul that hath touched upon the surface of the field one that is slain with the sword, or one dead, or the bone of a man, or a sepulchre, shall be unclean seven days (Num. 19:16, 18).

[10] As ”bones“ signify falsities, and ”sepulchres“ the evils in which they are, and as hypocrisy is evil appearing outwardly as good, but is inwardly defiled with things false and profane, therefore the Lord says in Matthew:--

Woe unto you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites for ye make yourselves like unto whited sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outwardly, but are within full of dead men’s bones and of all uncleanness even so ye also outwardly appear righteous unto men, but within ye are full of hypocrisy and iniquity (Matthew 23:27, 28).

From these passages it is now evident that by ”bones“ is signified the own of the understanding, both as to truth and as to falsity.

AC 3813. As regards ”flesh,“ in the supreme sense it signifies, the own of the Lord‘s Divine Human, which is Divine good, and in the relative sense it signifies the own of man’s will made alive by the own of the Divine Human, that is, by His Divine good.  This own is what is called the heavenly own, which in itself is the Lord‘s alone appropriated to those who are in good, and thence in truth.  Such an own have the angels who are in the heavens, and men who as to their interiors or as to the spirit are in the Lord’s kingdom.  But in the opposite sense, ”flesh“ signifies the own of man‘s will, which in itself is nothing but evil, and not being vivified by the Lord is called ”dead,“ and thus the man himself is said to be dead.

[2] That in the supreme sense ”flesh“ is the own of the Lord’s Divine Human, thus His Divine good, is evident from the Lord‘s words in John:--

Jesus said, I am the living bread which came down from heaven if anyone eat of this bread he shall live forever and the bread that I shall give is My flesh, which I shall give for the life of the world. The Jews therefore strove one with another, saying, How can this man give us his flesh to eat? Jesus therefore said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you; he that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day; for My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed he that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, dwelleth in Me, and I in him.  This is the bread which came down from heaven (John 6:51-56, 58);

that here ”flesh“ is the own of the Lord’s Divine Human, thus the Divine good, is very evident; and this is what in the Holy Supper is called the ”body.“ That in the Holy Supper the ”body“ or ”flesh“ signifies the Divine good; and the ”blood“ the Divine truth, may be seen above (n. 1798, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3735); and because ”bread and wine“ signify the same as ”flesh and blood,“ namely, ”bread,“ the Lord‘s Divine good, and ”wine,“ His Divine truth, therefore the latter were enjoined instead of the former.  This is the reason why the Lord said, ”I am the living bread; the bread which I shall give is My flesh; he that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, abideth in Me, and I in him; this is the bread which came down from heaven.“ To eat” signifies to be communicated, to be conjoined, and to be appropriated, (n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513, 3596).

[3] The same was represented in the Jewish Church by the ordinance that Aaron, his sons, and they who sacrificed, and others who were clean, might eat the flesh of the sacrifices, and that this was holy (Exod. 12:7-9; 29:30-34; Lev. 7:15-21; 8:31; Deut. 12:27; 16:4).  If therefore an unclean person ate of that flesh, he was to be cut off from his people (Lev. 7:21). These sacrifices were called “bread,” (n. 2165). That “flesh” was called the “flesh of holiness” (Jer. 11:15; Haggai 2:12), and the “flesh of the offering which was on the tables in the Lord’s kingdom,” see (Ezek. 40:43), where the new temple is described, by which there is evidently signified the worship of the Lord in His kingdom.

[4] That in the relative sense “flesh” signifies the own of man‘s will made alive by the Lord’s Divine good, is evident also from the following passages.  In Ezekiel:--

I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit in the midst of you and I will remove the heart of stone out of their flesh, and will give them a heart of flesh (Ezek. 11:19; 36:26);

where the “heart of stone out of their flesh” denotes the will and the own not vivified and the “heart of flesh,” the will and the own vivified. The “heart” is a representative of the good of the will, (n. 2930, 3313, 3635). In David:--

0 God Thou art my God; in the morning I seek Thee; my-soul thirsteth for Thee, my flesh longeth for Thee in a dry land; and I am weary without waters (Ps. 63:1).

Again:--

My soul longeth for the courts of Jehovah my heart and my flesh cry out for joy unto the living God (Ps. 84:2).

[5] In Job:--

I have known my Redeemer, He liveth, and at the last He shall rise upon the dust; and afterwards these things shall be encompassed with my skin, and from my flesh I shall see God whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold and not another (Job 19:25-27);

to be “encompassed with skin” denotes with the natural, such as man has with him after death (n. 3539); “from the flesh to see God” denotes the own vivified; therefore he says, “whom I shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another.” As it was known to the churches that flesh signified man‘s own, and as the book of Job is a book of the Ancient Church (n. 3540), he therefore spoke concerning these things from what is significative, as concerning many other things, in accordance with the custom of that time; so that those who deduce from this passage that the dead body itself shall be collected from the four winds, and shall rise again, are not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word.  They who know the internal sense, know that they shall come into the other life with a body, but a purer one; for in the other life there are purer bodies; for they see each other, converse together, and enjoy every sense as in the present body, but in a more exquisite degree.  The body which man carries about here on earth is for uses on earth, and therefore consists of bones and flesh; and the body which the spirit carries about in the other life is designed for uses in that life, and does not consist of bones and flesh, but of things which correspond to them (n. 3726).

[6] That in the opposite sense “flesh” signifies the own of man’s will, which in itself is nothing but evil, is evident from the following passages.  In Isaiah:--

They shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm (Isa. 9:20).

Again:--

I will feed their oppressors with their own flesh and they shall be drunken with their own blood, as with new wine (Isa.  49:26).

In Jeremiah:--

I will feed them with the flesh of their sons, and the flesh of their daughters, and they shall eat everyone the flesh of his companion (Jer. 19:9).

In Zechariah:--

Let those who are left eat everyone the flesh of another (Zech. 11:9).

In Moses:--

I will chastise you seven   times for your sins; and ye shall eat the flesh of your sons; and the flesh of your daughters shall ye eat (Lev. 26:28, 29).

The own of man‘s will, that is, the nature of man, is thus described, for this is nothing else than evil and the derivative falsity; thus is hatred against truths and goods, which is signified by “eating the flesh of his arm, the flesh of sons and daughters, and the flesh of a companion.”

[7] In John:--

I saw an angel standing in the sun and he cried with a great voice, saying to all the birds that By in the midst of heaven, Come and gather yourselves together to the supper of the great God, that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of mighty men, and the flesh of horses and of them that sit thereon, and the flesh of all both free and bond, both small and great (Rev. 19:17, 18; Ezek. 39:17-20);

that here by the “flesh of kings, of captains, of mighty men, of horses and of those that sit upon them, of all, both free and bond,” are not signified such things as these, must be evident to everyone; thus that by “flesh” are signified other things which have hitherto been unknown.  That evils which are from falsities, and evils from which are falsities, both from the own of man’s will, are signified, is manifest from the several expressions.

[8] As in the internal sense the falsity which results from the own of man‘s understanding is “blood;” and as the evil which results from the own of his will is “flesh,” therefore the Lord speaks as follows concerning the man who is to be regenerated:--

As many as received, to them gave He power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe in His name who were born, not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God (John 1:12, 13).

Hence it is that by “flesh” in general is meant every man (n. 574, 1050); for whether you say man, or man’s own, it is the same thing.

[9] That by “flesh” in the supreme sense is signified the Lord‘s Divine Human, is manifest from the passage above quoted, and also from this in John:--

The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father (John 1:14).

From this “flesh” all flesh is vivified, that is to say, every man is vivified from the Lord’s Divine Human by the appropriation of His love, which appropriation is signified by “eating the flesh of the Son of man” (John 6:51-58), and by “eating the bread” in the Holy Supper; for the “bread” is the “body” or “flesh” (Matt. 26:26, 27).

AC 3814. And he dwelt with him a month of days.  That this signifies a new state of life, is evident from the signification of “dwelling,” as being life (n. 1293, 3384, 3613); and from the signification of a “month of days,” as being a new state. All “times” denote states, (n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3404); and therefore so do “years, ”months,“ and ”days;“ but the quality of the states signified is evident from the numbers affixed). But when a ”year,“ ”month,“ or ”day“ is mentioned in the singular number, it signifies an entire state; thus the end of the preceding and the beginning of the subsequent state, as has been shown above throughout the explications.  Here therefore by a ”month“ is signified the end of the preceding and the beginning of the subsequent state, thus a new state, as also in other parts of the Word.  As in Isaiah:--

At last it shall come to pass from month to its month, and from sabbath to sabbath, all flesh shall come to bow themselves down before Me, saith Jehovah (Isa. 66:23).

In John:--

He showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, going forth from the throne of God and of the Lamb. In the midst of the street of it, and of the river, on this side and on that, was the tree of life, bearing twelve fruit, yielding its fruit every month (Rev. 22:1, 2);

”yielding its fruit every month“ signifies a state ever new, in regard to the reception of good, and the practice thence resulting.

[2] In Moses:--

Number the sons of Levi by their fathers‘ house and by their families, every male from a month old and upward thou shalt number them.  Number every firstborn male of the sons of Israel, from the son of a month and upward, and take the number of their names (Num. 3:15, 40);

it was because the end of a preceding and the beginning of a subsequent state (that is, a new state), was signified by a ”month,“ that it was commanded that their numbering should be ”from the son of a month and upward.“ Again:--

If thou seest among the captives a woman beautiful in form, and thou hast a desire unto her, and wouldest take her to thee to wife, she shall put the raiment of her captivity from off her, and shall sit in thy house, and bewail her father and her mother a month of days, and after that thou shalt go in unto her, and shalt know her; and she shall be unto thee for a wife (Deut. 21:11, 13);

where a ”month of days“ plainly denotes the end of a preceding, and the beginning of a subsequent or new state.

AC 3815. And Laban said unto Jacob, Because thou art my brother.  That this signifies because they have blood relationship from good, is evident from the representation of Laban, as being the collateral good of a common stock; and from the representation of Jacob, as being the good of the natural; and from the signification of ”brother,“ as being good (n. 3803); here consanguineous good, because it is said by Laban to Jacob, consequently by good to good.  Moreover all blood relationship derives its origin from good, for good is of love.  The nearest degree of love in the descending line is called blood relationship, and is understood in the proper sense by ”brother.“ That in the spiritual world, or in heaven, no other consanguinities and affinities exist than those of love to the Lord and of love toward the neighbor, or what is the same, of good, has been made manifest to me by the fact that all the societies which constitute heaven, and which are innumerable, are perfectly distinguished from one another, in accordance with the degrees and differences of love, and thence of the derivative faith (n. 685, 917, 2739, 3612); and also from the fact that they recognize each other, not from any relationship that had existed in the life of the body; but solely from good and the derivative truth.  A father does not recognize a son or a daughter, nor a brother a brother or sister, nor even a husband a wife, unless they have been in similar good.  They indeed meet when they first come into the other life, but are soon dissociated; for good itself, or love and charity, determines and assigns everyone to his own society. The blood relationship commences in the society in which each person is; and from this proceed the other relationships, even to the circumferences.

AC 3816. Shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought?  Tell me, what shall be thy reward?  That this signifies that there must be a means of conjunction, is evident from the signification of ”serving for nought,“ as being without any obligation; and from the signification of ”reward“ as being a means of conjunction.  ”Reward“ is occasionally mentioned in the Word, and in the internal sense signifies nothing else than a means of conjunction. The reason is that the angels are utterly unwilling to hear anything about a reward, as being on account of anything in them; nay, they are utterly averse to the idea of reward for any good or good action; for they know that with everyone that which is his own is nothing but evil, and that therefore whatever they do from their own would be attended with that which is contrary to reward; and that all good is from the Lord, and flows in, and this solely from mercy; thus that that is not from themselves for which they would think of reward.  In fact good itself becomes not good when reward for it is thought of, for then a selfish end instantly adjoins itself, and in so far as this is the case, it induces a denial that the good is from the Lord, and from mercy; consequently so far it removes the influx, and of course so far removes from itself heaven and the bliss which are in good and its affection.  The affection of good (that is, love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor) has bliss and happiness within it; these being within the affection and love itself.  To do anything from affection and its bliss and to do it at the same time for the sake of reward, are things diametrically opposed to each other. Hence it is that when ”reward“ is mentioned in the Word, the angels do not perceive anything of reward, but that which is bestowed gratis and of mercy by the Lord.

[2] Nevertheless reward is of service as a means of conjunction with those who have not yet been initiated; for they who are not as yet initiated in good and its affections (that is, who are not yet fully regenerated) cannot do otherwise than think about reward, because the good which they do, they do not from the affection of good, but from the affection of bliss and happiness for the sake of self; and at the same time from the fear of hell.  But when a man is being regenerated, this is inverted and becomes the affection of good, and then he no longer looks to reward.

[3] This may be illustrated by what passes in civic life: he who loves his country, and has such an affection toward it as to find a pleasure in promoting its good from good will, would lament if this should be denied him, and would entreat that there might he granted the opportunity to do good to it; for this is the object of his affection, consequently the source of his pleasure and bliss.  Such a one is also honored, and is exalted to posts of dignity; for to him these are means of serving his country, although they are called rewards.  But those who have no affection for their country, but only an affection of self and the world, are moved to take action for the sake of honors and wealth, which also they regard as the ends.  Such persons set themselves before their country (that is, their own good before the common good), and are relatively sordid; and yet they more than all others are desirous to make it appear that they do what they do from a sincere love.  But when they think privately about it, they deny that anyone does this, and marvel that anyone can. They who are such in the life of the body with regard to their country, or the public good, are such also in the other life with regard to the Lord’s kingdom, for everyone‘s affection or love follows him, because affection or love is the life of everyone.

AC 3817. Verses 16, 17. And Laban had two daughters, the name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel.  And Leah’s eyes were weak, and Rachel was beautiful in form and beautiful in look.  ”And Laban had two daughters,“ signifies the affections of truth from the good which is from a common stock; ”the name of the elder was Leah,“ signifies the affection of external truth with its quality; ”and the name of the younger was Rachel,“ signifies the affection of internal truth with its quality; ”and Leah‘s eyes were weak,“ signifies that the affection of external truth is such in regard to the understanding of it; ”and Rachel was beautiful in form and beautiful in look,“ signifies that the affection of internal truth is such in regard to what is spiritual.

AC 3818. And Laban had two daughters.  That this signifies the affections of truth from the good which is from a common stock, is evident from the representation of Laban, as being the good of a common stock, but collaterally descended (n. 3612, 3665, 3778); and from the signification of ”daughters,“ as being affections (n. 2362), in the present case the affections of truth from the good which is ”Laban“ (n. 3793).

AC 3819. The name of the elder was Leah.  That this signifies the affection of external truth with its quality; and that the name of the younger was Rachel signifies the affection of internal truth with its quality, is evident from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth; and of Rachel, as being the affection of internal truth (n. 3793); and from the signification of ”name,“ as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006).  Leah is called the ”elder“ because external truth is first learned, and Rachel is called the ”younger“ because internal truth is learned afterwards, or what is the same, man is first affected with external truths, and afterwards with internal ones; for external truths are the planes of internal ones, being generals into which singulars   are insinuated; for without a general idea of a thing man comprehends nothing that is singular.  This is the reason why in the literal sense of the Word there are general, but in the internal sense singular, truths.  The former are those called external truths; but the latter internal ones; and as truths without affection are not truths, because of no life, therefore when mention is made of external and internal truths, the affections of them are understood.

AC 3820. And Leah’s eyes were weak.  That this signifies that the affection of external truth is such in regard to the understanding of it, is evident from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth (n. 3793); from the signification of ”eyes,“ as being the understanding (n. 2701); and from the signification of ”weak,“ as being relatively such.  That the affections of external truth are weak in regard to the understanding; or what is the same, that they who are in them are so, may be seen from external, that is, general, ideas that are not yet illustrated by singulars, in that they are infirm and wavering, and are as it were carried away by every breath of wind, or in other words, suffer themselves to be drawn over to every opinion; whereas when the same have been illustrated by singulars, they become firm and steadfast, for from these they have the things both essential and formal which are signified by the ”beautiful form and beautiful look of Rachel,“ by whom are represented the affections of interior truth.

[2] What is meant by external truths and their affections, and by internal truths and their affections, and by the former being relatively weak-eyed, and the latter beautiful in form and look, may be illustrated by an example.  They who are in external truths know the mere general truth that good is to be done to the poor; and they do not know how to discern who are truly poor, and still less that by the ”poor“ in the Word are meant those who are spiritually so.  In consequence of this, they do good alike to the evil and the good, not being aware that doing good to the evil is doing evil to the good, for thus there is given the evil the means of doing evil to the good; and therefore they who are in such simple zeal are subject to the greatest infestations from the cunning and deceitful.  They on the contrary who are in internal truths know who are the poor, and discriminate among them, and do good to everyone according to his quality.

[3] To take another example: they who are in external truths know the mere general truth that they ought to love their neighbor; and they believe that everyone is the neighbor in the same degree, and thus that everyone is to be embraced with the same love, and so they suffer themselves to be led astray.  But they who are in internal truths know in what degree everyone is the neighbor, and that each person is so in a different degree.  Consequently they know innumerable things of which those who are in external truths are ignorant; and therefore they do not suffer themselves to be led away by the mere name of neighbor, nor to do evil from the persuasion of good which the name induces.

[4] To take yet another example: they who are in external truths alone, suppose that in the other life the learned will shine like the stars; and that all who have labored in the Lord‘s vineyard will receive a reward above others.  But they who are in internal truths know that by the ”learned,“ the ”wise,“ and the ”intelligent,“ are signified those who are in good, whether they be in any human wisdom and intelligence or not, and that these shall shine as the stars and that they who labor in the Lord’s vineyard receive a reward each in accordance with the affection of good and truth from which he labors; and that they who labor for the sake of themselves and the world, that is, for the sake of self-exaltation and opulence, have their reward in the life of the body; but in the other life have their lot with the wicked (Matt. 7:22, 23).  Hence it is manifest how weak in understanding are they who are only in external truths; and that internal truths are what give to these essence and form, and also give quality to the good with them.  Nevertheless they who during their life in this world are in external truths and at the same time in simple good, in the other life receive internal truths and the consequent wisdom; for from simple good they are in a state and capacity of reception.

AC 3821. And Rachel was beautiful in form and beautiful in look.  That this signifies that the affection of interior truth is such in regard to what is spiritual, is evident from what has just now been said above.  By ”form“ is signified essence; and by ”look“ the derivative beauty.

AC 3822. Verses 18-20. And Jacob loved Rachel; and he said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter. And Laban said, It is better that I should give her to thee than give her to another man; abide with me.  And Jacob served seven years for Rachel, and they were in his eyes as a few days for the love he had to her.  ”And Jacob loved Rachel,“ signifies the love of good toward internal truth; ”and he said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter,“ signifies study, and at the same time a holy state, in order to be conjoined with internal truth; ”and Laban said, It is better that I should give her to thee than give her to another man; abide with me,“ signifies a means of conjunction through interior truth with that good; ”and Jacob served seven years for Rachel,“ signifies the accomplishment; ”and they were in his eyes as a few days, for the love he had to her,“ signifies a state of love.

AC 3823. And Jacob loved Rachel.  That this signifies the love of good toward internal truth, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the good of the natural (n. 3599, 3659, 3775); and from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of internal truth (n. 3793, 3819); in the present case internal truth about to be conjoined with the good of the natural, with a view to which conjunction there was love.

AC 3824. And he said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter.  That this signifies study, and at the same time a holy state, in order to be conjoined with internal truth, is evident from the signification of ”serving,“ as being study; and from the signification of ”seven,“ as being that which is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 881); and from the signification of ”years,“ as being states (n. 487, 488, 493, 893); that this was in order to conjunction is evident. Hence it is manifest that by ”I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter,“ signifies study, and at the same time a holy state in order to be conjoined with internal truth.  Internal truths are said to be conjoined with the natural when they are learned, acknowledged, and believed.  In the natural of man, that is, in the memory of this man, there are truths both external and internal, and they are there in the form of memorized doctrinal things; but they have not been conjoined until the man is affected with them for the sake of the use of life, that is, until they are loved for the sake of life; for then good is coupled with them, whereby they are conjoined with the rational, consequently with the internal man. Icy this way there is an influx of life into them from the Lord.

AC 3825. And Laban said, It is better that I should give her to thee than give her to another man; abide with me.  That this signifies a means of conjunction through interior truth with that good, is evident from the signification of ”reward,“ in regard to which the reply and affirmation are made in these words, as being a means of conjunction (n. 3816).  That ”Rachel,“ who is here meant by ”her,“ is interior truth; and that ”Jacob,“ who is here meant by ”thee,“ is good, has been shown above.  In regard to the conjunction of the good which is ”Jacob,“ with the good which is ”Laban,“ by means of interior truth which is ”Rachel,“ this is an arcanum which cannot easily be described to the apprehension for in the first place there must be a clear idea of each good, and also of the affection of interior truth.  Moreover the understanding of every subject is according to the ideas; being none if there is no idea; obscure if the idea is obscure perverted if the idea is perverted; and clear if the idea is clear.  It is also according to the affections, by which the idea, even if clear, is varied.  We shall merely state that in every man who is being regenerated the good of his natural, such as is here represented by Jacob, is conjoined first with good such as is here represented by Laban, through the affection of interior truth which is here represented by Rachel, and afterwards with the good of the rational and the truth thereof, which are Isaac and Rebekah.  By means of this first conjunction, a man is in a state capable of receiving the internal or spiritual truths which are the means of the conjunction of the natural with the rational; that is, of the external man with the internal.

AC 3826. And Jacob served for Rachel seven years.  That this signifies the accomplishment, is evident from the signification of these words, as being study and at the same time a holy state in order to be conjoined with internal truth (n. 3824). That here they signify the accomplishment of this thing, is evident.

AC 3827.  And they were in his eyes as a few days, for the love he had to her.  That this signifies a state of love, namely, that it was free from tedium, is evident from the signification of ”to be in his eyes,“ as being to so appear; and from the signification of ”days,“ as being states (n. 893, 2788, 3462, 3785). Hence, ”as a few days for the love he had to her,“ denotes a state of love.  When man is in a state of love, or of celestial affection, he is in an angelic state, that is to say, as if not in time, provided there is no impatience in the affection; for impatience is a corporeal affection, and in so far as man is in it, so far he is in time; but in so far as man is not in it, so far he is not in time. This appears in a kind of image from all the delights and gladnesses that belong to affection or love, in that when man is in them, he takes no note of time, for he is then in the internal man.  By the affection of genuine love man is withdrawn from bodily and worldly things, for his mind is elevated toward heaven, and thus is withdrawn from the things of time.  The reason why time appears to be something is that we reflect upon things that do not belong to the affection or love, thus which are tedious.  From this we can see what is signified by the seven years being in his eyes as a few days for the love he had to her.

AC 3828. Verses 21-24. And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my woman, for my days are fulfilled, and I will come to her. And Laban gathered together all the men of the place, and made a feast. And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him, and he came to her. And Laban gave her Zilpah his handmaid, unto his daughter Leah for a handmaid.  ”And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my woman,“ signifies that from general good there was now conjunction with the affection of interior truth; ”for my days are fulfilled, and I will come to her,“ signifies that now was the state in question; ”and Laban gathered together all the men of the place,“ signifies all the truths of that state; ”and made a feast,“ initiation; ”and it came to pass in the evening,“ signifies the state as yet obscure; ”that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him, and he came to her,“ signifies that as yet there was conjunction only with the affection of external truth; ”and Laban gave her Zilpah his handmaid, unto his daughter Leah for a handmaid,“ signifies the external affections or external bonds which are subservient means.

AC 3829. And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my woman.   That this signifies that from general good there was now conjunction with the affection of interior truth, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the good of the natural in the present case general good, because the things of the natural are relatively general, there being innumerable things which flow from the internal man into the natural or external man which appear in this latter as one general thing, and still more so before the particulars of the generals have been received, as in the present case.  For this reason the good which is represented by Jacob is now called general good.  That conjunction with the affection of interior truth is signified, is manifest, for Rachel, who is here called ”my woman,“ represents the affection of interior truth, as before shown.

AC 3830. For my days are fulfilled, that I may come to her. That this signifies that now was the state in question, is evident from the signification of ”days,“ as being states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785).  That by ”my days are fulfilled, that I may come to her,“ is signified that this was now the state in question, is manifest without explication.

AC 3831.  And Laban gathered together all the men of the place. That this signifies all the truths of that state, is evident from the signification of ”men (vir),“ as being truths (n. 3134); and from the signification of ”place,“ as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387).

AC 3832. And made a feast.  That this signifies initiation, is evident from the signification of a ”feast,“ as being appropriation and conjunction (n. 3596); in the present case initiation, because initiation precedes conjunction, and likewise pledges and attests it.  The feasts made in old times among those who were in significatives and representatives, signified nothing else than initiation into the mutual love which is of charity.  The nuptial feasts also signified initiation into conjugial love; and the holy feasts, initiation into spiritual and celestial love; and this because feasting, or eating and drinking, signified appropriation and conjunction (n. 3734). Because of this signification the Lord also said with the same meaning:--

Many shall come from the east and the west, and shall sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 8:11).

And in another place, to His disciples:--

That ye may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom (Luke 22:30).

And when He instituted the Holy Supper, He said:--

I say unto you, that I will not drink henceforth of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I shall drink it new with you in My Father‘s kingdom (Matt. 26:29).

Everyone may see that by ”sitting, in the Lord’s kingdom,“ is not signified sitting down, eating, and drinking; but something which exists in that kingdom, and is the appropriation of the good of love and the truth of faith; thus it signifies that which is called spiritual and celestial food.  It is also manifest from the above words that there is an internal sense in all that the Lord spoke, and that without understanding this it cannot be known what it is to sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to eat and drink in the Lord‘s kingdom at His table, and to drink with them of the fruit of that vine in the kingdom of His Father; nay, neither can it he known what is meant by eating bread and drinking wine in the Holy Supper.

AC 3833. And it came to pass in the evening.  That this signifies the state as yet obscure, is evident from the signification of ”evening,“ as being an obscure state (n. 3056).  Among the ancients, who were in congruent rituals, the feasts that were made in the evening, that is, the suppers, signified nothing else than the state of initiation which precedes conjunction, which state relatively to the state of conjunction is obscure. For during man’s initiation into truth and thence into good, all that he learns is obscure to him; but when good is being conjoined with him, and he regards truth therefrom, it then becomes clear to him, and this successively more and more; for now he is no longer in doubt as to whether a thing exists, or whether it is so; but he knows that it exists, and that it is so.

[2] When man is in this state, he then begins to know innumerable things, for he now proceeds from the good and truth which he believes and perceives as from a center to the circumferences and in proportion as he proceeds, in the same proportion he sees the things which are round about, and successively more and more widely, for he is constantly pushing out and widening the boundaries. Thenceforth also he commences from every subject in the space within the boundaries; and from these as from new centers he throws out new circumferences, and so on.  In this way the light of truth from good increases immeasurably, and becomes like a continuous lucidity, for the man is then in the light of heaven, which is from the Lord. But with those who are in doubt and in discussion as to whether a thing exists, and whether it is so, these innumerable, nay, illimitable things do not appear one whit; to them all things in both general and particular are utterly obscure, and are scarcely regarded as one really existing thing, but rather as one thing the existence of which is doubtful.  In such a state is human wisdom and intelligence at this day, when he is deemed wise who can reason with ingenuity as to whether a thing exists; and he is deemed still wiser who can reason that it does not exist.

[3] For example take the proposition that there is an internal sense of the Word, which is called mystical:  until this is believed, it is impossible for men to know the least of the innumerable things which are in the internal sense, and which are so many as to fill the whole heaven with an infinite variety.  Another example is that the man who reasons concerning the Divine Providence, as to whether it is only universal, and not in the singulars, cannot possibly know the innumerable arcana of Providence, which are as many in number as are the contingencies of everyone‘s life from first to last, and from the creation of the world to its end; nay, even to eternity.  Again: he who reasons as to whether it is possible for anyone to be in good, seeing that the will of man is radically depraved, can never know all the arcana relating to regeneration, nor even that a new will is implanted by the Lord, nor the arcana relating to this implantation; and so with everything else. From this it may be known in what obscurity such persons are, and that they do not even see, much less touch, the first threshold of wisdom.

AC 3834. That he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him, and he came to her.  That this signifies that as yet there was conjunction only with the affection of external truth, is evident from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth (n. 3793, 3819).  That ”to bring her to him“ signifies conjunction such as that which is conjugial, is manifest.  The case herein is this:  The man who is in the affection of internal truth, that is, in the desire to know the interior arcana of the Lord’s kingdom, has not at first these arcana conjoined with him, even although he knows them, and at times acknowledges, and as it were believes them, for as yet there are present with him worldly and corporeal affections, which cause him to indeed receive and as it were believe these arcana; but in so far as these affections are present, so far the interior truths in question cannot he conjoined.  It is only the affection of truth from good, and the affection of good, that applies these arcana to itself; and in so far as man is in these affections, so far interior truths are conjoined with him, for truths are the vessels that receive good.

[2] The Lord also provides that celestial and spiritual truths (such as are all interior truths) should not be conjoined with any other affections than genuine ones.  For this reason the general affection of truth from good precedes, and the truths that are insinuated therein are nothing but general truths.  The states of truth are altogether in accordance with the states of good, that is, the states of faith with the states of charity.  For example: it is possible for the wicked to know that the Lord rules the universal heaven, and also that heaven is mutual love and love to the Lord; also that by such love those who are there have conjunction with the Lord, and wisdom, and likewise happiness; nay, it is possible for them to be in the persuasion that it is so; and yet the truth of faith may not be conjoined with them, and still less the good of love.  From the life it is known whether these have been conjoined, just as a tree is known by its fruit.  The case in respect to this is like that of grapes in which there are no stones, and which, when buried in earth however fertile, dissolve into mere mold; or like that of an ignis fatuus in the night, which is dissipated as soon as the sun rises.  But of the Lord‘s Divine mercy more on this subject hereafter.

AC 3835. And Laban gave her Zilpah his handmaid, unto his daughter Leah for a handmaid.  That this signifies the external affections, or external bonds, which are subservient means, is evident from the signification of a ”handmaid,“ as being the external affections (n. 1895, 2567).  That ”Laban gave her“ signifies that they are from the collateral good of a common stock, for this is the origin of such affections.  They are called external bonds, because all affections are bonds (n. 1077, 1080, 1835, 1944), for nothing holds man in bonds except his affection.  The affection of each man does not indeed appear to him as a bond, yet still it is so called because it rules him, and keeps him bound to it.  Internal affections however are called internal bonds, the affections of truth and of good being called the bonds of conscience.  To these correspond external bonds or external affections, for every internal has a corresponding external.  As the man who is being regenerated is introduced to internal things by means of external ones, and as this state of introduction is here treated of, therefore it is here said that Laban’s handmaid was given to his daughter Leah for a handmaid, by which is signified that such affections were given as serve as the means of introduction.  That these affections were the most external ones, such as are those called the affections of the body, is evident from the fact that Leah represents the affections of external truth.  But on this subject also, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy more elsewhere.

AC 3836. Verses 25, 26. And it came to pass in the morning that behold it was Leah; and he said unto Laban, What is this that thou hast done unto me? Did not I serve with thee for Rachel? and why hast thou defrauded me? And Laban said, It is not so done in our place, to give the younger before the firstborn.  ”And it came to pass in the morning,“ signifies enlightenment in that state; ”that behold it was Leah,“ signifies that there was conjunction with external truth; ”and he said unto Laban, What is this that thou hast done unto me?“ signifies indignation; ”did not I serve with thee for Rachel?“ signifies that there had been study for the affection of internal truth; ”and why hast thou defrauded me?“ signifies greater indignation; ”and Laban said, It is not so done in our place,“ signifies that the state is not such; ”to give the younger before the firstborn,“ signifies that the affection of interior truth should precede the affection of external truth.

AC 3837. And it came to pass in the morning.  That this signifies enlightenment in that state, is evident from the signification of ”morning,“ as being enlightenment (n. 3458, 3723); and as all times signify states (n. 2625, 2788, 2837, 3356), so also does ”morning-tide“ or ”morning.“ The enlightenment has reference to what presently follows, namely, that he acknowledged that there was conjunction with external truth only.

AC 3838. That behold it was Leah.  That this signifies that there was conjunction with external truth, is evident from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth (n. 3793, 3819).  That these words signify conjunction with this affection is evident, because it was Leah who was given for a woman, instead of Rachel.  What this involves is evident from what has been already said concerning conjunction with external truths previous to conjunction with internal truths (n. 3834), and from what will be said below (n. 3843).

AC 3839. And he said unto Laban, What is this that thou hast done unto me? That this signifies indignation, is evident from the affection in these words, and in those which follow.  It is evident that it is an affection of indignation which according to the historical series falls into these words.  There are two things which constitute the internal sense of the Word, namely, affections and actual things; the affections that lie hidden in the expressions of the Word are not manifest to man, but are stored up in its inmost recesses; nor can they be made manifest to him, because during his life in the body he is in worldly and corporeal affections, which have nothing in common with the affections in the internal sense of the Word; these latter being affections of spiritual and celestial love, which man is the less capable of perceiving because there are few who are in them, and these few are mostly simple persons, who are not able to reflect upon their affections, while all the rest do not even know what genuine affection is.  These spiritual and celestial affections are contained in charity toward the neighbor, and in love to God.  Those who are not in them believe that they are not anything, when yet they fill the whole heaven, and this with unspeakable variety.  Such affections together with their varieties are what are stored up in the internal sense of the Word, and are there, not only in each series, but also in each expression, nay, in each syllable, and they shine forth before the angels when the Word is being read by those who are in simple good and who are at the same time in innocence; and this, as before said, with unlimited variety.

[2] There are principally two kinds of affections which shine forth from the Word before the angels, namely, affections of truth and affections of good--affections of truth before the spiritual angels, and affections of good before the celestial angels.  Affections of good, which are of love to the Lord, are altogether unutterable to man, and are therefore incomprehensible; but affections of truth, which are of mutual love, may in some measure be comprehended as to what is most general, yet only by those who are in genuine mutual love, and this not from any internal perception, but from such as is obscure.

[3] For example, in regard to the affection of indignation, which is here treated of whoever does not know what the affection of charity is, in consequence of not being in it, can have no other idea than of such indignation as a man has when anything evil is done to him, which is the indignation of anger.  The angels however have no such indignation, but an indignation altogether different, which is not of anger, but of zeal, in which there is nothing of evil, and which is as far removed from hatred or revenge, or from the spirit of returning evil for evil, as heaven is from hell; for it springs from good. But as before said the nature of this indignation cannot be expressed by any words.

[4] The case is similar in regard to the other affections which are from good and truth, and which are of good and truth, as is also evident from the fact that the angels are solely in ends, and in the uses of ends (n. 1317, 1645, 3645). Ends are nothing else than loves or affections (n. 1317, 1568, 1571, 1909, 3425, 3796); for what a man loves, that he regards as an end. And this being the case, the angels are in the affections of the things that are in the Word; and this with all variety, according to the kinds of affections in which the angels are. From this it is sufficiently evident how holy the Word is; for in the Divine love, that is, in the love which is from the Divine, there is holiness, and therefore in the things contained in the Word.

AC 3840. Did not I serve with thee for Rachel?  That this signifies that there had been study for the affection of internal truth, is evident from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of internal truth (n. 3758, 3782, 3793, 3819); and from the signification of ”serving,“ as being study (n. 3824).

AC 3841. And why hast thou defrauded me?  That this signifies greater indignation, is evident from what has just been said (n. 3839).

AC 3842. And Laban said, It is not so done in our place.  That this signifies that the state is not such, is evident from the signification of ”place,“ as being state (n. 1273-1275, 1377, 2025, 2837, 3356, 3387).  From this it is evident that the expression, it is not so done in our place,” signifies that the state is not such.

AC 3843. To give the younger before the firstborn.  That this signifies that the affection of interior truth should precede the affection of external truth, is evident from the representation of Rachel, who is here the younger,“ as being the affection of interior truth (n. 3758, 3782, 3793, 3819); and from the representation of Leah, who is here the firstborn,” as being the affection of external truth (n. 3793, 3819).  From this it is evident that “to give the younger before the firstborn” signifies that the affection of interior truth should precede the affection of external truth.  How the case herein is was briefly explained above (n. 3834); and may be further seen from the following.  He who knows not the state of man, may believe that there is conjunction with truths not only external but also internal when he is acquainted with both kinds, or has both in his memory.  Nevertheless there is no conjunction until the man lives according to them, for the life shows the conjunction.

[2] Truth is in this respect like everything else that is implanted in man from childhood, namely, that it does not become his own until he acts according to it, and this from affection, in which case his will becomes imbued with it, and it is then no longer brought into act from memory-knowledge or doctrine, but from a certain delight that is unknown to him; and as it were from his disposition or nature; for everyone acquires for himself such a nature by frequent use or habit, and this from the things which he has learned.  Therefore conjunction with truths cannot take place with a man until those things which he has learned by means of doctrines have been insinuated from the external man into the interior man. When they are in the interior man, the man no longer acts from the memory, but from his own nature, until at last the things thus insinuated flow spontaneously into act, being inscribed on the man’s interior memory; and that which comes forth from this, appears as if it were innate.  This may be seen from the languages a man has learned in childhood, and also from the faculty of reasoning, and likewise from conscience.  Hence it is manifest that truths of doctrine, even those which are interior, are not conjoined with a man until they are of the life.  But concerning these matters, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy more shall be said elsewhere.

AC 3844. Verses 27-30. Fulfill this week, and we will give thee her also, for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.  And Jacob did so, and fulfilled this week, and he gave him Rachel his daughter for a woman.  And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be to her for a handmaid.  And he came also unto Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah, and served with him yet seven other years.  “Fulfill this week,” signifies a succession of the study; “and we will give thee her also, for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years,” signifies that then there would be a full state of study; “and Jacob did so, and fulfilled this week,” signifies the effect of this; “and he gave him Rachel his daughter for a woman,” signifies now the conjunction of good with the affection of interior truth; “and Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be to her for a handmaid,” signifies the exterior affections which are the bonds or subservient means; “and he came also unto Rachel,” signifies conjunction with the affection of internal truth; “and he loved also Rachel more than Leah,” signifies the love of internal truth more than of external truth; “and served with him yet seven other years,” signifies holy study.

AC 3845. Fulfill this week.  That this signifies a further succession of study, is evident from the signification of “fulfilling,” as here being to serve or fulfill by serving, thus study (n. 3824); and from the signification of a “week,” as being a state and also an entire period (n. 728, 2044) in the present case therefore a subsequent state and period, consequently what is successive.  In regard to the signification of a “week,” this is the same as with the signification of a “month” (n. 3814), namely, that when it is mentioned in the singular number, it signifies the end of a former and the beginning of a subsequent state, thus a new state, to “fulfill” which is to proceed from the beginning to the end.  The reason why a “week,” like all times specifically, signifies a state and also a period, is that all states have also their periods, that is; their beginning, successive progress, and end; yet in the other life these are not perceived as times, but as states and their revolutions.  It is here very evident what the ancients understood by a week, namely, in a proper sense, every period that was distinguished into seven, whether it was of days, or of years, or of ages; thus whether it was great or small.  That here it is a period of seven years is manifest; and as with the ancients seven signified that which is holy (n. 84-87, 395, 433, 716, 881), a “week” signified a holy period, and also the holiness of a period.

AC 3846. And we will give thee her also, for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years.  That this signifies that then there would be a full state of study, is evident from the signification of “service” and of “serving,” as being study (n. 3824); and from the signification of“ seven years,” as being the same as a “week,” namely, a state and an entire period, as above (n. 3845) thus a full state, which is also holy (n. 3824).  This expression, “we will give thee her also,” signifies that then there would he conjunction with the affection of internal truth.  The reason why in the internal sense “serving” is study, is that the labor of the external man is study in the internal man.  Hence study is called a labor of the mind.

AC 3847. And Jacob did so, and fulfilled this week.  That this signifies the effect of this, is evident from the signification of “fulfilling a week,” as being a succession of the study (n. 3845); and that the effect of this is here meant, is manifest.

AC 3848. And he gave him Rachel his daughter for a woman. That this signifies now the conjunction of good with the affection of interior truth, is evident from the representation of Jacob as being the good of the natural, as already shown; and from the representation of Rachel as being the affection of interior truth, as also before shown: that “giving her for a woman” signifies conjunction, is manifest.  As all the conjunction of good with truth at first apparently proceeds from exteriors to interiors in order, and at last to inmosts, therefore it is here said the affection of interior truth, for the affection itself which is of truth, flows in from good.  The conjunction of good with the affection of internal truth takes place for the first time when the good of the natural is being conjoined with rational truth, and through this with rational good.  This conjunction is represented by Jacob after the birth of his twelve sons, when he returned to the house of his mother and father, concerning which hereafter.

AC 3849. And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be to her for a handmaid.  That this signifies the exterior affections, which are the bonds or subservient means, is evident from what was said above (n. 3835).  The reason why by “Bilhah” the handmaid of Rachel are signified exterior affections; and by “ Zilpah” the handmaid of Leah, external affections, is that by Rachel is represented the affection of internal truth, and by Leah the affection of external truth.  Exterior affections are natural affections which are subservient to internal ones.  The reason why these exterior affections are means serviceable to the conjunction of truth with good, is that nothing which is of doctrine, and indeed nothing which is of memory-knowledge, can enter into man, save by means of affections; for in affections there is life, but not in the truths of doctrine and of memory-knowledge without affections.  That this is the case is very plain; for a man cannot even think, nor so much as utter a syllable, without affection.  He who pays attention to the matter will perceive that a voice without affection is like the voice of an automaton, and thus is but a lifeless sound; and that in proportion to the amount and the quality of the affection therein, such is the amount and the quality of the life in it.  This shows what truths are without good; and that the affection is in the truths from the good.

[2] He who pays attention may also know, from the nature of man’s understanding, that it is no understanding unless the will is in it; the life of the understanding being from the will.  This again shows what truths without good are, namely, that they are no truths at all; and that truths derive their life from good; for truths belong to man‘s intellectual part, and good to his will part.  From all this anyone can judge what faith (which is of truth) is without charity, which is of good; and that the truths of faith without the good of charity are dead; for as before said the amount and the quality of the affection in truths, determine the amount and the quality of the life in them.  But that truths nevertheless appear animated, even when there is no good of charity, is from the affections of the love of self and the love of the world, which have no life, except that which in the spiritual sense is called death, that is, infernal life.  It is said affection, and thereby is meant that which is continuous of love.

[3] From all this we can see that affections are means subservient to the conjunction of truth with good; and that affections are what introduce truths, and also dispose them into order--genuine affections, which are of love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor, into heavenly order; but evil affections, which are of the love of self and the love of the world, into infernal order; that is, into the opposite of heavenly order.

[4] The most external affections are those of the body, and are called appetites and pleasures; the next interior affections are those of the natural mind, and are called natural affections but the internal affections are those of the rational mind, and are called spiritual affections.  To these last--spiritual affections of the mind--doctrinal truths are introduced by means of exterior and most external, or natural and bodily affections.  Hence these affections are subservient means, and are signified by the handmaids given by Laban to Rachel and to Leah.  Their being called “Laban’s” handmaids, signifies that they derived their origin from the good which is represented by Laban, which good has been described above.  For the truths that are first learned cannot be at first insinuated by means of any other affections than these; genuine affections come in course of time, but not until the man acts from good.

AC 3850. And he came also unto Rachel.  That this signifies conjunction with the affection of internal truth, is evident from the signification of “coming to,” as being to be conjoined; and from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of internal truth; concerning which above.

AC 3851. And he loved also Rachel more than Leah.  That this signifies the love of internal truth more than of external truth, is evident from the representation of Rachel and of Leah; Rachel being internal truth, and Leah external truth. What internal truth is, and what external truth, see (n. 3820).

AC 3852. And served with him yet seven other years.  That this signifies holy study is evident from the signification of “serving,” as being study (n. 3824, 3846), and from the signification of “seven,” as being what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 881, 3824).  That is called holy study through which internal truths are conjoined with good, for all internal truths look to the Lord, and are conjoined through love to Him, this love being holiness itself.

AC 3853. Verse 31. And Jehovah saw that Leah was hated, and He opened her womb, and Rachel was barren.  “And Jehovah saw,” signifies the Lord‘s foresight and providence; “that Leah was hated,” signifies that the affection of external truth was not so dear because further from the Divine; “and He opened her womb,” signifies that thence came the doctrines of churches; “and Rachel was barren,” signifies that interior truths were not received.

AC 3854. And Jehovah saw. That this signifies the Lord’s foresight and providence, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” when predicated of the Lord, as being foresight and providence, which will be treated of in the following verse, concerning Reuben, whose name was given from “seeing.” “Jehovah” is the Lord, (n. 1343, 1736, 1793, 2156, 2329, 2921, 3023, 3035).

[2] As regards foresight and providence in general, it is foresight relatively to man, and providence relatively to the Lord.  The Lord foresaw from eternity what the human race would be, and what would be the quality of each member of it, and that evil would continually increase, until at last man of himself would rush headlong into hell.  On this account the Lord has not only provided means by which man may be turned from hell and led to heaven, but also from providence He continually turns and leads him.  The Lord also foresaw that it would be impossible for any good to be rooted in man except in his freedom, for whatever is not rooted in freedom is dissipated on the first approach of evil and temptation. This the Lord foresaw, and also that man of himself, or from his freedom, would incline toward the deepest hell; and therefore the Lord provides that if a man should not suffer himself to be led in freedom to heaven, he may still be bent toward a milder hell; but that if he should suffer himself to be led in freedom to good, he may be led to heaven.  This shows what foresight means, and what providence, and that what is foreseen is thus provided.

[3] And from this we can see how greatly the man errs who believes that the Lord has not foreseen, and does not see, the veriest singulars appertaining to man, and that in these He does not foresee and lead; when the truth is that the Lord‘s foresight and providence are in the very minutest of these veriest singulars connected with man, in things so very minute that it is impossible by any thought to comprehend as much as one out of a hundred millions of them; for every smallest moment of man’s life involves a series of consequences extending to eternity, each moment being as a new beginning to those which follow; and so with all and each of the moments of his life, both of his understanding and of his will.  And as the Lord foresaw from eternity what would he man‘s quality, and what it would be to eternity, it is evident that His providence is in the veriest singulars, and as before said governs and bends the man to such a quality; and this by a continual moderating of his freedom.  But concerning this subject, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more hereafter.

AC 3855. That Leah was hated.  That this signifies that the affection of external truth was not so dear because it was further from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “hated,” as being what is not dear; and from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth. That external truths are more remote from the Divine than internal truths, may be seen from the fact that external things come forth from internal ones; for external things are images and forms composed of myriads of internal things which appear as a one; and this being the nature of external things, they are further from the Divine; for the Divine is above the inmost, or in the highest.  The Lord flows from the highest into the inmosts of man, and through these into his interiors, and through these again into his externals; thus He flows in mediately, and also immediately; and as the externals are further from the Divine, they are also on this account relatively without order, nor do they suffer themselves to be reduced to such order as do the internals.  The case herein is the same as it is with seeds, which are more perfect within than without, being so perfect within as to enable them to produce a whole plant, or a whole tree, in its order, together with its leaves and fruits, the external forms of which may easily suffer injury from various causes, but not so much so the internal or inmost forms of the seeds, which are in a more interior and perfect nature. The case is the same with the internals and externals of man, and therefore when man is being regenerated, he is regenerated as to the rational before he is regenerated as to the natural (n. 3493); and the regeneration of the natural is both later and more difficult, because in it are many things which are not in order and are exposed to injuries from the body and the world; and this being the case, it is said that these things are “not so dear;” but in so far as they agree with internal things, and in so far as they conduce to the life and to the sight of the internal things that are within them, and also to man‘s regeneration, so far they too are dear.

AC 3856. And He opened her womb.  That this signifies that therefrom came the doctrines of churches, is evident from the signification of “opening the womb,” or of conceiving and bringing forth, as being to become a church; and because this is effected by means of doctrinal things, therefore by “opening the womb” are signified the doctrines of churches. By “conceptions” and “births” in the Word are signified spiritual conceptions and births, such as occur when man is born anew, (n. 1145, 1255, 1330, 2584). How the case stands with these things will appear from what presently follows.

AC 3857. And Rachel was barren.  That this signifies that interior truths were not received, is evident from the representation of Rachel, as being the affection of interior truth; and from the signification of “barren,” as being that there were no doctrines therefrom, consequently no churches; for this statement is opposed to what is said of Leah--that “Jehovah opened her womb,” by which is signified that therefrom came the doctrines of churches. The reason why interior truths were not received, is that interior truths are such as to transcend man’s faith, for they do not fall into his ideas, neither are they according to external appearances, that is, the fallacies of the senses, by which every man suffers himself to be led, and does not believe that which does not in some measure coincide with them.

[2] For example: it is an interior truth that there are no times and spaces in the other life, but instead of these, states.  Whereas during his life on earth, man--who is in time and space--has all his ideas from them, insomuch that without time and space he cannot think at all (n. 3404); and therefore unless the states that are in the other life were described to man by means of times and spaces, or by means of such objects as derive therefrom their forms, he would perceive nothing, thus would believe nothing, and consequently would not receive the instruction; so that the doctrine would he barren and there would he no church from it

[3] To take another example: unless celestial and spiritual affections were described by means of such things as belong to worldly and bodily affections, man would not perceive anything, for he is in these affections, and thereby is capable of having some notion of celestial and spiritual affections, when nevertheless they are as different, or as distinct from each other, as heaven is from earth (n. 3839).  For instance--in regard to the glory of heaven, or of the angels in heaven--unless man formed for himself an idea of the glory of heaven in accordance with the idea of glory in the world, he would not apprehend the matter, thus neither would he acknowledge it.  And so in all other cases.

[4] For this reason the Lord spoke in the Word in accordance with man‘s apprehension, and in accordance with the appearances of the same.  The literal sense of the Word is of this nature, but still it is such as to contain within it an internal sense, in which are interior truths.  This then is the reason why it is said of Leah, that “Jehovah opened her womb,” and of Rachel, that “she was barren;” for as before said by Leah is represented the affection of exterior truth, and by Rachel the affection of interior truth. But inasmuch as exterior truths are the first truths man learns, it is provided by the Lord that by means of them he may be introduced into interior truths, and this is what is signified when it is said that at last “God remembered Rachel, and hearkened to her, and opened her womb” (Gen. 30:22).

[5] These matters may be substantiated from the churches which were of ancient time, and from their doctrinal things, in that these were formed from external truths.  Thus with the Ancient Church that was after the flood, its doctrinal things were for the most part external representatives and significatives, in which internal truths were stored up.  Most of the members of this church were in holy worship when in externals; and had anyone told them in the beginning that these representatives and significatives were not the essentials of Divine worship, but that the essentials were the spiritual and celestial things represented and signified thereby, they would have altogether rejected such a doctrine, and thus there would have been to church.  This was still more the case with the Jewish Church: if anyone had told the men of this church that their rituals derived their sanctity from the Divine things of the Lord that were in them, they would not have acknowledged it at all.

[6] Such also was man when the Lord came into the world, and still more corporeal had he become, and especially they who belonged to the church.  This is very plain from the disciples themselves, who were continually with the Lord, and heard so many things concerning His kingdom, and yet were not able to perceive interior truths, not being able to form any other notion of the Lord than such as the Jews at this day entertain concerning the Messiah whom they expect; namely, that He will exalt their people to dominion and glory above all the nations in the universe.  And even after they had heard so many things from the Lord respecting the heavenly kingdom, they still could not think otherwise than that the heavenly kingdom would he like an earthly kingdom, and that God the Father would be the highest therein, and after Him the Son, and then the twelve, and thus that they would reign in their order; wherefore also James and John asked that they might sit, the one on His right hand and the other on His left (Mark 10:35-37); and the rest of the disciples were angry at their desiring to be greater than they (Mark 10:41; Matt.  20:24).  For the same reason also the Lord, after He had taught them what it was to be the greatest in heaven (Matt. 20:25-28; Mark 10:42-45), still spoke according to their apprehension, saying that they should sit on twelve thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Luke 22:24, 30; Matt. 19:28).

[7] If they had been told that by “the disciples” are not meant themselves, but all who are in the good of love and faith (n. 3354, 3488); also that in the Lord’s kingdom there are neither thrones, sovereignties, nor rule, as in the world, and that they could not even judge the least thing in a single man (n. 2129, 2553), they would have rejected the saying, and, leaving the Lord, would have returned everyone to his own occupation.  The reason why the Lord so spoke was that they might receive external truths, and thereby be introduced into internal ones, for within those external truths which the Lord spoke, internal truths were concealed, which in course of time stand open; and when these stand open, the external truths are dissipated and serve only as objects or means of thinking about the internal truths. From this it may now be known what is meant by what is here related--that Jehovah first opened Leah‘s womb and she bare sons to Jacob, and that Rachel bare sons afterwards.

AC 3858. As in what now follows the twelve sons of Jacob are treated of, and the twelve tribes of Israel were named from them as their fathers, it is here to be premised what the tribes signify, and why there were twelve.  No one has yet known the arcanum herein concealed, because it has been believed that the histories of the Word are bare histories, and that there is no more of the Divine therein than that they can serve as examples for the application of holy things.  Hence also it has been believed that the twelve tribes signify nothing but divisions of the Israelitish people into so many distinct nations or general families, when yet they involve Divine things; that is to say, so many universal divisions of faith and love, consequently things relating to the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens and on earth, each tribe involving some distinct universal; but what each signifies will appear from what presently follows, where the sons of Jacob are treated of, from whom these tribes were named.  In general the twelve tribes signified all things of the doctrine of truth and good, or of faith and love; for these (that is, truth and good, or faith and love) constitute the Lord‘s kingdom; for the things of truth or faith are the all of thought therein, and the things of good or love are the all of affection; and because the Jewish Church was instituted in order that it might represent the Lord’s kingdom, therefore the divisions of that people into twelve tribes signified these things.  This is a mystery never before disclosed.

[2] That “twelve” signifies all things in general, was shown above (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272); but that “tribes” signify those things which are of truth and good, or of faith and love, thus that the “twelve tribes” signify all things of these, may be here confirmed from the Word, before they are described separately. In John:--

The holy city New Jerusalem had twelve gates, and over the gates twelve angels; and names written thereon which are the names of the twelve tribes of the sons of Israel; and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. He measured the city with the reed unto twelve thousand furlongs; and he measured the wall thereof, a hundred and forty and four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is of an angel. The twelve gates were twelve pearls (Rev. 21:12, 14, 16, 17, 21).

That the holy city, or New Jerusalem, is the Lord‘s New Church, is manifest from all the particulars thereof.  In some of the foregoing chapters the state of the church is described, as it would be before its end. This chapter treats of the New Church, and therefore the gates, wall, and foundations of the city are nothing else than things of the church, which are those of charity and faith, for these constitute the church;

[3] so that everyone can see that by the “twelve” so often mentioned in the above passage, and also by the “tribes,” and likewise the “apostles,” are not meant twelve, or tribes, or apostles, but by “twelve” all things in one complex (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272); and in like manner by the number “a hundred and forty and four,” for this is twelve times twelve.  And as by “twelve” are signified all things, it is evident that by the “twelve tribes” are signified all things of the church; which as before said are truths and goods, or faith and love; and in like manner by the “twelve apostles,” who also represented all things of the church, that is, all things of faith and love (n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3857). This number is therefore called the “measure of a man, that is, of an angel,” by which is meant a state of truth and good. “Measure” signifies state, (n. 3104). That “man” signifies that which is of the church, is evident from what was said above concerning the signification of “man,” (n. 478, 479, 565, 768, 1871, 1894); and also from the fact that the Lord’s kingdom is called the Grand Man, and this by virtue of good and truth which are from the Lord, on which subject see at the close of the chapters, (n. 3624-3648, 3741-3750). “Angel” signifies the same, (n. 1705, 1754, 1925, 2821, 3039).

[4] As in John, so also in the Prophets of the Old Testament is the New Jerusalem treated of, and there in like manner it signifies the Lord‘s New Church--as in (Isa. 65:18, 19); Zech. 14 especially in Ezek. 40-48; where by the “New Jerusalem,” the “new temple,” and the “new earth,” are described in the internal sense the Lord’s kingdom in the heavens, and His kingdom on earth which is the church.  From what is said in these chapters in Ezekiel it is plainer than elsewhere what is signified by “earth,” by “Jerusalem,” by “temple,” and by all things therein, and also what by the “twelve tribes;” for the division of the land is treated of, and its inheritance according to tribes, and also the city, its walls, foundations, and gates, and all things that will belong to the temple therein.  From these passages we may here quote only what is said concerning the tribes:--

The Lord Jehovih said, This is the border whereby ye shall inherit the land according to the twelve tribes of Israel.  Ye shall divide this land according to the tribes of Israel.  And it shall come to pass that ye shall divide it by lot for an inheritance unto you, and to the sojourners who sojourn in the midst of you. They shall cast lot with you for an inheritance in the midst of the tribes of Israel (Ezek. 47:13, 21-23).

As for the land, it shall be to the prince for a possession in Israel and My princes shall no more afflict My people and they shall give the land to the house of Israel according to their tribes (Ezek. 45:8). Concerning the inheritances, and how they were assigned to the several tribes, which are there also mentioned by name, (Ezek. 48:1).  And concerning the gates of the city, according to the names of the tribes of Israel, (Ezek 48:31-34).

[5] That by “tribes” there, are not meant tribes, is very plain, for the ten tribes were already at that time dispersed through the whole earth, neither did they afterwards return, nor can they ever return, for they are become Gentiles; and yet mention is made of each tribe, and how they should inherit the land, and what should be the boundaries of each; namely, what boundary for the tribe of Dan (Ezek. 48:2); what for the tribe of Asher (Ezek. 48:3); what for Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben, Judah; what should be the inheritance of the Levites; what the boundary of Benjamin; what of Simeon, of Issachar, of Zebulun, and of Gad (Ezek. 48:4-29); also that the city should have twelve gates according to the names of the tribes of Israel; that three should be toward the north, for Reuben, Judah, and Levi; three toward the east, for Joseph, Benjamin, and Dan; three toward the south, for Simeon, Issachar, and Zebulun; and three toward the west, for Gad, Asher, and Naphtali (Ezek. 48:31-34). Thus it is evident that by the “twelve tribes” are signified all things of the Lord‘s kingdom, or all things of faith and love, for these as before said constitute the Lord’s kingdom.

[6] Because the “twelve tribes” signified all things of the Lord‘s kingdom, therefore also the twelve tribes by their encampments, and also by their journeyings, represented that kingdom. Concerning these we read in Moses that they should encamp according to the tribes around the tent of the assembly; toward the east, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; toward the south, Reuben, Simeon, and Gad; toward the west, Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin; and toward the north, Dan, Asher, and Naphtali; and that as they encamped, so they journeyed (Num. 2).  That in this they represented the Lord’s kingdom, is very plain from the prophecy of Balaam:--

When Balaam lifted up his eyes, and saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, the spirit of God came upon him, and he uttered his enunciation and said, How goodly are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, thy habitations, O Israel! As the valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river side, as the lign-aloes which Jehovah hath planted, as cedar-trees beside the waters (Num. 24:2-6).

That Balaam spoke these words from Jehovah, is expressly stated (Num. 22:8, 18, 19, 35, 38; 23:5, 12, 16, 26; 24:2, 13).

AC 3858a.

[7] From all this it is evident what was represented by the inheritances of the land of Canaan according to the tribes, concerning which we read in Moses that Moses was to take the sum of the congregation of the sons of Israel according to their fathers‘ houses, from twenty years old, everyone that went forth into the army of Israel; and that the land should be distributed by lot; according to the names of the tribes of their fathers they should receive inheritance (Num. 26:7-56; 33:54; 34:19-29); and that the land was divided by Joshua, by lot, according to the tribes (Josh. 13, 15 to 19).  That as before said the Lord’s kingdom was the represented, is manifest from all the particulars; for the “land of Canaan” signifies this kingdom (n. 1585, 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705).

[8] The reason why the sons of Israel are called “armies,” and it is said that they should “encamp according to their armies,” and should “journey according to their armies” (Num. 2:4-30), is that an “army” signified the same, namely, truths and goods (n. 3448); and the Lord is called “Jehovah Zebaoth,” that is, “Jehovah of Armies” (n. 3448). Hence they were called the “armies of Jehovah” when they went forth out of Egypt; as in Moses:--

It came to pass at the end of four hundred and thirty years, even the self-same day it came to pass, that all the armies of Jehovah went out from the land of Egypt (Exod. 12:41).

It must be evident to everyone that they who were of such a quality in Egypt, and afterwards in the wilderness, were called the “armies of Jehovah” only representatively, for they were in no good or truth, being the worst of all nations.

[9] From the same ground it is very plain what is signified by the “names of the twelve tribes” in Aaron‘s breastplate, which was called the Urim and Thummim, concerning which we read in Moses that there should be four rows therein, that there should be twelve stones, and these stones according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve according to their names and that the engravings of a signet should be to each over its name for the twelve tribes (Exod. 28:21; 39:14); for Aaron represented the Lord’s Divine priesthood; for which reason all the things with which he was invested signified Divine celestial and spiritual things.  But what they signified will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy appear where they are treated of.  In the breast plate itself, inasmuch as it was most holy, there were representations of all things that are of love and faith in the Lord: these are the Urim and Thummim.  The reason why the names were engraved on precious stones was that “stones” in general signify truths (n. 1298, 3720); and “precious stones,” truths which are transparent from good (n. 114); and as the “names” of the several tribes signified the quality, therefore a particular kind of stone was assigned for each tribe (Exod. 28:17-20; 39:8, 10-13), which stone by its color and transparency expressed the quality that was signified by each tribe; hence it was that Jehovah or the Lord gave answers by the Urim and Thummim.

[10] By the “two onyx stones” that were on the two shoulders of the ephod were represented the same, but in a lesser degree than by the twelve stones on the breastplate; for the “shoulder’s” signified all power, thus the omnipotence of the Lord (n. 1085); but the “breast,” or the “heart and lungs,” signified Divine celestial and spiritual love the “heart,” Divine celestial love; and the “lungs,” Divine spiritual love; as may be seen above (n. 3635), and at the end of this chapter, where the Grand Man is treated of, and its correspondence with the province of the heart and with that of the lungs.  Concerning the “two stones on the shoulder of the ephod,” ye read in Moses:--

Thou shalt take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the sons of Israel; six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their generations. Thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod, stones of memorial for the sons of Israel (Exod. 28:9, 10, 12; 39:6, 7).

[11] Because the tribes signified what is of truth and good, or of faith and love, and each tribe signified some universal thereof, and the tribe of Levi signified love, as will appear from the explication of (verse 34) of this chapter, it may from this be known what was signified by placing rods, one for each tribe, in the tent of assembly, and by Levi‘s rod alone blossoming with almonds; concerning which we read in Moses:--

Take twelve rods, one rod for each head of their fathers’ houses, and let them be left in the tent of meeting; and thou shalt write Aaron‘s name upon the rod of Levi.  And the rod of Aaron was in the midst of the rods.  On the morrow, behold the rod of Aaron for the tribe of Levi blossomed, and brought forth a blossom so that the flower flowered, and bare almonds (Num. 17:2-8);

this signified that love is the essential and the principal of all things in the Lord’s kingdom, and that from it is all fructification.  The reason why Aaron‘s name was upon it, was that Aaron represented the Lord as to His Divine priesthood. By the “Lord’s priesthood” is signified the Divine good, which is of His love and mercy; and by the “Lord‘s royalty,” the Divine truth which is from the Divine good, (n. 1728, 2015, 3670).

[12] From what has now been adduced it may be seen what “tribes” and “twelve tribes” signify in the following passages.  In John:--

I heard the number of them which were sealed, a hundred forty and four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of Israel. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Asher were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Naphtali were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Manasseh were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Zebulun were sealed twelve thousand of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand; of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand (Rev. 7:4-8).

In Moses:--

Remember the days of eternity; understand the years of generation and generation.  When the Most High gave to the nations their inheritance, when He separated the sons of man, He set the bounds of the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel (Deut. 32:7, 8).

In David:--

Jerusalem is built as a city which is compact together; whither the tribes go up, the tribes of Jah, a testimony unto Israel, to confess unto the name of Jehovah (Ps. 122:3, 4).

[13] In Joshua:--

Behold the ark of the covenant of the Lord of all the earth passeth before you into Jordan. Take you twelve men out of the tribes of Israel, out of every tribe a man. And it shall come to pass, when the soles of the feet of the priests that bear the ark of Jehovah the Lord of all the earth, shall rest in the waters of Jordan, that the waters of Jordan shall be cut off; they shall stand in one heap (Joshua 3:11-13).

Again:--

Take out of the midst of Jordan, out of the place where the priests’ feet stood ready, twelve stones, and carry them over with you, every man a stone upon his shoulder, according to the number of the tribes of Israel; that this may be a sign that the waters of Jordan were cut off. Moreover Joshua set up twelve stones in the midst of Jordan, in the place where the feet of the priests that bare the ark of the covenant stood (Joshua 4:3-9).

Again:--

Elijah took twelve stones, according to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, unto whom the word of Jehovah came, saying, Israel shall be thy name; and he built an altar in the name of Jehovah (1 Kings 18:31, 32).

[14] That“ tribes” signify the goods of love and truths of faith, is evident also from the Lord‘s words in Matthew:--

Then shall appear the sign of the Son of man and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matthew 24:30);

where by “all the tribes of the earth mourning,” is signified that there would no longer be any acknowledgment of truth and of the life of good, for the subject treated of is the consummation of the age.  In like manner in John:--

Behold He cometh with the clouds, and every eye shall see Him, and they also who pierced Him and all the tribes of the earth shall mourn because of Him (Rev. 1:7).

What is signified by “coming in the clouds of heaven” (n. 2135A); see further what was shown me from experience concerning twelve (n. 2129, 2130).

[15] The reason why all things of faith and love are called “tribes,” is that the same expression in the original tongue signifies also a “scepter” and a “staff.” That a “scepter,” and also a “staff,” signifies power, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be shown elsewhere.  Hence the name “tribe” involves in it that goods and truths have within them all power from the Lord.  For this reason also the angels are called “powers,” and likewise “sovereignties,” for “princes” signify the primary things of charity and faith, as do the “twelve princes” descended from Ishmael (Gen. 25:16) (n. 2089, 3272), and also the “princes” who presided over the tribes (Num. 7) (Num.  13:4-16).

[16] From what has been hitherto said concerning the twelve tribes, it may be known why the Lord‘s disciples, who were afterwards called “apostles,” were twelve in number; and that they represented the church of the Lord as to goods and truths in like manner as did the tribes (n. 2129, 3354, 3488, 3857).  That Peter represented faith; James, charity; and John, the works of charity, may be seen above (preface to chapter 18 and to chapter 22), (n. 3750).  This likewise is very plain from what the Lord said concerning them and to them.

AC 3859. Verse 32. And Leah conceived and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben; for she said, Because Jehovah hath seen my affliction, for now my man will love me.  “And Leah conceived and bare a son,” signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is internal; “and she called his name Reuben,” signifies the quality thereof, which is described; “for she said, Because Jehovah hath seen,” signifies in the supreme sense foresight, in the internal sense faith, in the interior sense understanding, in the external sense sight, and in the present case faith from the Lord; “my affliction,” signifies a state of arriving at good; “for now my man will love me,” signifies that hence would come the good of truth.

AC 3860. And Leah conceived and bare a son. That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is internal, is evident from the signification of “conceiving and hearing,” as in the internal sense being to be regenerated; for the man who is being regenerated is conceived and born anew, wherefore regeneration is called a new birth, but spiritual. Man is indeed born of his parents as a man, but he does not become a man until he is reborn of the Lord Spiritual and heavenly life is that which makes a man, for this distinguishes him from brute animals.  It is this spiritual conception and birth which is signified in the Word by the conceptions and births mentioned therein; and by what is here said--that “Leah conceived and bare a son.” The generations and nativities are those of faith and love, which they signify, (n. 613, 1145, 1255, 2020, 2584, 3856). That these conceptions and births take place from what is external to what is internal, is signified by “Leah conceiving and bearing,” for by Leah is represented the affection of external truth (n. 3793, 3819); and by Reuben the truth of faith, which is the first of regeneration, and the external from which regeneration commences.  How the case herein is will appear from what follows concerning the children of Jacob by Leah and by Rachel.

AC 3861. And she called his name Reuben.  That this signifies the quality thereof, which is described, is evident from the signification of “name” and of “calling a name,” as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3321). The quality itself is described by the words, “Jehovah hath seen my affliction, for now my man will love me,” which are “Reuben.” All the names in the Word signify actual things, (n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888; and the ancients gave names significative of states, (n. 340, 1946, 2643, 3422). That here the names of all the sons of Jacob signify the universals of the church, will be shown.  A real universal has also been put into the name of each; but what universal it is impossible for anyone to know, unless he knows what is involved in the internal sense of the expressions from which each one was called--as for instance in the expression, “hath seen,” from which Reuben was named; in the expression, “hath heard,” from which Simeon was named; in the expression, “will adhere,” from which Levi was named; and in the expression, “will confess,” from which Judah was named; and so with regard to all the others.

AC 3862. It has been shown above (n. 3858) that the “twelve tribes” signified all things of truth and good, or of faith and love; and as the sons of Jacob from whom the tribes were named are now treated of one by one, therefore another arcanum is here to be opened, namely, what is involved in them.  That all celestial and spiritual heat, or love and charity, is perceived in external form in heaven as a flaming from the sun; and that all celestial and spiritual light, or faith, in the external form in heaven appears as light from the sun; also, that this celestial and spiritual heat has within it wisdom; and that the light therefrom has within it intelligence, and this because they are from the Lord, who is there the sun, may be seen above. (n. 1053, 1521-1533, 1619-1632, 2441, 2495, 2776, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3338, 3339, 3341, 3413, 3485, 3636, 3643).  From this it is evident that all good is from the heat which is from the Lord as a sun; and that all truth is from the light therefrom; and it is further evident that all affections, which are of love or good, are variations of that celestial and spiritual heat which is from the Lord, and that thence come the changes of state; and that all thoughts, which are of faith or truth, are variegations of that celestial and spiritual light which is from the Lord, and that thence comes intelligence.  In this heat and light are all the angels in heaven, and their affections and thoughts are from no other source, and are nothing else. This is manifest from their speech, which in consequence of this origin consists of variegations or modifications of heavenly light, within which there is heavenly heat, and is therefore also unutterable, and so various and full as to be beyond comprehension (n. 3342, 3344, 3345).

[2] In order that these things might be exhibited representatively in the world, such names were given to the several sons of Jacob as would signify the universals of good and truth, or of love and faith, thus universals in respect to the variations of celestial and spiritual heat, and as to the variegations of the derivative light.  The very order of these universals is that which determines the flame and its derivative resplendence.  When the order begins from love, everything which follows thence in genuine order appears flaming; but when the order begins from faith, everything which follows in genuine order appears lucid; but with every difference according to the things which follow.  But if the order in which they follow is not genuine, everything appears obscure, with every difference.  Concerning this order and the difference thence resulting, of the Lord’s Divine mercy something shall be said hereafter.  This explains how it was that the Lord gave answers by the Urim and Thummim, and that according to the state of the matter in question they received answers by means of lights and their radiance from the precious and pellucid stones, on which were inscribed the names of the twelve tribes; for as before said, on the names were inscribed the universals of love and faith in the Lord‘s kingdom, consequently the universals of flame and light whereby the things of love and faith are represented in heaven.

[3] It may therefore he first confirmed from the Word that the order in which the names of the tribes are mentioned is various in the Word, and this in accordance with the state of the subject treated of; and that from this it may be known that the answers from the Lord given by the Urim and Thummim were shinings forth of light according to the state of the matter in question from order; for all the light of heaven varies according to the states of the subject; and the states of the subject vary according to the order of good and truth.  But what of truth and good is signified by each son of Jacob, will be seen from the explication; namely, that by “Reuben” is signified faith from the Lord; by “Simeon”  faith of the will which is from the Lord; by “Levi” spiritual love or charity; by “Judah” the Divine of love and the Lord’s celestial kingdom.  What is signified by the eight remaining sons, will be stated in the following chapter.  Their order according to birth is what is here described, which is as follows: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin (verses 32-35) of this chapter, and (Gen. 30:6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 20, 24) and (Gen. 35:18).  This order is according to the state of the subject here treated of, which is the regeneration of man; for in this case the commencement is from the truth of faith, which is “Reuben;” and progression is thence made to willing what is true, which is “Simeon;” and thence to charity, which is “Levi;” thus to the Lord, who in the supreme sense is represented by Judah.  That spiritual conception and birth, or regeneration, proceeds from what is external to what is internal, was stated above (n. 3860); that is, from the truth of faith to the good of love.

[4] Previous to Jacob‘s coming to his father Isaac, in Mamre (Kiriath-arba), the twelve sons are named in the following order: Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, Benjamin, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher (Gen. 35:23-26); in which enumeration the sons born of Leah and Rachel are named first, and last those born of the handmaids, and this according to the state of the subject there treated of.  They are enumerated in a still different order when they journeyed and came to Egypt (Gen.  46:9-19); and in another order when they were blessed by Jacob, at that time Israel, before his death (Gen. 49:3-27); and in another when they were blessed by Moses (Deut.  33:6-24). They were in the following order when they encamped around the tent of assembly: to the east, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun; to the south, Reuben, Simeon, Gad; to the west, Ephraim, Manasseh, Benjamin; to the north, Dan, Asher, Naphtali (Num. 2).  In what order they stood for blessing the people on Mount Gerizim and for cursing on Mount Ebal, may be seen in (Deut. 27:12, 13).  When the princes chosen from each tribe were sent to explore the land, they are enumerated in this order: Reuben, Simeon, Judah, Issachar, Ephraim, Benjamin, Zebulun, Joseph or Manasseh, Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Gad (Num. 13:4-16).  But the princes who were to give the land for inheritance are enumerated in another order (Num. 34:19-29).  In what order the lot was cast and came forth when the land was given for inheritance, may be seen in Joshua 13 to 19.

[5] When in Ezekiel the boundaries of the new or holy land which the tribes were to inherit are described, they are mentioned in this order: Dan, Asher, Naphtali, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben, Judah, Benjamin, Simeon, Issachar, Zebulun, Gad, all from the corner eastward to the corner of the sea or west, except Gad, who was at the corner of the south, toward the south (Ezek. 48:2-8, 23-26); and when treating of the gates of the new or holy city, they are mentioned in this order: toward the north three gates, of Reuben, Judah, and Levi; toward the east three gates, of Joseph, Benjamin, and Dan; toward the south three gates, of Simeon, Issachar, and Zebulun; toward the west three gates, of God, Asher, and Naphtali (Ezek. 48:31-34).  The order of those who were sealed, twelve thousand out of every tribe, see (Rev. 7:5-8).  In all these passages the enumeration of the tribes is altogether according to the state of the specific subject that is being treated of, to which the order corresponds; this state being seen from the things that precede and that follow.

[6] What was the order of the precious stones in the Urim and Thummim is mentioned and described in the Word, but to what tribe each stone corresponded is not mentioned, for the stones represented all things of light from celestial flame, that is, all things of truth from good, or all things of faith from love; and because they had this representation, heavenly light itself shone through in a miraculous manner in accordance with the state of the subject concerning which there was question and answer, being glowing and shining for an affirmative of what was good and true, together with variegations of colors according to the differences of the state of that which was good and true; just as takes place in heaven, where all celestial and spiritual things are expressed by means of lights and their differences, and this in a manner ineffable and altogether incomprehensible by man; for as before shown within heavenly light there is life from the Lord, consequently wisdom and intelligence, and therefore in the differences of the light there is everything that belongs to the life of truth, that is, everything that belongs to wisdom and intelligence; and in the differences of the flame and of its glowing and resplendence, there is everything that belongs to the life of good and to the life of truth from good, or to love to the Lord and the derivative faith. Such were the Urim and Thummim that were on the breastplate of the ephod and on the heart of Aaron, as is also evident from the fact that the words “Urim and Thummim” mean “Lights and Perfections,” and that the breastplate, on which they were placed, was called the “breastplate of judgment,” because “judgment” is intelligence and wisdom (n. 2235). The reason why this was on Aaron’s heart, was that by the “heart” is signified the Divine love (n. 3635), and at the end of this chapter.  Hence those precious stones were in settings of gold, for in the internal sense “gold” is the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552); and “precious stone,” the truth that is transparent from good (n. 114).

[7] Concerning the Urim and Thummim we read in Moses:--

Thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, a work of designing, like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it, of gold, of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it. Foursquare it shall be doubled and thou shalt set in it settings of stone, four rows of stone shall there be sockets of gold shall there be in their settings.  And the stones shall be according to the names of the sons of Israel, twelve according to their names; the engravings of a signet, everyone according to his name, they shall be for the twelve tribes (Exod. 28:15-17, 20; 39:8-14).

The stones that were to be in each row are also there designated. And further:--

The breastplate shall not depart from off the ephod and Aaron shall bear the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before Jehovah continually. And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim and they shall be upon Aaron‘s heart when he goeth in before Jehovah; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continually (Exod. 28:28-30; Lev. 8:7, 8).

That Jehovah or the Lord was inquired of and gave answers by means of the Urim, may be seen in Moses:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, and thou shalt put of thy glory upon him, that all the congregation of the sons of Israel may obey.  He shall stand before Eleazar the priest, and he shall inquire for him in the judgment of the Urim before Jehovah (Num. 27:18, 20, 21).

And in Samuel:--

Saul inquired of Jehovah, and Jehovah answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets (1 Sam. 28:6).

AC 3863. For she said, Because Jehovah hath seen.  That in the supreme sense this signifies foresight, in the internal sense faith, in the interior sense understanding, and in the external sense sight, in the present case faith from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” concerning which in what follows.  From what has been said above, it may be seen that the twelve tribes, named from the twelve sons of Jacob, signified all things of truth and good, or of faith and love, thus all things of the church, and that each tribe signified some universal; thus the twelve tribes signified the twelve universals which comprehend and include within them all things whatsoever that belong to the church; and in the universal sense, all things that belong to the Lord’s kingdom. The universal which “Reuben” signifies, is faith. The reason why faith is the first universal, is that when man is being regenerated or becoming a church, he must first learn and become imbued with the things of faith, that is, of spiritual truth; for he is introduced by means of the doctrine of faith, or of truth. For man is of such a nature that of himself he does not know what heavenly good is, but must learn it from doctrine, which is called the doctrine of faith. Every doctrine of faith regards life as the end, and therefore good, for good is life.

[2] It was a controverted point among the ancients, which was the firstborn of the church, the truth which is of faith, or the good which is of love. They who maintained that the truth which is of faith is the firstborn, argued from the external appearance, and determined this to be the first, because truth is and ought to be first learned, and because by means of it man is introduced to good. But they knew not that good is essentially the firstborn, and that it is insinuated by the Lord through the internal man, in order that it may adopt and receive the truth which is introduced through the external man; nor were they aware that in good there is life from the Lord, and that in truth there is no life but that which it has through good; thus that good is the soul of truth, and appropriates to itself and puts on truth as the soul does its body.  From this we can see that according to the external appearance truth is in the first place, and is as it were the firstborn while man is being regenerated; although good is essentially in the first place, and is the firstborn, and is placed first when man has been regenerated. That this is the case may be seen in, (n. 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701).

[3] As the subject treated of in this chapter, and in those which precede, is the regeneration of the natural, and here its first state, which is that of introduction by means of truth to good, therefore the first son of Jacob, or Reuben, was named from “Jehovah seeing,” which in the internal sense signifies faith from the Lord.  Regarded in itself, faith is a faith in the understanding and a faith in the will; to know and understand the truth which is of faith is called faith in the understanding; but to will the truth which is of faith is called faith in the will. Faith in the understanding is that which is signified by “Reuben;” but faith in the will is what is signified by “Simeon.” That faith in the understanding, or the understanding of truth, precedes faith in the will, or the willing of truth, must be evident to everyone; for when anything is unknown to man (such as heavenly good), he must first know that it exists, and understand what it is, before he can will it.

[4] That in the external sense “to see” signifies sight, is evident without explication; and that in the interior sense “to see” signifies understanding, may also be evident, for the sight of the internal man is nothing else than understanding, and therefore in common discourse understanding is called internal sight, and light is predicated of it, as of external sight, and is called intellectual light.  That in the internal sense “to see” denotes faith from the Lord, is evident from the fact that the interior understanding has no other objects than those which are of truth and good, for these are the objects of faith. This interior understanding, or internal sight, which has for its objects the truths which are of faith, does not manifest itself so much as does the understanding which has for its objects the truths of civic and moral life, for the reason that it is within the latter, and is in the light of heaven, which light is in obscurity so long as man is in the light of the world.  Nevertheless with those who have been regenerated, it reveals itself, especially by conscience.  That in the supreme sense “to see” is foresight, must be evident, for the intelligence which is predicated of the Lord is infinite intelligence, which is nothing else than foresight.

[5] That “seeing,” from which Reuben was named, in the internal sense signifies faith from the Lord, is manifest from very many passages in the Word, of which the following may be adduced:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, Make thee a fiery serpent, and set it upon a standard and it shall come to pass that everyone that is bitten, and shall see it, shall live.  Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon a standard and it came to pass that if a serpent had bitten any man, and he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived again (Num. 21:8, 9).

That the brazen serpent represented the Lord as to the external sensuous or natural, may be seen above (n. 197); and that “brass” signifies the natural (n. 425, 1551).  That faith in Him was represented by the living again of those who saw, or looked upon it, the Lord Himself teaches in John:--

As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the So“ of man be lifted up; that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but should have eternal life (John 3:14, 15).

[6] In Isaiah:--

The Lord said, Go and say unto this people, Hearing hear ye, but do not understand; and seeing see ye, and do not know; make the heart of this people fat, and their ears heavy, and blind their eyes lest they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and their heart should understand (Isa. 6:9, 10).

That ”seeing and not knowing“ here signifies understanding what is true and yet not acknowledging it, is manifest; and that ”blinding the eyes, lest they should see with their eyes“ signifies depriving them of the understanding of truth; and that ”seeing“ here signifies faith in the Lord, is evident from the Lord‘s words in (Matthew 13:13, 14; John 12:36, 37, 39, 40).

[7] In Ezekiel:--

Son of man thou dwellest in the midst of the house of rebellion, who have eyes to see, but see not; who have ears to hear, and hear not (Ezek. 12:2);

”having eyes to see but not seeing“ signifies that they were able to understand the truths of faith, but were not willing, and this because of evils (which are the ”house of rebellion“) inducing a deceptive light on falsities, and darkness on truths, according to these words in Isaiah:--

This is a people of rebellion, lying sons, sons that would not hear the law of Jehovah who have said to the seers, See not; and to them that have vision, See not for us right things, speak to us smooth things, see illusions (Isa. 30:9, 10).

Again:--

The people that walked in darkness have seen a great light; they that dwelt in the land of the shadow of death, upon them hath the light shined (Isa. 9:2);

where ”seeing a great light“ signifies receiving and believing the truths which are of faith.  On those who are in faith heavenly light is said to ”shine,“ for the light which is in heaven is Divine truth from Divine good.

[8] Again:--

Jehovah hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes the prophets and your heads, the seers hath He covered (Isa. 29:10);

”to close the eyes“ denotes to close the understanding of truth.  ”The eye“ denotes the understanding, (n. 2701); ”covering the seers“ denotes to cover those who know and teach the truths of faith.  Seers were formerly called ”prophets,“ and ”prophets“ denote those who teach, and also the truths of doctrine, (n. 2534).  Again:--

The priest and the prophet err through strong drink; they err among the seers; they stumble in judgment (Isa. 28:7);

where the sense is the same; that the ”judgment“ wherein they ”stumble“ is the truth of faith may be seen above (n. 2235). Again:--

The eyes of them that see shall not be closed, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken (Isa. 32:3).

[9] Again:--

Thine eyes shall behold the king In his beauty, they shall see the land of far distances (Isa. 33:17);

”to behold the king in beauty“ denotes the truths of faith which are from the Lord, which are called ”beautiful“ from good; ”to see the land of far distances“ denotes the good of love. A ”king“ is the truth of faith, (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670); ”beautiful“ is predicated from good, (n. 553, 3080, 3821); and ”land“ is the good of love, (n. 620, 636, 3368, 3379). In Matthew:--

Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God (Matthew 5:8);

where it is manifest that ”to see God“ is to believe in Him, thus to see Him by faith; for they who are in faith, from faith see God, because God is in faith, and is that in faith which constitutes true faith.

[10] Again:--

If thine eye causeth thee to stumble, pluck it out for it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the gehenna of fire (Matthew 18:9);

that in this passage the ”eye“ does not mean the eye, and that it is not to be plucked out, is manifest, for this does not cause to stumble; but the understanding of truth, which is here meant by the ”eye“ (n. 2701).  That it is better not to know and apprehend the truths of faith, than to know and apprehend them and yet live a life of evil, is signified by its ”being better to enter into life with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the gehenna of fire.“

[11] In the same:--

Blessed are your eyes, for they see and your ears, for they hear. Verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see the things which ye see, but did not see them (Matthew 13:16, 17; John 12:40);

”seeing“ here denotes knowing and understanding the things which are of faith in the Lord, thus faith; for they were not blessed because they saw the Lord, and saw His miracles, but because they believed; as may be seen from these words in John:--

I said unto you, that ye also have seen Me, and believe not.  This is the will of Him that sent Me, that everyone who seeth the Son, and believeth on Him, should have eternal life.  Not that anyone hath seen the Father, save He that is with the Father, He hath seen the Father. Verily, verily, I say unto you, he that believeth on Me hath eternal life (John 6:36, 40, 46, 47);

”seeing and not believing“ denotes knowing the truths of faith and not receiving them; ”seeing and believing“ denotes knowing and receiving them; ”no one having seen the Father save He that is with the Father“ denotes that Divine good cannot be acknowledged except by means of Divine truth. The ”Father“ is Divine good, and the ”Son“ Divine truth, (n. 3704). Hence the internal sense is that no one can have celestial good unless He acknowledges the Lord.

[12] In like manner in the same Evangelist:--

No one hath seen God at any time the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath declared Him (John 1:18).

And again:--

Jesus said, He that seeth Me, seeth Him that sent Me. I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth in Me should not abide in darkness (John 12:45, 46);

where it is said plainly that ”to see“ is to believe, or to have faith.  Again:--

Jesus said, If ye had known Me, ye would have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye know Him and have seen Him.  He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father (John 14:7, 9).

Again:--

The Spirit of Truth whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him I will not leave you orphans; I come unto you. Yet a little while, and the world seeth Me no more but ye see Me because I live ye shall live also (John 14:17-19);

where ”seeing“ signifies having faith, for the Lord is seen only by faith, because faith is the eye of love, the Lord being seen by love through faith, and love being the life of faith; wherefore it is said, ”Ye see Me; because I live, ye shall live also.“

[13] Again:--

Jesus said, For judgment I am come into this world, that they who see not may see and that they who see may be made blind. The Pharisees said, Are we also blind I Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye would not have sin; but now ye say, We see therefore your sin remaineth (John 9:39-41);

here ”they who see“ denote those who imagine themselves to be more intelligent than others, concerning whom it is said that they ”should be made blind,“ that is, should not receive faith. ”Not to see,“ or ”to be blind,“ is predicated of those who are in falsities, and also of those who are in ignorance, (n. 2383). In Luke:--

Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God; but to the rest in parables that seeing they may not see and hearing they may not hear (Luke 8:10).

Again:--

I say unto you, There be some standing here who shall not taste of death, until they see the kingdom of God (Luke 9:27; Mark 9:1);

”to see the kingdom of God“ denotes to believe.  Again:--

Jesus said unto His disciples, The days shall come, when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, but ye shall not see (Luke 17:22);

where the consummation of the age, or last time of the church, is treated of, when there is no longer any faith.

[14] Again:--

It came to pass when Jesus sat down with them, that He took the bread, and blessed, and breaking, gave to them; and their eyes were opened, and they knew Him (Luke 24:30, 31);

by which was signified that the Lord appears by good, but not by truth without good, for ”bread“ is the good of love (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813).  From these and other passages it is evident that ”seeing,“ in the internal sense, signifies faith from the Lord, for there is no other faith which is faith than that which comes from the Lord.  This also enables man to ”see,“ that is, to believe; but faith from self, or from what is man’s own, is not faith, for it causes him to see falsities as truths, and truths as falsities; and if he sees truths as truths, still he does not see, because he does not believe, for he sees himself in them, and not the Lord.

[15] That ”to see“ is to have faith in the Lord, is very plain from what has been frequently said above concerning the light of heaven, namely, that being from the Lord, it is attended with intelligence and wisdom, consequently with faith in Him; for faith in the Lord is inwardly within intelligence and wisdom; wherefore ”to see“ from that light, as angels do, can signify nothing else than faith in the Lord. The Lord Himself also is in that light, because it proceeds from Him. It is that light also which shines within the conscience of those who have faith in the Lord, although while he lives in the body the man is unaware of the fact, for it is then obscured by the light of the world.

AC 3864. My affliction (namely, ”Because Jehovah hath seen“).  That this signifies a state of arriving at good, is evident from the signification of ”affliction,“ as being temptation (n. 1846); and because this is the means of arriving at good, ”my affliction“ here signifies a state of coming from truth (which is external), and of arriving at good (which is internal).

AC 3865. For now my man will love me.  That this signifies that hence would come the good of truth, is evident from the signification of ”will love,“ as being the good therefrom; for all good is of love, and is therefore here signified by ”loving;“ and from the signification of ”man,“ as being truth (n. 3134). What the good of truth is, has often been explained above, namely, that it is the affection of truth for the sake of life; for life is the good which is regarded in the truth by those who are afterwards regenerated.  without a life according to truth, no conjunction of truth with good is effected, consequently no appropriation.

[2] Everyone can plainly see this by directing his attention to those who live ill, and to those who live well: they who live ill, even although like others they have been instructed during childhood and youth in the doctrines of the church, are nevertheless found on examination to believe nothing at all concerning the Lord, or concerning faith in Him and the truths of the church; whereas they who live well have everyone of them faith in the truths which they believe to be truths.  They however who teach truths, as do the overseers of the church, and live ill, may indeed profess to believe, yet still at heart they do not believe.

[3] With some of these there is a persuasion which has the semblance of faith, amounting to no more than mere memory-knowledge confirmed, not because it is truth, but because it is expedient to make profession of it for the sake of one‘s office, honor, and gain. This penetrates no deeper than through the ears into the memory, and from the memory it goes forth into the lips, but not into the heart, and from this into confession. From this it is evident that it is the life which shows the quality of the acknowledgment of truth; that is, the quality of the faith; and that it is faith separated from the good of life which declares that however a man lives he may nevertheless be saved through grace; and which argues against the doctrine that everyone’s life remains with him after death.

AC 3866. From the internal sense of the words which Leah uttered concerning Reuben at his birth-” Jehovah hath seen mine affliction, for now my man will love me,“ it may be seen what of the church ” Reuben“ signifies, or the tribe which took its name from Reuben, namely, that which is the first of regeneration, or which is the first when man is becoming a church; and that this is the truth of doctrine whereby he may attain to the good of life.

AC 3867. Verse 33. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and said, Because Jehovah hath heard that I was hated, and hath given me this one also; and she called his name Simeon.  ”And she conceived again, and bare a son,“ signifies, as before, spiritual conception and birth from what is external toward things more interior; ”because Jehovah hath heard,“ signifies in the supreme sense providence, in the internal sense the will of faith, in the interior sense obedience, in the external sense hearing, in the present case faith in the will, which is from the Lord alone; ”that I was hated,“ signifies a state of faith if the will is not correspondent to it; ”and hath given me this one also,“ signifies what is successive; ”and she called his name Simeon,“ signifies its quality.

AC 3868. And she conceived again, and bare a son.  That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external toward things more interior, is evident from what was said above (n. 3860), where the same words occur.  Advancement is said to be made from what is external toward things more interior, when it is made from the memory-knowledge which is of the understanding, to the will; or, speaking spiritually, when it is made from the truth which is of faith, to charity.  For the understanding is that which proceeds from the will, and which manifests the will in a certain visible form; in like manner, faith proceeds from charity, and manifests charity in a certain form.  From this it is evident that the understanding is the external of the will; and that faith is the external of charity; or what is the same, that the will is the internal of the understanding, and charity the internal of faith.  Thus to advance from what is external to things more interior, is to advance from faith in the understanding to faith in the will, consequently from faith to charity, which is represented by Levi (concerning whom in what presently follows). Be it known that by faith, when distinguished from charity, is meant truth, such as the truth of doctrine, or such as there is in the confession called the Apostles‘ Creed; and this is according to the general sense in the church; for to have faith in truths is believed to be the faith by which is salvation.  Few know that faith is trust and confidence, and among these few, still fewer know that trust or confidence is from charity, and is not possible with anyone who has not lived the life of charity.

AC 3869. And said, Because Jehovah hath heard.  That in the supreme sense this signifies providence; in the internal sense, the will of faith; in the interior sense, obedience; in the external sense, hearing; in the present case faith in the will, which is from the Lord alone, is evident from the signification of ”hearing.“ That ”to hear“ is of the sense of hearing, it is needless to explain; but that in the interior sense ”to hear“ is obedience, and in the internal sense faith in the will, is evident from many passages in the Word; and also from the nature of hearing in respect to that of sight. That in the interior sense ”sight“ is understanding, and in the internal sense, faith in the understanding, may be seen above (n. 3863); and this because the quality of things becomes apparent by the internal sight, and thereby they are apprehended by a kind of faith, but an intellectual kind.  In like manner when the things which are heard penetrate to the interiors, they are also changed into something like sight, for what is heard is seen interiorly; and therefore by ”hearing“ there is also signified that which is signified by ”sight,“ namely, that which is of the understanding, and also that which is of faith; but the hearing at the same time persuades that the case is so, and affects not only the intellectual part of man, but also his will part, and causes him to will that which he sees.  Hence it is that ”hearing“ signifies the understanding of a thing, and at the same time obedience; and in the spiritual sense, faith in the will.

[2] As all this is latent in hearing, namely, obedience and faith in the will, therefore these likewise are signified in common speech by ”hearing,“ ”hearkening,“ and ”attending;“ for ”to hear“ is to be obedient; and ”to hearken to anyone“ is also to obey.  For the interior things of a matter are sometimes thus contained within the expressions of man’s speech, for the reason that it is the spirit of man which thinks and perceives the meaning of the expressions of speech, and this is in a certain communion with spirits and angels, who are in the first principles of the expressions.  Moreover such is the circle of things in man, that whatever enters by the ear and eye, or by the hearing and sight, passes into his understanding, and through the understanding into the will, and from the will into act.  And in like manner the truth of faith first becomes the truth of faith in memory-knowledge; afterwards the truth of faith in the will; and lastly the truth of faith in act, thus charity.  Faith in memory-knowledge, or in the understanding, is ”Reuben,“ as already shown; faith in the will is ”Simeon;“ and when faith in the will becomes charity it is ”Levi.“

[3] That in the supreme sense ”to hear“ signifies providence, may be seen from what has been said above (n. 3863) concerning ”seeing,“ as being in the supreme sense foresight; for the Lord‘s foreseeing is the seeing from eternity to eternity that the case is so; but the Lord’s providing is the directing that it be so; and is the bending of man‘s freedom to good, in so far as He foresees that man will suffer himself to be bent in freedom (n. 3854).

[4] That by ”Jehovah hearing,“ from which Simeon was named, in the interior sense is signified obedience, and in the internal sense faith in the will from the Lord alone, is manifest from very many passages in the Word; as from the following.  In Matthew:--

Behold a voice out of the cloud, saying, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him (Matthew 17:5);

”to hear Him“ denotes to have faith in Him, and to obey His commandments; thus to have faith in the will.  In John:--

Verily, verily, I say unto you, that the hour cometh when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live. Marvel not at this; for the hour cometh in which all that are in the graves shall hear His voice (John 5:25, 28);

”to hear the voice of the Son of God“ denotes to have faith in the words of the Lord, and to will them.  They who have faith of the will, receive life; wherefore it is said, ”they that hear shall live.“

[5] Again:--

He who entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep to him the porter openeth and the sheep hear his voice.  And other sheep I have which are not of this fold them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice, and there shall be one flock, and one shepherd.  My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me (John 10:2, 3, 16, 27);

”to hear the voice“ manifestly denotes to obey from faith of the will.  Again:--

Everyone that is of the truth heareth My voice (John 18:37);

where the same thing is meant.  In Luke:--

Abraham said unto him, They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them.  If they hear not Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded if one rose from the dead (Luke 16:29, 31);

”to hear Moses and the Prophets“ denotes to know the things contained in the Word, and to have faith therein; thus also to will them; for to have faith and not to will, is to see and not to hear, but to have faith and to will is both to ”see“   and to ”hear;“ wherefore both ”seeing“ and ”hearing“ are mentioned together in the Word throughout; and by ”seeing“ is signified the same as by ”Reuben;“ and by ”hearing“ the same as by ” Simeon;“ for they are joined together as brother to brother.

[6] That ”seeing“ and ”hearing“ are mentioned together, is evident from the following passages.  In Matthew:--

Therefore speak I to them by parables because they seeing see not; and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand.  And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, which saith, By hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand, and seeing ye shall see, and shall not perceive for this people’s heart is waxed gross, and with ears they have heard dully, and their eyes they have closed lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart. But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. Verily I say unto you, that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see the things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear the things which ye hear, and have not heard them (Matthew 13:13-17; John 12:40; Isa. 6:9).

In Mark:--

Jesus said to the disciples, Why reason ye because ye have no bread? Do ye not yet comprehend, neither understand? Have ye your heart yet hardened? Having eyes, see ye not? and having ears, hear ye not? (Mark 8:17, 18).

[7] In Luke:--

Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God; but to others in parables that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not hear (Luke 8:10).

In Isaiah:--

The eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be opened (Isa. 35:5).

Again:--

And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of thick darkness, and out of darkness (Isa. 29:18).

Again:--

Hear, ye deaf; and look, ye blind, that ye may see (Isa.  42:18).

Again:--

Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:8).

Again:--

The eyes of them that see shall not be closed, and the ears of them that hear shall hearken (Isa. 32:3).

Again:--

Thine eyes shall see thy teachers, and thine ears shall hear a word (Isa. 30:20, 21).

Again:--

He that stoppeth his ear from hearing of blood, and shutteth his eyes from seeing evil, shall dwell on high (Isa. 33:15, 16).

In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, thou dwellest in the midst of the house of rebellion, that have eyes to see, and see not; that have ears to hear, and hear not (Ezek. 12:2).

In these passages mention is made of both ”seeing“ and ”hearing“ because the one follows the other; that is, faith in the understanding which is ”seeing,“ and faith in the will which is ”hearing;“ otherwise it would have been sufficient to mention one only; and from this it is also evident why one son of Jacob was named from ”seeing“ and another from ”hearing.“

[8] That ”seeing“.signifies faith in memory-knowledge or in the understanding; and ”hearing,“ faith in obedience or in the will, is from the correspondences in the other life, and the derivative significatives for those who are intellectual and are thence in faith belong to the province of the eye; and those who are obedient and thence in faith belong to the province of the ear.  That this is the case will be seen at the close of the chapters, where of the Lord‘s Divine mercy the Grand Man, and the correspondence of all things in the human body therewith, will be described.

[9] Hence then it is that in the internal sense the ”eye“ is the understanding (n. 2701); and that the ”ear“ is obedience, and in the spiritual sense the derivative faith, or faith in the will; as is evident also from the following passages.  In Isaiah:--

Yea, thou heardest not yea, thou knewest not; yea, from that time thine ear opened not itself (Isa. 48:8).

Again:--

The Lord Jehovih will waken mine ear to hear, as they that are taught the Lord Jehovih hath opened mine ear, and I was not rebellious (Isa. 50:4, 5).

Again:--

In attending attend to Me, and eat ye that which is good, that your soul may delight itself in fatness Incline your ear, and come unto Me; hear that your soul may live (Isa. 55:2, 3).

In Jeremiah:--

To whom shall I speak and testify, that they may hear behold their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken (Jer. 6:10).

Again:--

This thing I commanded them, saying, Hear ye My voice and I will be your God, and ye shall be My people and they heard not, nor inclined their ear (Jer. 7:23, 24, 26).

Again:--

Hear the word of Jehovah, O ye women and let your ear receive the word of His mouth (Jer. 9:20).

Again:--

Ye have not inclined your ear, and have not obeyed Me (Jer. 35:15).

In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, all My words that I have spoken unto thee, receive in thy heart, and hear with thine ears (Ezek. 3:10).

Again:--

I will set my zeal against thee, and they shall deal with thee In fury they shall take away thy nose and thine ears (Ezek. 23:25);

”to take away the nose and the ears“ denotes the perception of truth and good, and the obedience of faith.  In Zechariah:--

They refused to hearken, and turned a stubborn shoulder, and made their ears heavy, that they should not hear; and their heart have they set as adamant, that they might not hear the law (Zech. 7:11, 12).

[10] In Amos:--

Thus saith Jehovah, As the shepherd snatcheth out of the mouth of the lion two legs, or a piece of an ear, so shall the sons of Israel be snatched away in Samaria, in the corner of a bed, and on the end of a couch (Amos 3:12);

”to snatch the two legs“ denotes the will of good; and the ”piece of an ear,“ the will of truth.  That a ”piece of an ear“ denotes this can as before said be seen solely from the correspondences in the other life, and the derivative significatives, according to which is the internal sense of the Word, and also the rituals in the Israelitish and Jewish Church.  Hence it was that when Aaron and his sons were inaugurated into the ministry, it was commanded, among other things, that Moses should take of the blood of a ram, and should put it on the tip of Aaron’s ear, and upon the tip of the ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of their right hand, and upon the great toe of their right foot (Exod. 29:20).  By this ritual was represented the will of faith, into which also as priest he was to be initiated. That this ritual was holy, everyone may know, because it was enjoined upon Moses by Jehovah; and so also putting blood on the tip of the ear was holy.  But what particular holy thing this signified can be known only from the internal sense of things in the Word, which sense here is that the holy of faith from the will must be preserved.

[11] That by the ”ear“ is signified obedience, and in the internal sense the consequent faith, is still more plainly evident from the ritual respecting a servant who was not willing to depart from service; concerning whom we read in Moses:--

If a manservant or maidservant shall not be willing to depart from service, his master shall bring him unto God, and shall bring him to the door, or unto the doorpost, and his master shall bore his ear through with an awl, and he shall serve him forever (Exod. 21:5, 6; Deut. 15:17);

”boring the ear through with an awl at the doorpost“ signifies serving or obeying perpetually; in the spiritual sense it signifies not to will to understand truth, but to will truth from obedience, which relatively is not freedom.

[12] As in the internal sense the obedience of faith is understood by ”ears,“ and obeying by ”hearing,“ it is evident what is signified by these words of the Lord, so often uttered by Him:--

He that hath an ear to hear, let him hear (Matt. 13:9, 43; Mark 4:9, 23; 7:16; Luke 8:8; 14:35; Rev. 2:7, 11, 29; 3:13, 22).

[13] That in the supreme sense ”to hear“ signifies providence; and ”to see“ foresight, is evident from the passages in the Word where ”eyes“ and ”ears“ are predicated of Jehovah or the Lord; as in Isaiah:--

Incline Thine ear O Jehovah and hear; open Thine eyes O Jehovah and see (Isa. 37:17).

In Daniel:--

O my God incline Thine ear and hear; open O Jehovah Thine eyes and see our wastes (Daniel 9:18).

In David:--

O God incline Thine ear unto me, and hear my speech (Ps. 17:6).

Again:--

Incline Thine ear unto me, and save me (Ps. 71:2).

Again:--

Turn Thine ear to my prayers because of Thy truth, answer me because of Thy righteousness (Ps. 143:1).

In Jeremiah:--

O Jehovah Thou heardest my voice; hide not Thine ear at my sighing, at my cry (Lam. 3:55, 56).

In David:--

O Jehovah hide not Thy faces from me in the day of my distress; incline Thine ear to me in the day when I cry, answer me (Ps. 102:1, 2).

It is known that Jehovah has not ears nor eyes like a man, but that it is some attribute predicable of the Divine that is signified by the ”ear“ and by the ”eye,“ namely, infinite will and infinite understanding.  Infinite will is providence, and infinite understanding is foresight; these are what are understood by ”ear“ and ”eye“ in the supreme sense, when they are attributed to Jehovah.  From all this it is now manifest what in every sense is signified by ”Jehovah hath heard,“ from which Simeon was named.

AC 3870. That I was hated.  That this signifies a state of faith if the will be not correspondent thereto, is evident from the signification of ”being hated,“ as being not loved, for such is the state of faith if the will does not correspond to it.  In the internal sense the subject treated of is the progress of man‘s regeneration from external to internal; that is, from the truth of faith to the good of charity. The truth of faith is external, and the good of charity is internal.  In order that the truth of faith may live, it must be introduced into the will, that it may there receive life; for truth does not live from knowing, but from willing. Life flows in from the Lord through the new willing that He creates in man.  The first life manifests itself by obedience, which is the first of the will; the second by the affection of doing the truth, which is the progression of the will, and which exists when delight and bliss are perceived in doing the truth.  Unless there takes place such a progress of faith, truth does not become truth, but becomes a separate affair from life, sometimes confirmative of falsity, and sometimes persuasive of it, thus a foul affair; for it couples itself with the man’s evil affection, or cupidity; that is, with his own proper will, which is contrary to charity.  Such is the faith that by many at this day is believed to be faith, and to save without the works of charity.

[2] But this faith, which is separate from charity, and therefore contrary to charity, is represented in what follows by Reuben, in that he lay with Bilhah his father‘s concubine (Gen. 35:22), and concerning which Jacob, then Israel, expresses his detestation in the words:--

Reuben, my firstborn, thou art my might, and the beginning of my strength; light as water thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up on thy father’s bed, then defiledst thou it; he went up on my couch (Gen. 49:3, 4).

The will and affection of this faith, namely, that which is separated from charity, as being contrary to charity, is also described in the same chapter by Simeon and Levi in these words:--

Simeon and Levi are brethren; weapons of violence are their swords let not my soul come into their secret; into their assembly let not my glory unite itself; for in their fury they slew a man, and in their will they unstrung an ox. Cursed be their fury, for it was fierce; and their anger, for it was cruel; I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel (Gen. 49:5-7).

That it is faith separate from charity which is here described by ”Simeon and Levi,“ will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be shown in what follows.

AC 3871. And hath given me the one also.  That this signifies what is successive, namely, faith in obedience or in the will, as succeeding faith in memory-knowledge or in the understanding, was shown above. This is signified by ”and hath given me this one also.“

AC 3872. And she called his name Simeon.  That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of ”name,“ and of ”calling a name,“ as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421).  The quality itself is contained in the internal sense of the words which Leah uttered-” Jehovah hath heard that I was hated, and hath given me this one also.“ This quality is what is signified by ” Simeon,“ and also by the tribe named from him; and this is the second universal of the church, that is, the second during man’s regeneration and when he is becoming a church; namely, obedience, or the will of doing the truth of faith; into which obedience, and in which will, charity is implanted, which next succeeds, and is signified by ”Levi.“

AC 3873. Verse 34. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and said, Now this time will my man cleave to me, because I have borne him three sons; therefore she called his name Levi.  ”And she conceived again, and bare a son,“ signifies as before, spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal; ”and said, Now this time will my man cleave to me,“ signifies in the supreme sense love and mercy, in the internal sense charity, in the external sense conjunction, in the present case spiritual love; ”because I have borne him three sons,“ signifies what is successive; ”therefore she called his name Levi,“ signifies its quality.

AC 3874. And she conceived again, and bare a son.  That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal, is evident from what was said above (n. 3860, 3868), where the same words occur.

AC 3875. And said, Now this time will my man cleave to me. That this signifies in the supreme sense love and mercy, in the internal sense charity, in the external sense conjunction, and in the present case spiritual love, is evident from the signification of ”to cleave.“ That in the external or proximately interior sense ”to cleave“ is conjunction, is evident without explication. That in the internal sense ”to cleave“ is charity, is evident from the fact that charity, or what is the same thing, mutual love, is spiritual conjunction; for it is a conjunction of the affections of the will, and a consequent agreement of the thoughts of the understanding; thus it is a conjunction of minds as to both parts.  That in the supreme sense ”to cleave“ is love and mercy, is hence manifest, for the infinite and eternal which is predicated of charity or spiritual love, is mercy, which is the Divine love toward the human race, sunk as it is in such great miseries.  For as of himself man is nothing but evil, and as that which is in him, so far as it is from him, is nothing else than infernal, and as he is looked upon by the Lord from Divine love, his elevation out of the hell in which he is of himself, and his deliverance, is called ”mercy.“ Hence, because mercy is from the Divine love, by ”to cleave,“ in the supreme sense, there is signified both love and mercy.

[2] That in the internal sense ”to cleave“ signifies spiritual love, or what is the same, charity toward the neighbor, may be seen also from other passages in the Word; as in Isaiah:--

Let not the son of the stranger that cleaveth to Jehovah, speak, saying, Jehovah in separating separates me from His people. The sons of the stranger that cleave unto Jehovah, to minister unto Him, and to love the name of Jehovah, shall be His servants (Isa. 56:3, 6);

”to cleave unto Jehovah“ denotes to observe the commandments, which is of spiritual love; for no one observes the commandments of God from the heart, except the man who is in the good of charity toward the neighbor. In Jeremiah:--

In those days the sons of Israel shall come, they and the sons of Judah, going and weeping shall they go, and shall seek Jehovah their God. They shall ask Zion concerning the way, thither shall their faces be, Come ye and let us cleave to Jehovah with an everlasting covenant that shall not be forgotten (Jer. 50:4, 5);

where ”to cleave to Jehovah“ in like manner denotes to observe the commandments from the heart, that is, from the good of charity.

[3] In Zechariah:--

Many nations shall cleave to Jehovah in that day, and shall be My people (Zech. 2:11);

where the sense is the same.  In Isaiah:--

Jehovah will have compassion on Jacob, and will again choose Israel, and set them in their own land and the sojourner shall cleave to them, and they shall join themselves unto the house of Jacob (Isa. 14:1);

”the sojourner cleaving to them“ denotes being in a similar observance of the law; ”to join themselves unto the house of Jacob“ signifies to be in the good of charity, in which they are who are signified by the ”house of Jacob.“  In Matthew:--

No one can serve two masters for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will cleave to the one and despise the other (Matthew 6:24);

where ”to love“ denotes the celestial of love; and ”to cleave“ the spiritual of love; both are mentioned because they are distinct, otherwise it would have been sufficient to mention one.

[4] They who are in spiritual love are on this account called the ”sons of Levi,“ as in Malachi:--

Who may abide the day of His coming, and who shall stand when He appeareth? He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver; and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and purge them as gold and silver (Mal. 3:2, 3).

That in the supreme sense the Lord is signified by” Levi,“ from His Divine love and mercy toward those who are in spiritual love, may be seen in the same Prophet:--

That ye may know that I have sent this commandment unto you, that My covenant might be with Levi, saith Jehovah Zebaoth; My covenant shall be with him of life and peace.  Ye are turned aside out of the way ye have caused many to stumble in the law; ye have corrupted the covenant of Levi. Therefore I have made you contemptible (Mal. 2:4, 5, 8, 9).

And as in the supreme sense ”Levi“ signifies the Lord‘s Divine love or mercy, and in the internal sense spiritual love, therefore the tribe of Levi was made the priesthood; for in the internal sense of the Word the ”priesthood“ is nothing else than the holy of love; and the ”royalty“ the holy of faith (n. 1728, 2015, 3670).

[5] As by the expression ”to cleave,“ from which Levi was named, there is signified spiritual love, which is the same as mutual love, by the same expression in the original tongue there is also signified a mutual giving and receiving; and in the Jewish Church by mutual giving and receiving there was represented mutual love, concerning which of the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere.  Mutual love differs from friendship in this respect that mutual love regards the good which is in a man, and because it is directed to good, it is directed to him who is in good; but friendship regards the man; and this also is mutual love when it regards the man from good, or for the sake of good; but when it does not regard him from good or for the sake of good, but for the sake of self which it calls good, then friendship is not mutual love, but approaches the love of self, and in so far as it approaches this, so far it is opposite to mutual love. In itself mutual love is nothing else than charity toward the neighbor; for by the neighbor in the internal sense nothing else is signified than good, and in the supreme sense the Lord, because all good is from Him, and He is good itself (n. 2425, 3419).  This mutual love or charity toward the neighbor is what is meant by spiritual love, and is signified by ”Levi.“

[6] Moreover in the Word both celestial love and conjugial love are in the sense of the letter expressed by the expression ”to cleave,“ but from a word in the original tongue different from that from which Levi was named. This word signifies a still closer conjunction, as in the following passages. In Moses:--

Thou shalt fear Jehovah thy God; Him shalt thou serve, and to Him shalt thou cleave (Deut. 10:20).

Ye shall walk after Jehovah your God, and fear Him, and keep His commandments, and hear His voice, and ye shall serve Him and cleave unto Him (Deut. 13:4).

To love Jehovah your God, and to walk in all His ways, and to cleave unto Him (Deut. 11:22).

To love Jehovah thy God, to obey His voice, and to cleave unto Him; for He is thy life (Deut. 30:20).

In Joshua:--

Take diligent heed to do the commandment and the law, which Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded you, to love Jehovah your God, and to walk in all His ways, and to keep His commandments, and to cleave unto Him, and to serve Him with all your heart, and with all your soul (Joshua 22:5).

In the second book of Kings:--

King Hezekiah trusted in Jehovah the God of Israel. He clave to Jehovah, he departed not from following Him, but kept His commandments, which Jehovah commanded Moses (2 Kings 18:5, 6).

In Jeremiah:--

As a girdle cleaveth to the loins of a man, so have I caused to cleave unto Me the whole house of Israel, and the whole house of Judah that they might be unto Me for a people, and for a name, and for a praise, and for adornment; and they have not obeyed (Jer. 13:11).

[7] That conjugial love also is expressed by ”cleaving“ is manifest from the following passages:--

Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife and they shall be one flesh (Gen. 2:24).

For your hardness of heart, Moses wrote this commandment; but from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female for this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and shall cleave unto his wife; and they twain shall be one flesh what therefore God hath joined together let not man put asunder (Mark 10:5-9; Matt. 19:5).

The soul of Shechem clave to Dinah the daughter of Jacob he loved the damsel, and spake to the heart of the damsel (Gen. 34:3).

Solomon loved many strange women; Solomon clave to these in love (1 Kings 11:1, 2).

From all this it is now evident that ”to cleave“ is a term of love, received into use by the churches in ancient times, which churches were in significatives; and that in the internal sense it denotes nothing else than spiritual conjunction, which is charity and love.

AC 3876. Because I have borne him three sons.  That this signifies what is successive, is evident from what was said above (n. 3871).  The successive state that is here signified by the ”three sons,“ is that charity now arrives for while man is being regenerated, that is, being made a church, the first thing must be for him to know and understand what the truth of faith is; the second must be to will and to do it and the third is to be affected with it.  And when man is affected with truth, that is, when he perceives delight and bliss in acting according to truth, he is then in charity or mutual love.  This succession is what is here meant by, ”I have borne him three sons.“

AC 3877. Therefore she called his name Levi.  That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of ”name,“ and of ”calling a name,“ as being quality (n. 3872).  The quality is what is contained in these words: ”Now this time will my man cleave to me, because I have borne him three sons“ (n. 3875, 3876).  This quality is what is signified by ”Levi,“ and also by the tribe named from him; and this is the third universal of the church (that is, the third when man is being regenerated, or being made a church), and is charity.  The case with respect to charity is that it contains within itself the willing of truth; and through this it contains within itself the understanding of truth; for whoever is in charity has these.  but before man comes to charity, he must first be in the external, namely, in the understanding of truth; next in the willing of truth; and lastly in being affected with truth, which is charity.  And when man is in charity, he then looks to the Lord, who in the supreme sense is signified by ”Judah,“ the fourth son of Jacob.

AC 3878. Verse 35. And she conceived again, and bare a son, and she said, This time I will confess Jehovah; therefore she called his name Judah; and she stood still from bearing.  ”And she conceived again, and bare a soil,“ signifies, as before, spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal; ”and she said, This time I will confess Jehovah,“ signifies in the supreme sense the Lord, in the internal sense the Word, in the external sense doctrine therefrom, in the present case the Divine of love and the Lord‘s celestial kingdom ”therefore she called his name Judah,“ signifies its quality; ”and she stood still from bearing,“ signifies ascent by a ladder from the earth to Jehovah or the Lord.

AC 3879. And she conceived again, and bare a son.  That this signifies spiritual conception and birth from what is external to what is still more internal, is evident from what was said above (n. 3860, 3868), where similar words occur.

AC 3880. And she said, This time I will confess Jehovah.  That this signifies in the supreme sense the Lord, in the internal sense the Word, in the external sense doctrine therefrom, in the present case the Divine of love and the Lord’s celestial kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”confessing.“ That in the external or proximately interior sense ” to confess“ signifies doctrine from the Word, is manifest; for confession is nothing else, even in common speech, than a man‘s declaration of his faith before the Lord; thus it comprehends in it whatever the man believes; consequently, whatever is to him doctrine.  That in the internal sense ”to confess“ signifies the Word, follows from this, for all the doctrine of faith and charity must be from the Word; because from himself man knows nothing of things celestial and spiritual, and therefore he can know them only from Divine revelation, which is the Word. That in the supreme sense ”to confess“ signifies the Lord, is because the Lord is the Word, consequently doctrine from the Word, and because the Word in the internal sense has regard to the Lord alone, and treats of His kingdom (n. 1871, 2859, 2894, 3245, 3305, 3393, 3432, 3439, 3454).  Thus it is that by ”confessing Jehovah“ is dignified the Divine of love and His celestial kingdom for the Lord is Divine love itself, and the influx of this constitutes His kingdom, and this by means of the Word which is from Him.  That by ”Judah,“ who was named from ”confessing Jehovah,“ is signified the Divine of love and the Lord’s celestial kingdom, has been shown above (n. 3654); and hence it is here said that ”confessing“ has this signification.

[2] But the signification of ” to confess“ and of ”confession,“ may be seen from the passages in the Word in which these expressions occur; as in Isaiah:--

In that day thou shalt say, I will confess to Thee, O Jehovah though Thou wast angry with me, Thine anger is turned away, and Thou hast comforted me. And in that day ye shall say, Confess to Jehovah, call upon His name, make known His works among the people, make mention that His name is exalted (Isa. 12:1, 4).

In David:--

We confess to Thee, O God, we confess, and Thy name is near, Thy wondrous works declare (Ps. 75:1).

Again:--

A psalm for confession: Make a joyful noise to Jehovah, all the earth; He hath made us, and not we ourselves, His people and the flock of His pasture.  Enter through His gates with confession, into His courts with praise; confess ye to Him, and bless His name.  For Jehovah is good, His mercy is forever, and His truth to generation and generation (Ps. 100:1-5).

Here it is evident what ”confessing“ and ” confession‘ signify, namely, acknowledging Jehovah or the Lord, and the things which are His.  That this acknowledgment is doctrine and the Word, is manifest.

[3] Again in Isaiah:--

Jehovah will comfort Zion, He will comfort all her waste places joy and gladness shall be found therein, confession and the voice of singing (Isa. 51:3).

And in Jeremiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah, Behold I am bringing back the captivity of Jacob’s tents, and I will have compassion on his dwelling places and the city shall be builded upon her own heap, and the palace shall be inhabited after the manner thereof and out of them shall proceed confession, and the voice of them that make merry (Jer. 30:18, 19).

In David:--

I will confess to Jehovah according to His righteousness, and I will sing to the name of Jehovah Most High (Ps. 7:17).

Again:--

When I shall go to the house of God, with the voice of singing and of confession, with a multitude that keep a festival (Ps. 42:4).

Again:--

I will confess unto Thee O Lord among the nations, I will sing psalms unto Thee among the peoples for Thy mercy is great, even to heaven (Ps. 57:9, 10).

[4] From these passages it is evident that “confession” has reference to the celestial of love, for it is distinguished from terms that belong to the spiritual of love; for it is said “confession and the voice of singing,” “confession and the voice of them that make merry,” “I will confess unto Thee among the nations, and I will sing psalms unto Thee among the peoples,”-“ confession” and “confessing” being celestial, and the “voice of singing,” the “voice of them that make merry and sing psalms,” being spiritual expressions.  It is also said, “confess among the nations, and sing psalms among the peoples,” because “nations” signify those who are in good, and “peoples” those who are in truth (n. 1416, 1849, 2928); that is, those who are in celestial love, and those who are in spiritual love.  For in the Word, with the Prophets, two expressions for the most part occur, one having reference to the celestial or good, and the other to the spiritual or truth, in order that there may be a Divine marriage in every part of the Word, thus a marriage of good and truth (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 3132).  From this it is also manifest that “confession” involves the celestial of love; and that genuine confession, or that which is from the heart, can only be from good; the confession which is from truth being called the “voice of singing, the voice of them that make merry, and that sing psalms.”

[5] So also in the following passages.  In David:--

I will praise the name of God with a song, and will magnify Him with confession (Ps. 69:30).

Again:--

I will confess to Thee with the psaltery, even Thy truth O my God; unto Thee will I sing with the harp, O Thou Holy One of Israel (Ps. 71:22).

That “to sing with the harp” and with other stringed instruments signifies spiritual things, may be seen above (n. 415-420). Again:--

Enter into His gates with confession, into His courts with praise confess to Him, bless His name (Ps. 100:4);

here “ confession” and “ confessing” are from the love of good but “praise” and “blessing” from the love of truth.  Again:--

Answer unto Jehovah with confession sing psalms upon the harp unto our God (Ps. 147:7).

Again:--

I will confess to Thee in the great congregation I will praise Thee among much people (Ps. 35:18).

Again:--

I will confess to Jehovah with my mouth, and in the midst of many will I praise Him (Ps. 109:30).

Again:--

We Thy people and the flock of Thy pasture will confess to Thee forever; we will recount Thy praise to generation and generation (Ps. 79:13).

Again:--

Let them confess to Jehovah His mercy, and His wonderful works to the sons of man.  Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of confession, and declare His works with singing (Ps. 107:21, 22).

[6] That these passages contain two expressions for one thing, is manifest, and they would appear like vain repetitions unless one involved the celestial, which is good, and the other the spiritual, which is truth; consequently the Divine marriage, the Lord‘s kingdom itself being such a marriage.  This mystery pervades the Word throughout, but can never be disclosed except by means of the internal sense, and the derivative knowledge as to which expression belongs to the celestial class, and which to the spiritual.  But it must be known in general what the celestial is, and what the spiritual, and these have often been treated of above.

[7] Real confession of the heart, being from celestial love, is in the genuine sense confession.  The man who is in’ this confession acknowledges that all good is from the Lord, and that all evil is from himself; and when he is in this acknowledgment, he is in a state of humiliation, for he then acknowledges that the Lord is everything in him, and that he himself is relatively nothing; and when confession is made from this state, it is made from celestial love.

[8] But the sacrifices of confession that were offered in the Jewish Church were thanksgivings, and in a universal sense were called eucharistic and repaying sacrifices, which were of two kinds- confessional, and votive.  That the sacrifices of confession involved the celestial of love, may be seen from their institution, concerning which we read in Moses:--

This is the law of the sacrifice of the eucharistics that shall be offered to Jehovah if he has offered it for confession, then he shall offer, besides the sacrifice of confession, unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and fine flour boiled, cakes mingled with oil, upon leavened cakes of bread he shall offer his gift, besides the sacrifice of confession (Lev. 7:11-13).

All the things here mentioned-the “unleavened cakes mingled with oil,” the “unleavened wafers anointed with oil,” the “fine flour boiled,” and the “leavened cakes of bread,” signify the celestial things of love and faith, and confessions therefrom, and that those who made the offerings must be in humiliation. By “fine flour” and “cakes” thereof are signified the celestial of love and the derivative spiritual of faith, which is charity, (n. 2177); by “what is unleavened,” purification from evils and falsities, (n. 2342); by “ oil,” the celestial of love, (n. 886, 3728); by “ bread,” the same, (n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735).

[9] But the votive sacrifices, which were another kind of eucharistics, in the external sense signified repayment; in the internal sense the will that the Lord should provide; and in the supreme sense a state of providence (n. 3732).  This is the reason why mention is made of all these in the Word throughout; as in David:--

Offer unto God the sacrifice of confession and pay thy vows unto the Most High.  Whoso offereth the sacrifice of confession, honoreth Me; and he who ordereth his way, to him will I show the salvation of God (Ps. 50:14, 23).

Again:--

Thy vows are upon me, O God I will repay confessions unto Thee (Ps. 56:12).

Again:--

I will sacrifice to Thee the sacrifice of confession, and will call upon the name of Jehovah I will pay my vows unto Jehovah (Ps. 116:17, 18).

And in Jonah:--

I will sacrifice unto Thee with the voice of confession I will pay that which I have vowed (Jonah 2:9).

[10] From all this it is now manifest what is the confession from which Judah was named; namely, that in the supreme sense it signifies the Lord and the Divine of love; in the internal sense, the Word and also the Lord‘s celestial kingdom; and in the exterior sense, the doctrine from the Word which is of the celestial church.  That these things are signified in the Word by “Judah,” may be seen from what now follows.

AC 3881. Therefore she called his name Judah.  That this signifies his quality, is evident from the signification of “name,” and of“ calling a name,” as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421).  The quality itself is contained in the internal sense of the words that Leah spoke-“ This time I will confess Jehovah,” concerning which just above (n. 3880), namely, that in the supreme sense it is the Lord and the Divine of His love; in the internal sense, the Word and also the Lord’s celestial kingdom; and in the exterior sense, the doctrine from the Word which is of the celestial church.  That these things are signified in the Word by “Judah,” wherever the name occurs, scarcely anyone as yet knows, because the histories of the Word are believed to be merely historical; and the prophecies to be of the things that have been consigned to oblivion, except some from which doctrinal tenets may be drawn.  That there is a spiritual sense in them is not believed, because at this day it is not known what the spiritual sense of the Word is, nor even what that which is spiritual is. The principal reason of this is that men live a natural life, and the natural life is such that when it is regarded as the end, or is loved above all other things, it obliterates both knowledges and faith; insomuch that when spiritual life and a spiritual sense are mentioned, it is as though a kind of nonentity were spoken of, or something unpleasant and sad, that excites loathing, because it is in disagreement with the natural life. As this is now the state of the human race, they do not apprehend, nor are they willing to apprehend that anything else is meant by the names in the Word than the things themselves which are named; such as nations, peoples, persons, countries, cities, mountains, rivers; when yet in the spiritual sense names signify actual things.

[2] That in the internal sense “Judah” signifies the Lord‘s celestial church; in the universal sense His celestial kingdom; and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, may be seen from many passages in the Old Testament where “Judah” is mentioned; as from the following.  In Moses:--

Thou art Judah; thy brethren shall praise thee thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies thy father’s sons shall bow down themselves to thee.  Judah is a lion‘s whelp from the prey my son thou art gone up; he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up? The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a law-giver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall be the gathering together of the peoples.  Binding his ass’s foal unto the vine, and the son of his she-ass unto the choice vine, he shall wash his garment in wine, and his vesture in the blood of grapes.  His eyes are red with wine, and his teeth white with milk (Gen. 49:8-12).

[3] This prophetic utterance of Jacob (then Israel) concerning Judah, cannot be understood by anyone-not even a single word of it-except from the internal sense; as for instance what is meant by “his brethren praising him;” and by “his father‘s sons bowing down themselves to him;” by “his going up from the prey like a lion’s whelp, and stooping and couching as a lion;” or what by “ Shiloh;” by “binding his ass‘s foal to a vine, and the son of his she-ass to a choice vine;” by “washing his garment in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes;” by “his eyes being red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.” As before said these expressions cannot possibly be understood by anyone except from the internal sense, when yet all and each of them signify celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom, and Divine things; and thereby it is predicted that the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, should be represented by Judah.  But concerning all these expressions, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more shall be said in the explication of that chapter.

[4] The case is the same in other parts of the Word, especially in the Prophets, where mention is made of Judah; as in Ezekiel:--

Thou son of man, take thee one stick, and write upon it, For Judah, and for the sons of Israel his companions and take another stick, and write upon it, For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and of all the house of Israel his companions and join them for thee one to another into one stick, and they shall become one in My hand.  I will make them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel and one king shall be king to them all.  My servant David shall be king over them; and they all shall have one shepherd; and they shall walk in My judgments, and observe My statutes, and do them.  And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob My servant, wherein your fathers dwelt; they and their sons shall dwell upon it, and their sons‘ even forever; and My servant David shall be their prince forever.  And I will establish with them a covenant of peace it shall be to them an everlasting covenant. I will place them and multiply them, and will set My sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore. Thus shall My habitation be with them; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people (Ezek. 37:15-28).

whoever supposes that by “Judah” is here meant Judah; by “Israel,” Israel; by “Joseph,” Joseph; by Ephraim,“ Ephraim; and by ”David,“ David; will believe that all these things are to come to pass as they are described in the sense of the letter-that Israel will be again consociated with Judah, as well as the tribe of Ephraim; likewise that David will rule over them, and that they will thus dwell upon the land given unto Jacob forever; and that an everlasting covenant will in this case be established with them, and a sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore; when in the internal sense the Jewish nation is not meant at all; but the Lord’s celestial kingdom which is ”Judah,“ and His spiritual kingdom which is ”Israel,“ and the Lord Himself who is ”David.“  From this it is very plain that by names are not meant persons, but things celestial and Divine.

[5] The case is similar in regard to the following words in Zechariah:--

Many peoples and numerous nations shall come to seek Jehovah Zebaoth.  In those days ten men shall take hold, out of all the languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of a man of Judah saying, We will go with you, for we have heard that God is with you (Zech. 8:22, 23).

They who apprehend these words according to the letter will say (as the Jewish nation to this day believes) that as this prophecy has not yet been fulfilled, it will be; and therefore that the Jews will return to the land of Canaan, and many will follow them out of all the languages of the nations, and will lay hold of the skirt of a man of Judah, and will pray for leave to follow them; and that then God (namely, the Messiah, whom Christians call the Lord) will be with them, to whom they must first be converted.  This would be the promise of the words if by a ”man of Judah“ there were meant a Jew.  But the subject here treated of in the internal sense is a new spiritual church among the Gentiles; and by a ”man of Judah“ is signified the saving faith which comes from love to the Lord.

[6] That by ”Judah“ is not meant Judah; but, as already said, in the internal sense the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, which was represented in the church instituted with Judah or the Jews, may also be clearly seen from the following passages:--

The Lord shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from the four wings of the earth. Then shall the envy of Ephraim depart, and the enemies of Judah shall be cut off Ephraim shall not envy Judah, and Judah shall not vex Ephraim (Isa. 11:12, 13).

And in Jeremiah:--

Behold the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will raise up unto David a righteous branch, who shall reign as a king, and shall prosper, and shall execute judgment and righteousness in the land.  In His days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell securely and this is His name whereby they shall call Him, Jehovah our Righteousness (Jer. 23:5, 6).

And in Joel:--

Then ye shall know that I am Jehovah your God, dwelling in Zion, the mountain of My holiness and Jerusalem shall be holiness.  And it shall come to pass in that day, that the mountains shall drop new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters and a fountain shall come forth from the house of Jehovah, and shall water the stream of Shittim.  Judah shall abide forever, and Jerusalem to generation and generation (Joel 3:17, 18, 20).

[7] And in Zechariah:--

In that day I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness and I will open Mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the peoples with blindness.  And the chieftains of Judah shall say in their heart, I will strengthen to myself the inhabitants of Jerusalem in Jehovah Zebaoth their God.  In that day will I make the chieftains of Judah like a hearth of fire in the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf and they shall devour all the peoples round about on the right hand and on the left and Jerusalem shall yet again be inhabited in her own place, even in Jerusalem and Jehovah shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inhabitant of Jerusalem, may not lift itself up above Judah.  In that day will Jehovah defend the inhabitant of Jerusalem.  And the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of Jehovah before them.  And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitant of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace (Zech. 12:4-10).

The subject here treated of is the Lord’s celestial kingdom, that truth should not have dominion therein over good, but that truth should be subordinate to good.  Truth is signified by the ”house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem;“ and good by ”Judah.“ From this it is manifest why it is first said that ”the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inhabitant of Jerusalem, may not lift itself up above Judah;“ and next, that ”the house of David shall be as God, and as the angel of Jehovah, and that the spirit of grace shall be poured upon it, and upon the inhabitant of Jerusalem;“ for such is the state when truth is subordinate to good, or faith to love.  The ”horse which shall be smitten with astonishment, and the horse of the peoples with blindness,“ signifies self-intelligence (n. 2761, 2762, 3217).

[8] Again:--

In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, Holiness to Jehovah and the pots in the house of Jehovah shall be like the bowls before the altar; and every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness to Jehovah Zebaoth (Zech. 14:20, 21);

describing the Lord‘s kingdom.  In Malachi:--

Behold I send My angel who shall prepare the way before Me and the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Angel of the covenant whom ye desire behold He cometh but who may abide the day of His coming? Then shall the meat-offering of Judah and of Jerusalem be pleasant unto Jehovah, as in the days of old, and as in former years (Mal. 3:1, 2, 4);

where the subject treated of is manifestly the Lord’s advent. It is known that the meat-offering of Judah and Jerusalem was not then pleasant; but that worship from love was pleasant, which is the ”meat-offering of Judah;“ and worship from faith derived from love, which is the ”`meat-offering of Jerusalem.“

[9] In Jeremiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah Zebaoth, Yet again shall they say this word in the land of Judah and in the cities thereof, when I shall bring again their captivity Jehovah bless thee, O habitation of righteousness, O mountain of holiness.  and Judah and all the cities thereof shall dwell therein together. Behold the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will sow the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast.  Behold the days come that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers (Jer. 31:23, 24, 27, 31, 32).

And in David:--

The Lord hath chosen the tribe of Judah, the Mount Zion that He loved; and hath built His sanctuary like the heights, like the earth hath He founded it forever (Ps. 78:68, 69).

[10] From these and many other passages here omitted, it may be seen what is signified in the Word by ”Judah;“ and that it is not the Jewish nation, because this was very far from being a celestial church, or the Lord‘s celestial kingdom; being the worst of all nations in regard to love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, and also in regard to faith; and this from the days of their first fathers, the sons of Jacob, down to the present time.  Such persons were nevertheless capable of representing the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom, (n. 3479-3481), because in representations the person is not reflected upon, but only the thing that is represented, (n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3670).

[11] But when they did not remain in the rituals ordained by Jehovah or the Lord, but turned away from them to idolatries, they then no longer represented celestial and spiritual things, but the opposite, that is, infernal and diabolical things-according to the Lord‘s words in John:--

Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will to do; he was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth (John 8:44).

That this is signified by ”Judah“ in the opposite sense, may be seen from the following words in Isaiah:--

Jerusalem hath stumbled, and Judah is fallen, because their tongue and their word are against Jehovah to rebel against the eyes of His glory (Isa. 3:8).

And in Malachi:--

Judah hath dealt treacherously, and abomination hath been wrought in Israel and in Jerusalem and Judah hath profaned the holiness of Jehovah, because he hath loved and betrothed to himself the daughter of a strange god (Mal. 2:11);

and also in the following passages: (Isa. 3:1; 8:7, 8; Jer. 2:28; 3:7-11; 9:26; 11:9, 10, 12; 13:9; 14:2; 17:1; 18:12, 13; 19:7; 32:35; 36:31; 44:12, 14, 26, 28; Hosea 5:5; 8:14; Amos 2:4, 5; Zeph. 1:4).

AC 3882. And she stood still from bearing.  That this signifies ascent by a ladder from the earth to Jehovah or the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”bearing,“ or of ”birth,“ as being truth and good; for these are births in the spiritual sense, inasmuch as man is regenerated or born anew by means of truth and good.  These also are what are signified by the four sons born of Leah-Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah.  ”Reuben“ signifies the truth which is the first of regeneration, or of the new birth; this is truth merely as to memory-knowledge, thus it is to know truth.  ”Simeon“ signifies the truth which is the second of regeneration, or of the new birth; this is truth as to the will, thus it is to will truth. ” Levi“ signifies the truth which is the third of regeneration, or of the new birth; this is truth as to affection, thus it is to be affected with truth, which is the same thing as charity.  But ”Judah“ signifies good, which is the fourth of regeneration, or of the new birth, and this is the celestial of love.  When the regenerate man, or he who is born anew, arrives at this stage, the Lord appears to him, for he has then ascended from the lowest step, as by a ladder, up to the step where the Lord is.

[2] This also is the ascent which was signified by the ladder seen by Jacob in a dream, which stood upon the earth, whose top reached to heaven, and on which the angels of God ascended and descended, and upon which stood Jehovah or the Lord (Gen. 28:12). Hence it is evident that such is the signification of ”standing still from bearing.“ That by ”conceiving and bearing,“ here mentioned four times, is signified advancement from external to internal, or from truth to good, that is, from earth to heaven, may be seen above (n. 3860, 3868, 3874, 3879). Descent follows afterwards, for man cannot descend unless he has first ascended. Descent is nothing else than looking at truth from good, as from a mountain upon which he has climbed, a man views the things which lie beneath.  That he then can comprehend in one view innumerable things more than they who stand beneath or in the valley, is manifest; and the case is precisely the same with those who are in good (that is, in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor), as compared with those who are only in truth, that is, in faith alone.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE GRAND MAN, AND CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE; HERE, CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE HEART AND LUNGS

AC 3883. It has been already shown what the Grand Man is, and what is the correspondence therewith, namely, that the Grand Man is the universal heaven, which in general is a likeness and image of the Lord, and that the correspondence is that of the Lord’s Divine with the celestial and spiritual things therein; and of the celestial and spiritual things therein with the natural things in the world; and chiefly with those in man.  Thus there is a correspondence of the Lord‘s Divine through heaven or the Grand Man with man, and with all the things in man, insomuch that man comes forth, that is, subsists, therefrom.

AC 3884. As in the world it is quite unknown that there is a correspondence of heaven or the Grand Man with all things of man, and that man comes forth and subsists therefrom, so that what is said on the subject may seem paradoxical and incredible, I may here relate the things that experience has enabled me to know with certainty.  Once, when the interior heaven was opened to me, and I was conversing with the angels there, I was permitted to observe the following phenomena.  Be it known that although I was in heaven, I was nevertheless not out of myself, but in the body, for heaven is within man, wherever he may be, so that when it pleases the Lord, a man may be in heaven and yet not be withdrawn from the body.  In this way it was given me to perceive the general workings of heaven as plainly as an object is perceived by any of the senses. Four workings or operations were then perceived by me.  The first was into the brain at the left temple, and was a general operation as regards the organs of reason; for the left side of the brain corresponds to rational or intellectual things, but the right to the affections or things of the will.

[2] The second general operation that I perceived was into the respiration of the lungs, and it led my respiration gently, but from within, so that I had no need to draw breath or respire by any exertion of my will.  The very respiration of heaven was at the time plainly perceived by me.  It is internal, and for this reason is imperceptible to man; but by a wonderful correspondence it inflows into man’s respiration, which is external, or of the body; and if man were deprived of this influx, he would instantly fall down dead.

[3] The third operation that I perceived was into the systole and diastole of the heart, which had then more of softness with me than I had ever experienced at any other time.  The intervals of the pulse were regular, being about three within each period of respiration; yet such as to terminate in and thus direct the things belonging to the lungs.  How at the close of each respiration the alternations of the heart insinuated themselves into those of the lungs, I was in some measure enabled to observe.  The alternations of the pulse were so observable that I was able to count them; they were distinct and soft.

[4] The fourth general operation was into the kidneys, which also it was given me to perceive, but obscurely.  From these things it was made manifest that heaven or the Grand Man has cardiac pulses, and that it has respirations and that the cardiac pulses of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the heart and with its systolic and diastolic motions; and that the respirations of heaven or the Grand Man have a correspondence with the lungs and their respirations but that they are both unobservable to man, being imperceptible, because internal.

AC 3885.  Once also when I was withdrawn from the ideas derived from the sensuous things of the body, a heavenly light appeared to me, and that light itself withdrew me farther from them, for in the light of heaven there is spiritual life (n. 1524, 2776, 3167, 3195, 3339, 3636, 3643).  When I was in this light, corporeal and worldly things appeared as beneath me, and yet I still perceived them, but as more remote from me, and as not belonging to me.  I then seemed to myself to be in heaven with my head, but not with my body.  In this state it was likewise given me to observe the general respiration of heaven, and what was its nature; it was interior, easy, spontaneous, and corresponding to my respiration as three to one.  It was also given me to observe the reciprocations of the pulsations of the heart; and I was then informed by angels that each and every creature on the earth has pulsations of the heart and the consequent respirations; and that the reason why they take place at dissimilar moments is that both the cardiac pulsation and the pulmonary respiration which are in the heavens pass off into something continuous, and thus into endeavor, which is of such a nature as to excite these motions variously in accordance with the state of every subject.

AC 3886. But be it known that the variations in the heavens in respect to pulsations and respirations are manifold, being as many as are the societies; for they are according to the states of thought and affection with the angels and these are according to their states of faith and love; but the general pulsation and respiration are as above described.  Once also it was given me to observe the cardiac pulsation of those who were of the province of the hinder part of the head, and to note one by one the pulsations of the celestial and those of the spiritual in that province.  The pulsations of the celestial were tacit and gentle; but those of the spiritual were strong and vibratory.  The intervals of the pulsation of the spiritual were to those of the celestial as five to two; for the pulsation of the celestial inflows into that of the spiritual, and thus goes forth and passes into nature.  And wonderful to say the speech of the celestial angels is not heard by the spiritual angels, but is perceived under the form of a pulsation of the heart; and this because the speech of the celestial angels is not intelligible to the spiritual angels, for it is produced by affections which are of love; whereas that of the spiritual is produced by intellectual ideas (n. 1647, 1759, 2157, 3343); and the former belong to the province of the heart, but the latter to the province of the lungs.

AC 3887. In heaven or the Grand Man there are two kingdoms, one of which is called Celestial, and the other Spiritual.  The celestial kingdom consists of angels who are called celestial, and these are they who have been in love to the Lord, and thence in all wisdom; for they are in the Lord, and thereby they are pre-eminently in a state of peace and innocence. They appear to others like little children; for a state of peace and innocence presents this appearance.  Everything there is as it were alive before them, for whatever comes immediately from the Lord is alive.  Such is the Celestial Kingdom.  The other kingdom is called Spiritual.  It consists of angels who are called spiritual, and these are they who have been in the good of charity toward the neighbor.  They make the delight of their life to consist in the fact that they can do good to others without recompense; to them it is sufficient recompense to be allowed to do good to others.  The more they will and desire this, in so much the greater intelligence and happiness are they; for in the other life everyone is gifted with intelligence and happiness by the Lord, in accordance with the use he performs from the affection of the will.  Such is the Spiritual Kingdom.

[2] They who are in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom all belong to the province of the heart; and they who are in the spiritual kingdom all belong to the province of the lungs.  The influx from the celestial kingdom into the spiritual kingdom is like that of the heart into the lungs as also is the influx of all things of the heart into those of the lungs; for by means of the blood-vessels the heart rules in the whole of the body and in all its parts and the lungs in all its parts by the respiration.  Hence there is everywhere in the body as it were an influx of the heart into the lungs; but according to the forms there; and according to the states.  From this arises all the sensation as well as all the action that is proper to the body, as may be seen from the case of foetuses and newborn infants, which cannot have any bodily sensation, nor any voluntary action, until their lungs have been opened, and thus an influx established of the one into the other.  The case is similar in the spiritual world, but with the difference that there are not there bodily and natural things, but celestial and spiritual ones, which are the good of love and the truth of faith.  Hence the cardiac motions with those in the spiritual world are according to the states of love, and the respiratory motions are according to the states of faith; the influx of the one into the other causes in them spiritual sensation and spiritual action.  These things will necessarily appear to man as paradoxical, from his having no other idea of the good of love and the truth of faith than that they are certain abstract things without the power of effecting anything; when yet the contrary is true, namely, that all perception and sensation, and all energy and action, even in man on earth, are from the good of love and the truth of faith.

AC 3888. These two kingdoms are presented to view in man by means of the two kingdoms that are in him, namely, the kingdom of the will, and the kingdom of the understanding, which two kingdoms constitute the mind of man, nay, the man himself.  The will is that to which corresponds the pulsation of the heart; and the understanding is that to which corresponds the respiration of the lungs.  For this reason there are likewise in the body of man two kingdoms, namely, those of the heart and the lungs.  He who knows this mystery may also know how the case is with the influx of the will into the understanding, and of the understanding into the will; consequently with the influx of the good of love into the truth of faith, and vice versa; thus how the case is with the regeneration of man.  But they who are only in corporeal ideas, that is, who are in the will of what is evil and the understanding of what is false cannot apprehend these things; for they cannot think of spiritual and celestial things otherwise than sensuously and corporeally, consequently not otherwise than from darkness of the things of heavenly light (or of the truth of faith), and from cold of the things of heavenly flame (or of the good of love).  This darkness and cold so extinguish celestial and spiritual things that these appear to such persons to have no existence.

AC 3889. In order that I might know not only that there is a correspondence of the celestial things which are of love with the motions of the heart, and of the spiritual things which are of faith from love with the motions of the lungs, but also how the case is with this correspondence, it was given me for a considerable space of time to be among the angels, who showed it me to the life.  By a wonderful and indescribable flowing into gyres they formed a semblance of a heart and another semblance of lungs, together with all the interior and exterior contextures that are in them.  They then followed the flow of heaven in a free way; for heaven is in the endeavor toward such a form, from the influx of love from the Lord.  Thus they presented the several parts that are in the heart; and afterwards the union between the heart and the lungs, which they also represented by the marriage of good and truth.  From this it was evident that the heart corresponds to the celestial which is of good, and the lungs to the spiritual which is of truth; and that the conjunction of these two in a material form is precisely as is that of the heart and the lungs.  I was also told that the case is similar in the body throughout (that is, in its several members, organs, and viscera) in regard to the things therein which are of the heart, and those which are of the lungs; for where both do not act, and each distinctly take its turn, there cannot be any motion of life from any principle of the will, nor any feeling of life from any principle of the understanding.

AC 3890. It has been occasionally observed above that heaven or the Grand Man is distinguished into innumerable societies, and in general into as many as there are organs and viscera in the body; and that each particular society belongs to one of these organs and viscera (n. 3745).  Also that the societies, although innumerable and various, nevertheless act as a one; just as all things in the body, although these are various, act as a one.  The heavenly societies that belong to the province of the heart are the celestial societies, and are in the midst, or in the inmosts; but those which belong to the province of the lungs are the spiritual societies, and are round about, and are in the exteriors.  The influx from the Lord is through the celestial societies into the spiritual ones, or through the middle into the circumferences, that is, through inmosts to exteriors.  The reason of this is that the Lord inflows through love or mercy, whence comes all that is celestial in His kingdom; and through love or mercy He inflows into the good of faith, whence comes all that is spiritual in His kingdom; and this with unspeakable variety; but the variety does not arise from the influx, but from the reception.

AC 3891. That not only does the universal heaven respire as one man, but also each of the societies in company, nay all angels and spirits, has been testified to me by very many living experiences, so as to leave me in no doubt on the subject.  spirits are surprised that anyone should have any doubt concerning the matter; but as there are few who have any other idea of angels and spirits than as of that which is immaterial, whence they would be mere thoughts, and thus scarcely substances, still less would as men enjoy the senses of seeing, hearing, and of touch, and still less would have respiration, and thus a life like man’s (although of an interior kind, such as is the life of a spirit relatively to that of a man) therefore I may here adduce yet further experiences.  Before falling asleep I was once told beforehand that there were some who were conspiring against me with the intent to kill me by suffocation; but I paid no attention to their threats, because I was protected by the Lord, and therefore I fell asleep without apprehension.  But on awaking at midnight I was made very sensible that I did not respire from myself, but from heaven; for the respiration was not my own, and yet I respired.  On many other occasions it has been given me to be sensible of the breathing or respiration of spirits, and also of angels, from the fact that they respired within me; and that my own respiration was nevertheless at the same time present, distinct from theirs. But no one can be sensible of this unless his interiors are opened, and he is thus brought into communication with heaven.

AC 3892. I have been informed by the most ancient people, who were celestial men, and above all other men were in love to the Lord, that they had not external respiration such as their posterity had, but internal; but that they respired with the angels, with whom they were in fellowship because they were in celestial love.  I was further informed that their states of respiration were altogether according to their states of love and of the derivative faith (n. 608, 805, 1118-1120).

AC 3893. Angelic choirs were once celebrating the Lord together, and this from gladness of heart.  Their celebration was sometimes heard as sweet singing for among themselves spirits and angels are possessed of a sonorous voice, and are heard by each other as well as a man is heard by a man; but human singing is not to be compared with that for a sweetness and harmony which are celestial.  From the variety of the sound I perceived that there were many choirs.  I was instructed by the angels with me that they belonged to the province of the lungs and to their functions; for it is theirs to sing because this is the office of the lungs.  This also was given me to know by experience.  They were permitted to direct my respiration, which they did so gently and sweetly, and also so interiorly, that I was scarcely sensible of any respiration of my own.  I was further instructed that they who are appointed to the involuntary respiration are distinct from those who are appointed to the voluntary respiration; and I was told that they who are appointed to the involuntary respiration are present with man during sleep; for as soon as he sleeps, the voluntariness of his respiration ceases, and he receives involuntary respiration.

AC 3894. It was said above (n. 3892), that the respirations of angels and spirits are altogether according to their states of love and of the derivative faith.  Hence one society does not respire in the same manner as another; and the evil, who are in the love of self and of the world, and thereby in what is false, cannot abide in company with the good; but when they come near them they seem to themselves unable to breathe, and as it were to be suffocated; in consequence whereof they fall down like persons half dead, or like stones, even into hell, where they again receive their respiration, which they have in common with those who are there.  From this we can see that they who are in evil and falsity cannot be in the Grand Man, or in heaven; for when on their approaching it their respiration begins to cease, all their observation and thought also cease, and likewise all their endeavor to do what is evil and to persuade what is false; and together with the endeavor there perish all their action and vital motion, so that they can do no otherwise than cast themselves down headlong thence.

AC 3894a. Because this is so, and because the well-disposed on their entrance into the other life are first remitted into the life which they had in the world (n. 2119), thus also into the loves and pleasures of that life, therefore they cannot as yet, before they are prepared, be in fellowship with angels, even as to respiration.  For this reason, when they are being prepared, they are first inaugurated into angelic life lay concordant respirations, and then they come at the same time into interior perceptions and into heavenly freedom.  This is effected in a society of many, or in choirs, in which the one respires in the same way as the others and also perceives in the same way, and in the same way acts from freedom.  How this is effected has also been shown me to the life.

AC 3895. The persuasion of what is evil and false, and also the persuasion of truth when man is in the life of evil, is of such a nature in the other life that it as it were suffocates others, even well-disposed spirits before they have been inaugurated into angelic respiration.  They therefore who are in such a persuasion are removed by the Lord and are detained in hell, where one cannot hurt another; for there the persuasion of one is nearly like that of another, and hence their respirations accord.  Some spirits who were in such a persuasion came to me with the intent to suffocate me, and even caused somewhat of suffocation, but I was delivered by the Lord.  A little child was then sent by the Lord, at whose presence they were so tortured that they could scarcely breathe, in which state they were kept even until driven to supplications, and thus were thrust down into hell.

[2] The persuasion of truth when man is in the life of evil is of such a nature that he persuades himself that truth is truth, not for the sake of good as the end, but for the sake of evil as the end, namely, that he may thereby gain honors, reputation, and wealth.  The very worst of all are able to be in such a persuasion, and also in apparent zeal, to such a degree as to condemn to hell all who are not in truth, however much these may be in good. Concerning this persuasion see (n. 2689, 3865). When such persons first come into the other life they believe themselves to be angels; but they cannot approach any angelic society; being as it were suffocated by their own persuasion as soon as they come near it.  These are they of whom the Lord says in Matthew:--

Many shall say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Thy name? and in Thy name have cast out demons? and in Thy name done many wonderful works?  But then will I profess unto them, I never knew you; depart from Me ye that work iniquity (Matthew 7:22, 23).

AC 3896. The subject of the Grand Man, and of Correspondence, will be continued at the end of the following chapter.


Back | Next | Index | Home