HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter32

AC 4229. A commencement was made with the explication of the Lord’s predictions in the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew concerning the Last Judgment, the explication being given in (n. 3353-3356, 3486-3489, 3650-3655, 3897-3901, 4056-4060). The internal sense in a summary of these predictions of the Lord plainly appears from the explications already given, namely, that prediction is there made concerning the successive vastation of the church, and the ultimate setting up of a New Church, in the following order:

1. That the members of the church would begin not to know what good and truth are, and would dispute about them.

2. That they would hold them in contempt.

3. That at heart they would not acknowledge them.

4. That they would profane them.

5. And because the truth of faith and the good of charity would still remain with some, who are called the ”elect,“ a description is given of the state of the faith as it then existed.

6. Next of the state of the charity.

7. And finally the commencement of a New Church is treated of, which is meant by the words that were last explained:--

He shall send forth His angels with a trumpet and a great voice, and they shall gather together His elect from the four winds, from the end of the heavens even to the end thereof (Matthew 24:31),

by which is meant the commencement of a New Church (n. 4060).

AC 4230. When the end of an old church and the beginning of a new church is at hand, then is the Last Judgment. This is the time that is meant in the Word by the ”Last Judgement“ (n. 2117-2133, 3353, 4057), and also by the ”coming of the Son of man.“  It is this very Coming that is now the subject before us, as referred to in the question addressed to the Lord by the disciples:--

Tell us when shall these things he, especially what is the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age (Matt. 24:3)?

It remains therefore to unfold the things predicted by the Lord concerning this very time of His Coming and of the Consummation of the age which is the Last Judgment; but in the preface to this chapter only those contained in Matthew:--

Now learn a parable from the fig-tree.  When her branch is now become tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh.  So also ye, when ye see all these things, know that it is nigh, even at the doors. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away till all these things be accomplished. Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away (Matthew 24:32-35).

The internal sense of these words is as follows.

AC 4231. Now learn a parable from the fig-tree. When her branch is now become tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that the summer is nigh; signifies the first of a new church; the ”fig-tree“ is the good of the natural; her ”branch“ is the affection of this; and the ”leaves“ are truths.  The ”parable from which they should learn“ is that these things are signified.  He who is not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word, cannot possibly know what is involved in the comparison of the Lord‘s coming to a fig-tree and its branch and leaves; but as all the comparisons in the Word are also significative (n. 3579), it may be known from this signification what is meant.  A ”fig-tree“ wherever mentioned in the Word signifies in the internal sense the good of the natural (n. 217); that her ”branch“ is the affection of this, is because affection springs forth from good as a branch from its trunk; and that ”leaves“ are truths may be seen above (n. 885).  From all this it is now evident what the parable involves, namely, that when a new church is being created by the Lord, there then appears first of all the good of the natural, that is, good in the external form together with its affection and truths. By the good of the natural is not meant the good into which man is born, or which he derives from his parents, but a good which is spiritual in respect to its origin.  Into this no one is born, but is led into it by the Lord through the knowledges of good and truth. Therefore until a man is in this good (that is, in spiritual good), he is not a man of the church, however much from a good that is born with him he may appear to be so.

[2] So also ye, when ye see all these things, know that it is nigh, even at the doors signifies that when those things appear which are signified in the internal sense by the words spoken in (Matt. 24:29-31), and by these concerning the fig-tree, then it is the consummation of the church, that is, the Last Judgment, and the Coming of the Lord; consequently that the old church is then being rejected, and a new one is being set up. It is said, ”at the doors,“ because the good of the natural and its truths are the first things which are insinuated into a man when he is being regenerated and is becoming the church. Verily I say unto you, This generation shall not pass away, till all these things be accomplished; signifies that the Jewish nation shall not be extirpated like other nations, for the reason shown above (n. 3479).

[3] Heaven and earth shall pass away, but My words shall not pass away; signifies that the internals and the externals of the former church would perish, but that the Word of the Lord would abide. ”Heaven“ is the internal of the church, and ”earth“ its external, (n. 82, 1411, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355). By the Lord’s ”words“ are plainly meant not only these now spoken respecting His coming and the consummation of the age, but also all that are in the Word. These words were said immediately after what was said about the Jewish nation, because that nation was preserved for the sake of the Word, as may be seen from the number already cited (n. 3479). From all this it is now evident that the beginnings of a New Church are here foretold.

GENESIS 32:1-32

1. And Jacob went to his way, and the angels of God ran to meet him.

2. And Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God; and he called the name of that place Mahanaim.

3. And Jacob seat messengers before him, to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the field of Edom.

4. And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau: Thus saith thy servant Jacob, I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now.

5. And I had ox and ass, flock and manservant and handmaid; and I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes.

6. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him.

7. And Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed; and he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps.

8. And he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape.

9. And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah, that saith unto me, Return unto thy land, and to thy birth, and I will do well with thee;

10. I am less than all the mercies, and all the truth, which Thou hast done with Thy servant; for in my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am in two camps.

11. Rescue me I pray from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for I fear him, lest he come and smite me, the mother upon the sons.

12. And Thou saidst, I will surely do well with thee, and I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which is not numbered for multitude.

13. And he passed the night there in that night, and he took of that which came into his hand a present for Esau his brother:

14. Two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams:

15. Thirty milch camels and their colts, forty heifers and ten bullocks, twenty she-asses and ten foals.

16. And he gave into the hand of his servants each drove by itself; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space between drove and drove.

17. And he commanded the first, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee?

18. Then thou shalt say, Thy servant Jacob-‘s this is a present sent unto my lord Esau; and behold he also is behind us.

19. And he commanded also the second, and the third, and all that went after the droves, saying, According to this word shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him.

20. And ye shall also say, Behold thy servant Jacob is behind us.  For he said, I will expiate his faces in a present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his faces; peradventure he will lift up my faces.

21. And the present passed over before him, and he passed the night in that night in the camp.

22. And he rose up in that night, and took his two women, and his two handmaids, and his eleven sons, and passed over the passage of Jabbok.

23. And he took then, and caused them to pass the river, and caused to pass what he had.

24. And Jacob remained alone, and there wrestled a man with him until the dawn arose.

25. And he saw that he prevailed not over him, and he touched the hollow of his thigh, and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was out of joint in his wrestling with him.

26. And he said, Let me go, for the dawn ariseth. And he said, I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me.

27. And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob.

28. And he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed.

29. And Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name.  And he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there.

30. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel; for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered.

31. And the sun arose to him as he passed over Penuel, and he halted upon his thigh.

32. Therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, even unto this day, because he touched in the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced.

THE CONTENTS

AC 4232. The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the inversion of state in the natural, in order that good may be in the first place, and truth in the second.  The implantation of truth in good is treated of (verses 1 to 23); and the wrestlings of the temptations which are then to be sustained (verses 24 to 32).  At the same time the Jewish nation is also treated of, because although that nation could receive nothing of the church, it nevertheless represented the things of the church.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 4233. Verses 1, 2.  And Jacob went to his way, and the angels of God ran to meet him. And Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God; and he called the name of that place Mahanaim.  ”And Jacob went to his way,“ signifies the successive advance of truth toward its conjunction with spiritual and celestial good; ”and the angels of God ran to meet him,“ signifies enlightenment from good; ”and Jacob said when he saw them, This is the camp of God,“ signifies heaven; ”and be called the name of that place Mahanaim;“ signifies the quality of the state.

AC 4234. And Jacob went to his way. That this signifies the successive advance of truth toward its conjunction with spiritual and celestial good, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being here the truth of the natural. What Jacob represented has been already stated, namely, the Lord’s natural; and as where Jacob is treated of in the historical narrative, in the internal sense the Lord is treated of, and how He made His natural Divine, therefore Jacob first represented the truth in that natural, and then the truth to which was adjoined the collateral good which was ”Laban;“ and after the Lord had ad-joined this good, Jacob represented it; but such good is not the good Divine in the natural, but is a mediate good by means of which the Lord could receive good Divine; and this mediate good was the good that Jacob represented when he withdrew from Laban. Nevertheless in itself this good is truth which from its mediate character possesses the capacity of conjoining itself with the good Divine in the natural. Such then is the truth that Jacob now represents.

[2] But the good with which this truth was to be conjoined is represented by Esau. Esau is the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine natural, (n. 3300, 3302, 3494, 3504, 3527, 3576, 3599, 3669, 3677). It is this very conjunction of truth Divine with the good Divine of the Lord’s Divine natural, that is now treated of in the supreme sense. For after Jacob withdrew from Laban and came to the Jordan, thus to the first entrance into the land of Canaan, he advances into the representation of this conjunction; for in the internal sense the land of Canaan signifies heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord‘s Divine Human (n. 3038, 3705). It is for this reason that by the words, ”and Jacob went to his way,“ is signified the successive advance of truth toward conjunction with spiritual and celestial good.

[3] But these things are of such a nature as to prevent their being fully set forth to the apprehension; the cause of which is that the most general things of this subject are unknown in the learned world, even among Christians. For it is scarcely known what the natural in man is, and what the rational, and that these are altogether distinct from each other; and scarcely even what spiritual truth is, and what its good, and that these also are most distinct from each other.  Still less is it known that when man is being regenerated, truth is conjoined with good, in one distinct way in the natural, and in another distinct way in the rational, and this by innumerable means. It is not even known that the Lord made His Human Divine according to the same order as that in which He regenerates man.

[4] Since therefore these most general things are unknown, it must needs be that whatever is said about them will appear obscure.  Nevertheless they have to be stated, because otherwise the Word cannot he unfolded as to its internal sense.  At the very least this may be the means of showing how great angelic wisdom is, and also of what kind it is, for the internal sense of the Word is chiefly for the angels.

AC 4235. And the angels of God ran to meet him.  That this signifies enlightenment from good, is evident from the signification of the ”angels of God,“ as being something of the Lord; here, the Divine which was in the Lord; for in the Lord was the Divine Itself which is called the ”Father.“ The very essence of life (which in man is called the soul) was therefrom, and was Himself.  This Divine is what is called in common speech the Divine nature, or rather the Lord’s Divine essence. Something of the Divine of the Lord is signified in the Word by the ”angels of God,“ (n. 1925, 2319, 2821, 3039, 4085). By ”the angels of God running to meet him“ is signified in the proximate sense the influx of the Divine into the natural, and the consequent enlightenment; for all enlightenment is from the influx of the Divine. As the subject treated of is the inversion of state in the Lord‘s natural, in order that good might be in the first place, and truth in the second; and as the subject treated of in this first part of the chapter is the implantation of truth in good therein (n. 4232), and as this could not be effected without enlightenment from the Divine, therefore the first thing treated of is the enlightenment effected by the good into which truth was to be implanted.

AC 4236. And Jacob said when he said them, This is the camp of God. That this signifies heaven, is because the ”camp of God“ signifies heaven, for the reason that an ”army“ signifies truths and goods (n. 3448), and truths and goods are marshalled by the Lord in heavenly order; hence an ”encamping“ denotes a marshalling by armies; and the heavenly order itself which is heaven, is the ”camp.“ This ”camp“ or order is of such a nature that hell cannot possibly break in upon it, although it is in the constant endeavor to do so. Hence also this order, or heaven, is called a ”camp,“ and the truths and goods (that is, the angels) who are marshalled in this order, are called ”armies.“ This shows whence it is that the ”camp of God“ signifies heaven. It is this very order, and thus heaven itself, which was represented by the encampments of the sons of Israel in the wilderness; and their dwelling together in the wilderness according to their tribes was called the ”camp.“ The tabernacle in the midst, and around which they encamped, represented the Lord Himself. That the sons of Israel encamped in this manner, may be seen in (Numbers 1:1-54; 33:2-56) as also that they encamped around the tabernacle by their tribes-toward the east Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun; toward the south Reuben, Simeon, and Gad; toward the west Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin; toward the north Dan, Asher, and Naphtali; and the Levites in the middle near the tabernacle (Numbers 2:2-34).

[2] The tribes signified all goods and truths in the complex (n. 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060). It was for this reason that when Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, and the spirit of God came upon him, he uttered his enunciation, saying:--

How good are thy tabernacles, O Jacob, thy dwelling places, O Israel, as the valleys are they planted, as gardens by the river (Num. 26:5, 6).

That by this prophecy was not meant the people named Jacob and Israel, but that it was the heaven of the Lord that was represented, is very manifest. For the same reason their marshallings in the wilderness, that is, their encampings by tribes, are called ”camps“ in other passages of the Word; and by a ”camp“ is there signified in the internal sense heavenly order; and by ”encamping“ a marshalling in accordance with this order, namely, the order in which goods and truths are disposed in heaven, as in (Lev. 4:12; 8:17; 13:46; 14:8; 16:26, 28; 24:14, 23; Num. 4:5-33; 5:2-4; 9:17; 10:1-10, 28; 11:31, 32; 12:14, 15; 31:19-24; Deut. 23:10-14).

[3] That the ”camp of God“ denotes heaven may also be seen in Joel:--

The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were blackened, and the stars withdrew their brightness, and Jehovah uttered His voice before His army, for His camp is exceeding many, for numerous is he that doeth His word (Joel 2:10,  11).

In  Zechariah:--

I will encamp at my house from the army, on account of him who passeth by, and on account of him who goeth away, lest the extortioner should pass over them (Zech. 9:8).

In John:--

Gog and Magog went up over the plain of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city; but fire came up from God and consumed them (Rev. 20:9);

”Gog and Magog“ denote those who are in external worship that is separated from internal and made idolatrous (n. 1151); the ”plain of the earth“ denotes the truth of the church. A ”plain“ is the truth which is of doctrine (n. 2450); and the ”earth“ is the church, (n. 556, 662, 1066, 1067, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355); the ”camp of the saints“ denotes the heaven or kingdom of the Lord on the earth, which is the church.

[4] As most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise has a ”camp,“ which then signifies evils and falsities, consequently hell; as in David:--

Though the evil should encamp against me, my heart shall not fear (Ps. 27:3).

In the same:--

God hath scattered the bones of them that encamp against me thou hast put them to shame, because God hath rejected them (Ps. 53:5).

By the camp of Assyria, in which the angel of Jehovah smote a hundred and eighty-five thousand (Isa. 37:36), nothing else is meant; and the same by the camp of the Egyptians (Exod. 14:20).

AC 4237. And he called the name of that place Mahanaim. That this signifies the quality of the state, is evident from the signification of ”calling a name,“ as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 3421); and from the signification of ”place“ as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387). In the original language ”Mahanaim“ means ”two camps;“ and ”two camps“ signify both heavens, or both kingdoms of the Lord, the celestial and the spiritual; and in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine celestial and Divine spiritual. Hence it is evident that the quality of the Lord‘s state when His natural was being enlightened by spiritual and celestial good, is signified by ”Mahanaim.“ But this quality of the state cannot be described, because the Divine states which the Lord had when He made the human in Himself Divine, do not fall into any human apprehension, nor even into angelic, except by means of appearances enlightened by the light of heaven which is from the Lord; and by means of the states of man’s regeneration; for the regeneration of man is an image of the Lord‘s glorification (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490).

AC 4238. Verses 3-5. And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother unto the land of Seir, the field of Edom. And he commanded them, saying, This shall ye say unto my lord Esau: Thus saith thy servant Jacob, I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now. And I had ox and ass, flock, and manservant and handmaid; and I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes. ”And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother,“ signifies the first communication with celestial good; ”unto the land of Seir,“ signifies celestial natural good; ”the field of Edom,“ signifies the derivative truth; ”and he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau,“ signifies the first acknowledgment of good as being in the higher place; ”I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now,“ signifies that He had imbued Himself with the good signified by ”Laban;“ ”and I had ox and ass, and flock, and manservant and handmaid,“ signifies acquisitions therein in their order; ”and I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes,“ signifies instruction concerning His state, and also the condescension and humiliation of truth in the presence of good.

AC 4239. And Jacob sent messengers before him, to Esau his brother. That this signifies the first communication with celestial good, is evident from the signification of ”sending messengers,“ as being to communicate; and from the representation of Esau, as being celestial good in the natural (n. 3300, 3302, 3494, 3504, 3527, 3576, 3599, 3669). As before said (n. 4234), the subject here treated of is the conjunction of the truth Divine of the natural (which is ”Jacob,“) with the good Divine therein (which is ” Esau“), and therefore the enlightenment of the natural from the Divine was first treated of (n. 4235); and here there is treated of the first communication, which is signified by Jacob’s sending messengers to Esau his brother. In the Word good and truth are called ”brothers,“ (n. 367, 3303).

AC 4240. Unto the land of Seir.  That this signifies celestial natural good, is evident from the signification of the ”land of Seir,“ as being in the supreme sense the Lord‘s celestial natural good.  The reason why the ”land of Seir“ has this signification, is that Mount Seir was a boundary of the land of Canaan on one side (Josh. 11:16, 17); and all boundaries, such as rivers, mountains, or lands, represented those things which were ultimates (n. 1585, 1866, 4116); for they put on their representations from the land of Canaan, which was in the midst, and represented the Lord’s heavenly kingdom, and in the supreme sense His Divine Human (n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705). The ultimates, which are boundaries, are those things which are called natural; for it is in natural things that spiritual and celestial things are terminated.  Thus is it in the heavens; for the inmost or third heaven is celestial, because it is in love to the Lord; the middle or second heaven is spiritual, because it is in love toward the neighbor; and the ultimate or first heaven is celestial and spiritual natural, because it is in simple good, which is the ultimate of order there.  It is similar with the re-generate man, who is a little heaven.  From all this can now be seen whence it is that the ”land of Seir“ signifies celestial natural good.  Esau also, who dwelt there, represents this good, as was shown above; and hence the same is signified by the land where he dwelt; for lands take on the representations of their inhabitants (n. 1675).

[2] From all this it is now evident what is signified in the Word by ”Seir.“ As in Moses:--

Jehovah came from Sinai, and arose from Seir unto them, He shore forth from Mount Paran and He came from the ten thousand of holiness (Deut. 33:2, 3).

In the song of Deborah and Barak in the book of Judges:--

O Jehovah, when thou wentest forth out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, the heavens also dropped, the clouds also dropped water‘, the mountains flowed down, this Sinai, before Jehovah the God of Israel (Judges 5:4, 6).

In the prophecy of Balaam:--

I see Him, but not now; I behold Him, but not nigh; there shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter shall rise up out of Israel; and Edom shall be an inheritance Seir also shall be an inheritance of his enemies, and Israel maketh strength (Num. 24:17, 18).

Everyone can see that in these passages ” Seir“ signifies some-thing of the Lord, for it is said that Jehovah ” arose from Seir,“ that He ”went forth out of Seir, and marched out of the field of Edom,“ and that ”Edom and Seir shall be an inheritance.’s Yet what of the Lord it signifies, no one can know except from the internal sense of the Word; but that it is the Lord‘s Divine Human, and specifically the Divine natural as to good, may be seen from what has been said above. To “arise,” and to “go forth out of Seir” denote that He made even His natural Divine, in order that from this also there might be light, that is, intelligence and wisdom; and that in this way He might become Jehovah, not only as to His Human Rational, but also as to His Human Natural; and therefore it is said, “Jehovah arose from Seir,” and “Jehovah went forth out of Seir.” The Lord is Jehovah (n. 1343, 1736, 2004, 2005, 2018, 2025, 2156, 2329, 2921, 3023, 3035). The “prophecy concerning Dumah” in Isaiah involves a like meaning:--

He calleth unto me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? watch-man, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night (Isa. 21:11, 12).

[3] By the “land of Seir” in the relative sense is properly signified the Lord’s kingdom with those who are out of the church, that is, with the Gentiles, when the church is being set up among them, on the former or old church falling away from charity and faith. That those who are in darkness then have light is evident from many passages in the Word. This is properly signified by “arising from Seir,” and “going forth out of Seir, and marching out of the field of Edom,” and by “Seir being an inheritance;” as also by the above words in Isaiah: “He calleth unto me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night;” “the morning cometh” denotes the Lord‘s advent (n. 2405, 2780), and the consequent enlightenment to those who are in night (that is, in ignorance), but enlightenment from the Lord’s Divine natural (n. 4211).  As most of the things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise has “Seir;” as in (Ezekiel 25:8, 9; 35:2-15); and occasionally in the historicals of the Word.

AC 4241. The field of Edom.  That this signifies the derivative truth (that is, truth from good) is evident from the signification of the “field of Edom,” as being the Lord‘s Divine natural as to good, with which are conjoined the doctrinal things of truth, or truths (n. 3302, 3322). The“ derivative truths,” or those which are from good, are distinct from the truths from which is good.  The truths from which is good are those with which man imbues himself before regeneration; but the truths which are from good are those with which he imbues himself after regeneration, for after regeneration truths proceed from good, because the man then perceives and knows from good that they are true.  Such truth, thus the truth of good, is what is signified by the “field of Edom;” as also in the passage cited above from the book of Judges: “O Jehovah, when Thou wentest forth out of Seir, when thou marchedst out of the field of Edom” (Judges 5:4).

AC 4242. And he commanded them, saying, Thus shall ye say unto my lord Esau.  That this signifies the first acknowledgment of good as being in the higher place, may be seen from the signification here of “commanding the messengers to say,” as being reflection and the consequent perception that it is so (n. 3661, 3682), consequently acknowledgment; and from the representation of Esau, as being good (n. 4234, 4239). That good was in the higher place is signified by his not calling Esau his “brother,” but his “lord,” and also (as follows) by his calling himself his “servant,” and afterwards speaking in the same manner. While man is being regenerated truth is apparently in the first place and good in the second; but good is in the first place and truth in the second when he has been regenerated, (n. 1904, 2063, 2189, 2697, 2979, 3286, 3288, 3310, 3325, 3330, 3332, 3336, 3470, 3509, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3579, 3603, 3701). This is also what is meant by the prophetic utterance of Isaac the father to Esau his son:--

By thy sword shalt thou live, and thou shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck (Gen. 27:40).

It is the inversion of state foretold in these prophetic words which is treated of in the present chapter.

AC 4243. I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now. That this signifies that He had imbued Himself with the good signified by “Laban,” is evident from the representation of Laban, as being mediate good, that is, good not genuine, but still serving to introduce genuine truths and goods (n. 3974, 3982, 3986, 4063); from the signification of “sojourning,” as being to be instructed (n. 1463, 2025); and from the signification of “tarrying” or “staying,” as being predicated of a life of truth with good (n. 3613); here being to imbue with. Hence it is evident that by the words, “I have sojourned with Laban, and have tarried until now,” is signified that He had imbued Himself with the good signified by Laban.

[2] The case herein is this: Truth cannot be implanted in good except by mediate things, such as have been treated of in the preceding chapters, in which is described Jacob’s sojourning and tarrying with Laban, and his acquisition of a flock there. In the present chapter is described the process of conjunction, and thus the inversion of state, in the order which exists when truth is being made subordinate to good.  Truth is apparently in the first place, when a man is learning truth from affection, but does not yet live so much in accordance with it. But good is in the first place when he lives according to the truth which he has learned from affection; for truth then becomes good, inasmuch as the man then believes it to be good to do according to the truth. They who have been regenerated are in this good; and they also who have conscience, that is, who no longer reasoned whether a thing is true, but do it because it is true, and thus have imbued themselves with it in faith and in life.

AC 4244. And I had ox and ass, flock and manservant and hand maid.  That this signifies acquisitions therein in their order, is evident from the signification of “ox and ass, flock and man-servant and handmaid,” as being instrumental goods and truths both exterior and interior, thus acquisitions in their order. An “ox” is exterior natural good, and an “ass” exterior natural truth, (n. 2781); and that a “flock” is interior natural good, a “manservant” its truth, and a “hand-maid” the affection of this truth, is evident from the signification of each, as explained several times above.  These goods and truths are the acquisitions here treated of, and that they are named in their order, is manifest; for the exterior are the ox and the ass; and the interior are the flock, the manservant, and the handmaid.

AC 4245. And I send to tell my lord, to find grace in thine eyes. That this signifies instruction concerning His state, and also the condescension and humiliation of truth in the presence of good, is evident from the signification of “sending to tell,” as being to instruct concerning one‘s state.  That there then follow condescension and humiliation of truth in the presence of good, is manifest; for Jacob calls him his lord,“ and says, ”to find grace in thine eyes,“ which are words of condescension and humiliation.  There is here described the nature of the state when the inversion is taking place, that is, when truth is being made subordinate to good, or when they who have been in the affection of truth are beginning to be in the affection of good. But that there is such inversion and subordination is not apparent to any but those who have been regenerated, and to those only of the regenerated who reflect.  There are few at this day who are being regenerated, and still fewer who reflect; for which reason the things here said about truth and good cannot but be obscure, and perchance of such a nature as not to be acknowledged; especially with those who put the truths of faith in the first place, and the good of charity in the second; and who consequently think much about doctrinal things, but not about the goods of charity; and think of eternal salvation as being from the former, but not from the latter.  They who think in this manner can in no wise know, still less perceive, that the truth of faith is subordinated to the good of charity. The things which man thinks, and from which he thinks, affect him. If he should think from the goods of charity, he would then plainly see that the truths of faith are in the second place and he would then also see the truths themselves as in light; for the good of charity is like a flame that gives light, and thus enlightens each and all things which the man had before supposed to be true; and he would also perceive how falsities had intermingled themselves, and had put on the appearance of being truths.

AC 4246. Verses 6-8. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee, and four hundred men with him. And Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed; and he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps. And he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape. ” And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee,“ signifies that good flows in continually, so as to appropriate to itself; ”and four hundred men with him,“ signifies its state now, that it may take the prior place; ”and Jacob feared exceedingly, and was distressed,“ signifies the state when it is being changed; ”and he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps,“ signifies the preparation and disposal of the truths and goods in the natural to receive the good represented by Esau; ”and he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape,“ signifies according to every event.

AC 4247. And the messengers returned to Jacob, saying, We came to thy’ brother, to Esau, and moreover he cometh to meet thee. That this signifies that good flows in continually, so as to appropriate to itself (namely, truths), is evident from the signification of ”brother,“ here Esau, as being good, (namely, that of the Lord‘s Divine natural, of which above); and from the signification of ”coming to meet,“ as being to flow in; and as influx is signified, so is appropriation.

[2] From what has been said several times before on this subject, it may be seen how the case is with good and truth, and with the influx of good into truth, and with the appropriation of truth by good, namely, that good is continually flowing in, and that truth receives it, for truths are the vessels of good.  The Divine good cannot be applied to any other vessels than genuine truths, for they correspond to each other.  When a man is in the affection of truth (in which he is in the beginning before he begins to be regenerated), even then good is continually flowing in, but as yet has no vessels (that is, truths) into which to apply itself (that is, to be appropriated); for in the beginning of regeneration man is not as yet in knowledges.  At that time however, as good is continually flowing in, it produces the affection of truth; which is from no other source than the continual endeavor of Divine good to flow in. From this it is evident that even at that time good is in the first place, and acts the principal part, although it appears as if it were truth that did this.  But when a man is being regenerated (which takes place in adult age when he is in knowledges), good then manifests itself; for the man is not then so much in the affection of knowing truth, as in the affection of doing it. Heretofore truth had been in his understanding, but now it is in his will; and when it is in the will, it is in the man; for the will constitutes the man himself. Such is the constant circle in man that everything of knowledge is insinuated through the sight or through the hearing into the thought, and from this into the will, and from the will through the thought into act.  Or again from the memory, which is like an internal eye, or internal sight, there is a similar circle-from this sight through the thought into the will, and from the will through the thought into act; or if anything hinders, into the endeavor to act, which, as soon as that which hindered is removed, goes forth into act.

[3] From this it is evident how the case is with influx, and with the appropriation of truth by good, namely, that first of all the truths of faith are insinuated through the hearing or through the sight, and are then stored up in the memory; from which they are successively elevated into knowledge, and at last flow into the will, and when in this they proceed thence through thought into act; and if they cannot go into act, they are in endeavor, which is itself an internal act, and whenever there is an opportunity this becomes an external act.  Be it known however that while there is this circle, nevertheless it is good which produces the circle; for the life which is from the Lord does not flow in except into good, thus through good, and this from the inmosts. That the life which flows in through the inmosts  produces this circle, may be seen by everyone, for without life nothing is produced; and as the life which is from the Lord does not flow in except into good and through good, it follows that good is that which produces; and that it flows into truths, and appropriates them to itself, in so far as the man is in the knowledges of truth, and is at the same time desirous to receive them.

AC 4248. And four hundred men with him. That this signifies its state now, that it may take the prior place, is evident from the signification of ”four hundred,“ as properly being temptations and their duration (n. 2959, 2966). This is the state which is meant, as may be seen from what follows, namely, that ”he feared exceedingly, and was distressed,“ and therefore ”halved his camp into two“ (verses 7, 8); and also that out of fear be made ardent supplication to Jehovah (verses 9-12); and finally wrestled with an angel, by which wrestling is signified temptation, as will be evident from the explication of this wrestling in what follows in this chapter. When the state with the man who is being regenerated is being inverted, that is, when good takes the first place, then come temptations. Before this time the man cannot undergo them, because he is not yet in the knowledges wherewith to defend himself, and to which he may have recourse for comfort. For this reason also no one undergoes temptations until he has arrived at adult age. Temptations are what unite truths to good (n. 2272, 3318, 3696, 3928). From this it is manifest that by the ”four hundred men with him“ is signified the state, that good may take the prior place.

AC 4249. And Jacob feared exceedingly’, and was distressed. That this signifies the state when it is being changed, is evident from the fact that fear and distress are what is first in temptations, and that when the state is being inverted or changed these take precedence. The arcana which lie hidden more at large in what is here said that Esau went to meet Jacob with four hundred men, and that Jacob therefore feared and was distressed-cannot easily be set forth to the apprehension, for they are too interior.  This only may be presented: that when good is taking the prior place and is subordinating truths to itself, which takes place when the man is undergoing spiritual temptations, the good that then flows in from within is attended with very many truths which have been stored up in his interior man.  These cannot come to his mental view and apprehension until good acts the first part, for then the natural begins to be enlightened by good, whence it becomes apparent what things in it are in accord, and what are discordant, from which come the fear and distress that precede spiritual temptation. For spiritual temptation acts upon the conscience, which is of the interior man; and therefore when he enters into this temptation the man does not know whence come such fear and distress, although the angels with him know this well; for the temptation comes from the angels holding the man in goods and truths while evil spirits are holding him in evils and falsities.

[2] For the things that come forth with the spirits and angels who are with a man are perceived by the man exactly as if they were in him; for while a man is living in the body, and does not believe that all things flow in, he supposes that the things which come forth interiorly are not produced by causes outside of him, but that all the causes are within him, and are his very own; yet such is not the case. For whatever a man thinks and whatever he wills (that is, his every thought and his every affection) are either from hell or from heaven.  When he thinks and wills evils, and is delighted with the consequent falsities, he may know that his thoughts and affections are from bell; and while he is thinking and willing goods, and is delighted with the derivative truths, he may know that they are from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord.  But the thoughts and affections that appertain to a man appear for the most part under another aspect; as for example, the combat of evil spirits with angels that arises from the things which appertain to a man who is to be regenerated, appears under the aspect of fear and distress, and of temptation.

[3] These statements cannot but appear to man as paradoxes, because almost every man of the church at this day believes that all the truth which he thinks, and the good which he wills and does, are from himself, although he says otherwise when he speaks from the doctrine of faith. Nay, of such a nature is man that if anyone should say to him that there are evil spirits from hell who are flowing into his thought and will when he thinks and wills evils, and angels from heaven when he thinks and wills goods, he would stand amazed that anyone should maintain such a thing; for he would say that he feels life in himself, and thinks from himself and wills from himself. From this feeling in himself he forms his belief, and not from his doctrine; when yet the doctrine is true, but the feeling fallacious. It has been given me to know this from an almost continual experience of many years, and so to know it that no doubt whatever remains.

AC 4250. And he halved the people that was with him, and the flock, and the herd, and the camels, into two camps. That this signifies the preparation and disposal of the truths and goods in the natural to receive the good represented by Esau, is evident from the signification of ”people,“ as being truths, and also falsities (n. 1259, 1260, 3581); from the signification of ”flock,“ as being interior goods, and also things not good; from the signification of ”herd,“ as being exterior goods, and also things not good (n. 2566, 4244); from the signification of ”camels,“ as being exterior or general truths, and also things not true (n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145); and from the signification of ”camps,“ as being order in a good sense genuine order, and in the opposite sense order not genuine (n. 4236). That by ”to halve“ is here meant to divide into two, and thus to dispose one‘s self to receive, is manifest. How these things are circumstanced is evident from what was said just above, namely, that when good flows in, as is the case when the order is being inverted and good is taking the prior place, the natural is then enlightened, and it is seen what is genuine truth and good therein, and what not genuine; and the one kind is also discerned from the other, and thus some are retained, while others are removed; and hence the order becomes altogether different from what it had been before. For when good rules it is attended with this effect, because truths are then nothing but ministers and servants, and are disposed more and more nearly in accordance with heavenly order, according to the reception of good by truths, and also according to the quality of the good; for good takes its quality from truths.

AC 4251. And he said, If Esau come to the one camp, and smite it, then there will be a camp left for escape.  That this signifies according to every event, is evident from the signification of a ”camp,“ as being order; from the signification of ”smiting,“ as being to destroy; and from the signification of ”there will be a camp left for escape,“ as being that order should not perish in the natural, but that something should remain; and thus that there should be preparation and disposal in accordance with every event.  For so long as truth has the dominion in the natural, it cannot see what is genuine truth and what not genuine, nor what is good; but when the good which is of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor has the dominion therein, then it sees this; and hence it is that when that time or state is at hand in which good takes the dominion, the man is almost in ignorance of what good and truth are, and thus of what is to be destroyed and what retained-as is plainly manifest in temptations.  When a man is in such ignorance, then are made preparation and disposal, not by the man, but by the Lord; in the present case, by the Lord in Himself, because the Lord by His own power disposed and reduced all things in Himself into Divine order.

AC 4252. Verses 9-12.  And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah, that saith unto me, Return unto thy land, and to thy birth, and I will do well with thee; I am less than all the mercies, and all the truth which Thou hast done with Thy servant; for in my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am in two camps.  Rescue me I pray from the hand of my brother’, from the hand of Esau; for I fear him, lest he come and smite me, the mother upon the sons.  And Thou saidst, I will surely do well with thee, and I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which is not numbered for multitude. ”And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah,“ signifies the holy of preparation and disposal; ”that saith unto me, Return unto thy land, and to thy birth, and I will do well with thee,“ signifies for conjunction with Divine good and truth; ”I am less than all the mercies, and all the truth, which Thou hast done with Thy servant,“ signifies humiliation in that state as to good and as to truth; ”for in my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am in two camps,“ signifies that from little there was now much. ”Rescue me I pray from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau; for I fear him,“ signifies the state relatively, because it made itself prior; ”lest he come and smite me, the mother upon the sons,“ signifies that it is about to perish; ”and Thou saidst, I will surely do well with thee,“ signifies that nevertheless it would then obtain life; ”and I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which is not numbered for multitude,“ signifies that there would then be fructification and multiplication.

AC 4252a. And Jacob said, O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah. That this signifies the holy of preparation and disposal, is evident from the signification of ”God of my father Abraham,“ as being the Divine Itself of the Lord (n. 3439); and from the signification of ”God of my father Isaac,“ as being His Divine Human (n. 3704, 4180). And because each is Jehovah, it is said, ”O God of my father Abraham, and God of my father Isaac, O Jehovah.“ But here is signified the holy which proceeds from the Divine, for all the holy is therefrom. That the holy is signified is because it was in the natural which is represented by Jacob wherein the good represented by Esau was not yet conjoined with truth. For the subject is now the state of the reception of good; here, the state of preparation and disposal for its being received Jacob‘s supplication involves nothing else; and therefore by these words is signified the holy of preparation and disposal.

AC 4253. That saith unto me, Return unto thy land, and to thy birth, and I will do well with thee. That this signifies conjunction with Divine good and truth, is evident from what was said before (n. 4069, 4070), where are nearly the same words.

AC 4254. I am less than all the mercies, and all the truth, which Thou hast done with Thy servant. That this signifies humiliation in that state as to good and as to truth, is evident from ”mercy“ being predicated of the good of love, and from ”truth“ being predicated of the truth of faith (n. 3122). That these are words of humiliation is manifest, and from this it is evident that by them is signified humiliation in that state as to good and as to truth.

AC 4255. For in my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I am in two camps.  That this signifies that from little there was much, is evident from the signification of a ”staff,“ as being power, and as being predicated of truth (n. 4013, 4015); from the signification of ”Jordan,“ as being initiation into the knowledges of good and truth, concerning which in what follows; and from the signification of ”two camps,“ as being goods and truths (n. 4250); for the two camps here are the people, the flock, the herd, and the camels, which he halved.  From this it is evident what is signified by these words in the proximate sense, namely, that he who is represented by Jacob had but little truth when he was being initiated into knowledges, and that he afterwards had many truths and goods; or what is the same, that from little he had much. From the explications already given, it is manifest that in the internal sense the subject treated of has been the Lord, how He made the human in Himself Divine-and this by successive steps according to order-and thus His progress into intelligence and wisdom, and at last into what was Divine.  From this is manifest what is meant by ”from little to much.“

[2] That the ”Jordan“ denotes initiation into the knowledges of good and truth, is because it was a boundary of the land of Canaan.  That all the boundaries of that land signified things that are first and last of the Lord’s kingdom, and those also that are first and last of His church, and thus those that are first and last of the celestial and spiritual things which constitute His kingdom and His church, may be seen above (n. 1585, 1866, 4116, 4240).  Hence the Jordan, because it was a boundary, signified initiation into the knowledges of good and truth, for these are first; and at last, when the man becomes a church, or a kingdom of the Lord, they become last.

[3] That the ”Jordan“ signifies these things is also evident from other passages in the Word, as in David:--

O my God, my soul is bowed down upon me, therefore will I remember thee from the land of Jordan and of the Hermons, from the mountain of littleness (Ps. 42:6);

”to remember from the land of Jordan“ denotes from what is last, thus from what is low.  Again:

Judah became His sanctuary, Israel His dominion; the sea saw it and fled, Jordan turned itself away backwards (Ps. 114:2, 3, 5);

where ”Judah“ denotes the good of celestial love, and ”Israel“ the good of spiritual love (n. 3654); the ”sea“ denotes the knowledges of truth (n. 28); ”Jordan“ the knowledges of good, which are said to ”turn themselves backwards“ when the good of love obtains the dominion; for then knowledges are regarded from this good, but not good from them-according to what has been often shown above.

[4] In the book of Judges:--

Gilead dwelleth in the passage of the Jordan, and Dan why shall be fear ships? (Judges 5:17);

”Gilead“ denotes sensuous good, or pleasure, by which man is first initiated when being regenerated (n. 4117, 4124); ”to dwell in the passage of the Jordan“ denotes in those things which are for initiation, and which are thus the first and the last of the church and kingdom of the Lord.  These were also represented by the Jordan when the sons of Israel entered into the land of Canaan (Josh. 3:14-17; 4:1-24).  For by the land of Canaan was represented the kingdom of the Lord (n. 1413, 1437, 1607, 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705).  And by the Jordan‘s being divided, and their passing over on dry ground, was signified the removal of evils and falsities, and the admission of those who are in goods and truths.  Similar is the meaning of the waters of the Jordan being divided by Elijah when he was taken up into heaven (2 Kings 2:8); and by Elisha when he entered upon the prophetic office in Elijah’s place (2 Kings 2:14).

[5] Naaman‘s being healed of his leprosy by washing himself seven times in the Jordan according to the command of Elisha (2 Kings 5:1-14), represented baptism; for baptism signifies initiation into the church and into those things which are of the church; thus regeneration and the things of regeneration.  Not that anyone is regenerated by baptism, but that this is the sign of it, which he should remember.  And as the things of the church are signified by baptism, and the same by the Jordan, as stated above, the people were therefore baptized in the Jordan by John (Matt. 3:6; Mark 1:5).  And the Lord also willed to be Himself baptized in it by John (Matt. 3:13-17; Mark 1:9).

[6] Because the Jordan signifies the things which are first and last of the Lord’s kingdom and church, such as the knowledges of good and truth (for by these man is introduced), the Jordan is also mentioned as a boundary of the New Earth or Holy Land, in (Ezekiel 47:18). That the New Earth or Holy Land is the Lord‘s kingdom, and also the New Church, which is the Lord’s kingdom on the earth, may be seen above (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355).

AC 4256. Rescue me I pray from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau; for I fear him.  That this signifies the state relatively, because it made itself prior, is evident from what has been said occasionally above, especially when treating of the birthright which Jacob procured for himself by the pottage of lentiles, and of the blessing which he took away from Esau by craft.  What was thereby represented and signified may be there seen, namely, that when man is being regenerated truth is apparently in the first place, and good in the second; but that good is actually in the first place and truth in the second, and is manifestly so when he is regenerate (n. 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4243, 4244, 4247).  When therefore the order is being Inverted, and good is taking its prior place manifestly (that is, when it is beginning to have the dominion over truth), the natural man is in fear and distress (n. 4249), and also enters into temptations.  The reason is that when truth was in the first place, that is, when it seemed to itself to have the dominion, falsities intermingled themselves; for from itself truth cannot see whether it is truth, but must see this from good; and where falsities are, there is fear at the approach of good.  Moreover all who are in good begin to fear when falsities appear in light from good; for they fear falsities, and will them to be extirpated; but this is impossible if the falsities stick fast, except by Divine means from the Lord. This is the reason why those who are to be regenerated, after fear and distress come also into temptations, for temptations are the Divine means for removing the falsities.  This is the most secret cause why man when being regenerated undergoes spiritual temptations.  But this cause is in no way apparent to the man, because it is above the sphere of his observation, as is everything which moves, harasses, and torments the conscience.

AC 4257. Lest he come and smite me, the mother upon the sons. That this signifies that it is about to perish, is evident without explication.  ”To smite the mother upon the sons“ was a form of speech among the ancients who were in representatives and significatives, signifying the destruction of the church and of all things that are of the church, either in general or in particular with the man who is a church.  For by ”mother“ they understood the church (n. 289, 2691, 2717), and by ”sons“ the truths that are of the church (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373). Hence ”to smite the mother upon the sons“ denotes to perish altogether. Man also perishes altogether when the church and what belongs to the church in him perishes, that is, when the affection of truth, which is properly signified by ”mother,“ and which produces the church in man, is destroyed.

AC 4258. And Thou saidst, I will surely do well with thee. That this signifies that nevertheless it would then obtain life, is evident from the signification of ”doing well,“ as being to obtain life. For by Jacob is represented truth; and truth has not life from itself, but from the good which flows into it, as frequently shown above. Hence it is that ”doing well“ here signifies obtaining life. The life of truth from good is also here treated of.

AC 4259. And I will make thy seed as the sand of the sea, which is not numbered for multitude. That this signifies that there would then be fructification and multiplication, is evident from the signification of ”seed,“ as being the faith of charity, and also charity itself (n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 2848, 3373). That ”to make this as the sand of the sea, which is not numbered for multitude,“ is multiplication, is manifest. Fructification is predicated of good, which is of charity; and multiplication of truth, which is of faith (n. 913, 983, 2846, 2847).

AC 4260. Verses 1-15. And he passed the night there in that night, and he took of that which came into his hand a present for Esau his brother: two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams, thirty milch camels and their colts, forty heifers and ten bullocks, twenty she-asses and ten foals.  ”And he passed the night there in that night,“ signifies in that obscure state; ”and he took of that which came into his hand a present for Esau his brother,“ signifies things Divine to be initiated into celestial natural good; ”two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams,“ signifies goods and thence truths Divine; ”thirty milch camels and their colts, forty heifers and ten bullocks, twenty she-asses and ten foals,“ signifies things of service, general and special.

AC 4261. And he passed the night there in that night. That this signifies in that obscure state, is evident from the signification of ”passing the night,“ and also of ”night,“ as being an obscure state (n. 1712, 3693).

AC 4262. And he took of that which came into his hand a present for Esau his brother.  That this signifies things Divine to be initiated into celestial natural good, is evident from the signification of ”taking of that which came into his hand,“ as being from those things which befell from forethought, and thus those which were from Divine Providence; and as those things which are of the Divine Providence are Divine, by ”taking of that which came into his hand“ are here signified things Divine;-from the signification of a ”present,“ as being initiation; and from the representation of Esau, as being the Divine natural as to good (n. 3302, 3322, 3504, 3599), here as to celestial good, because the natural was not yet made Divine.

[2] That a ”present“ signifies initiation, is because it was given to gain good will and favor; for in old time the presents which were given and offered had various significations; those which were given on approaching kings and priests signified one thing, and those which were offered upon the altar, another; the former signified initiation, but the latter, worship (n. 349). For all sacrifices in general, of whatever kind, were called ”presents;“ but the meat offerings which were bread and wine, or cakes with a libation, were specifically so called; for in the original language ”meat offering“ signifies a ”present.“

[3] That they gave presents to kings and priests on approaching them, is evident from many passages in the Word, as when Saul consulted Samuel (1 Sam. 9:7, 8); when they who despised Saul did not offer him a present (1 Sam. 10:27); when the queen of Sheba came to Solomon (1 Kings 10:2);and also all the others of whom it is said:--

All the earth sought the faces of Solomon, to hear his wisdom; and they offered every man his present, vessels of silver, and vessels of gold, and garments, and arms, and spices, horses, and mules (1 Kings 10:24, 25).

And as this was a holy ritual, signifying initiation, the wise men from the east also, who came to Jesus just after His birth, brought presents-gold, frankincense, and myrrh (Matt. 2:11); ”gold“ signified celestial love; ”frankincense,“ spiritual love; and ”myrrh,“ these loves in the natural.

[4] That this ritual was commanded, is evident in Moses:--

The faces of Jehovah shall not be seen empty (Exod. 23:15; Deut. 16:16, 17);

and that the presents given to priests and kings were as if given to Jehovah, is evident from other places in the Word. That presents which were sent signified initiation, is manifest from the presents which the twelve princes of Israel sent to initiate the altar, after it was anointed (Num. 7); where their presents are called ”the initiation“ (Num. 7:88).

AC 4263. Two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams. That this signifies goods and thence truths Divine, is evident from the signification of ”she-goats“ and of ”ewes,“ as being goods (n. 3995, 4006, 4169); and from the signification of the ”he-goats“ and ”rams,“ as being truths (n. 4005, 4170); here, goods and truths Divine.  That goods and truths are mentioned so many times, and are signified by so many various things, is because all the things of heaven and of the church have reference thereto; the things of love and charity to goods, and the things of faith to truths. But still the differences among them as to genera and as to species are innumerable, and indeed endless, as is evident from the fact that all who are in good are in the Lord‘s kingdom; and yet no society there, nor indeed an individual in a society, is in the same good as another.  For one and the same good is never possible with two, and still less with many, for in this case these would be one and the same, and not two, still less many.  Everyone consists of various things, and this by heavenly harmony and concord.

AC 4264. Thirty milch camels and their colts, forty heifers and ten bullocks, twenty she-asses and ten foals.  That this signifies things of service general and special, is evident from the signification of ”camels and their colts,“ and of ”heifers and bullocks,“ also of ”she-asses and their foals,“ as being the things which are of the natural man. As to camels, (n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145); bullocks, (n. 1824, 1825, 2180, 2781, 2830); and she-asses, (n. 2781).  The things which are of the natural man are relatively things of service, (n. 1486, 3019, 3020, 3167).  Hence it is that by these animals are signified things of service general and special.  As regards the number, of she-goats two hundred, of he-goats twenty, of ewes two hundred, of rams twenty, of camels and their colts thirty, of heifers forty, of bullocks ten, of she-asses twenty, and of their foals ten, these are arcana which cannot be opened without much explication and ample deduction; for all numbers in the Word signify actual things (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252); and what they signify has been shown in the foregoing pages where they have occurred.

[2] I have sometimes wondered that when the speech of the angels fell down into the world of spirits, it fell also into various numbers; and also that where numbers were read in the Word, real things were understood by the angels. For number never penetrates into heaven, because numbers are measures of both space and of time, these being of the world and of nature, to which in the heavens correspond states and changes of states.  The most ancient people, who were celestial men and had communication with angels, knew what was signified by every number, even by the compound ones; and from them their signification was handed down to their posterity, and to the sons of the Ancient Church.  These are things which will hardly be credited by the man of the church at this day, who believes nothing to have been stored up in the Word more holy than what appears the letter.

AC 4265. Verses 16-23. And he gave into the hand of his servants each drove by itself; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space between drove and drove. And he commanded the first, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee? then thou shalt say, Thy servant Jacob’s; this is a present sent unto my lord Esau; and behold he is behind us. And he commanded also the second, and the third, and all that went after the droves, saying, According to this word shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him. And ye shall also say, Behold thy servant Jacob is behind us; for he said, I will expiate his faces in a present that goeth before me, and afterwards I will see his faces; peradventure he will lift up my faces. And the present passed over before him, and he passed the night in that night in the camp. And he rose up in that night, and he took his two women, and his two handmaids, and his eleven sons, and passed over the passage of Jabbok. And he took them, and caused them to pass the river, and caused to pass what he had. ”And be gave into the hand of his servants each drove by itself; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space between drove and drove,“ signifies an orderly arrangement in regard to the way in which they were to be initiated; ”and he commanded the first, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee? then thou shalt say, Thy servant Jacob‘s; this is a present sent unto my lord Esau; and behold he also is behind us,“ signifies submission; ”and he commanded also the second, and the third, and all that went after the droves, saying, According to this word shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him,“ signifies a continuation; ”and ye shall also say, Behold thy servant Jacob is behind us; for he said, I will expiate his faces in a present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his faces; peradventure he will lift up my faces,“ signifies preparation for what follows; ”and the present passed over before him,“ signifies the effect; ”and he passed the night in that night in the camp,“ signifies the things which follow; ”and he rose up in that night, and took his two women, and his two handmaids, and his eleven sons, and passed over the passage of Jabbok,“ signifies the first insinuation of the affections of truth together with the truths acquired; ”the passage of Jabbok“ is the first insinuation; ”and he took them, and caused them to pass the river, and caused to pass what he had,“ signifies further insinuation.

AC 4266. And he gave into the hands of his servants each drove by itself; and said unto his servants, Pass over before me, and put a space between drove and drove.  That this signifies an orderly arrangement in regard to the way in which they were to be initiated, is evident from the signification of ”giving into the hand,“ as being to instruct with power; the ”hand“ denotes power, (n. 878, 3091, 3387, 3563); from the signification of ”servants,“ as being the things of the natural man (n. 3019, 3020), for all things of the natural or external man are subordinated to the spiritual or internal man, and hence all things in it are relatively things of service, and are called ”servants;“-from the signification of a ”drove,“ as being memory knowledges, and also knowledges, thus doctrinal things (n. 3767, 3768), which so long as they are in the natural or external man (that is, in its memory), and are not yet implanted in the spiritual or internal man, are signified by the ”droves given to the hand of the servants;“-from the signification of ”each by itself,“ as being to everyone according to classes, or according to genera and species; from the signification of ”passing over before me,“ and of ”putting a space between drove and drove,“ as being to prepare the way for the good which was to be received; for the subject here treated of is the reception of good by truth, and the conjunction of these in the natural man.  From these several particulars it is manifest that by all these things in general is signified an orderly arrangement in regard to the way in which they were to be initiated. As regards the initiation of truth into good in the natural man, this cannot possibly be set forth to the apprehension; for the man of the church at this day does not even know what the internal or spiritual man is, although he very often speaks of it.  Neither does he know that in order to become a man of the church, truth must be initiated into good in the external or natural man; still less that there is any orderly arrangement by the Lord in that man in order to effect its conjunction with the internal man.  These things, which are most general, are at this day so hidden that they are not known to exist; and therefore to set forth the particulars which are here contained in the internal sense respecting orderly arrangement and initiation, would be speaking nothing but arcana, and thus things merely incredible; consequently it would be speaking in vain, or like throwing seed upon water or sand. This is the reason why the particulars are passed over, and why here, as also in what follows in these verses, the generals only are set forth.

AC 4267. And he commanded the first, saying, When Esau my brother meeteth thee, and asketh thee, saying, Whose art thou? and whither goest thou? and whose are these before thee? then thou shalt say, Thy servant Jacob’s; this is a present sent unto my lord Esau; and behold he also is behind us. That this signifies submission, is evident in like manner from the internal sense of the several words, from which this general sense results. That this is submission, and that things relating to submission are signified, is manifest; for he commanded his servants to call his brother ”lord,“ and himself ”servant,“ and to say that a present was sent as by a servant to his lord. That good is relatively a lord, and truth relatively a servant, and that they are nevertheless called ”brethren,“ has been shown many times. They are called ”brethren“ because when good and truth have been conjoined, good is then presented in truth as in an image, and they afterwards act in conjunction to produce the effect. But good is called ”lord“ and truth ”servant“ before they have been conjoined, and still more so when there is a dispute about the priority.

AC 4268. And he commanded also the second, and the third, and all that went after the droves, saying, According to this word shall ye speak unto Esau, when ye find him. That this signifies a continuation, namely, of the orderly arrangement and submission, is evident from what was said just above without further explication (n. 4266, 4267).

AC 4269. And ye shall also say, Behold thy servant Jacob is behind us; for he said, I will expiate his faces in a present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see his faces; peradventure he will lift up my faces. That this signifies preparation for what follows, and that the present passed over before him signifies the effect, and also that he passed the night in that night in the camp signifies the things which follow, is evident from the several words in the internal sense, which manifestly imply preparation for his being kindly received.  But how the case is with the particulars, cannot be unfolded to the apprehension, for so long as the generals are not known, the singulars of the same subject cannot fall into any light, but into mere shade.  General notions must precede; and unless there are these, the singulars find no hospice where they may enter. In a hospice where there is mere shade, they are not seen; and in a hospice where there are falsities, they are either rejected, or suffocated, or perverted; and where there are evils, they are derided.  It is sufficient that there be received these generals - that man must be regenerated before he can enter into the Lord‘s kingdom (John 3:3); that until he is being regenerated, truth is apparently in the first place and good in the second; but that when he is being regenerated the order is inverted, and good is in the first place and truth in the second; also, that when the order is being inverted, the Lord so disposes and arranges in order in the natural or external man, that truth is there received by good, and submits itself to good, so that the man no longer acts from truth, but from good (that is, from charity); and further, that he acts from charity when he lives according to the truths of faith, and loves doctrine for the sake of life.  The process of these things which are here contained in the internal sense in regard to the orderly arrangement, initiation, and submission of truth before good, appears before the angels in clear light; for such things are of angelic wisdom, although man sees nothing of them.  Nevertheless they who are in simple good from simple faith are in the faculty of knowing these things; and if on account of worldly cares and gross ideas arising therefrom they do not apprehend them in the life of the body, they nevertheless do so in the other life, where worldly and bodily things are removed; for they are then enlightened and come into angelic intelligence and wisdom.

AC 4270. And he rose up in that night, and took his two women, and his two handmaids, and his eleven sons, and passed over the passage of Jabbok. That this signifies the first insinuation of the affections of truth together with the truths acquired, is evident from the signification of the ”two women,“ here Rachel and Leah, as being affections of truth (n. 3758, 3782, 3793, 3819); from the signification of the ”two handmaids,“ here Bilhah and Zilpah, as being exterior affections of truth that serve as means (n. 3849, 3931); from the signification of the ”sons,“ as being truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373); and from the signification of the ”passage of Jabbok,“ as being the first insinuation. That the ”Jabbok“ denotes the first insinuation, is because it was a boundary of the land of Canaan. That all the boundaries of that land were significative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom, according to their distance and situation, (n. 1585, 1866, 4116, 4240); and thus also the ford or passage of the Jabbok, which was such relatively to the land of Canaan beyond Jordan, and was the boundary of the inheritance of the sons of Reuben and Gad, as is evident from (Num. 21:24; Deut. 2:36, 37; 3:16, 17; Josh. 12:2; Judges 11:13, 22). That that land fell to these as an inheritance was because by Reuben was represented faith in the understanding, or doctrine, which is the first of regeneration, or truth of doctrine in the complex by which the good of life is attained (n. 3861, 3866); and by Gad were represented the works of faith (n. 3934). These truths of faith or doctrinal things, and the works of faith which are first exercised, are the things through which the man who is being regenerated is insinuated into good. It is for this reason that by the ”passage of Jabbok“ is signified the first insinuation.

AC 4271. And he took them, and caused them to pass the river, and caused to pass what he had. That this signifies further insinuation, is evident from what has been said just above; for he caused to pass not only the women, the handmaids, and the sons, but also the herd and flock, thus all that he had, into the land of Canaan, in which he met Esau. And as the subject treated of in the internal sense is the conjunction of truth with good in the natural, by passing over the river nothing else is signified than the first insinuation; and here where the same things are still said, and it is also added that he caused to pass all that he had, there is signified further insinuation.

AC 4272. Verses 24, 25. And Jacob remained alone, and there wrestled a man with him until the dawn arose. And he saw that he prevailed not over him, and he touched the hollow of his thigh, and the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh was out of joint in his wrestling with him. ”And Jacob remained alone,“ signifies the good of truth procured, which was in this case the last or ultimate; ”and there wrestled a man with him,“ signifies temptation as to truth; ”until the dawn arose,“ signifies before the conjunction of the natural good signified by ”Jacob“ with the celestial spiritual or the Divine good of truth; ”and he saw that he prevailed not over him,“ signifies that He overcame in temptations; ”and he touched the hollow of his thigh,“ signifies where celestial spiritual good is conjoined with the natural good signified by Jacob; ”and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was out of joint in his wrestling with him,“ signifies that as yet truth had not the power of completely conjoining itself with good. These same two verses relate also to Jacob himself and his posterity, and in this case the quality of these is signified. In this sense, by ”touching the hollow of his thigh,“ is signified where conjugial love is conjoined with natural good; and by ”the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh being out of joint in his wrestling with him,“ is signified that in the posterity of Jacob this conjunction was wholly injured and displaced.

AC 4273. And Jacob ”remained alone.  That this signifies the good of truth procured, which was in this case the last or ultimate, is evident from the representation here of Jacob, as being the good of truth.  What Jacob had represented has been shown in the preceding pages, and also that he represented various things in the natural, because the state of truth and good is of one kind in the beginning, of another in its progress, and still another in the end (n. 3775, 4234) here, he represents the good of truth.  The reason of this representation is that his wrestling is presently treated of, by which in the internal sense is signified temptation; and because he was named “Israel,” by whom is represented the celestial spiritual man; and also because in what next follows his conjunction with Esau is treated of, by which conjunction is signified the initiation of truth into good. These are the reasons why Jacob now represents the last or ultimate good of truth in the natural.

AC 4274. And there wrestled a man with him.  That this signifies temptation as to truth, is evident from the signification of “wrestling,” as being temptation.  Temptation itself is nothing else than a wrestling or combat; for truth is assaulted by evil spirits and is defended by the angels who are with the man. The perception of this combat by the man is the temptation (n. 741, 757, 761, 1661, 3927, 4249, 4256). But no temptation can take place unless the man is in the good of truth, that is, in the love or affection of it. For he who does not love his truth, or is not affected by it, cares nothing for it; but he who loves it is in anxiety lest it should suffer injury. Nothing else produces the understanding life of man except that which he believes to be true, nor his will life except that which he has impressed upon himself as being good; and therefore when that is assaulted which he believes to be true, the life of his understanding is assaulted; and when that which he has impressed upon himself as being good is assaulted, the life of his will is assaulted; so that when a man is being tempted, his life is at stake. That the first of combat is as to truth, or concerning truth, is because this is what he principally loves, and that which is of anyone’s love is that which is assaulted by evil spirits; but after the man loves good more than truth, which takes place when the order is being inverted, he is tempted as to good. But what temptation is few know, because at this day few undergo any temptation, for no others can be tempted than those who are in the good of faith, that is, in charity toward the neighbor. If they who are not in this charity were to be tempted, they would succumb at once; and they who succumb come into the confirmation of evil and the persuasion of falsity; for the evil spirits with whom they are thus associated then conquer within them. This is the reason why at this day few are admitted into any spiritual temptation, but only into some natural anxieties, in order that they may thereby be withdrawn from the loves of self and of the world, into which they would otherwise rush without restraint.

AC 4275. Until the dawn arose. That this signifies before the conjunction of the natural good signified by “Jacob” with the celestial spiritual, or the Divine good of truth, is evident from the signification of the “dawn” as being in the supreme sense the Lord, in the representative sense His kingdom, and in the universal sense the celestial of love (n. 2405); here, the celestial spiritual. For when the dawn arose, Jacob was named Israel, by whom is signified the celestial spiritual man; wherefore “before the arising of the dawn” denotes before the conjunction with the celestial spiritual of the natural good now signified by “Jacob.” What the celestial spiritual is, will be told at the twenty-eighth verse, in treating of Israel.

AC 4276. And he saw that he prevailed not over him. That this signifies that He overcame in temptations, is evident without explication.

AC 4277. And he touched the hollow of his thigh.  That this signifies where celestial spiritual good is conjoined with the natural good signified by “Jacob,” is evident from the signification of the “thigh,” as being conjugial love, and thence all celestial and spiritual love, because these are derived from conjugial love as offspring from their parent (n. 3021);-and from the signification of the “hollow,” or “socket,” or cavity of the thigh, as being where there is conjunction; here, therefore, where there is the conjunction of celestial spiritual good with the natural good signified by “Jacob.” But of this conjunction nothing can be said unless it is first known what celestial spiritual good is, which is “Israel,” and what natural good is, which is “ Jacob.”  This will be told presently at (verse 28) in treating of Jacob, then named Israel, and again afterwards in treating of Jacob‘s posterity.

AC 4278. And the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was out of joint in his wrestling with him.  That this signifies that as yet truth had not the power of completely conjoining itself with good, is evident from the signification of being “out of joint,” namely, that truths had not as yet been disposed in such an order that they all, together with good, could enter into celestial spiritual good (n. 4300, 4301), consequently that truth had not yet the power of completely conjoining itself with good; for the “hollow of the thigh” denotes where goods are conjoined together (n. 4277).

AC 4279. These things which have been unfolded thus far are thus to be understood in the supreme sense and in the internal sense; but it is otherwise in the lower sense in which the quality of Jacob and of his posterity is treated of.  As the Word is from the Lord, and descends from Him through heaven to man, it is therefore such that it is Divine as to every particular; and as it has descended from the Lord, so it ascends, that is, is uplifted to Him, and this through the heavens. It is known that there are three heavens, and that the inmost heaven is called the third heaven, the middle heaven the second heaven, and the lowest the first heaven; and therefore when the Word ascends as it descends, in the Lord it is Divine; in the third heaven it is celestial (for this heaven is the celestial heaven); in the second heaven it is spiritual (for this heaven is the spiritual heaven); and in the first heaven it is celestial and spiritual natural, and the same heaven is also so termed. But in the church with man, the Word as regards the sense of its letter is natural, that is, worldly and earthly.

[2] From this it is manifest what the nature of the Word is, and how the case is with the Word when it is being read by a man who is in what is holy, that is, in good and truth.  For it then appears to him as worldly, or as historical, within which there is nevertheless what is holy; but in the first heaven it appears as celestial and spiritual natural, within which there is nevertheless what is Divine; in the second heaven it is spiritual; in the third heaven it is celestial; and in the Lord it is Divine. The sense of the Word is circumstanced in accordance with the heavens: the supreme sense of the Word, in which the subject treated of is the Lord, is for the inmost or third heaven; its internal sense, in which the subject treated of is the Lord‘s kingdom, is for the middle or second heaven; but the lower sense of the Word, in which the internal sense is determined to the nation that is named, is for the lowest or first heaven; and the lowest or literal sense is for man while still living in the world, and who is nevertheless of such a nature that the interior sense, and even the internal and the supreme senses, can be communicated to him. For man has communication with the three heavens, because he is created after the image of the three heavens, even so that when he lives in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, he is a heaven in the least form.  Hence it is that within man is the Lord’s kingdom, as the Lord Himself teaches in Luke:--

Behold, the kingdom of God is within you (Luke 17:21).

[3] These things have been said in order that it may be known that in the Word there is not only the supreme sense, and the internal sense, but also a lower sense, and that in the lower sense the internal sense is determined to the nation there named; and when this is done, the sense manifestly appears from the series of things. That this wrestling of the man with Jacob, and the dislocation and displacement of his thigh, are predicated also of Jacob and his posterity, is manifest; and therefore I may unfold these same words according to this sense. This sense will be called in what follows the INTERNAL HISTORICAL SENSE, and this for the additional reason that it is wont to be occasionally represented to the life and in form in the first heaven, as also I have sometimes been permitted to see. (n. 4272).

AC 4280. That in the internal historical sense, by his touching the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh, is signified where conjugial love is conjoined with natural good, is evident from the signification of the “hollow of the thigh,” as being where there is the conjunction of conjugial love (n. 4277).  That conjunction there with natural good is signified, is because the thigh is there conjoined to the feet.  In the internal sense the “feet” signify natural good, as may be seen above (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986).

[2] That the “thigh” denotes conjugial love, and the “feet” natural good, is among the things that are now obsolete and lost.  The Ancient Church, which was in representatives and significatives, knew these things very well.  The knowledge of such things was their intelligence and wisdom, and this not only of those who were of the church, but also of those who were out of the church, as is evident from the oldest books of the Gentiles, and from the things which at this day are called fables; for significatives and representatives were derived to them from the Ancient Church.  With them also the thighs and the loins signified what is conjugial, and the feet what is natural.  The thighs and the feet have this signification from the correspondences of all man’s members, organs, and viscera with the Grand Man, which correspondences are now being treated of at the end of the chapters.  Of the correspondences with the thigh and the feet more will be said in what follows, where it will be confirmed by living experience that such is their signification.

[3] At the present day these things cannot but appear paradoxical, because, as before said, this knowledge is altogether obsolete and lost.  And yet how much this knowledge surpasses other knowledges, may be seen from the fact that without it the Word cannot possibly be known as to its internal sense; and because the angels who are with man perceive the Word according to this sense; and also because by means of this knowledge communication is given to man with heaven.  And (what is incredible) the internal man itself thinks in no other way; for when the external man apprehends the Word according to the letter, the internal man apprehends it at the same time according to the internal sense, although the man while living in the body is not aware of this.  Especially may this be seen from the fact that when a man comes into the other life and becomes an angel, he knows the internal sense as of himself without instruction.

[4] What conjugial love is, which is signified by the thighs and also by the loins, may be seen above (n. 995, 1123, 2727-2759); and that conjugial love is the fundamental of all loves (n. 686, 3021); and hence it is that those who are in genuine conjugial love are also in celestial love (that is, in love to the Lord), and in spiritual love (that is, in charity toward the neighbor); and therefore by conjugial love not only is this love itself meant, but also all celestial and spiritual love.  These loves are said to be conjoined with natural good when the internal man is conjoined with the external, or the spiritual man with the natural. This conjunction is that which is signified by the “hollow of the thigh” That with Jacob and his posterity in general there was no such conjunction, will appear from what follows; for this is the subject here treated of in the internal historical sense.

AC 4281. That by the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh was out of joint in his wrestling with him, is signified that this conjunction was wholly injured and displaced in Jacob’s posterity, is evident from the signification of being “out of joint” in the sense in question, as being to be displaced, and thus to be injured.  That the “hollow of the thigh” denotes conjunction, is manifest from what was said above (n. 4280); and because in the Word “Jacob” denotes not only Jacob, but also all his posterity, as is evident from many passages in the Word (Num. 23:7, 10, 21, 23; 24:5, 17, 19; Deut. 33:10; Isa. 40:27; 43:1, 22; 44:1, 2, 21; 48:12; 59:20; Jer. 10:16, 25; 30:7, 10, 18; 31:7, 11; 46:27, 28; Hos. 10:11; Amos 7:2; Micah 2:12; 3:8; Ps. 14:7; 24:6; 59:13; 78:5; 99:4).

[2] That Jacob and his posterity were of such a character that with them celestial and spiritual love could not be conjoined with natural good (that is, the internal or spiritual man with the external or natural man), is manifest from everything which is related of that nation in the Word; for they did not know, nor were they willing to know, what the internal or spiritual man is, and therefore this was not revealed to them; for they believed that nothing exists in man except that which is external and natural.  In all their worship they had regard to nothing else, insomuch that Divine worship was to them no otherwise than idolatrous; for when internal worship is separated from external, it is merely idolatrous.  The church that was instituted with them was not a church, but only the representative of a church; for which reason that church is called a representative church.  That a representative of a church is possible with such people may be seen above (n. 1361, 3670, 4208).

[3] For in representations the person is not reflected upon, but the thing which is represented; and therefore Divine, celestial, and spiritual things were represented not only by persons, but also by inanimate things, as by Aaron‘s garments, the ark, the altar, the oxen and sheep that were sacrificed, the lampstand with its lamps, the bread of arrangement upon the golden table, the oil with which they were anointed, the frankincense, and other like things.  Hence it was that their kings, the evil as well as the good, represented the Lord’s royalty; and the high priests, the evil as well as the good, represented the things that belong to the Lord‘s Divine priesthood, when they discharged their office in an outward form according to the statutes and precepts. In order therefore that the representative of a church might come forth among them, such statutes and laws were given them by manifest revelation as were altogether representative; and therefore so long as they were in them and observed them strictly, so long they were able to represent; but when they turned aside from them, as to the statutes and laws of other nations, and especially to the worship of another god, they then deprived themselves of the faculty of representing.  For this reason they were driven by outward means, such as captivities, disasters, threats, and miracles, to laws and statutes truly representative; but not by internal means, as are those who have internal worship in external.  These things are signified by the “hollow of Jacob’s thigh being out of joint,” taken in the internal historical sense, which regards Jacob and his posterity.

AC 4282. Verses 26-28. And he said, Let me go, for the dawn ariseth.  And he said, I will not let thee go unless thou bless me.  And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob. And he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed.  “And he said let me go, for the dawn ariseth,” signifies that temptation ceased when conjunction was at hand; “and he said, I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me,” signifies that conjunction was to be effected; “and he said unto him, ”What is thy name? and he said, Jacob,“ signifies the quality of good from truth; ”and he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel,“ signifies the Divine celestial spiritual now; ”Israel“ is the celestial spiritual man which is in the natural, and thus is natural; the celestial spiritual man itself, which is rational, is ”Joseph;“ ”for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed,“ signifies continual victories in combats as to truths and goods.

[2] In the internal historical sense, in which Jacob and his posterity are treated of, by the same words are signified the things which follow:-by ”Let me go, for the dawn ariseth,“ is signified that what was representative before they came into representatives of the land of Canaan should depart from the posterity of Jacob; by ”and he said, I will not let thee go unless thou bless me,“ is signified that they would insist upon being representative; by ”and he said unto him, What is thy name? and he said, Jacob,“ is signified that they were the posterity of Jacob with their quality; by ”and he said, Thy name shall no longer be called Jacob, but Israel,“ is signified that they could not represent as Jacob, but as from a new quality given them; by ”for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed,“ is signified because of the contumacy which was in their cupidities and phantasies.

AC 4283. And he said, Let me go, for the dawn ariseth.  That this signifies that the temptation ceased when the conjunction was at hand, is evident from the signification of ”Let me go,“ that is, from wrestling with me, as being that the temptation ceased. The ”wrestling“ denotes temptation, (n. 4274), and it ceased is manifest from what follows; and from the signification of the ”dawn,“ as being the conjunction of the natural good signified by ”Jacob“ with the celestial spiritual, or the Divine good of truth (n. 4275).  That the wrestling was begun before the dawn arose, and ceased after it arose, and that then is related what took place when the sun was risen, is because the times of the day, like the times of the year, signify states (n. 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3785); here, states of conjunction by means of temptations.  For when the conjunction of the internal man with the external is being effected, then it is the dawn to him, because he then enters into a spiritual or celestial state.  Then also light like that of the dawn appears to him if he is in such a state as to be able to observe it.  Moreover his understanding is enlightened, and he is as one awakened from sleep in the early morning, when the dawn is first lighting and beginning the day.

AC 4284. And he said, I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me.  That this signifies that conjunction was to be effected, is evident from the signification of ”not letting thee go,“ as being that the temptation would not cease (n. 4283); and from the signification of ”blessing,“ as being conjunction (n. 3504, 3514, 3530, 3584).  From this it is manifest that by ”I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me,“ is signified that the temptation would not cease until the conjunction was effected, that is, that conjunction was to be effected.

AC 4285. And he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said, Jacob. That this signifies the quality of good from truth, is evident from the signification of ”name,“ as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006); and from the representation of Jacob, as being the good of truth (n. 4273).

AC 4286. And he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel. That this signifies the Divine celestial spiritual now, and that ”Israel“ is the celestial spiritual man which is in the natural, and thus is natural; and that the celestial spiritual man itself, which is rational, is ”Joseph,“ is evident from what follows concerning Jacob and concerning Israel, and also concerning Joseph; for it must first be told what is here meant by the celestial spiritual. It is indeed known in the church at the present day that there is a spiritual man and a natural man, or an internal man and an external man; but what the spiritual or internal man is, is not yet so well known; and still less what the celestial man is, and that it is distinct from the spiritual; and as this is not known, it cannot be known what the celestial spiritual man is, which here is ”Israel,“ and therefore this must be briefly told.

[2] That there are three heavens, is known, namely, an inmost heaven, a middle, and an ultimate; or what is the same, a third, a second, and a first. The inmost or third heaven is celestial; for the angels there are called celestial because they are in love to the Lord, and are therefore most fully conjoined with the Lord, and are consequently in wisdom above all the rest, are innocent, and hence are called innocences and wisdoms. These angels are distinguished into the internal and the external, the internal being more celestial than the external. The middle or second heaven is spiritual; for the angels there are called spiritual because they are in charity toward the neighbor, that is, in mutual love, which is such that the one loves the other more than himself; and because they are such they are in intelligence, and are hence called intelligences. These angels are also distinguished into the internal and the external, the internal being more spiritual than the external. The ultimate or first heaven is likewise celestial and spiritual, but not in the same degree as the prior ones; for what is natural adheres to these angels, and they are therefore called the celestial natural and the spiritual natural. These also are in mutual love, yet do not love others more than themselves, but as themselves. They are in the affection of good and knowledge of truth, and are likewise distinguished into the internal and the external.

[3] But what the celestial spiritual is, shall also be briefly told. Those are called the celestial spiritual who were said just above to be the spiritual, and they are in the middle or second heaven; they are termed ”celestial“ from mutual love, and ”spiritual“ from the derivative intelligence.  The internal angels there are those who are represented by Joseph, and are also called ”Joseph“ in the Word; but the external there are those who are represented by Israel, and are also called ”Israel“ in the Word. The former (that is, the internal angels who are called ”Joseph“) partake of the rational; but the external who are called ”Israel,“ partake of the natural, for these are midway between the rational and the natural.  This is the reason why it is said that Israel is the celestial spiritual man which is in the natural, and thus is natural; and that Joseph is the celestial spiritual man itself, which is rational.  For in the universal sense all the good which is of love and charity is called celestial, and all the derivative truth of faith and intelligence is said to be spiritual.

[4] These things have been stated in order that it may be known what ”Israel“ denotes.  But in the supreme sense ”Israel“ signifies the Lord as to the Divine celestial spiritual, and in the internal sense signifies the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom in heaven and on earth. The Lord’s spiritual kingdom on earth is the church which is called the Spiritual Church. And because ”Israel“ denotes the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, ”Israel“ likewise denotes the spiritual man, for in every such man there is the Lord’s kingdom; for a man is a heaven, and is also a church, in the least form (n. 4279). As regards Jacob, by him in the supreme sense is represented the Lord as to the natural, both celestial and spiritual; and in the internal sense the Lord‘s kingdom such as it is in the ultimate or first heaven, and consequently also the same in the church.  Good in the natural is what is here called celestial, and truth in the same is what is called spiritual. From these things it is evident what is signified by ”Israel“ and by ”Jacob“ in the Word, and also why Jacob was named Israel.

[5] But these things which have been said must needs appear obscure, especially for the reason that it is known to few what the spiritual man is, and to scarcely anyone what the celestial man is, consequently that there is any distinction between the spiritual and the celestial man.  The reason why this has not been known, is that there is no distinct perception of the good of love and charity, and of the truth which is of faith; and these are not perceived because there is no longer any genuine charity, and where anything is not, there is no perception of it.  Another reason is that man is little solicitous about the things that belong to the life after death, thus about the things of heaven, but is very much so about those which belong to the life of the body, and thus about the things that are of the world.  If man were solicitous about the things that belong to the life after death, thus about the things of heaven, he would easily apprehend all the things that have been said above; for that which a man loves he easily imbibes and apprehends, but with difficulty what he does not love.

[6] That ”Jacob“ signifies one thing and ”Israel“ another, is plainly evident from the Word; for in the historical parts, and also in the prophetical, it is now said ”Jacob,“ and now ”Israel,“ and sometimes both are said in the same verse; from which it is evident that there is an internal sense in the Word, and that without this sense this circumstance cannot possibly be understood.  That ”Jacob“ is now said, and now ”Israel,“ is evident from the following passages:--

Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’s sojournings. These are the births of Jacob; Joseph was a son of seventeen years, and Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons (Gen. 37:1-3);

where Jacob is first called ”Jacob“ and presently ”Israel;“ and he is called Israel when Joseph is treated of.  Again:--

Jacob saw that there was corn in Egypt, and Jacob said to his sons. And the sons of Israel came to buy in the midst of those who came (Gen. 42:1, 5).

And afterwards:--

They went up out of Egypt, and came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob their father; and when they told him all the words of Joseph, which he spake unto them, the spirit of Jacob their father revived; and Israel said, It is much, Joseph my son is yet alive (Gen. 45:25, 27, 28).

Again:--

And Israel journeyed, and all that he had. God said unto Israel in the lions of the night, and He said, Jacob, Jacob, who said, Behold me. And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba, and the sons of Israel carried down Jacob their father (Gen. 46:1, 2, 5).

And in the same chapter:--

These are the names of the sons of Israel that came into Egypt, of Jacob and his sons (Gen. 46:8).

Further:--

Joseph brought in Jacob his father, and set him before Pharaoh. Pharaoh said unto Jacob and Jacob said unto Pharaoh (Gen. 47:7-9).

And in the same chapter:--

And Israel dwelt in the land of Goshen and Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years and the days of Israel drew near to die; and he called his son Joseph (Gen. 47:27-29).

Yet again:--

And one told Jacob, and said, Behold thy son Joseph cometh unto thee and Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed.  And Jacob said unto Joseph, God Shaddai appeared to me in Luz (Gen. 48:2, 3).

And he is called Israel in the same chapter (Gen. 48:8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 20, 21).  And lastly:--

Jacob called his sons, and said, Assemble yourselves, and hear, ye sons of Jacob, and listen unto Israel your father. And when Jacob had made an end of charging his sons (Gen. 49:1, 2, 33).

From these passages it is very evident that Jacob is now called Jacob, and now Israel, and thus that Jacob means one thing, and Israel another; or that one thing is signified when it is said ”Jacob,“ and another when ”Israel,“ and also that this arcanum cannot possibly be understood except from the internal sense.

[7] But what ”Jacob“ signifies, and what ”Israel,“ has been told above.  In general by ”Jacob“ in the Word is signified what is external of the church, and by ”Israel“ what is internal; for every church has an external and also an internal, or is internal and also external.  And as that which is of the church is signified by ”Jacob“ and by ”Israel,“ and as everything of the church is from the Lord, hence in the supreme sense both ”Jacob“ and ”Israel“ denote the Lord, ”Jacob“ as to the Divine natural, and ”Israel“ as to the Divine spiritual. Thus the external which is of the Lord‘s kingdom and of His church, is ”Jacob,“ and the internal is ”Israel“-as is further evident from the following passages, in which each is named in its own sense.  In the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel:--

By the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel (Gen. 49:24).

In Isaiah:--

Hear, O Jacob, My servant, and Israel whom I have chosen; I will pour out My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thy sons; this one shall say to Jehovah, I and this one shall call himself by the name of Jacob, and that one shall write with his hand unto Jehovah, and surname himself by the name of Israel (Isa. 44:1, 3, 5);

where ”Jacob“ and ”Israel“ manifestly denote the Lord, and the ”seed and sons of Jacob and Israel,“ those who are in faith in Him.  In the prophecy of Balaam in Moses:--

Who shall number the dust of Jacob, and the number with the fourth part of Israel? (Num. 23:10).

And again:--

There is no divination against Jacob, nor sorceries against Israel; at this time it shall be said to Jacob and to Israel, What hath God wrought! (Numbers 23:23).

Again:--

How good are thy tabernacles O Jacob, thy dwelling places, O Israel (Numbers 24:5).

And again:--

There shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a scepter out of Israel (Numbers 24:17).

In Isaiah:--

My glory will I not give to another. Attend to me, O Jacob, and Israel My called. I am the same; I am the first, I also am the last (Isa. 48:11, 12).

In the same:--

Jacob shall enroot those who come; and Israel shall blossom and flower; and the faces of the world shall be filled with produce (Isa. 17:6).

In Jeremiah:--

Fear not thou, O Jacob My servant, and be not terrified O Israel; for lo I have saved thee from afar (Jeremiah 30:9, 10).

In Micah:--

In gathering I will gather Jacob, all of thee in assembling I will assemble the remains of Israel; I will put them together as the sheep of Bozrah (Micah 2:12).

[8] For what reason Jacob was named Israel is evident from the very words when this name was given him:-” Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel; for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed.“ For in the original language ”Israel“ means ”one that contends with God as a prince,“ by which is signified in the internal sense that He overcame in the combats of temptations; for temptations and combats in temptations were the means by which the Lord made His Human Divine (n. 1737, 1813); and temptations and victories in temptations are what make man spiritual; for which reason Jacob was for the first time named Israel after he wrestled. ”Wrestling“ denotes being tempted, (n. 4274). It is known that the Church, or the man of the Christian Church, calls himself Israel; and yet no one in the Church is Israel but he who has become a spiritual man by means of temptations.  The name itself also involves the same.  That it was afterwards confirmed that Jacob should be called Israel, is evident from what follows in another chapter, where are these words:--

God appeared unto Jacob again, when be came from Paddan-aram, and blessed him; and God said unto him, Thy name is Jacob; thy name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be thy name; and He called his name Israel (Gen. 35:9, 10).

The reason of this confirmation will be told hereafter.

AC 4287. For as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed. That this signifies continual victories in combats as to truths and goods, is evident from the signification of ”contending as a prince,“ as being to overcome in combats, here in the combats of temptations, for these are what are treated of; and from the signification of ”with God and with men“ as being as to truths and goods, of which below.

[2] As in the supreme sense the Lord is treated of, it is He who is meant in this sense by ”him that contended as a prince with God and men;“ for He endured all temptations by His own power, and by means of them conquered the bells; for He admitted all the hells into Himself in their order, yea, even to the angels of which in the following pages. And He thus reduced into order all things in the heavens and in the hells, and at last glorified Himself, that is, made the Human in Himself Divine.

[3] From this it is manifest that in the supreme sense the Lord is ”Jacob“ and ”Israel“ (n. 4286), not only in that He contended as a prince, that is, endured all the combats of temptations, and conquered in them, but in that He also endures them in every man. But see what has been said on these subjects many times before, namely: That the Lord beyond all endured the most grievous temptations (n. 1663, 1668, 1787, 2776, 2786, 2795, 2816): That the Lord fought from Divine love, differently from all men (n. 1690, 1691, 1789, 1812, 1813, 1820): That the Lord fought against hereditary evil from the mother, so that at last He was not her son, although He had no actual evil (n. 1444, 1573, 2025, 2574, 2649, 3318): That the Lord through combats of temptations and continual victories disposed all things into a heavenly form (n. 1928): That by continual victories in the combats of temptations He united the Divine Essence to the Human (n. 1616, 1737, 1813, 1921, 2025, 2026, 2500, 2523, 2632, 2776): And that the Lord endures temptations in man, and subjugates evil and the hells (n. 987, 1661, 1692).

[4] That ”to contend with God and with men“ denotes to be tempted as to truths and as to goods, is a secret which does not appear from the letter. That it was not God with whom Jacob contended must be evident to everyone, and will also appear from the explication below; for it cannot be predicated of any man that he contends with God and prevails. But the internal sense teaches what is here signified by ”God“ and by ”men“ -namely, that by ”God“ is signified truth and by ”men“ good, and this for the reason that in the internal sense the name ”God“ signifies truth, and hence that when the subject treated of is truth, this name is used (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822); and that when ”man“ is mentioned, good is meant.  That ”man“ denotes good is because the Lord is the only man, and because man is called man from Him (n. 49, 288, 565, 1894); also because from Him heaven is a man, and is called the Grand Man (n. 684, 1276, 3624-3649, 3741-3751).

[5] For this reason the Most Ancient Church also, which was in celestial good, was called ”man“ (n. 478); and therefore also in the Word, where good is treated of, good is signified by ”man,“ as in Isaiah:--

I will make a man (vir homo)     more rare than gold, and man (homo) than the gold of Ophir (Isa. 13:12).

In the same:--

The inhabitants of the earth shall be burned, and few shall be the man (vir homo)   left (Isa. 24:6);

a ”man (vir homo)“ denotes spiritual good, or the good of truth; a ”man (homo),“ good.  In the same:--

The paths are laid waste, the wayfaring man hath ceased; he hath made vain the covenant, he hath loathed the cities, he regardeth not a man (vir homo)   (Isa. 33:8).

In Jeremiah:--

I beheld the earth, and lo it was a void and emptiness, and the heavens, and they had no light; I beheld and lo there was no man, and all the birds of heaven had flown away (Jer. 4:23, 25).

In the same:--

Behold, the days come, saith Jehovah, that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast (Jer. 31:27).

In Ezekiel:--

Thy merchants with the soul of man and vessels of brass they gave thy trading (Ezek. 27:13).

In the same:--

Ye My flock, the flock of My pasture, ye are man, and I am your God (Ezek. 34:31).

Again:--

The waste cities shall be filled with the flock of man (Ezek. 36:38).

In these passages ”man (homo)“ denotes those who are in good, thus good, because man is man from good.  But the truth which is from good is called in the Word a ”man (vir homo),“ and also the ”son of man.“

AC 4288. These same words which have thus far been explained have regard also to the Jewish and Israelitish nation, which is named ”Jacob“ in the Word, as has been said and shown above (n. 4279). In that sense which is called the internal historical sense, by these words - Let me go, for the dawn ariseth - is signified that what is representative should depart from the posterity of Jacob, before they came into the representatives of the land of Canaan.  It has been shown above what the character of that nation was, namely, that with them there was no internal worship, but only external; thus that the heavenly conjugial was separated from them, and therefore that no church could be instituted with them, but only the representative of a church (n. 4281).

[2] But be it known what a representative church is, and what the representative of a church.  A representative church is when there is internal worship in external, and the representative of a church when there is no internal worship, but nevertheless there is external. In both there are nearly similar outward rituals, that is, similar statutes, similar laws, and similar precepts.  But in the representative church the externals correspond with the internals, so as to make a one; whereas in the representative of a church there is no correspondence, because the externals are either devoid of internals, or are at variance with them.  In a representative church celestial and spiritual love is the principal, but in the representative of a church bodily and worldly love is the principal.  Celestial and spiritual love is the internal itself; but where there is no celestial and spiritual love, but only bodily and worldly love, the external is devoid of an internal.  The Ancient Church, which was after the flood, was a representative church; but that which was instituted among the posterity of Jacob was only the representative of a church.

[3] To make this evident let the distinction be illustrated by examples.  In the Representative Church Divine worship took place on mountains, because mountains signified celestial love, and in the supreme sense the Lord (n. 795, 1430, 2722, 4210); and when they were holding worship on mountains, they were in their holy state, because they were at the same time in celestial love.  In the Representative Church Divine worship took place also in groves, because groves signified spiritual love, and in the supreme sense the Lord as to this love (n. 2722); and when they were holding worship in groves, they were in their holy state, because at the same time in spiritual love. In the Representative Church when they were holding Divine worship, they turned their faces to the rising of the sun, because by the rising sun was also signified celestial love (n. 101, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643).  And so when they looked at the moon they were in like manner penetrated with a certain holy reverence, because the moon signified spiritual love (n. 1529-1531, 2495, 4060).  It was similar when they looked at the starry heaven, because this signified the angelic heaven or the Lord’s kingdom.  In the Representative Church they had tents or tabernacles, and Divine worship in them, and this holy; because tents or tabernacles signified the holy of love and worship (n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312); and so in innumerable other things.

[4] In the representative of a church there was indeed in the beginning a like Divine worship upon mountains, and also in groves, and they also turned their faces toward the rising of the sun, and looked at the moon and the stars, and similarly held worship in tents or tabernacles.  But as they were in external worship without internal, or in bodily and worldly love, and not in celestial and spiritual love, and thus worshiped the mountains and groves themselves, and the sun, moon, and stars, as also their tents or tabernacles, and thus made the rituals idolatrous which in the Ancient Church were holy, they were therefore restricted to what was common to all, namely, to the mountain where Jerusalem was, and at last where Zion was, and to the rising of the sun as seen thence and from the temple, and also to a tent in common, which was called the tent of meeting, and finally to the ark in the temple; and this to the intent that a representative of a church might exist when they were in a holy external; as otherwise they would have profaned holy things.

[5] From this it is evident what the distinction is between a representative church and a representative of a church; in general, that they who were of the representative church communicated with the three heavens as to their interiors, to which these external things served as a plane; but they who were in the representative of a church did not communicate with the heavens as to their interiors; but still the external things in which they were kept could serve as a plane, and this miraculously of the Lord‘s providence, to the intent that something of communication might exist between heaven and man, by means of some semblance of a church; for without the communication of heaven with man through something of a church, the human race would perish.  What the correspondence of internal things is, cannot be told in few words, but will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told in the following pages.

AC 4289. That by Let me go, for the dawn ariseth, is signified that what is representative would depart from the posterity of Jacob, before they came into the representatives of the land of Canaan, is evident from the series of things in the internal historical sense, in which Jacob‘s posterity are treated of. Their state in respect to the things of the church is also described in the Word by evening, by night, and by morning or dawn - by the latter when they came into the land of Canaan, consequently into the representative of a church there.  The case herein is that the representative of a church could not be instituted among them until they had been altogether vastated, that is, until they had no knowledge of internal things; for if they had had a knowledge of internal things they could have been affected by them, and thus would have profaned them. For holy things (that is, internal truths and goods) can be profaned by those who know and acknowledge them, and still more by those who are affected by them, but not by those who do not acknowledge them.  But see what has been previously said and shown about profanation, namely: That those can profane holy things who know and acknowledge them, but not those who do not (n. 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 3398, 3898): That those who are within the church can profane holy things, but not those who are without (n. 2051): That therefore so far as is possible those are withheld from the acknowledgment and belief of good and truth who cannot remain therein permanently (n. 3398, 3402): That these are also kept in ignorance lest they should profane (n. 301-303): What danger there is from the profanation of holy things (n. 571, 582): That worship becomes external lest what is internal should be profaned (n. 1327, 1328): And that therefore internal truths were not disclosed to the Jews (n. 3398).

[2] It was therefore provided by the Lad that the genuine representative of a church (that is, what is internal) should depart from the posterity of Jacob before they came into the representatives of the land of Canaan, insomuch that they did not know anything at all concerning the Lord.  They did indeed know that the Messiah was to come into the world, but to the end that He should exalt them to glory and eminence over all nations of the whole earth - not to save their souls to eternity.  Neither did they know anything about the heavenly kingdom, nor about the life after death, and not even about charity and faith.  In order that they might be reduced to this ignorance they were kept some hundreds of years in Egypt; and when they were called out thence, they did not know even the name of Jehovah (Exod. 3:12-14). Moreover they had lost all the worship of the representative church, insomuch that after the commandments of the Decalogue had been promulgated before them from Mount Sinai, within a month they fell back to the Egyptian worship, which was that of a golden calf (Exod. 32).

[3] And because the brood that had been brought out of Egypt was of such a character, they all perished in the wilderness.  For nothing more was required of them than to keep the statutes and precepts in the outward form, because this was to act as the representative of a church; but those who had grown up in Egypt could not be reduced to this; yet their children could, although with difficulty, in the beginning by miracles, and afterwards by fears and captivities, as is manifest from the books of Joshua and Judges.  From this it is evident that all genuine or internal representation of the church had departed from them before they came into the land of Canaan, where the external representative of the church was begun among them in full form. For the land of Canaan was the veriest land of all where the representatives of the church could be presented, because all the places and all the boundaries of this land had been representative from ancient times (n. 3686).

AC 4290. In the internal historical sense, by he said, I will not let thee go unless thou bless me, is signified that they insisted upon being representative; for their insisting is signified by ”I will not let thee go,“ and representing a church by being ”blessed.“ In regard to this subject - that the posterity of Jacob insisted upon being representative of a church, and that they were chosen above all other nations - this cannot indeed be made so evident from the historicals of the Word in the sense of the letter, for the reason that the historicals of the Word in the sense of the letter enfold within them deep secrets of heaven,  and therefore these so follow in the series; and also because the names themselves signify things; many names indeed in their supreme sense signify the Lord Himself, such as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.  That these in the supreme sense signify the Lord, has been shown many times in what precedes (n. 1965, 1989, 2011, 3245, 3305, 3439).

[2] That the posterity of Jacob were not chosen, but insisted that a church should be among them, may be seen from many passages of the Word, from its internal historical sense, and openly in the following.  Moses:--

Jehovah spake unto Moses, Go up hence, thou and the people which thou hast made to go up out of the land of Egypt, into the land of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, Unto thy seed will I give it; I will not go up in the midst of thee, for thou art a stiffnecked people; lest I consume thee in the way. And when the people heard this evil word, they mourned, and put off everyone his ornament from upon him. And Moses took the tent, and pitched it for himself without the camp, in removing far from the camp. And Moses said unto Jehovah, See, Thou sayest unto me, Make this people go up, and Thou hast not made known to me whom Thou wilt send with me. Now therefore I pray If I have found grace in Thine eyes, make known to me I pray Thy way, that I may know concerning Thee, that I have found grace in Thine eyes; behold also that this nation is Thy people. He said therefore, My faces shall go until I give thee rest (Exod. 33:1-7, 12-14).

It is here said that Moses made the people go up out of the land of Egypt, and then that they put off their ornament and mourned, and that Moses pitched his tent without the camp, and that thereby Jehovah assented; thus plainly showing that they themselves insisted.

[3] In the same:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, How long will this people provoke Me, and how long will they not believe in Me, for all the signs which I have wrought in the midst of them? I will smite them with the pestilence, and will extinguish them, and will make of thee a nation greater and mightier than they. But Moses supplicated, and Jehovah being entreated said, I will be gracious according to thy word: nevertheless, I live, and the whole earth shall be filled with the glory of Jehovah; for as to all those men who have seen My glory, and My signs which I wrought in Egypt, and in the wilderness, yet have tempted Me these ten times, and have not obeyed my voice, surely they shall not see the land which I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of them that provoked Me see it. Your bodies shall fall in this wilderness; but your little children will I bring in (Num. 14:11-12, 20-23, 29, 31).

From these words it is also manifest that Jehovah willed to extinguish them, and consequently not to set up a church among them, but that they insisted and it was therefore done - besides many other times also, when Jehovah willed to utterly destroy that nation so often rebellious, but as often suffered Himself to be entreated by their supplications.

[4] The like is also involved in Balaam’s not being permitted to curse that people (Num. 22, 23, 24); and in other places also, where it is said that Jehovah repented that He had brought in that people; also that Jehovah was entreated; and also that He so often made a new covenant with them.  Such things are signified in the internal historical sense by the words ”I will not let thee go, unless thou bless me.“ The same is also signified by Jacob‘s taking away the birthright from Esau, and also by his taking the blessing from him by fraud (Gen. 25 and 27).

AC 4291. In the internal historical sense, by he said unto him, What is thy name? And he said Jacob, is signified that they were the posterity of Jacob with their quality. This is evident from the signification of a ”name,“ as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006); and from the signification of ”Jacob,“ as being his posterity (n. 4281).

AC 4292. In the internal historical sense, by he said, Thy name shall no more be called Jacob, but Israel, is signified that they could not represent as Jacob, but as from a new quality given them.  This may be seen from the meaning of ”Jacob“ in the Word, as being his posterity (n. 4281); and from the signification of a ”name,“ as being quality (n. 4291). The new quality itself is ”Israel“ in the internal sense; for ”Israel“ is the celestial spiritual, thus the internal man (n. 4286). And because ”Israel“ is the celestial spiritual and thus the internal man, ”Israel“ is also the internal spiritual church; for whether you speak of the spiritual man or the spiritual church, it is the same thing; because the spiritual man is a church in particular, and a number are a church in general. If a man were not a church in particular, there would not be any church in general.  A congregation in general is what in common speech is called a church, but in order that there may be any church, everyone in this congregation must be such as is the church in general, because every general involves parts similar to itself.

[2] As regards the matter itself (that they could not represent as Jacob, but as from a new quality given them, which is ”Israel“) the case is this.  It was specifically Jacob’s posterity who represented the church, but not Isaac‘s specifically; for Isaac’s posterity were not from Jacob only, but also from Esau.  Still less was it Abraham‘s posterity specifically; for Abraham’s posterity were not from Jacob only, but also from Esau, and likewise from Ishmael, as also from his sons by his second wife Keturah - thus from Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah, and their sons (Gen. 25:1-4).  Now as Jacob‘s posterity insisted on being representative (n. 4290), they could not represent as Jacob, nor as Isaac, nor as Abraham.  That they could not as Jacob was because Jacob represented the external of the church, but not its internal; and they could not as Isaac at the same time, nor as Abraham at the same time, for the reason just adduced.

[3] There was therefore no other way by which they could represent the church than by a new name being given to Jacob, and thereby a new quality; which new quality should signify the internal spiritual man, or what is the same, the internal spiritual church.  This new quality is ”Israel.“  Every church of the Lord is internal and external, as has been repeatedly shown.  The internal church is what is represented, and the external is what represents.  Moreover the internal church is either spiritual or celestial.  The internal spiritual church was represented by Israel, and the internal celestial church was afterwards represented by Judah.  Therefore also a division was made, and the Israelites were a kingdom by themselves, and the Jews were a kingdom by themselves; but on this subject of the Lord’s Divine mercy hereafter.  Hence it is evident that Jacob (that is, the posterity of Jacob) could not represent a church as Jacob, for this would be to represent only the external of a church; but must also do so as Israel, because ”Israel“ is the internal.

[4] That the internal is what is represented, and the external what represents, has been shown before, and may likewise be seen from man himself.  Man‘s speech represents his thought, and his action represents his will.  Speech and action are man’s externals, and thought and will are his internals.  Furthermore, man‘s face itself, by its varying looks, represents both his thought and his will.  That the face by its looks represents, is known to everyone; for with the sincere their interior states may be seen from the looks of the face.  In a word, all things of the body represent what is of the animus and of the mind.

[5] The case is similar with the externals of the church, for these are like a body, and the internals are like a soul - as the altars and the sacrifices upon them, which as is known were external things; in like manner the show-breads; also the lampstand with its lights; and likewise the perpetual fire: that these represented internal things may be known to everyone; and it is the same with the rest of the rites.  That these external things could not represent external but internal things, is evident from what has been adduced.  Thus Jacob could not represent as Jacob, because ”Jacob“ is the external of the church; but Jacob could represent as Israel, because ”Israel“ is its internal.  This is what is meant by the new quality given in order that the posterity of Jacob might represent.

AC 4293. In the internal historical sense, by for as a prince hast thou contended with God and with men, and hast prevailed, is signified on account of the contumacy which was in their phantasies and cupidities, as is evident from the signification of ”God“ and from the signification of ”men“ as being truths and goods (n. 4287).  These same words have here an opposite sense, because in this sense they are said of the posterity of Jacob, among whom there were interiorly no truths and goods, but falsities and evils.  Falsities are phantasies because they are of phantasies, and evils are cupidities because they are of cupidities.

[2] That this nation insisted on being representative, that is, they insisted that they should be the church above all nations in the whole world, may be seen above (n. 4290).  That this was also permitted on account of the contumacy that was in their phantasies and cupidities, is here meant.  The nature of their phantasies and their cupidities no one can know who has not had some intercourse with them in the other life; and in order that I might know it, this has been granted me, so that I have occasionally spoken with them there.  More than all others they love themselves and they love the wealth of the world; and more than all others they fear the loss of this honor, and also the loss of gain; and therefore also at this day, as of old, they despise all others in comparison with themselves, and likewise seek wealth for themselves with the most intense application, and moreover are timid.  As this nation had been of this character from ancient times, they could more than others be kept in a holy external without any holy internal, and thus could represent in external form the things of the church.  It is these phantasies and these cupidities that have produced such contumacy.

[3] The same also appears from many things related of them in the historicals of the Word.  After being punished they could be in such external humiliation as could no other people, for they could lie prostrate on the ground for entire days and wallow in the dust, not getting up until the third day; they could wail for many days, go in sackcloth, in rent garments, with ashes or dust sprinkled upon their heads; they could fast continuously for several days, and meanwhile burst forth into bitter weeping.  But these things they did solely from bodily and earthly love, and from the fear of the loss of pre-eminence and worldly wealth; for it was not anything internal that affected them, because they knew not at all and did not even want to know what anything internal is, such as that there is a life after death, and that there is an eternal salvation.

[4] From this it is evident that, being of such a nature, they must needs be deprived of all holy internal, for this in no wise agrees with such a holy external, because the two things are utterly contrary to each other; and also that they could, better than others, serve as the representative of the church, that is, could represent holy things in an external form without any holy internal; and thus that by means of this nation something of communication with the heavens could be possible (n. 4288).

AC 4294. Verses 29-32. And Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name.  And he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name? And he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel; for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered. And the sun arose to him as he passed over Penuel, and he halted upon his thigh.  Therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh, even unto this day, because he touched in the hollow of Jacob’s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced. ”And Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name,“ signifies the angelic heaven and its quality; ” and he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name?“ signifies that heaven was not willing to reveal itself; ”and he blessed him there,“ signifies conjunction with the Divine celestial spiritual; ”and Jacob called the name of the place Peniel,“ signifies a state of temptations; ”for I have seen God faces to faces and my soul is delivered,“ signifies that He endured the most grievous temptations as if they were from the Divine; ”and the sun arose to him,“ signifies the conjunction of goods; ”as he passed over Penuel,“ signifies a state of truth in good; ”and he halted upon his thigh,“ signified that truths were not yet disposed into such an order that all together with good might enter into celestial spiritual good; ”therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh,“ signifies that those were not appropriated in which were falsities; ”even unto this day,“ signifies even forever, that falsities should not be adjoined; ”because he touched in the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced,“ signifies the reason, because they are falsities.

[2] In the internal historical sense, in which the posterity of Jacob is treated of, by ”Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name,“ evil spirits are signified; by ”he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name?“  is signified that from evil spirits they did not acknowledge; by ”he blessed him there,“ is signified that it was so done; by ”Jacob called the name of the place Peniel,“ is signified the state in that they put on representations by ”for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered,“ is signified that He was present representatively; by ”the sun arose to him,“ is signified when they came into representations by ”as he passed over Penuel,“ is signified when they came into the land of Canaan; by ”he halted upon his thigh,“ is signified that goods and truths were altogether destroyed with that posterity; by ”therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh,“ is signified that the posterity ought to know this; by ”unto this day,“ is signified that they are such forever; by ”because he touched in the hollow of Jacob’s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced,“ is signified because they had a heredity which could not be eradicated by regeneration, because they would not allow this.

AC 4295. And Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name. That this signifies the angelic heaven and its quality, may be seen from the representation of Jacob, as being the Lord as to the Divine natural; and from the signification of ”God,“ whose name he asked, and also of ”men,“ with whom as a prince he contended and prevailed, as being truths and goods, and thus those who are in truths and goods (n. 4287). And because the angelic heaven is heaven from truths and goods, it is specifically this which is signified by the ”God and men“ with whom the Lord prevailed. Occasionally also in the Word the angels are called ”gods,“ and this from truths and goods, as in David:--

God stood in the congregation of god, He judged in the midst of the gods. I said, Ye are gods, and all of you sons of the Most High (Ps. 82:1, 6);

where it is plainly evident that the ”congregation of god,“ and the ”gods,“ denote the angelic heaven.  In the same:--

Who in the sky can be compared unto Jehovah? who among the sons of the gods can he likened unto Jehovah? (Ps. 89:6).

Again:--

Confess ye to the God of gods confess ye to the Lord of lords (Ps. 136:2, 3).

From these passages, as also from the fact that no one can contend as a prince with God and prevail, and likewise from the fact that he who is called ”God“ was not willing to reveal his name, it is evident that it was the angelic heaven with which the Lord fought. That a deep secret lies hidden in these words is plainly evident from the words themselves: ”Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name?“ for if it had been Jehovah God, He would not have concealed his name; nor would Jacob have asked, ”What is thy name?“ for to ask the name implies that it is another or others than God Himself.

[2] That the Lord in temptations at last fought with the angels themselves, nay, with the whole angelic heaven, is a secret that has not yet been disclosed.  But the case with regard to this matter is that the angels are indeed in the highest wisdom and intelligence, but have all wisdom and intelligence from the Divine of the Lord.  From themselves, or from what is their own, they have nothing of wisdom and intelligence. 80 far therefore as they are in truths and goods from the Divine of the Lord, so far they are wise and intelligent.  That the angels have nothing of wisdom and intelligence from themselves, they themselves openly confess; nay, they are indignant if anyone ascribes to them anything of wisdom and intelligence, for they know and perceive that this would be to take away from the Divine that which is Divine, and to claim for themselves that which is not theirs, and thus to incur the crime of spiritual theft.  The angels also say that all that is their own is evil and false, both from their heredity and from actual life when they were men in the world (n. 1880); and that the evil and falsity is not separated or wiped away from them, they being thus justified, but that it all remains with them, and that it is by the Lord that they are withheld from evil and falsity and are kept in good and truth (n. 1581). All the angels confess these things, and no one is admitted into heaven unless he knows and believes them; for otherwise they cannot be in the light of wisdom and intelligence which is from the Lord, consequently not in good and truth.  From this it may also be known how it is to be understood that heaven is not pure in the eyes of God, as we read in (Job 15:15).

[3] This being the case, in order that the Lord might reduce the universal heaven into heavenly order, He admitted into Himself temptations from the angels also, who, in so far as they were in what is their own, were so far not in good and truth. These temptations are the inmost of all, for they act solely into the ends, and with such subtlety as cannot possibly be noticed. But in so far as they are not in what is their own, so far they are in good and truth, and so far cannot tempt.  Moreover the angels are continually being perfected by the Lord, and yet can never to eternity be so far perfected that their wisdom and intelligence can be compared to the Divine Wisdom and intelligence of the Lord; for they are finite, and the Lord is infinite; and there is no comparison between what is finite and what is infinite. From all this it can now be seen what is meant by the god with whom Jacob as a prince contended; as also why he was not willing to reveal his name.

AC 4296. Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name? That this signifies that heaven was not willing to reveal itself, is evident from what has been said and shown just above (n. 4295).

AC 4297. And he blessed him there. That this signifies conjunction with the Divine celestial spiritual, is evident from the signification of ”to bless,“ as being conjunction (n. 3504, 3514, 3565, 3584).  That it is conjunction with the Divine celestial spiritual, is evident from what precedes respecting Jacob, in that he was named Israel; for by Israel is represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial spiritual (n. 4286).  What the celestial spiritual is, may also be seen in the same number.

AC 4298. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel.  That this signifies a state of temptations, is evident from the series of the things; for in old times names were given to the places where anything peculiar happened that were significative of the thing which happened there and of its state (n. 340, 2643, 3422). To this place was given a name which signified a state of temptations, for a state of temptations is here described by the wrestling and contention of Jacob.  In the original language ”Peniel“ means ”the faces of God,“ and ”to see the faces of God“ denotes to endure the most grievous temptations, as will be explained in what now follows.

AC 4299. For I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered. That this signifies that He endured the most grievous temptations as if they were from the Divine, is evident from the signification of ”seeing God,“ as being an approach to Him through things interior, namely, goods and truths, hence denoting presence (n. 4198); and from the signification of ”faces,“ as being things interior (n. 1999, 2434, 3527, 3573, 4066), consequently the thoughts and affections, for thoughts and affections are interior things, because they are of the animus and of the mind, and manifest themselves in the face; and from the signification of ”my soul is delivered,“ as being to endure, namely, the Divine presence.  That by all these things is signified that He endured the most grievous temptations as if they were from the Divine, cannot appear except from the causes of temptations both proximate and remote. The proximate causes are the evils and falsities in the man, which lead him into temptations, consequently the evil spirits and genii who pour them in (n. 4249). Nevertheless no one can be tempted (that is, undergo any spiritual temptation) except him who has conscience; for spiritual temptation is nothing else than torment of conscience; and consequently none can be tempted except those who are in celestial and spiritual good, for these have conscience, and all others have not, and do not even know what conscience is.

[2] Conscience is a new will and a new understanding from the Lord; thus it is the Lord‘s presence in a man; and this the nearer, in proportion as the man is in the affection of good or of truth.  If the Lord’s presence is nearer than in proportion as the man is in the affection of good or of truth, the man comes into temptation.  The reason is that the evils and falsities which are in the man, tempered by the goods and truths that are in him, cannot endure a nearer presence.  This may be seen from the things that take place in the other life: that evil spirits cannot possibly approach any heavenly society without beginning to feel anguish and torment; also that evil spirits cannot endure to have angels look upon them, for they are instantly tortured and fall into a swoon; and also from the fact that hell is remote from heaven, for the reason that it cannot endure heaven, that is, the Lord‘s presence which is in heaven. This is the reason why it is said of such in the Word:--

Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall upon us and to the hills, Hide us (Luke 23:30).

And elsewhere:--

They shall say to the mountains and to the rocks, Fall down upon us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth upon the throne (Rev. 6:16).

Moreover the foggy and pitch-dark sphere which exhales from the evils and falsities of those who are in hell appears like a mountain or rock, under which they are hidden (n. 1265, 1267, 1270).

[3] From all this it can now be known that the words, ”I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered,“ signify the most grievous temptations as if they were from the Divine. Temptations and torments appear as if from the Divine, because, as before said, they come forth through the Lord’s Divine presence; but still they are not from the Divine, or from the Lord, but from the evils and falsities which are in him who is being tempted or tormented.  For from the Lord nothing proceeds but the Holy which is good and true and merciful.  This Holy, which is good and true and merciful, is what those who are in evils and falsities cannot endure, because they are opposites or contraries.  Evils, falsities, and unmercifulness are continually intent upon doing violence to these holy things; and in so far as they assault them, so far they are tormented; and when they assault them, and are consequently tormented, they suppose that it is the Divine which torments them. These things are what are meant by the words ”as if they were from the Divine.“

[4] That no one can see Jehovah face to face, and live, was known to the ancients, and this knowledge was handed down from them to the posterity of Jacob; for which reason they rejoiced so greatly when they saw an angel and yet lived. As in the book of Judges:--

Gideon saw that he was the angel of Jehovah; and therefore Gideon said, Lord Jehovah forasmuch as I have seen the angel of Jehovah face to face. And Jehovah said unto him, Peace be unto thee, fear not, thou shalt not die (Judges 6:22, 23).

In the same book:--

Manoah said unto his wife, We shall surely die, because we have seen God (Judges 13:22).

And in Moses:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, Thou canst not see My faces, for man shall not see Me, and live (Exod. 33:20).

[5] When it is said of Moses that he spoke with Jehovah face to face (Exod. 33:11), and that Jehovah knew him face to face (Deut. 34:10), the meaning is that Jehovah appeared to him in a human form adapted to his reception, which was external, namely, as an old man with a beard, sitting with him - as I have been instructed by the angels.  It was from this also that the Jews had no other idea of Jehovah than as of a very old man, with a long and snowy beard, who could do greater miracles than other gods.  Not that they accounted Him the most holy, for what holiness was they did not know; still less that they could by any possibility see the Holy that proceeds from Him, because they were in bodily and earthly love, without any holy internal (n. 4289, 4293).

AC 4300. And the sun arose to him.  That this signifies conjunction of goods, is evident from the signification of the ”sun arising,“ as being the conjunction of goods. By the ”dawn coming up“ is signified when conjunction is at hand, or is commencing, (n. 4283). From this it follows that the ”sun arose“ denotes the conjunction itself; for in the internal sense the ”sun“ signifies celestial love (n. 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060); consequently it signifies goods, for these are of this love.  When celestial love manifests itself with a man (that is, when it is observed), the sun is said ”to arise“ upon him, for the goods of this love are then conjoined with him.

AC 4301. As he passed over Penuel. That this signifies the state of truth in good, is evident from the signification of ”Penuel,“ as being the state of truth in good.  For Jabbok was the stream first passed over by Jacob when he entered into the land of Canaan, and by this is signified the first insinuation of the affections of truth, see (n. 4270, 4271).  It is the Penuel that he now passes over, and therefore by it is signified a state of truth that is insinuated into good.  The conjunction of good is also treated of, and good is not good unless there is truth in it; for good has its quality and also its form from truth, insomuch that good cannot be called good in any man unless there is truth in it; but truth receives its essence, and consequently its life, from good; and this being the case, and the subject treated of being the conjunction of goods, the state of truth in good is also treated of.

[2] As regards the state of truth in good, this can indeed be described, but yet it cannot be apprehended, except by those who have celestial perception. Others cannot even have an idea of the conjunction of truth with good, because with them truth is in obscurity; for they call that truth which they have learned from doctrinal things, and that good which is done according to this truth; whereas they who have perception are in celestial light as to their understanding (that is, as to their intellectual sight), and they are affected with truths which are conjoined with good, as the eye or bodily sight is affected with flowers in gardens and meadows in the time of spring; and they who are in interior perception are affected with these truths as with a fragrance that is exhaled from them. Such is the angelic state, and therefore such angels perceive all the differences and all the varieties of the insinuation and conjunction of truth in good, and thus endless things more than man; for man does not even know that there is any insinuation and conjunction, and that a man becomes spiritual thereby.

[3] A few words shall be added in order to convey some notion of this matter.  There are two things which constitute the internal man-the understanding and the will.  To the understanding pertain truths, and to the will goods; for what a man knows and understands to be so, he calls truth; and what he does from will, thus what he wills, he calls good.  These two faculties should constitute a one.  This may be illustrated by comparison with the sight of the eye, and with the pleasantness and delight that are experienced by means of this sight.  When the eye sees objects, it experiences a pleasantness and delight from them in accordance with their forms, colors, and their consequent beauties both in general and in their parts; in a word, in accordance with the order or dispositions into series. This pleasantness and delight are not of the eye, but of the animus and its affection; and in so far as the man is affected with them, so far he sees them and retains them in memory, while the things that the eye sees from no affection, are passed over and are not implanted in the memory, thus are not conjoined with it.

[4] From this it is evident that the objects of the external sight are implanted in accordance with the pleasantness and delight of the affections; and that they are in this pleasantness and delight; for when a similar pleasantness or delight recurs, such objects also recur; and in like manner when similar objects recur, such pleasantness and delight also recur, with variety according to the states.  It is the same with the understanding, which is the internal sight-its objects are spiritual, and are called truths; the field of these objects is the memory; the pleasantness and delight of this sight is good; and thus good is that in which truths are inseminated and implanted.  From this it may in some measure appear what the insinuation of truth into good is, and what the conjunction of truth in good; also, what the good is which is here treated of, and in regard to which angels perceive things so innumerable, while man perceives scarcely anything.

AC 4302. And he halted upon his thigh. That this signifies that truths were not yet disposed into such an order that all together with good might enter into celestial spiritual good; is evident from the signification of ”halting,“ as being to be in good in which there are not yet genuine truths, but general ones into which genuine truths can be insinuated, and such as do not disagree with genuine truths. But in the supreme sense, in which the Lord is treated of, by ”halting upon the thigh“ is signified that truths had not yet been disposed into such an order that all together with good might enter into celestial spiritual good. The ”thigh“ is celestial spiritual good (n. 4277, 4278).

[2] As regards the order in which truths must be when they enter into good (here celestial spiritual good), neither can this be set forth to the apprehension; for it must first be known what order is, and then what is the order of truths; also what celestial spiritual good is, and then how truths enter into it by means of good.  Although these things should be described, they still would not be manifest except to those who are in heavenly perception, and by no means to those who are in natural perception alone. For they who are in heavenly perception are in the light of heaven from the Lord, in which light there is intelligence and wisdom.  But they who are in natural light are not in any intelligence and wisdom, except in so far as the light of heaven flows into this light, and so disposes it that the things which are of heaven may appear as in a mirror, or in a certain representative image, in the things which are of natural light; for without the influx of the light of heaven, natural light presents nothing of spiritual truth to view.

[3] This only can be said respecting the order in which truths must be in order that they may enter into good-that all truths, like goods, both as to generals and as to particulars, and even as to the veriest singulars, in heaven are disposed into such an order that the one regards the other in such a form as do the members, organs, and viscera of the human body, or their uses, have mutual regard to one another, in general, also in particular, and likewise in the veriest singulars, and thus effect that all are a one.  It is from this order in which truths and goods are disposed that heaven itself is called the Grand Man.  Its life itself is from the Lord, who from Himself disposes all things in general and in particular into such order; and hence heaven is a likeness and an image of the Lord; and therefore when truths are disposed into such an order as that in which heaven is, they are then in heavenly order and can enter into good. The truths and goods with every angel are in such an order; and the truths and goods with every man who is being regenerated are also being disposed, into such an order.  In a word, the order of heaven is the disposal of the truths that are of faith in the goods that are of charity toward the neighbor, and the disposal of these goods in the good that is of love to the Lord.

[4] That ”to halt“ denotes to be in good in which there are not yet genuine truths, but nevertheless general truths into which genuine truth can be insinuated, and such as do not disagree with genuine truths; and thus that the ”lame“ are those who are in good, but not in genuine good because of their ignorance of truth (that is, in such good as are the Gentiles who live in mutual charity), may be seen from those passages in the Word where the ”lame“ and the ”halt“ are mentioned in a good sense.  As in Isaiah:--

The eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be opened; then shall the lame man leap as a hart, and the tongue of the dumb shall sing (Isa. 35:5, 6).

In Jeremiah:--

Behold, I bring them from the land of the north, and I will gather them from the sides of the earth, among them the blind and the lame one, the woman with child and her that travaileth with child together (Jer. 31:8).

In Micah:--

In that day, saith Jehovah, I will gather her that halteth, and I will assemble her that is driven, and I will make her that halteth for remains, and her that was driven a numerous nation; and Jehovah shall reign over them in the mountain of Zion, from henceforth and to eternity (Micah 4:6, 7).

In Zephaniah:--

At that time I will save her that halteth, and assemble her that was driven, and I will make them a praise and a name (Zephaniah 3:19).

That in these passages by the ”lame“ and the ”halt“ are not meant the lame and the halt, may be seen by everyone, for it is said of them that they ”shall leap,“ ”shall be assembled,“ ”shall be made for remains,“ and ”shall be saved;“ but it is evident that those are signified who are in good and not so much in truths, as is the case with well-disposed Gentiles, and also with those of a similar nature within the church.

[5] Such are also meant by the ”lame“ of whom the Lord speaks in Luke:--

Jesus said, When thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, and the blind; then thou shalt be blessed (Luke 14:13, 14).

And in the same:--

The master of the house said to his servant, Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in hither the poor, and the maimed, and the lame, and the blind (Luke 14:21).

The Ancient Church distinguished into classes the neighbor or neighbors toward whom they were to perform the works of charity; and some they called ”maimed,“ some ”lame,“ some ”blind,“ and some ”deaf,“ meaning those who were spiritually so.  Some also they called the ”hungry,“ the ”thirsty,“ ”strangers,“ the ”naked,“ the ”sick,“ the ”captives“ (Matt. 25:33-36); and some ”widows,“ ”orphans,“ the ”needy,“ the ”poor,“ and the ”miserable;“ by whom they meant no other than those who were such as to truth and good, and who were to be suitably instructed, led on their way, and thus provided for as to their souls.  But as at this day charity does not make the church, but faith, what is meant in the Word by these persons is altogether unknown; and yet it is manifest to everyone that it is not meant that the maimed, the lame, and the blind are to be called to a feast, and that it was not commanded by the master of the house that such should be brought in, but that those are meant who are spiritually such; also that in every thing spoken by the Lord there is what is Divine, consequently a celestial and spiritual sense.

[6] Similar is the meaning of the Lord‘s words in Mark:--

If thy foot cause thee to stumble, cut it off; it is good for thee to enter into life lame, rather than having two feet to be cast into the gehenna of fire, into fire unquenchable (Mark 9:45; Matt. 18:8);

by the ”foot which must be cut off“ if it caused stumbling, is meant the natural, which is constantly opposing itself to the spiritual - that it must be destroyed if it attempt to impair truths; and thus that on account of the disagreement and dissuasion of the natural man, it is better to be in simple good, although in the denial of truth.  This is signified by ”entering into life lame.“ The ”foot“ is the natural (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280).

[7] By the ”lame“ in the Word are also signified those who are in no good, and thence in no truth, as in Isaiah:--

Then shall the prey that multiplieth be divided, the lame shall plunder the prey (Isa. 33:23).

In David:--

When I am halting they are glad and gather themselves together; the lame whom I knew not gather themselves together against me (Ps. 35:15).

And because such are signified by the ”lame,“ it was forbidden to sacrifice anything that was lame (Deut. 15:21, 22; Mal. 1:8, 13); and also that anyone of the seed of Aaron who was lame should discharge the office of the priesthood (Lev. 21:18). It is similar with the lame as with the blind, for the ”blind“ in a good sense signify those who are in ignorance of truth, and in the opposite sense those who are in falsities (n. 2383).

[8] In the original language the ”lame“ is expressed by one word, and ”he that halteth“ by another, and by the ”lame“ in the proper sense are signified those who are in natural good into which spiritual truths cannot flow, on account of natural appearances and the fallacies of the senses; and in the opposite sense those who are in no natural good, but in evil, which altogether obstructs the influx of spiritual truth; whereas by ”him that halteth,“ in the proper sense, are signified those who are in natural good into which general truths are admitted, but on account of their ignorance, not particular and singular truths; and in the opposite sense, those who are in evil and thus do not admit even general truths.

AC 4303. Therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced, which is upon the hollow of the thigh. That this signifies that those truths were not appropriated in which were falsities, is evident from the signification of  ”eating,“ as being to be conjoined and appropriated (n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513, 3596, 3832); and from the signification of a ”nerve“ as being truth; for truths in good are circumstanced as are nerves in the flesh, and moreover in the spiritual sense truths are nerves, and good is flesh (n. 3813). similar things are also signified by sinews     and flesh in Ezekiel:--

Thus said the Lord Jehovah unto these bones, I will put sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and I will put breath in you; and I beheld, and lo, there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up (Ezek. 37:5, 6, 8).

Here the subject treated of is the new creation of man, that is, his regeneration.  But when truths have been distorted, they then no longer become truths, but in proportion as they are distorted to what is opposite, they accede to falsities; and hence it is that by the ”nerve of that which was displaced“ is signified falsity.  The hollow of the thigh is where there is the conjunction of conjugial love with natural good, consequently where there is influx of spiritual truth into natural good, (n. 4277, 4280). Hence it is evident that by ”therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced which is upon the hollow of the thigh,“ is signified that those truths were not appropriated in which were falsities.  That these things are said of the sons of Israel because by ”Israel“ is signified the Divine celestial spiritual, may be seen above (n. 4286), and by ”sons“ truths (n. 489, 491, 2623); and thus the meaning is that the truths of the Divine celestial spiritual did not appropriate to themselves any falsities.

AC 4304. Even unto this day. That this signifies even forever, that falsities should not be adjoined, is evident from the signification of ”even unto this day,“ as being, wherever used in the Word, what is perpetual and eternal (n. 2838).

AC 4305. Because he touched in the hollow of Jacob’s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced. That this signifies the reason, because there were falsities, is evident from the signification of ”touching in the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh,“ as here being the reason, because there were falsities. That this is signified by ”touching in the hollow of Jacob’s thigh,“ may be seen from what has been said above (n. 4277, 4278, 4303).

AC 4306. That these same words which have been explained thus far, treat also of the posterity of Jacob, and that this sense is called the lower sense, and also the internal historical sense, see (n. 4279, 4288). How these words are to be understood in this sense, shall now be explained.

AC 4307. That in the internal historical sense, by Jacob asked and said, Tell I pray thy name, are signified evil spirits, may be seen from many things in this sense, in which these words and those which follow are predicated of the posterity of Jacob; for the internal sense is determined by its application to the subject treated of. That not good spirits, but evil ones are signified by him who wrestled with Jacob, may be seen from the fact that by ”wrestling“ is signified temptation (n. 3927, 3928, 4274); and temptation is never caused by good spirits, but by evil, for temptation is the excitation of the evil and falsity that are in the man (n. 741, 751, 761, 1820, 4249, 4299). Good spirits and angels never excite evils and falsities, but defend man against them, and bend them to good; for good spirits are led by the Lord, and from the Lord nothing ever proceeds but holy good and holy truth. That the Lord tempts no one, is known from the doctrine received in the church, and may also be seen above (n. 1875, 2768). From this, and also from the fact that the posterity of Jacob gave way in every temptation, both in the wilderness and afterwards, it is evident that not good spirits, but evil, are signified by him who wrestled with Jacob. Moreover that nation, which is here signified by ”Jacob,“ was not in any spiritual and heavenly love, but in bodily and worldly love (n. 4281, 4288-4290, 4293) and the presence of spirits with men is determined in accordance with their loves. Good spirits and angels are present with those who are in spiritual and heavenly love, and evil spirits with those who are solely in bodily and worldly love; and this so much that everyone may know the quality of the spirits with him by merely observing the quality of his loves, or what is the same, the quality of his ends; for everyone has for an end that which he loves.

[2] The reason why the spirit called himself God was that Jacob believed this; like his posterity, who constantly believed that Jehovah was in their holy external, when yet Jehovah was present only representatively, as will be evident from what follows.  They also believed that Jehovah led into temptations, that all evil was from Him, and that He was in anger and fury when they were punished.  For this reason it was so expressed in the Word, in accordance with their belief, when yet Jehovah never leads into temptations, nor is there ever anything evil from Him, nor is He ever in anger, and still less in fury (n. 223, 245, 592, 696, 1093, 1683, 1874, 1875, 2395, 3605, 3607, 3614).  This is also the reason why he who wrestled with Jacob was not willing to reveal his name. That in the internal spiritual sense by him who wrestled with Jacob is meant the angelic heaven (n. 4295), is because the Lord, who in the supreme sense is there represented by Jacob, allowed angels also to tempt Him; and because the angels were at that time left to what is their own, as was shown in the number cited.

AC 4308. That in the internal historical sense, by he said, Wherefore is this that thou dost ask after my name, is signified that they did not acknowledge that it was from evil spirits, is evident from what is said just above (n. 4307).

AC 4309. That in the internal historical sense, by he blessed him there, is signified that it was so done, is evident from the signification here of ”to bless,“ as being that they served as a representative of a church (n. 4290); for which reason by ”he blessed him there“ is here signified that it was so done.

AC 4310. That in the internal historical sense by Jacob called the name of the place Peniel, is signified the state in which they put on the representations, is evident from the signification of ”calling a name,“ as being the quality; from the signification of ”place,“ as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387); and from the signification of ”Peniel“ as being in this sense to put on representations, for these are the subject treated of in what precedes and what follows. What ”Peniel“ signifies is explained by the words, ”for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered,“ by which is signified that the Lord was present representatively, thus here that they put on representations. Names of places, like names of persons, as also the things themselves, do not signify the same in one sense as in another. Thus ”Jacob“ himself in the sense of the letter signifies Jacob himself; in the internal historical sense, his posterity (n. 4281); in the internal spiritual sense, the natural man in him who is regenerate; but in the supreme sense, ”Jacob“ signifies the Lord as to the Divine natural, as has been often shown. It is the same with all other names, and thus with Peniel.

AC 4311. That in the internal historical sense by for I have seen God faces to faces, and my soul is delivered, is signified that He was present representatively, is evident from the signification of ”seeing God faces to faces,“ when these words are predicated of the state in which the posterity of Jacob were, as being that the Lord was present representatively; for to see God faces to faces in the external form and with the bodily sight, is not to see Him present (n. 4299).  That He was not present as with those who are regenerate, and thereby are in spiritual love and faith, is manifest from what has been said of that nation (n. 4281, 4288, 4290, 4293) - that they were in external worship, and not at the same time in internal, or what is the same, in bodily and worldly, and not in spiritual and heavenly love.  With such the Lord could never be present except representatively.

[2] What it is to be present representatively, must be briefly told. A man who is in bodily and worldly love and not at the same time in spiritual and heavenly love, has none but evil spirits with him, even when he is in a holy external; for good spirits cannot possibly be present with such a person, because they at once perceive in what kind of love a man is.  There is a sphere which is exhaled from his interiors, which spirits perceive as manifestly as a man perceives by his sense of smell offensive and foul vapors floating around him in the air.  That nation which is here treated of, was in such a state as to good and truth, or as to love and faith.  In order however that they might serve as the representative of a church, it was miraculously provided by the Lord that when they were in a holy external, and were at the same time surrounded by evil spirits, the holy in which they were might yet be uplifted into heaven; and this by good spirits and angels not within but without them, for within them there was nothing but emptiness or uncleanness.  Communication was therefore given not with the man himself, but with the holy itself in which they were when they fulfilled the statutes and precepts given them, which were all representative of spiritual and heavenly things of the Lord‘s kingdom. This is signified by the Lord’s being present with that nation representatively.  But the Lord is present in a very different way with those within the church who are in spiritual love and thence in faith.  With these there are good spirits and angels not only in their external worship, but also at the same time in their internal; and therefore with them there exists a communication of heaven with themselves; for the Lord flows into them through heaven through their internals into their externals.  To these the holy of worship is profitable in the other life, but not to the former.

[3] It is similar with priests and elders who preach holy things, and yet are in evil life and evil belief.  With these there are not good, but evil spirits, even when they are in worship that appears holy in the external form.  For it is the love of self and of the world, or a love for securing honors and acquiring gain and thereby fame, that fires them and presents an appearance of affection for what is holy, sometimes to such a degree that no simulation is perceived, nor is at the time believed by them to exist; when yet they are in the midst of evil spirits, who are then in a similar state, and who breathe upon them and into them.  That evil spirits can be in such a state, and are so when they are in their externals, and are inflated with the love of self and of the world, has been given me to know by manifold experience, which of the Lord‘s Divine mercy will be described hereafter at the end of the chapters. Such preachers have no communication with heaven in themselves; and yet those have who hear and receive the words from their mouth, if they are in a pious and holy internal; for it matters not from whom the voice of good and truth flows forth, provided their life is not manifestly wicked; for this life causes a scandal.

[4] That the nation descended from Jacob was of such a character (namely, that they were surrounded with evil spirits, and yet the Lord was present with them representatively), may be seen from many passages in the Word; for they were very far from worshiping Jehovah with the heart, and as soon as miracles were lacking, they immediately turned to other gods and became idolaters.  This was a manifest proof that at heart they worshiped other gods and confessed Jehovah with the mouth only, and this merely for the reason that they might be the greatest and have pre-eminence over all the nations round about. That this people at heart worshiped an Egyptian idol, and only confessed Jehovah with the mouth on account of His miracles (with Aaron himself among them), is plainly evident from the golden calf which Aaron made for them, and this but a month after they had seen such great miracles on Mount Sinai, besides those which they had seen in Egypt (Exod. 32).  That Aaron also was of the same character is plainly stated at (Exod. 32:2-5, 35).  The same appears also from many other passages in Moses, in the book of the Judges, in the books of Samuel, and in the books of the Kings.

[5] That they were only in external worship and not in any internal worship, is evident also from the fact that they were forbidden to come near to Mount Sinai when the Law was promulgated, and were told that if they touched the mountain, they should surely die (Exod. 19:11-13; 20:16, 19).  The reason was that their internal was unclean.  It is also said in Moses:--

That Jehovah dwelt with them in the midst of their uncleannesses (Lev. 16:16).

The quality of that nation is evident also from the song of Moses (Deut. 32:15-43), and from many passages in the Prophets.  From all this it may be known that with that nation there was not any church, but only a representative of a church, and that the Lord was present with them only representatively.

[6] Compare also what has previously been stated in regard to them:--That with the posterity of Jacob there was a representative of a church, but not a church (n. 4281, 4288): That the representative of a church was not instituted with them until after they had been altogether vastated as to a holy internal, and that they would otherwise have profaned holy things (n. 3398, 4289): That when they remained in their statutes they could represent, but not when they turned aside from them (n. 3881): That on this account they were kept strictly in rituals, and that they were driven thereto by external means (n. 3147, 4281): That their worship was made external without internal in order that they might serve as a representative of a church (n. 4281): That for this reason also the interior things of the church were not disclosed to them (n. 301-303, 2520, 3398, 3479, 3769): That they were of such a nature that they could more than others be in a holy external without an internal (n. 4293): That for this reason they have been preserved to this day (n. 3479): And that their holy external does not affect them at all as to their souls (n. 3479).

AC 4312. That in the internal historical sense, by the sun arose to him, is signified when they came into representations, is evident from the signification of the ”sun arising“ in this sense, in which the posterity of Jacob is treated of, as being when they came into representations. By the ”arising of the dawn“ is signified the state before they came into representatives (n. 4289).  The sun is also said to ”arise“ with everyone who is becoming a church, thus also with everyone who is becoming representative of a church.

AC 4313. That in the internal historical sense, by as he passed over Penuel, is signified when they came into the land of Canaan, is evident from the fact that Penuel was the first station after Jacob had passed over the river Jabbok, and that all boundaries were significative according to distance and situation (n. 1585, 1866, 4116, 4240). Thus ”Penuel,“being the first boundary, signifies when they came into the land of Canaan.

AC 4314. That in the internal historical sense, by he halted upon his thigh, is signified that goods and truths were altogether destroyed with that posterity, is evident from the representation of Jacob, who here is ”he,“ as being his posterity (n. 4281); and from the signification of ”halting upon the thigh“ as denoting those who are in no good, and consequently in no truth (n. 4302). Here therefore by his ”halting upon his thigh“ is signified that goods and truths were altogether destroyed with that posterity.

[2] The quality of that nation is also plainly evident from many things spoken by the Lord Himself in parables, which in their internal historical sense were said of that nation - as in the parable of the man that was a king, who took account with his servant in whom there was no mercy toward another (Matt. 18:23-35): in the parable of the householder who let out his vineyard to husbandmen, and went abroad, and the husbandmen seized the servants whom he sent, and beat one with rods, and killed another, and stoned another; and at let he sent his son, whom they cast out of the vineyard and killed; on hearing which parable the Scribes and Pharisees recognized it as spoken of themselves (Matt. 21:33-45; Mark 12:1-9; Luke 20:9-19): in the parable of the man who gave talents to his servants, and he who received the one talent went and hid it in the earth (Matt. 25:14-30; Luke 19:13-16): in the parable of those who came to him that was wounded by the robbers (Luke 10:30-37): in the parable of those who were invited to the great supper, and all excused themselves, of whom the Lord says, I say to you that none of those men who were bidden shall taste of my supper (Luke 14:16-24): in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:19-31) in the parable of those who despise others in comparison with themselves (Luke 18:10-14): in the parable of the two sons, one of whom said, I will go into the vineyard, but went not; and Jesus said, ”Verily I say unto you, that the publicans and harlots go into the kingdom of heaven before you“ (Matt. 21:28-32).

[3] The quality of that nation the Lord openly declared in (Matthew 23:13-39), where He says:

”Ye witness against yourselves, that ye are the sons of them that killed the prophets, and ye fill up the measure of your fathers“ (Matthew 23:13-33).

In Mark;

”Jesus said unto them, Rightly did Esaias prophesy of you, This people honoreth Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me; in vain do they worship Me, teaching for doctrines the precepts of men, forsaking the commandments of God“ (Mark 7:6-13).

In John:

The Jews answered Jesus that they were the seed of Abraham; but Jesus said to them, ”Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do; he was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because the truth is not in him; when he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own,; because he is the speaker of a lie, and the father of it“ (John 8:33, 44).

Because they were such, they are also called an ”evil and adulterous generation“ (Matt. 12:39), and the ”offspring of vipers“ (Matt. 3:7; 23:33; Luke 3:7)  ”O offspring of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things?“ (Matt. 12:34).

[4] That not even any natural good was left with that nation, is signified by the fig-tree spoken of in Matthew:

Jesus seeing a fig-tree in the way, came to it, but found nothing there on but leaves only therefore He said unto it, Let no fruit grow on thee henceforth forever and presently the fig-tree withered away (Matthew 21:19);

that the fig-tree denotes natural good may be seen above (n. 217).

[5] From these passages it may be seen that goods and truths were altogether destroyed with that nation.  Goods and truths are said to be destroyed when there are none Interiorly. The goods and truths which appear outwardly derive their being and their living from those which are internal; and therefore such as are the internal ones, such are the external, howsoever the latter may appear to the eyes of man.  There are some whom I knew in their bodily life, and who then appeared as having zeal for the Lord, for the church, for their country and the common good, and for justice and equity; and yet in the other life these same are among the infernals, and (what astonished me) among the worst there.  The reason was, that their interiors had been foul and profane, and that they had counterfeited that zeal for the sake of reputation, in order to acquire honors and also to gain wealth; thus for their own sakes, and not for the sake of what they professed with the mouth.  When therefore these externals are put off, which takes place when men die, the Internals are laid open and appear as they had been within, and which during life they had hidden from the world.  This is what is meant by the goods and truths being altogether destroyed.

AC 4315. That in the internal historical sense, by therefore the sons of Israel eat not the nerve of that which was displaced which is upon the hollow of the thigh, is signified that the posterity ought to know this, may be seen from the fact that this was a memorial whereby they should remember that such was their quality, thus that thereby they ought to know this.

AC 4316. That in the internal historical sense, by even unto this day, is signified that they are such forever, is evident from the signification of ”even unto this day,“ which where mentioned in the Word means forever (n. 2838). That this posterity was such from the earliest times, may be seen from the sons of Jacob themselves from Reuben, in that he ”lay with Bilhah his father’s concubine“ (Gen. 35:22); from Simeon and Levi, who killed Hamor and Shechem, and all the men of their city; and that the rest of his sons came upon the pierced and plundered the city (Gen. 34:1-31). Therefore Jacob, then Israel, before he died, spoke of them thus of Reuben, ”Thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up on thy father‘s bed; then didst thou make thyself unworthy; he went up on my couch“ (Gen. 49:3, 4); and of Simeon and Levi, ”Into their secret let not my soul come, with their assembly let not my glory be united; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their set purpose they houghed an ox. Cursed be their anger for it was vehement, and their fury for it was grievous; I will divide them among Jacob, and scatter them among Israel“ (Gen. 49:5-7).

[2] The quality of Judah may also be seen from the fact that he took a Canaanitess for his wife (Gen. 38:1, 2); which nevertheless was contrary to what had been commanded, as may be seen from Abraham’s words to his servant, whom he sent to betroth Rebekah to his son Isaac (Gen.  24:3, 6); and from many other passages in the Word. A third part of that nation was from this stock, that is, from his son Shelah who was born of the Canaanitish mother (Gen. 38:11; 46:12; Num. 26:20; 1 Chron. 4:21, 22). The same may be further seen from the wicked deed of these and the other sons of Jacob against Joseph (Gen. 37:18-36). The quality of their posterity in Egypt is manifest from what is related of them when they were in the wilderness, where they were so often rebellious and afterwards in the land of Canaan, where they so frequently became idolaters. Lastly, their quality in the Lord‘s time has been shown Just above (n. 4314); and what they are at this day is known, namely, opposed to the Lord, to the things of the church, to charity toward the neighbor, and to one another. From all this it may be seen that this nation has ever been of this nature.  Let no one therefore any longer entertain the opinion that there was any church among them, or more than a representative of a church, and still less that they were chosen in preference to others.

AC 4317. That in the Internal historical sense, by because he touched in the hollow of Jacob’s thigh the nerve of that which was displaced, is signified because they had a heredity which could not be eradicated by regeneration, because they would not allow this, is evident from the signification of the ”thigh,“ as being conjugial love, and consequently every heavenly and spiritual love (n. 4280); and because the ”hollow of the thigh“ is where there is the conjunction of conjugial love, and also of all heavenly and spiritual love, with natural good (n. 4277, 4280). Hence to ”touch it,“ or to Injure it so as to occasion halting, is to destroy the good which is of these loves, and as this happened to Jacob, it is signified that this nature passed from him to his posterity, and thus was hereditary. That the ”nerve of that which was displaced“ signifies falsity, may be seen above (n. 4303), here falsity from hereditary evil. It follows from this and from the series, that this heredity could not be eradicated from them by regeneration, because they would not allow this.

[2] That they had such a heredity and that they could not be regenerated, is very evident from all that is related of them in the Word, and particularly from these passages in Moses:

Moses called all Israel, and said unto them, Ye have seen all things that Jehovah hath done in your eyes in the land of Egypt unto Pharaoh and unto all his servants, and unto all his land; and Jehovah hath not given you a heart to know, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, even unto this day (Deut. 29:2, 4).

In the same:

I know the figment of the people which they do at this day, before I bring them into the land which I sware (Deut. 31:21).

And again:

I will hide My faces from them, I will see what is the last of them for they are a generation of perversities, sons in whom is no truth. I would exterminate them, I would cause their memory to cease from man, were it not that I feared the indignation of the enemy. For they are a nation that perisheth in counsels, and there is no intelligence in them for their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and their grapes are of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are hemlock, the clusters are bitter to them. Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel head of asps. Is not this laid up in store with Me, sealed in My treasures? (Deut. 32:20, 26-34);

in many other places, especially in Jeremiah.

[3] That this was signified by the ”touch upon the hollow of Jacob‘s thigh,“ and his consequent lameness, is manifest in sea:

The controversy of Jehovah with Judah, to visit upon Jacob, according to his ways, and according to his works He will render to him; he supplanted his brother in the womb; in his grief he contended with God, and contended toward the angel, and prevailed; he wept and entreated him (Hosea 12:3-5);

where ”to contend with God,“ in the internal historical sense, is to be urgent that the representative of a church should be with them (n. 4290, 4293). From this it is evident that they had such a heredity from Jacob himself, and the same might be shown from many more passages which must be passed over for the present.

[4] As regards heredity specifically, it is believed in the church at this day that all hereditary evil is from the first parent, and that all are therefore condemned in regard thereto.  But the case is not so.  Hereditary evil derives its origin from everyone’s parents and parents‘ parents, or from grandparents and ancestors successively.  Every evil which they have acquired by actual life, even so that by frequent use or habit it has become like a nature, is derived into the children, and becomes hereditary to them, together with that which had been implanted in the parents from grandparents and ancestors.  The hereditary evil from the father is more inward, and the hereditary evil from the mother is more outward.  The former cannot be easily rooted out, but the latter can. When man is being regenerated, the hereditary evil inrooted from his nearest parents is plucked up by the roots; but with those who are not being regenerated, or who cannot be regenerated, it remains.  This then is hereditary evil (n. 313, 494, 2122, 2910, 3518, 3701).  This is also evident to everyone who reflects, and also from the fact that every family has some peculiar evil or good by which it is distinguished from other families; and that this is from parents and ancestors is down.  It is similar with the Jewish nation remaining at this day, which is evidently distinct from other nations, and is known from them, not only by its peculiar genius, but also by manners, speech, and face.

[5] But what hereditary evil is, few know; it is believed to consist in doing evil; but it consists in willing and hence thinking evil; hereditary evil being in the will itself and in the thought thence derived; and being the very conatus or endeavor that is therein, and which adjoins itself even when the man is doing what is good. It is known by the delight that is felt when evil befalls another.  This root lies deeply hidden, for the very inward form that receives from heaven (that is, through heaven from the Lord) what is good and true, is depraved, and so to speak, distorted; so that when good and truth flow in from the Lord, they are either reflected, or perverted, or suffocated.  It is from this cause that no perception of good and truth exists at this day, but in place of it, with the regenerate, conscience, which acknowledges as good and true what is learned from parents and masters.  It is from hereditary evil to love self more than others, to will evil to others if they do not honor us, to perceive delight in revenge, and also to love the world more than heaven; and from the same source come all the derivative cupidities or evil affections. Man is ignorant that such things are in hereditary evil, and still more that they are opposite to heavenly affections; and yet it is manifestly shown in the other life how much of evil from what is hereditary each one has drawn to himself by actual life, and also how far he has removed himself from heaven by evil affections from this source.

[6] That hereditary evil could not be eradicated from the posterity of Jacob by regeneration because they would not allow it, is likewise manifest from the historicals of the Word; for they gave way in all the temptations in the wilderness as recorded by Moses: and also afterwards in the land of Canaan, whenever they did not see miracles and yet those temptations were outward but not inward or spiritual.  In respect to spiritual things they could not be tempted, because as before shown they knew no internal truths, and had no internal good; and no one can be tempted except as to what he knows and what he has.  Temptations are the veriest means of regeneration.  These things are signified by their not allowing regeneration. As regards their state and lot in the other life, see above (n. 939-941, 3481).

CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE GRAND MAN AND CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE, HERE CONCERNING CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE SENSES IN GENERAL

AC 4318. It is the main point of intelligence with the angels to know and perceive that all life is from the Lord, and also that the universal heaven corresponds to His Divine Human; and consequently that all angels, spirits, and men correspond to heaven; and also to know and perceive the nature of this correspondence. These are the first principles of the intelligence in which angels are more than men; and from this they know and perceive innumerable things that are in the heavens and hence also those which are in the world; for the things which come forth in the world and its nature are causes and effects from the former as beginnings; for universal nature is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom.

AC 4319. It has been shown by much experience that not only a man, but a spirit, and also an angel, thinks, speaks, and does nothing from himself, but from others; nor these others from themselves, but again from others, and so on; and thus all and each from the First of life, that is, from the Lord, however completely this may appear to be as from themselves. This has often been shown to spirits who in the life of the body had believed and had confirmed themselves in the belief, that all things were in themselves, or that they think, speak, and act from themselves and their soul, in which life appears implanted. It has also been shown by living experiences (such as exist in the other life but are impossible in the world), that the evil think, will, and act from hell, and the good from heaven (that is, through heaven from the Lord), and that nevertheless both evils and gods appear as from themselves. Christians know this from the doctrine which they draw from the Word that evils are from the devil, and goods from the Lord; but there are few who believe it. And because they do not believe it, they appropriate to themselves the evils which they think, will, and act; but the goods are not appropriated to them; for they who believe goods to be from themselves, claim and ascribe them to themselves, and thus place merit in them. They also know from the doctrine in the church, that no one can do anything good from himself, insomuch that whatever is from himself and his own is evil, however much it may appear as good; but this also few believe, although it is true.

[2] The evil who had confirmed themselves in this opinion that they live from themselves, and consequently that whatever they think, will, and act is from themselves  when shown that the case is exactly in accordance with the doctrine, said that they now believed.  But they were told that knowing is not believing, and that believing is Internal, and is impossible except in the affection of good and truth, consequently is possible to none but those who are in the good of charity toward the neighbor.  Being evil, the same spirits Insisted that they now believed because they saw.  But examination was made by an experience familiar in the other life, namely, by their being looked into by angels; and when they were looked into, the upper part of their head appeared to be withdrawn, and the brain to be rough, hairy, and dark, which showed what is the inward quality of those who have only a faith of memory knowledge, but not a true faith; and that to know is not to believe. For the head of those who know and believe appears as human, and the brain well ordered, snow-white, and lucid; for heavenly light is received by them.  But with those who only know and suppose that they thereby believe, and yet do not believe, because they live in evil, heavenly light is not received, consequently neither are the Intelligence and wisdom which are in that light; and therefore when they draw near to angelic societies, that is, to heavenly light, this light is turned with them into darkness.  This is the reason why their brain appeared dark.

AC 4320. That the life which is from the Lord alone appears with everyone as if it were in himself, is from the Lord‘s love or mercy toward the universal human race, in that He wills to appropriate to each one what is His own, and to give to everyone eternal happiness.  It is known that love appropriates to another what is its own; for it presents itself within the other, and makes itself present in him.  How much more the Divine love! That the evil also receive the life which is from the Lord, is as with objects in the world, all of which receive light from the sun, and thereby colors, but according to their forms.  Objects which suffocate and pervert the light appear of a black or foul color, but yet have their blackness and foulness from the sun’s light.  So is it with the light or life from the Lord with the evil; but this life is not life, but is (as it is called) spiritual death.

AC 4321. Although these things appear paradoxical and incredible to man, they nevertheless are not to be denied, because experience itself dictates them.  If all things were denied the causes of which are not known, innumerable things that come forth in nature would be denied, the causes of which are known scarcely as to a ten-thousandth part; for the secret things therein are so many and so great that those which man knows are scarcely anything in comparison with those which he does not know.  What then must be the secret things that come forth in the sphere which is above nature, that is, in the spiritual world!  As for example these: That there is one only life, and all live from it, and everyone differently from another: that the evil also live from the same life, and likewise the hells, and that the inflowing life acts according to its reception: that heaven has been so ordered by the Lord as to bear relation to a man, whence it is called the Grand Man; and that in consequence all the things in man correspond thereto: that man without influx therefrom into everything in him, cannot subsist even for a moment: that all in the Grand Man keep in a constant situation according to the quality and the state of the truth and good in which they are that situation there is not situation, but state, and therefore those appear constantly at the left who are at the left, those at the right who are at the right, in front those who are in front, behind those who are behind, in the plane of the head, the breast, the back, the loins, and the feet, above the head and below the soles of the feet, directly and obliquely, and at a less or greater distance, those who are there, however and to whatever quarter the spirit may turn himself: that the Lord as a Sun appears constantly to the right, and there at a middle height, a little above the plane of the right eye; and that all things there have relation to the Lord as the Sun and center, and thus to their only One from which they come forth and subsist, and as all appear before the Lord constantly in their own situation, according to their states of good and truth, they therefore appear in the same way to everyone, for the reason that the Lord‘s life, and consequently the Lord, is in all who are in heaven.  Not to mention Innumerable other things.

AC 4322. Who at this day does not believe that man comes into existence naturally from the seed and the ovum? and that in the seed from the first creation there is the ability to bring itself forth into such forms, first within the ovum, next in the womb, and afterwards of itself; and that it is not the Divine which brings things forth any longer?  The reason why this is so believed is that no one knows of there being any influx from heaven (that is, through heaven from the Lord); and this because they do not desire to know that there is any heaven. For in their private meetings the learned discuss openly among themselves whether there is a hell, and thus whether there is a heaven.  And as they are in doubt about heaven, they cannot receive as any first principle that there is an influx through heaven from the Lord; which influx nevertheless brings forth all things that are in the three kingdoms of the earth (especially those in the animal kingdom, and in particular in man), and holds them together in form according to their uses. Hence neither can they know that there is any correspondence between heaven and man; and still less that this is of such a nature that every several thing within him, nay, the veriest singular ones, come forth from this source, and also subsist from it, for subsistence is a perpetual coming forth, and consequently preservation in connection and form is perpetual creation.

AC 4323. That there is a correspondence of every several thing in man with heaven, I have begun to show at the end of the preceding chapters, and this by living experience from the world of spirits and from heaven; to the end that man may know whence he comes into existence and whence he subsists, and that there is a continual influx into him therefrom. Later it will be shown in like manner from experience that man rejects this influx from heaven (that is, through heaven from the Lord), and accepts the influx from hell; but that nevertheless he is continually kept by the Lord in correspondence with heaven, in order that he may, if he chooses, be led from hell to heaven, and through heaven to the Lord.

AC 4324. The correspondence of the heart and lungs and also of the brain with the Grand Man, has already been treated of at the end of the chapters. Here, in accordance with our plan, the correspondence with man’s external sensories is to be treaded of, namely, with the sensory of sight, or the eye; with the sensory of hearing, or the ear; with the sensories of smell, taste, and touch; but first concerning correspondence with sense in general.

AC 4325. Sense in general, or general sense, is distinguished into voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary sense is proper to the cerebrum, but involuntary sense is proper to the cerebellum. In men these two kinds of general sense are conjoined, but yet are distinct. The fibers which flow forth from the cerebrum present the voluntary sense in general, and the fibers which flow from the cerebellum present the involuntary sense in general. The fibers of this double origin conjoin themselves together in the two appendices which are called the medulla oblongata and the medulla spinalis, and through these pass into the body, and shape its members, viscera, and organs.  The parts which encompass the body, as the muscles and skin, and also the organs of the senses, for the most part receive fibers from the cerebrum; and hence man has sense and motion in accordance with his will. But the parts within this compass or enclosure, which are called the viscera of the body, receive fibers from the cerebellum; and consequently man has no sense of these parts, nor are they under the control of his will.  From this it may in some measure appear what sense is in general, or the general voluntary sense, and the general involuntary sense.  Be it known further that there must be a general in order that there may be any particular, and that the particular can in no wise come into existence and subsist without the general, and in fact that it subsists in the general; and that every particular is circumstanced according to the quality and according to the state of the general; and this is the case with sense in man, and also with motion.

AC 4326. There was heard a sound as of muttered thunder that flowed down from on high above the occiput, and continued around the whole of that region. I wondered who they were, and was told that they were those who relate to the general involuntary sense, and was told further that they could well perceive a man‘s thoughts, but are not willing to expose and utter them like the cerebellum, which perceives all that the cerebrum does, but does not publish it.  When their manifest operation into all the province of the occiput had ceased, it was shown how far their operation extended.  It was first determined into the whole face, then withdrew itself toward the left side of the face, and at last toward the ear on that side; by which was signified what was the nature of the operation of the general involuntary sense from the earliest times with men on this earth, and how it advanced.

[2] Influx from the cerebellum insinuates itself especially into the face, as is evident from the fact that the animus has been inscribed on the face, and the affections appear in the face, and this for the most part without the man’s will such as fear, reverence, shame, various kind of gladness, and also of sadness, besides many other things, which are thereby made known to another in such manner that it is known from the face what affections are in the man, and what changes of animus and of mind.  These things come from the cerebellum through its fibers, when there is no simulation within. It was thus shown that in the earliest times, or with the most ancient people, the general sense had possession of the whole face, and successively after those times only of the left side of it, and at last in still later times it emptied itself away from the face, so that at this day there is scarcely any general involuntary sense left in the face.  The right side of the face together with the right eye corresponds to the affection of good, and the left to the affection of truth, the region where the ear is corresponding to obedience alone without affection.

[3] For with the most ancient people, whose age was called the Golden Age, because they were in a certain state of perfection or wholeness, and lived in love to the Lord and in mutual love as angels live, all the involuntary of the cerebellum was manifest in the face, and they did not at all know how to present anything in the countenance other than exactly as heaven flowed into their involuntary conatus or endeavors and thence into the will.  But with the ancients, whose age was called the Silver Age, because they were in a state of truth, and thence in charity toward the neighbor, the involuntary of the cerebellum was not manifest in the right side of the face, but only in the left.  But with their posterity, whose time was called the Iron Age, because they lived not in the affection of truth, but in obedience to truth, the involuntary was no longer manifest in the face, but betook itself to the region around the left ear. I have been instructed that the fibers of the cerebellum have thus changed their efflux into the face, and that instead of them fibers from the cerebrum have been transferred thither, which now control those which are from the cerebellum, and this from an endeavor to form the expressions of the face according to the behests of man‘s own will, all of which is from the cerebrum.  It does not appear to man that these things are so, but they are plainly manifest to the angels from the influx of heaven and from correspondence.

AC 4327. Such is the general involuntary sense at this day with those who are in the good and truth of faith.  But with those who are in evil and thence in falsity, there is no longer any general involuntary sense which manifests itself, neither in face, speech, nor gesture; but there is a voluntary which counterfeits what is involuntary (or natural as it is called), which they have made such by frequent use or habit from infancy. The nature of this sense with such persons has been shown by an influx which was tacit and cold into the whole face, both into the right side of it and into the left, and determining itself therefrom toward the eyes, and extending itself from the left eye into the face; by which was signified that the fibers of the cerebrum have intruded themselves and control the fibers of the cerebellum, the result being that what is fictitious, pretended, counterfeit, and deceitful reigns within, while outwardly there appears what is sincere and good.  Its being determined toward the left eye, and from there also into the face, signified that they have evil as their end, and use the intellectual part to obtain their end; for the left eye signifies the intellectual.

[2] These are they who at this day constitute for the most part the general involuntary sense.  In ancient times it was these who were the most celestial of all; but at this day it is these who are the most wicked of all, and this especially from the Christian world.  They are very numerous, and appear beneath the occiput and at the back, where I have often seen and perceived them.  For those who at this day relate to this sense are they who think deceitfully and devise evils against the neighbor, and put on a friendly countenance, nay, most friendly, with gestures of like import, and speak kindly as if endued with charity above others, and yet are the bitterest enemies, not only of him with whom they have intercourse, but also of the human race. Their thoughts have been communicated to me, and they were wicked and abominable, full of cruelties and butcheries.

AC 4328. I have also been shown how the case is in general with the voluntary (or will part) and with the intellectual. The most ancients, who constituted the Lord’s celestial church (n. 1114-1123), had a voluntary in which was good, and an intellectual in which was the derivative truth, which two with them made a one.  But the ancients, who formed the Lord‘s spiritual church, had the voluntary altogether destroyed, but the intellectual entire, in which the Lord by regeneration formed a new voluntary, and through this also a new intellectual (n. 863, 875, 895, 927, 928, 1023, 1043, 1044, 1555, 2256).

[2] How the case had been with the good of the celestial church was shown by a column descending from heaven, of an azure color, at the left side of which there was a lucidity like the flaming glow of the sun.  By this was represented their first state; by the azure color their good voluntary; and by the flaming glow their intellectual.  And afterwards the azure of the column passed into a dim flaminess by which was represented their second state, and that their two lives the will and the understanding still acted as a one, but more dimly as to good from the will; for what is azure signifies good, and a flaming glow truth from good.

[3] Presently the column became quite black; and around the column there was a lucidity which was variegated by something of shining white, presenting colors; by which was signified the state of the spiritual church.  The black column signified the voluntary as being altogether destroyed, and as being nothing but evil; the lucidity variegated by something of shining white signified the intellectual in which was a new voluntary from the Lord; for the intellectual is represented in heaven by what is lucid.

AC 4329. There came spirits at some height who from the sound heard appeared to be many, and it was discovered from the ideas of their thought and speech as conducted to me, that they seemed to be in no distinct idea, but in a general idea of many things. From this I supposed that nothing distinct could be perceived by them, but only something general and indistinct, and thus obscure; for I was of the opinion that what is general cannot be otherwise. That their thought was general or in common (that is, that of many together), I was able to plainly observe from the things which flowed in from them into my thought.

[2] But there was given them an intermediate spirit, through whom they spoke with me; for such a general thing could not fall into speech except through others. When I spoke with them through the intermediate, I said (as was my opinion), that generals cannot present a distinct idea of anything, but only one so obscure that it is as it were no idea. But after a quarter of an hour they showed that they had a distinct idea of generals, and of many things in the generals; and especially by this, that they accurately and distinctly observed all the variations and changes of my thoughts and affections, together with the singulars of them, so that no other spirits could do it better. From this I was able to conclude that it is one thing to be in a general idea which is obscure, as are those who have but little knowledge, and are thus in obscurity in regard to all things; and that it is another thing to be in a general idea which is clear, as are those who have been instructed in the truths and goods which are insinuated into the general in their order and series, and are so well-ordered as to be distinctly seen from the general.

[3] These are they who in the other life constitute the general voluntary sense, and are those who by knowledges of good and truth have acquired the faculty of looking at things from the general, and thence contemplating things broadly together, and distinguishing instantly whether a thing is so. They do indeed see the things as it were in obscurity, because they see from the general the things that are therein, but as these are well ordered in the general, they are for this reason nevertheless in clearness to them. This general voluntary sense falls to none but the wise.  That these spirits were of this character was also proved, for they viewed in me all things both in general and particular from which inference could be drawn, and from these they drew inferences so skilfully in regard to the interiors of my thoughts and affections that I began to be afraid to think any more; for they disclosed things which I did not know to be in me, and yet from the inferences made by them I could not but acknowledge them.  Hence I perceived in myself a torpor in speaking with them, and when I took note of this torpor it appeared as if it were a hairy thing, with something in it speaking mutely; and it was said that by this was signified the general sensitive corporeal that corresponds to these spirits.  On the following day I again spoke with them, and once more found that they had a general perception not obscure, but clear; and that as the generals and the states of the generals were varied, so were the particulars and their states varied, because the latter relate in order and series to the former.

[4] It was said that general voluntary senses still more perfect exist in the interior sphere of heaven; and that when the angels are in a general or universal idea, they are at the same time in the singulars, which are set in distinct order by the Lord in the universal; also that the general and universal are not anything unless there are particulars and singulars in them from which they exist and are so called, and that they exist just in so far as these are in them; and that from this it is evident that a universal providence of the Lord, without the veriest singulars being in it, and from which it exists, is nothing at all; and that it is stupid to maintain that there exists with the Divine a universal, and then to take away the singulars from it.

AC 4330. As the three heavens together constitute the Grand Man, and all the members, viscera, and organs of the body correspond to this man according to their functions and uses, there correspond to it not only those which are external and are apparent to the sight, but also those which are internal and not apparent to the sight; consequently those which are of the external man, and those which are of the internal man.  The societies of spirits and angels to which the things of the external man correspond, are for the most part from this earth; but those to which the things of the internal man correspond are for the most part from elsewhere.  These societies act as a one in the heavens just as with the regenerate man do the external and the internal man.  And yet at the present day few from this earth come into the other life in whom the external man acts a one with the internal; for most are sensuous, insomuch that there are few who believe otherwise than that man’s external is all there is of him; and that when this passes away (as when he dies) there is scarcely anything left that lives; much less do they believe that there is an internal which lives in the external, and that when the external passes away, the internal eminently lives.

[2] It has been shown by living experience how these are opposed to the internal man.  There were present very many spirits from this earth, who when they had lived in the world had been of this character, and there came into their sight spirits who relate to the internal sensuous man, and they at once began to infest them, almost as irrational persons infest those who are rational, by constantly speaking and reasoning from the fallacies of the senses, and from the illusions thence arising, and from mere hypotheses, believing nothing but what could be confirmed by external sensuous things, and moreover treating the internal man with contumely.

[3] But those who had relation to the internal sensuous man cared nothing for such things, and wondered not only at the insanity of the former spirits, but also at their stupidity; and wonderful to say, when the external sensuous spirits drew near the internal sensuous ones, and came almost into the sphere of their thoughts, the external sensuous began to breathe with difficulty (for spirits and angels breathe equally as do men, but their breathing is relatively internal, n. 3884-3895), and thus to be almost suffocated, so that they withdrew.  And the further away they retired from the internal sensuous spirits, because they breathed more easily, the more tranquil and quiet it became with them; and again the nearer they approached, the more intranquil and unquiet.

[4] The cause was that when the external sensuous are in their fallacies, phantasies, and hypotheses, and thence in falsities, they have tranquillity; but when on the contrary such things are taken away from them, which comes to pass when the internal man flows in with the light of truth, they then have intranquillity. For in the other life there exist spheres of the thoughts and affections, and these are mutually communicated according to presence and approach (n. 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504-1512, 1695, 2401, 2489).  This conflict lasted for several hours; and it was thus shown how the men of this earth are at the present day opposed to the internal man, and that the external sensuous makes almost all with them.

AC 4331. Continuation concerning the Grand Man and concerning Correspondence at the end of the following chapter; and there concerning correspondence with the senses specifically.

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