HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter34

AC 4422. Prefatory to this chapter the Lord‘s words in (Matthew 24:42-51), remain to be unfolded.  These words are the last in that chapter which treat of the consummation of the age, or the advent of the Lord, and which in the letter are these: Watch therefore, for ye know not what hour your Lord cometh. But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would assuredly have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken through.  Therefore be ye also ready, for in an hour that ye think not the Son of man will come.  Who therefore is the faithful and prudent servant, whom his lord hath set over his domestics, to give them their food in due season?  Blessed is that servant whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.  Verily I say unto you, that he will set him over all his goods.  But if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delayeth to come; and shall begin to beat his fellow servants, and to eat and drink with the drunken; the lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looketh not for him, and in an hour when he knoweth not, and shall cut him asunder, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.  What these words involve may be seen from the series of things, for the subject treated of in this whole chapter of the evangelist is the last period of the church, which in the internal sense is the consummation of the age and the advent of the Lord (n. 3353-3356, 3486-3489, 3650-3655, 3751-3757, 3897-3901, 4056-4060, 4229-4231, 4332-4335).

[2] What these contents are in a series has also been there stated, namely, that when the Christian Church that was set up after the Lord’s coming began to vastate itself, that is, to recede from good, then: I. They began not to know what good and truth are, but disputed about them.  II.  They despised them.  III. Next they did not at heart acknowledge them.  IV. Afterwards they profaned them.  V. And as the truth of faith and the good of charity were still to remain with some, who are called the ”elect,“ the state of faith at that time is described.  VI. And then the state of charity.  VII. Lastly, the beginning of a new church is treated of; and, VIII., the state as to good and truth within the so called church, when that church is being rejected and a new church is being adopted.  From this series it may appear what is involved in the words that have been transcribed above, and are the last of the chapter, namely, that they are words of exhortation to those in the church, that they should be in the good of faith, and that if not they must perish.

AC 4423. Scarcely anyone knows how the case is with the rejection of an old church and the adoption of a new church.  He who does not know man‘s interiors and their states, and consequently man’s states after death, cannot but infer that those who are of the old church, and in whom good and truth have been laid waste, that is, are no longer at heart acknowledged, are to perish, either as the antediluvians perished by the flood, or as did the Jews by expulsion from their land, or in some other way.  But when the church has been laid waste, that is, when it is no longer in any good of faith, it perishes chiefly in respect to the states of its interiors, thus in respect to its states in the other life.  Heaven then removes itself away from them and consequently the Lord and transfers itself to others, who are adopted in their stead; for without a church somewhere on the earth there is no communication of heaven with man; for the church is like the heart and lungs of the Grand Man on the earth (n. 468, 637, 931, 2054, 2853).

[2] They who are then of the old church, and thus are removed from heaven, are in a kind of inundation as to their interiors, and in fact in an inundation over the head.  This inundation the man himself does not observe while he lives in the body, but he comes into it after death.  In the other life this inundation plainly appears like a thick cloud by which they are encompassed and separated from heaven.  The state of those who are in this thick cloud is that they cannot possibly see what the truth of faith is, and still less what is its good; for the light of heaven, in which is intelligence and wisdom, cannot penetrate into this cloud.  This is the state of a vastated church.

AC 4424. What the Lord‘s words quoted above involve in the internal sense may be seen without explication; for the Lord spoke them not so much by representatives and significatives, as by comparatives.  There shall be stated merely what is signified by the words of the last verse, namely: ”He shall cut him asunder, and appoint his portion with the hypocrites; there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.“  He shall cut him asunder; signifies separation and removal from goods and truths; for they who are in knowledges of good and truth, as are those who are within the church and yet in a life of evil, are said to be ”cut asunder“ when they are removed from these knowledges. For the knowledges of good and truth are separated from them in the other life, and they are kept in evils, and therefore also in falsities; which is done in order to prevent them from communicating with heaven by the knowledges of truth, and with hell by evils and the derivative falsities, and thus hanging between the two; and also to prevent them from profaning goods and truths, which is done when these are commingled with falsities and evils.  The same is also signified by the Lord’s words to him who hid the talent in the earth: ”Take therefore the talent from him; and give it unto him that hath ten talents; for unto everyone that hath shall be given, and from him that hath not, even that which he hath shall be taken away“ (Matt. 25:28, 29); also by what the Lord says in another place in (Matthew 13:12; Mark 4:25; Luke 8:18).

[2] And appoint his portion with the hypocrites; signifies his lot (which is his ”portion“) with those who outwardly appear to be in truth as to doctrine and in good as to life, but inwardly believe nothing of truth and will nothing of good, who are the ”hypocrites.“ In this manner they are ”cut asunder.“ Therefore when their externals are taken away from them, as takes place with all in the other life, they appear such as they are as to their internals, namely, devoid of faith and charity, of which they nevertheless have made a show in order to win others and acquire honors, gain, and reputation.  Those within a vastated church are almost all of this character, for they have externals, but no internals.  This is the origin of that inundation of their interiors which has been already spoken of (n. 4423).

[3] There shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth; signifies their state in the other life, ”wailing,“ their state as to evils, and ”gnashing of teeth,“ their state as to falsities. For in the Word the ”teeth“ signify the lowest natural things, in the genuine sense the truths of these natural things, and in the opposite sense their falsities.  The teeth moreover correspond to these things, and therefore the ”gnashing of teeth“ is the collision of falsities with truths. They who are in mere natural things, and who are in these from the fallacies of the senses, and who believe nothing but what they see thereby, are said to be in the ”gnashing of teeth,“ and also in the other life appear to themselves to be so when they draw conclusions from their fallacies concerning the truths of faith. In a church vastated as to good and truth such persons abound.  The like is signified elsewhere also by the ”gnashing of teeth,“ as in Matthew: The sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness, there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth (Matthew 8:12); the ”sons of the kingdom“ are those who are in a vastated church; the ”darkness“ is falsities (n. 4418), for they are in darkness when they are in the thick cloud mentioned above; the ”gnashing of teeth“ is the collision of falsities therein with truths.  In like manner elsewhere, as in (Matt. 13:42, 50; 22:13; 25:30; Luke 13:28).

GENESIS 34:1-31

1. And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land.

2. And Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her, and took her, and lay with her, and forced her.

3. And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake upon the heart of the damsel.

4. And Shechem said unto Hamor his father, saying, Get me this girl for a woman.

5. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his acquisition in the field; and Jacob was silent until they came.

6. And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him.

7. And the sons of Jacob came from the field as they heard it, and the men were grieved, and they were very angry, because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob‘s daughter, and so it ought not to be done.

8. And Hamor spake with them, saying, Shechem my son, his soul longs for your daughter, give her I pray to him for a woman.

9. And share kinships with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you.

10. And ye shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you, dwell ye, and range through it trading, and get you possession therein.

11. And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give.

12. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give as ye say unto me; and give me the damsel for a woman.

13. And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father in fraud, and spake, because he had defiled Dinah their sister.

14. And they said unto them, We cannot do this word, to give our sister to a man that hath a foreskin, because this would be a reproach unto us.

15. Nevertheless in this will we consent to you, if ye he as we to circumcise for you every male.

16. We will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will be for one people.

17. And if ye will not listen unto us to circumcise, we will even take our daughter and go.

18. And their words were good in the eyes of Hamor, and in the eyes of Shechem Hamor’s son.

19. And the lad delayed not to do the word, because he was well pleased in Jacob‘s daughter; and he was honored above all the house of his father.

20. And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and spake unto the men of their city, saying,

21. These men are peaceable with us, and let them dwell in the land, and range through it trading, and behold the land is broad in spaces before them; let us take their daughters to us for women, and let us give our daughters to them.

22. Nevertheless in this will the men consent to us to dwell with us, to be for one people, in every male being circumcised to us, even as they are circumcised.

23. Their acquisition, and their purchase, and all their beast, will they not be ours? only let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us.

24. And they listened to Hamor and to Shechem his son, all that went out of the gate of his city; and they circumcised every male, all that went out of the gate of his city.

25. And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that the two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, brothers of Dinah, took each his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew every male.

26. And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son at the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house, and went forth.

27. The sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister.

28. Their flocks and their herds and their asses, and whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field, they took;

29. And all their wealth, and all their babe, and their women, they took captive and made a prey of, and all that was in the house.

30. And Jacob said to Simeon and to Levi, Ye have troubled me, to make me to stink to the inhabitant of the land, to the Canaanite and the Perizzite; and I am mortals [few] of number, and they will be gathered together upon me, and will smite me, and I shall be destroyed, I and my house.

31. And they said, Shall he make our sister as a harlot?

THE CONTENTS

AC 4425. The subject here treated of in the internal sense is the posterity of Jacob--that they extinguished all the truth of doctrine which was of the Ancient Church.  Hamor and Shechem, together with the people of their city, represent this truth. For the representative of a church among the posterity of Jacob consisted solely in externals without internals, whereas the representative church among the ancients consisted in externals with internals.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 4426. Verses 1-4. And Dinah the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land. And Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her and took her, and lay with her, and forced her. And his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob, and he loved the damsel, and spake upon the heart of the damsel. And Shechem said unto Hamor his father, saying, Get me this girl for a woman.  ”And Dinah went out, signifies the affection of all things of faith, and the church thence derived; “the daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob,” signifies in externals; “to see the daughters of the land,” signifies to become acquainted with the affections of truth and the churches thence derived; “and Shechem saw her,” signifies truth; “the son of Hamor the Hivite,” signifies from the ancients; “the prince of the land,” signifies what is primary among the churches; “and he took her, and lay with her, and forced her,” signifies that in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers; “and his soul clave unto Dinah the daughter of Jacob,” signifies an inclination to conjunction; “and he loved the damsel, and spake upon her heart,” signifies love; “and Shechem said unto Hamor his father,” signifies thought from the truth that was among the ancients; “saying, Get me this girl for a woman,” signifies that it desired to be conjoined with the affection of that truth.

AC 4427. And Dinah went out.  That this signifies the affection of all things of faith and the church thence derived, is evident from the representation of Dinah, as being the affection of all truths and the church thence derived (n. 3963, 3964); for the twelve sons of Jacob represented all things of faith, thus all things of the church (n. 2129, 2130, 3858, 3926, 3939), and therefore Dinah, who was born after the ten sons of Jacob by Leah and the handmaids, signifies the affection of them, and therefore the church.  For the church is from the affection of truth, insomuch that whether you say the affection of truth, or the church, it is the same thing, because it is from the affection of truth that a man is the church

AC 4428. The daughter of Leah, whom she bare unto Jacob. That this signifies in externals, is evident from the representation of Leah, as being the affection of external truth (n. 3793, 3819); and from the representation of Jacob, as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine truth of the natural (n. 3305, 3509, 3525, 3546, 3576, 4234, 4273, 4337), and in the relative sense the external church, or what is the same, the external of the church (n. 3305, 4286).  Hence it is evident that “the daughter of Leah whom she bare unto Jacob,” signifies the affection of truth in externals.

AC 4429. To see the daughters of the land. That this signifies to become acquainted with the affections of truth and the churches thence derived, is evident from the signification of “to see” as being to become acquainted with; from the signification of “daughters,” as being affections and the churches thence derived (n. 2362, 3024, 3963); and from the signification of “the land,” here the land of Canaan, as being the region where the church is, and hence also the church itself (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 3705, 3686).

[2] The signification of the things contained in this verse may be seen from what follows, for the subject treated of is the representative of a church that was to be instituted among the descendants of Jacob.  That this representative could not be instituted among them until they had been completely vastated in respect to interior truths--that is, until they no longer knew them--may be seen above (n. 4289). These interior truths are all those represented and signified by the rituals that were commanded them; for all the rituals represented and signified something in the Lord‘s kingdom in the heavens, and consequently something in the Lord’s kingdom on earth, that is, in the church; and the things that were signified and represented are the interior truths here meant. Each and all of the things commanded the descendants of Jacob when the representative of a church was being instituted among them (as described in the books of Moses, especially in Exodus and Leviticus) were representative and significative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord‘s kingdom.  All these things were unknown to the descendants of Jacob, because these were of such a nature that if they had known them they would have profaned them (n. 301-303, 2520, 3398, 3479, 3769, 4281, 4293); and therefore they did not come into these representatives until they had been completely vastated in respect to their interiors; and therefore the truths in question and the extinguishing of them by the Israelites are described in this chapter.

[3] The representative that were commanded to the descendants of Jacob were not new, but for the most part were such as had previously been in use among the ancients; but the ancients did not worship the externals, as did the descendants of Jacob (that is, the Jews and Israelites), but they worshiped the internal things, and by means of these they acknowledged the Lord Himself.  There were still remains in the land of Canaan of the church of ancient time, especially among those called Hittites and Hivites, and this is the reason why by these nations are represented the truths that had been of the church.  From what has been said it may in some measure appear what is signified by Dinah, Jacob’s daughter by Leah, going out to see the daughters of the land; for by Dinah is represented the external church, such as was instituted among the descendants of Jacob, and by the daughters of the land are signified the churches among the ancients.  That in the internal sense of the Word “daughters” everywhere signify churches, has been shown above (n. 2362, 3024); and that the “land” signifies the region and nation where the church is, and thus the church (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 3686, 3705).

AC 4430. And Shechem saw her.  That this signifies truth, is evident from the representation of Shechem as being truth, here the truth of the church from ancient time.  That this is represented by Shechem is because there still were remains of the church with that nation to which Shechem belonged.  That this was one of the well-disposed nations is manifest from the sincerity with which Hamor and Shechem spoke to Jacob and his sons (verses 8-12), and from the condescension that Shechem might take Dinah for a wife (verses 18-24); for which reason the truth of the church was represented by them.  And besides, the city Shechem was Abram‘s first station when he came from Syria into the land of Canaan (Gen. 12:6); and was now also Jacob’s first station in coming from Syria, in which he spread his tent, made booths, and erected an altar (Gen. 33:17-20). That by the journeys or sojournings of Abraham and Jacob were represented progressions into the truths of faith and goods of love which in the supreme sense relate to the Lord and in the relative sense to the man who is being regenerated by the Lord, has been repeatedly shown.  Hence by the “city Shechem” was signified the first of light (n. 1440, 1441), consequently interior truth, for this is the first of light.

[2] But in this chapter in the internal sense the descendants of Jacob are treated of--how they extinguished in themselves this first of light, or interior truth.  In this sense, which is the internal historical sense, the sons of Jacob signify all his descendants; for in the internal sense of the Word the things of the Lord‘s kingdom are exclusively treated of, thus the things of His church. The sons of Jacob themselves did not constitute any church, but their descendants, and this only after they had gone out of Egypt, and in actuality only after they came into the land of Canaan.

[3] Moreover as regards this city named from Shechem, it was anciently called “Shalem,” as is evident in the foregoing chapter:--

Jacob came to Shalem a city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan (Gen. 33:18);

that by “Shalem” is signified tranquillity, and by the “city of Shechem” the interior truths of faith, and that when a man comes to these truths he comes into a tranquil state, may be seen above (n. 4393).  But the same city was afterwards called “Shechem,” as may be seen in Joshua:--

The bones of Joseph, which the sons of Israel caused to go up out of Egypt, buried they in Shechem, in the portion of the field which Jacob bought of the sons of Hamor the father of Shechem for a hundred kesitah (Joshua 24:32).

And in the book of Judges:--

Gaal the son of Ebed said to the citizens of Shechem, Who is Abimelech, and who is Shechem, that we should serve him? is not he the son of Jerubbaal, and Zebul is his officer? serve ye the men of Hamor the father of Shechem, and why should we serve this man? (Judges 9:28).

[4] The same city was afterwards called “Sychar,” as is evident in John:--

Jesus came to a city of Samaria called Sychar, near to the field which Jacob gave to his son Joseph; and Jacob’s spring was there (John 4:5, 6).

That by this city is signified interior truth, is evident from these passages, and also from others where it is named, as in Hosea:--

Gilead is a city of them that work iniquity, it has been befouled with blood; and as troops wait for a man, a companionship of priests, on the way to Shechem they kill, because they have wrought wickedness; in the house of Israel I have seen a foul thing (Hosea 6:8-10);

where “on the way to Shechem they kill” signifies that they extinguish truths even to those which are interior, thus all external truths.  The extinction of interior truth is also signified by Abimelech‘s destroying that city and sowing it with salt (Judges 9:45).

AC 4431. The son of Hamor the Hivite. That this signifies from the ancients, is evident from the signification of a “son,” who here is Shechem, as being interior truth. A “son” denotes truth, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373, 4257); and from the representation of Hamor, as being the father of this truth, thus meaning from the ancients; for the truth that was interior in the representatives and rituals emanated from the church of ancient time. For this reason Hamor is also named “the Hivite,” for the Hivite nation was that by which such truth among the ancients was signified, because the Hivites had been in such truth from ancient time, and hence it is that Hamor is here called “the Hivite.” For by all the nations in the land of Canaan some good or truth of the church of ancient time was signified, because the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, was there (n. 4116). But afterwards these nations, like all the other nations among whom the church had been, turned aside to things idolatrous, and therefore by the same nations idolatries also are signified. Yet because the Hivites had from ancient time signified interior truth, and because they were one of the better disposed nations, with whom iniquity was not so far consummated (that is, the truth of the church was not so far extinguished as with others), the Gibeonite Hivites were of the Lord’s providence preserved, by means of a covenant made with them by Joshua and the princes (Josh. 9:15). They were Hivites (Joshua 9:7; 11:19).  From all that has been said it is now evident whence it is that interior truth from the ancients is signified by “Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite.”

AC 4432. The prince of the land.  That this signifies what is primary among the churches, is evident from the signification of a “prince,” as being what is primary (n. 1482, 2089); and from the signification of “the land,” as being the church (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 3686, 3705).

AC 4433. And he took her, and lay with her, and forced her. That this signifies that in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers, is evident from the signification of “taking her, lying with her, and forcing her,” as being to be conjoined, but not in a lawful way, as is done by betrothal.  That by these words is signified that in no other way could it be conjoined, cannot be seen unless it is known how the case is. The interior truth from the ancients which is signified by “Shechem the son of Hamor the Hivite” is that truth which had been the internal of the church among the ancients, thus which was the internal in their statutes, judgments, and laws: in a word, in their rituals and the like.  These truths were their doctrinal things according to which they lived, and indeed doctrinal things of charity; for in the ancient time those who were of the genuine church had no other doctrinal things. Relatively to doctrine the same may be called interior truths of faith, but goods relatively to life.  If any church were to be instituted with the nation sprung from Jacob, it was necessary that they should be initiated into these truths and goods; for unless there are internal things within external ones, that is, unless men think of internal things when they are in external ones, and unless they are at the same time affected by the internal things, or at least unless they are affected by external things for the sake of internal things, there is not anything of the church.  For internal things make the church, because in these is the Lord; for in these are the spiritual and celestial things which are from Him.

[2] But the nation sprung from Jacob, that is, the Israelitish and Jewish nation, could not be initiated into these internal things in the lawful way which is effected by betrothal, for the reason that their external worship did not correspond.  For from their fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, they received the worship instituted by Eber, which was different in its externals from the worship of the Ancient Church, as may be seen above (n. 1238, 1241, 1343, 2180). And because their worship was different, the interior truths that existed among the ancients could not be conjoined with it in the lawful manner, by betrothal, but in the way here described. From this it may be understood what is meant by saying that “in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob, Dinah‘s brothers.”

[3] But although the conjunction could be effected in this manner, according to a law also known to the ancients (Exod. 22:15; Deut. 22:28, 29), still that nation was of such a character that they would by no means suffer any conjunction of the interior truth that was from the ancients with the externals of worship that existed among the descendants of Jacob (n. 4281, 4290, 4293, 4307, 4314, 4316, 4317). For this reason there could not be any church instituted with that nation, but instead of it only the representative of a church (n. 4281, 4288, 4307). That this nation was of such a character that not only was it impossible for them to receive interior truths, but that they also completely extinguished them in themselves, is here represented by the sons of Jacob answering Shechem and Hamor in fraud (verse 13); and then by Simeon and Levi smiting the city with the edge of the sword, and killing Shechem and Hamor (verses 25, 26); and by the rest of the sons coming upon those who were pierced, and pillaging the city, and carrying away the flocks, the herds, and whatever was in the city, in the field, and in the house (verses 27-29). From this it is evident what is signified by the prophecy of Jacob, then Israel:--

Simeon and Levi are brethren, instruments of violence are their swords; let not my soul come into their secret, let not my glory be united in their congregation; because in their anger they slew a man, and in their pleasure they unstrung an ox; cursed be their anger because it was vehement, and their fury because it was grievous; I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel (Gen. 49:5-7).

AC 4434. And his soul clave unto Dinah.  That this signifies an inclination to conjunction, is evident from the signification of “his soul cleaving,” as being an inclination.  That it is to conjunction is evident, because in the internal sense the things which belong to conjugial love involve spiritual conjunction, which is that of truth with good, and of good with truth.  The reason why in the internal sense the things which belong to conjugial love involve this conjunction, is that conjugial love derives its origin from the marriage of truth and good, and of good and truth (n. 2618, 2727-2729, 2737, 2803, 3132). Hence also the adulterations of good are meant in the Word by “adulteries,” and the falsifications of truth by “whoredoms” (n. 2466, 2729, 2750, 3399).  From all this it may be seen that by all that is related of Shechem and of Dinah in this chapter nothing else is meant in the internal sense than the conjunction of the truth represented by Shechem with the affection of truth represented by Dinah; thus that by the words “his soul clave unto Dinah” is signified an inclination to conjunction.

[2] As in the whole of this chapter conjugial love toward Dinah is treated of, and how Shechem sought her for a woman, and as by the things of conjugial love there is signified spiritual conjunction, I may confirm from the Word that marriages and what belongs to them involve nothing else.  In John:--

Let us be glad and exult, and let us give the glory unto Him, because the wedding of the Lamb is come, and His wife hath made herself ready, as have they who are called unto the wedding supper of the Lamb (Rev. 19:7, 9).

In the same:--

I saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. One of the seven angels spake with me, saying, Come, I will show thee the bride, the Lamb’s wife and he carried me away in the spirit upon a mountain great and high, and showed me the great city, the holy Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God (Rev. 21:2, 9, 10);

that by what relates to betrothal and marriage naught else is here signified than the Lord‘s conjunction with the church, and this by means of truth and good, is very evident, for the “holy city” and the “New Jerusalem” are nothing else than the church. A “city” is the truth of the church, (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2451, 2712, 2943, 3216); and “Jerusalem” is the spiritual church, (n. 402, 2117, 3654).

[3] In Malachi:--

Judah hath dealt treacherously, and an abomination has been committed in Israel and in Jerusalem, for Judah hath profaned the holiness of Jehovah, because he hath loved and hath betrothed to him the daughter of a strange god. Jehovah hath borne witness between thee and the wife of thy youth, against whom thou hast dealt treacherously (Mal. 2:11, 14);

where “to love and betroth the daughter of a strange god” is to conjoin one’s self with falsity instead of truth, which is the “wife of youth.”

[4] Ezekiel:--

Thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters whom thou hast borne unto Me, and hast sacrificed to devour them. Was there little of thy whoredoms? Thou art the daughter of thy mother, who loathes her husband and her sons; and thou art the sister of thy sisters who loathed their husbands and their sons (Ezek. 16:20, 45);

here the abominations of Jerusalem are treated of, which because they were from evils and falsities, are described in this chapter by such things as are contrary to marriages, namely, by adulteries and whoredoms. The “husbands whom they loathed” are goods; the “sons” are truths; and the “daughters” are the affections of these.

[5] In Isaiah:--

Sing, O barren one, that didst not bear, resound with singing and shout for joy that didst not travail, because more are the sons of the desolate than the sons of the married one. The reproach of thy widowhood shalt thou remember no more, because thy makers are thy husbands, Jehovah Zebaoth is His name, and thy Redeemer the Holy One of Israel, the God of the whole earth is He called; for as a woman forsaken and afflicted in spirit hath Jehovah called thee, and as a woman of youth when she is divorced, hath said thy God. All thy sons are taught of Jehovah, and much is the peace of thy sons (Isa. 54:1, 5, 6, 13);

as by marriage is signified the conjunction of truth and good and of good and truth, it is evident what is signified by “husband and wife,” by “sons and daughters,” by “widows,” by the “divorced,” and by “bearing,” “travailing,” “being desolate,” and “being barren;” for these things belong to marriage. What these signify in the spiritual sense has been frequently shown in the explications.

[6] In the same:--

For Zion‘s sake I will not be silent, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest; it shall no longer be said to thee, Forsaken one but thy land shall be called The married one, for Jehovah shall be well pleased in thee, and thy land shall be married; because a young man shall marry a virgin, thy sons shall marry thee, and there shall be joy of the bridegroom over the bride, thy God shall rejoice over thee (Isa. 62:1, 4, 5);

he who knows not the internal sense of the Word may suppose that such things in the Word are only comparisons, like many expressions in common speech, and that this is the reason why the church is compared to a daughter, to a virgin, and a wife; thus the things of faith and charity to those of marriage. But in the Word all things are representative of spiritual and celestial things, and are real correspondences; for the Word has come down from heaven, and because it has come down thence it is in its origin the Divine celestial and spiritual to which those things which belong to the sense of the letter correspond. Hence it is that the things of the heavenly marriage, which is the conjunction of good and truth, fall into such as correspond, thus into those which belong to marriages on earth.

[7] Hence also it is that the Lord likened the kingdom of the heavens (that is, His kingdom in heaven, and His kingdom on earth which is the church) to a “man, a king, who made a wedding for his son, and invited many to it” (Matt. 22:2-14); and also to “ten virgins who took their lamps and went forth to meet the bridegroom” (Matt. 25:1-13).  And the Lord likewise called those who are of the church “sons of the wedding”:--

Jesus said, Can the sons of the wedding mourn, so long as the bridegroom is with them? But the days will come when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then will they fast (Matt. 9:15).

[8] Hence also the affection of good and the affection of truth are called “the joy and gladness of the bridegroom and the bride,” because heavenly joy is from and in these affections. As in Isaiah:--

Thy sons shall marry thee, and there shall be the joy of the bridegroom over the bride, Jehovah thy God shall rejoice over thee (Isa. 62:5).

In Jeremiah:--

The voice of joy and the voice of gladness, and the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say, Confess ye to Jehovah, because good is Jehovah (Jer. 33:11).

In the same:--

I will cause to cease from the cities of Judah and from the streets of Jerusalem the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, because the land shall go forth into a waste (Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 25:10).

And in John:--

The light of a lamp shall not shine in Babylon any more, and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall not be heard in her any more (Rev. 18:23).

[9] As through love truly conjugial marriages on earth correspond to the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, therefore the laws delivered in the Word concerning betrothals and marriages wholly correspond to the spiritual laws of the heavenly marriage, as that they were to espouse only one wife (Mark 10:2-8; Luke 16:18); for such is the case in the heavenly marriage, namely, that good cannot be conjoined except with its own truth, and truth with its own good.  If good were conjoined with any other truth than its own, it would not subsist at all, but would be rent asunder and so would perish. In the spiritual church the wife represents good and the man represents truth, but in the celestial church the husband represents good and the wife truth; and--what is a mystery--they not only represent, but also in all their activities correspond to them.

[10] Moreover the laws delivered in the Old Testament about marriages have in like manner a correspondence with the laws of the heavenly marriage, such as those in (Exod. 21:7-11; 22:15, 16; 34:16; Num. 36:6; Deut. 7:3, 4; 22:28, 29), and also the laws about the forbidden degrees (Lev. 18:6-20); as regards each of which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy elsewhere.  That the degrees and laws of marriages have their origin in the laws of truth and good, which are those of the heavenly marriage, and bear relation to them, is manifest in Ezekiel:--

The priests the Levites shall not take for their wives a widow nor her that is divorced, but virgins of the seed of the house of Israel and a widow that has been the widow of a priest shall they take (Ezek. 44:22);

the subject here treated of is the holy city New Jerusalem and the heavenly Canaan, and it is evident that these are the Lord’s kingdom and His church.  Consequently by “the Levites” are not signified Levites, nor by a “widow and her that is divorced” are there signified a widow and one who has been divorced, but the things to which these correspond.

AC 4435. And he loved the damsel, and spake upon her heart. That this signified love, is evident without explication.

AC 4436. And Shechem said unto Hamor his father.  That this signifies thought from the truth that was among the ancients, is evident from the signification in the historicals of the Word of “to say,” as being perception and the consequent thought (n. 3395); and from the representation of Shechem the son of Hamor, as being the truth among the ancients (n. 4430, 4431).  Hence it is evident that “Shechem said unto Hamor his father,” denotes thought from the truth that was among the ancients.

AC 4437. Saying, Get me this girl for a woman. That this signifies that it desired to be conjoined with the affection of that truth, is evident from the signification of a “girl,” here Dinah, as being the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers (n. 4427, 4433); and from the signification of “getting for a woman,” as being to be conjoined (n. 4434).

AC 4438. Verses 5-7. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter; and his sons were with his acquisition in the field; and Jacob was silent until they came. And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him. And the sons of Jacob came from the field as they heard it, and the men were grieved, and they were very angry, because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob‘s daughter, and so it ought not to be done. “And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter,” signifies a conjunction not legitimate (“Jacob” here is the external Ancient Church); “and his sons were with his acquisition in the field,” signifies his descendants--that they were in their religiosity; “and Jacob was silent until they came,” signifies a consultation from the truths of faith that belonged to him and his descendants; “and Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him,” signifies a consultation about the truth of that church; “and the sons of Jacob came from the field,” signifies that they consulted from their religiosity; “and the men were grieved, and they were very angry,” signifies that they were in evil against the truth of the Church among the Ancients; “because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob’s daughter, and so it ought not to be done,” signifies a conjunction that was unlawful in their eyes, because contrary to the truth which they had.

AC 4439. And Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter.  That this signifies a conjunction not legitimate, namely, with the affection of the truth that belonged to the external church here represented by Jacob, is evident from the signification of “to defile,” as being a conjunction not legitimate, for by marriages is signified a conjunction that is legitimate (n. 4434), hence by their “defilement” is signified conjunction not legitimate (n. 4433); from the representation of Dinah, as being the affection of all things of faith, and the church thence derived (n. 4427); and from the representation of Jacob, who here is the external Ancient Church.  That by “Jacob” is here signified the external Ancient Church is because this church was to be instituted among his descendants, and would have been instituted if his descendants had received the interior truths that existed among the ancients.  That this church is here represented by Jacob is evident also from the connection in this chapter, for he was not in the plot with his sons to smite the city and kill Hamor and Shechem; and therefore he said to Simeon and Levi, “Ye have troubled me to make me stink to the inhabitant of the land” (verse 30); and in his prophetic utterance before his death, “Let not my soul come into their secret, in their congregation let not my glory be united; because in their anger they slew a man, and in their pleasure they unstrung an ox” (Gen. 49:6).  Moreover in very many passages in the Word the external Ancient Church is represented by Jacob (n. 422, 4286).  The reason why Jacob represents this church is that in the supreme sense he represents the Lord‘s Divine natural, to which the external church corresponds.  But by his “sons” are signified his descendants, who extinguished in themselves the truth that existed among the ancients, and thus destroyed that which was of the church, the result being that only its representative remained with them (n. 4281, 4288, 4289, 4303).

AC 4440. And his sons were with his acquisition in the field.  That this signifies his descendants--that they were in their own religiosity, is evident from the signification of his “sons,” as being his descendants; from the signification of “acquisition,” as being external truths (n. 1435, 4391); and from the signification of a “field,” as being the church (n. 2971, 3766). Hence by “his sons were with his acquisition in the field” is signified that they were in their own religiosity; for such a kind of church as existed among the descendants of Jacob should be called a “religiosity,” because it was external worship without internal.

AC 4441. And Jacob was silent until they came.  That this signifies a consultation from the truths of faith that belonged to him and his descendants, is evident from the signification of “to be silent,” as being to silently think and take counsel; and from the signification of “until they (that is, the sons) came,” as being to do this from the truths of faith that belonged to him and his descendants. “Sons” are truths, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373, 4257). As the consultation was made with the sons, thus with the truths signified by the sons of Jacob, it follows that it was from the truths that belonged to Jacob and his descendants.

AC 4442. And Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him.  That this signifies a consultation about the truth of that church, is evident from the representation of Hamor the father of Shechem, as being the truth of the ancients (n. 4430, 4431); from the representation of Jacob, as being the external Ancient Church (n. 4439); and from the signification of “speaking with him,” as being to consult.  Hence by these words is signified a consultation about the truth of that church.

[2] He who does not know that names in the Word signify things, will wonder that by the words “Hamor the father of Shechem went out unto Jacob to speak with him,” is signified a consultation of the truth of the church that existed among the ancients with the truth that was in accordance with the Ancient Church that was to be set up anew among the descendants of Jacob; but this will excite no surprise in anyone who knows that such is the nature of the internal sense of the Word, nor in those who have learned from the books of the ancients their manner of writing; for it was customary with them to set forth things as speaking together, such as wisdom, intelligence, knowledges, and the like; and also to give them names by which such things were signified.  The gods and demigods of the ancients were nothing else, and so were the personages whom they devised in order to present their subjects in an historical form.

[3] The sages of old took this custom from the Ancient Church, which was spread over much of the Asiatic world (n. 1238, 2385); for the people of the Ancient Church set forth sacred things by means of representatives and significatives.  The Ancient Church however received this from the mouth of the Most Ancient people, who were before the flood (n. 920, 1409, 1977, 2896, 2897); and these from heaven, for they had communication with heaven (n. 784, 1114-1125); and the first heaven, which is the last of the three, is in such representatives and significatives.  This is the reason why the Word was written in such a style.  But the Word has this peculiar feature, not possessed by the writings of the ancients, that each of the subjects in a continuous series represents the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself; even the historicals themselves being of the same character; and--what is more--they are real correspondences, and these continuous through the three heavens from the Lord.

AC 4443. And the sons of Jacob came from the field.  That this signifies that they consulted from their religiosity, is evident from the signification of the “sons of Jacob,” as being the nation derived from them, among whom there was instituted the representative of a church; and from the signification of a “field,” as being a religiosity (n. 4440).  That “to come from the field” denotes consultation from the religiosity, follows from the series, as also from the fact that it is their religiosity of which “coming” is predicated.

AC 4444. As they heard it, and the men were grieved, and they were very angry.  That this signifies that they were in evil against the truth of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the signification of being “grieved and very angry,” as being to be in evil.  That this was against the truth of the Church among the Ancients, follows, because it was against Shechem the son of Hamor, by whom is signified the truth among the ancients, as before said (n. 4430, 4431).  That they were in evil is evident from what follows, in that they spoke with fraud (verse 13), and then, after Shechem and Hamor had complied with their demands, they slew them (verses 26-29).  Thus by being “grieved and very angry” is here signified that they were in evil.  It appears as if these words signify zeal because he lay with their sister, according to the words which presently follow: “Because he had wrought folly in Israel in lying with Jacob‘s daughter, and so it ought not to be done;” and at the end of the chapter: “They said, Shall he make our sister as a harlot?” (verse 31); but it was not zeal, for zeal is impossible with anyone who is in evil, being possible only with him who is in good, because zeal has good within it (n. 4164).

[2] It is true that the religiosity which existed with their posterity had good within it, for each and all things of it represented the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom; but as regards those who were in that religiosity it had no good within it, for they were in mere externals without internals, as shown above.  The case herein is the same as it is with the religiosity of that nation as now prevalent among them: they acknowledge Moses and the prophets, thus the Word, which in itself is holy, but as regards them it is not holy, for in everything therein they regard themselves, and thus make the Word worldly, nay, earthly, for that there is anything heavenly in it they do not know and neither do they care.  They who are in such a state cannot be in good when in their religiosity, but in evil, for nothing heavenly flows in, because they extinguish it in themselves.

[3] Moreover it was according to a law known in the Ancient Church that he who forced a virgin should give a dowry and take her for his wife, as thus stated in Moses:--

If a man persuade a virgin who is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall endow her with a dowry to be his wife. If refusing her father refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay silver, as much as is the dowry of virgins (Exod. 27:15, 16).

And elsewhere:--

If a man find a damsel who is a virgin, who has not been betrothed, and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be caught, the man who lay with her shall give the damsel‘s father fifty pieces of silver, and she shall be his wife, because he forced her, and he may not put her away all his days (Deut. 22:28, 29).

That this same law was known to the ancients is very evident from the words of Shechem to the damsel’s father and brothers: “Shechem said unto her father and unto her brethren, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give according as ye shall say unto me, and give me the damsel for a woman” (verses 11, 12). And as Shechem desired to fulfill this law, and Dinah‘s brothers gave their consent provided that he would become as they were by circumcising every male, according to the words which follow: “Nevertheless in this will we consent unto you, if ye will be as we are, that every male with you be circumcised, we will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you, and we will be one people” (verses 15, 16), it is evident that Dinah’s brothers did not act from the law (thus not from good), but contrary to the law, and consequently from evil.

[4] It was indeed according to their law that they should not enter into marriages with the nations, as stated in Moses: “Lest thou take of their daughters for thy sons, and their daughters go a whoring after their gods, and make thy sons go a whoring after their gods” (Exod. 34:16); and again: “Thou shalt not contract kinship with the nations, thy daughter thou shalt not give unto his son, and his daughter thou shalt not take unto thy son, because he will turn aside thy son from following Me, that they may serve other gods” (Deut. 7:3, 4); but this law was given in regard to idolatrous nations, lest by marriages with them the sons of Israel should turn aside from truly representative worship to idolatrous worship; for when they became idolaters they could no longer represent the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord‘s kingdom, but the opposites, which are infernal, for they then called forth from hell a certain devil whom they worshiped, and to whom they applied the Divine representatives, and therefore it is said, “Lest they go a whoring after their gods.” This law was given for the additional reason that by the “nations” were signified the evils and falsities with which the goods and truths represented by the sons of Israel were not to be commingled, consequently not diabolical and infernal things with heavenly and spiritual things (n. 3024).

[5] But they were never forbidden to intermarry with the nations who accepted their worship, and who after being circumcised acknowledged Jehovah.  These they called “sojourners sojourning with them,” who are thus spoken of in Moses:--

If a sojourner shall sojourn with thee, and be willing to keep the passover to Jehovah, let all his males be circumcised, and then let him come near and keep it, and he shall be as an inhabitant of the land; there shall be one law for the inhabitant and for the sojourner that sojourneth in the midst of you (Exod. 12:48, 49).

And again:--

When a sojourner shall sojourn with you, he shall keep the passover unto Jehovah; according to the statute of the passover, and according to the statutes thereof, so shall be do; one statute shall there be for you, both for the sojourner and for the native of the land (Num. 9:14).

The reason why they were called “sojourners sojourning in the midst of them” and “with them” was that “to sojourn” signified to be instructed; and therefore a “sojourner” signified those who suffered themselves to be instructed in the statutes and doctrinal things. “To sojourn” and a “sojourner” have this signification, (n. 1463, 2025, 3672). In the same:--

If a sojourner shall sojourn with you who shall have made a fire-offering of an odor of rest unto Jehovah, as ye do, so he shall do: as to the assembly, there is one statute for you and for the sojourner that sojourneth, a statute of eternity for your generations as ye are, so is the sojourner before Jehovah; one law and one judgment shall be for you and for the sojourner that sojourneth with you (Num. 15:14-16).

And again:--

As the native of you shall be the sojourner that sojourneth with you (Lev. 19:34).

One judgment shall there be for you, such as is for the sojourner, such shall be for the native (Lev. 24:22).

[6] That this statute was known not only to Jacob and his sons, but also to Shechem and Hamor, is evident from their words; for the statutes, judgments, and laws that were given to the Israelitish and Jewish nation were not new, but such as had previously existed in the Ancient Church and in the second Ancient Church which was called Hebrew from Eber, as has been shown.  That consequently this law was known is evident from the words, “The sons of Jacob said to Hamor and Shechem, We cannot do this word, to give our sister to a man who has a foreskin, for this is a reproach to us; nevertheless in this will we consent to you, if ye will be as we, to circumcise for you every male, we will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us, and we will dwell with you and will be for one people” (verses 14-16); and the same is evident from the words of Hamor and Shechem, in that they not only consented, but also caused themselves and every male of their city to be circumcised (verses 18-24).

[7] Hence it is evident that Shechem became a sojourner such as is spoken of in the law, and thus could take the daughter of Jacob for a woman; so that to kill them was a wicked deed, as Jacob also testified before his death (Gen. 49:5-7).  That not only Judah, but also Moses, and also the kings of the Jews and of the Israelites, and also many of the people, took wives from the nations, is evident from the historicals of the Word; and that these wives received their statutes, judgments, and laws, and were acknowledged as sojourners, is not to be doubted.

AC 4445. Because he had wrought folly in Israel, in lying with Jacob’s daughter, and so it ought not to be done.  That this signifies a conjunction that in their eyes was unlawful, because contrary to the truth which they had, is evident from the signification of “committing folly in lying with Jacob‘s daughter,” as being unlawful conjunction. To lie with her and thus defile her, denotes conjunction not legitimate, (n. 4439). It is said “in Israel,” because by “Israel” is signified the internal of the church; and it is next said “Jacob’s daughter,” because by “Jacob” is signified the external of the church. “Israel” is the internal of the church and “Jacob” the external, (n. 4286, 4292, 4439). Although lawful, the conjunction appeared in their eyes unlawful, (n. 4444).

AC 4446. Verses 8-12. And Hamor spake with them, saying, Shechem my son, his soul longs for your daughter; give her I pray to him for a woman.  And share kinships with us; give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you.  And ye shall dwell with us, and the land shall be before you, dwell ye, and range through it trading, and get you possession therein. And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers, Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give as ye say unto me; and give me the damsel for a woman. “And Hamor spake with them, saying,” signifies the good of the Church among the Ancients; “Shechem my son,” signifies the truth thence derived; “his soul longs for your daughter, give her I pray to him for a woman,” signifies a desire for conjunction with this new church which appears in outward form like the Ancient Church; “and share kinships with us, give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you,” signifies a union of goods and truths; “and ye shall dwell with us,” signifies life; “and the land shall be before you, dwell ye,” signifies the church which would be one; “and range through it trading, and get you possession therein,” signifies doctrinal tenets from what is general that would agree together; “and Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers,” signifies a consultation of the truth from the ancient Divine stock with the good and truth of this religiosity; “let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give,” signifies if they had a like mind on their side to what he had on his; “multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gift, and I will give as ye say unto me,” signifies that he will accept the things that are with them, and will make them his own; “and give me the damsel for a woman,” signifies provided there is conjunction.

AC 4447. And Hamor spake with them, saying.  That this signifies the good of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the representation of Hamor, as being what is from the ancients (n. 4431), that is, the good of the church which was among them.  For the good of the church is father, and the derivative truth (“Shechem”) is son; and therefore by “father” in the Word is signified good, and by “son” truth.  It is here said “the good of the Church among the Ancients,” but not “the good of the Ancient Church,” for the reason that by the “Church among the Ancients” is meant the church that was derived from the Most Ancient Church which existed before the flood, and by the “Ancient Church” is meant the church that existed after the flood.  These two churches have sometimes been treated of in the preceding pages, and it has been shown that the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood was celestial, but the Ancient Church which was after the flood was spiritual, and the difference between them has often been treated of.

[2] The remains of the Most Ancient Church which was celestial still existed in the land of Canaan, especially among those called Hittites and Hivites.  The reason why these remains did not exist anywhere else was that the Most Ancient Church called “Man” or “Adam” (n. 478, 479) was in the land of Canaan, and therefore the “garden of Eden,” by which was signified the intelligence and wisdom of the men of that church (n. 100, 1588), and by the trees in it their perception, (n. 103, 2163, 2722, 2972) was in that land.  And because intelligence and wisdom were signified by this “garden” or paradise, the church itself was meant by it; and because the church was meant, so also was heaven; and because heaven, so also in the supreme sense, was the Lord; and therefore in this sense the “land of Canaan” itself signifies the Lord, in the relative sense heaven and also the church, and in the individual sense the man of the church (n. 1413, 1437, 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705); and therefore also the term “land” or “earth” when mentioned alone in the Word has a like signification (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1413, 1607, 3355); the “new heaven and new earth” being a new church in respect to its internal and its external (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355).  That the Most Ancient Church was in the land of Canaan may be seen in (n. 567); and the result of this was that the places there became representative, and for this reason Abram was commanded to go there, and the land was given to his descendants the sons of Jacob in order that the representatives of the places in accordance with which the Word was to be written, might be retained (n. 3686). For the same reason all the places there, as well as the mountains and rivers, and all the borders round about, became representative, (n. 1585, 1866, 4240).

[3] All this shows what is here meant by the “Church among the Ancients,” namely, remains from the Most Ancient Church.  And as these remains existed among the Hittites and Hivites, therefore Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, together with their wives, obtained a place of burial with the Hittites in their land (Gen. 23:1-20; 49:29-32; 50:13); and Joseph with the Hivites (Josh. 24:32).  Hamor the father of Shechem represented the remains of this Church, and therefore by him is signified the good of the Church among the Ancients, and consequently the origin of interior truth from a Divine stock (n. 4399). The distinction between the Most Ancient Church which was before the flood, and the Ancient Church which was after the flood, see (n. 597, 607, 608, 640, 641, 765, 784, 895, 920, 1114-1128, 1238, 1327, 2896, 2897).

AC 4448. Shechem my son.  That this signifies the truth thence derived, is evident from the representation of Shechem, as being interior truth (n. 4430), thus the truth thence derived, namely, from the good which is “Hamor” (n. 4447); for all the truth of the church is from its good, and from no other source does this truth ever come forth.  This truth, here represented by Shechem, is called interior truth, and in its essence is nothing else than the good of charity. For the Most Ancient Church, being celestial, was in the good of love to the Lord, and thence in the perception of all truth, because the men of that church were almost like angels, and had communication with them, from which came their perception, and therefore they never reasoned about any truth of faith, but said “It is so,” because they perceived it from heaven, insomuch that they were not willing even to mention faith, but in its stead charity (n. 202, 337, 2715, 2718, 3246), and this is the reason why by “interior truth” is here meant the good of charity.  That there were remains of the church in question with Hamor the Hivite and his son Shechem, was shown just above (n. 4447).

[2] The case was different with the Ancient Church which was spiritual, for this church was not in love to the Lord, as was the Most Ancient Church, but was in charity toward the neighbor; and they could not attain to charity except through the truth of faith, of which they had no perception, like the most ancient people, and therefore they then began to make an investigation about truth to see whether it is so.  As to the difference between the celestial who had perception, and the spiritual who have it not, see (n. 2088, 2669, 2708, 2715, 3235, 3240, 3246, 3887).

AC 4449. His soul longs for your daughter, give her I pray to him for a woman.  That by this is signified a desire for conjunction with this new church which appears in outward form like the Ancient Church, is evident from the signification of the “soul longing for,” as being a desire; from the representation of Dinah who here is the “daughter,” as being the affection of truth, and consequently the church, for the church is the church from the affection of truth, and this is here meant by the “new church;” and from the signification of “giving her for a woman,” as being conjunction (n. 4434).

[2] As regards the fact that the new church set up among the descendants of Jacob appeared in the outward form like the Ancient Church, be it known that the statutes, judgments, and laws commanded to the Israelitish and Jewish nation through Moses, were not foreign to the statutes, judgments, and laws that existed in the Ancient Church, such as those relating to betrothals and marriages, to servants, to the animals that were good for eating and those which were not, to cleansings, festivals, the tabernacles, the perpetual fire, and many other things; and also those concerning altars, burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and libations, which were received in the second Ancient Church which was from Eber.  That these were known before they were commanded that nation, is very evident from the historicals of the Word, as for example the altars, burnt-offerings, and sacrifices.

[3] It is said of Balaam that he ordered seven altars to be built, and burnt-offerings and sacrifices of bullocks and rams to be offered upon them (Num.  23:1, 2, 14, 15, 29).  And it is also related of the nations in many places that their altars were destroyed; and also of the prophets of Baal whom Elijah slew, that these offered sacrifices.  From all this it is evident that the sacrifices commanded to the people of Jacob were not new, and so neither were the rest of their statutes, judgments, and laws.  But became these things had become idolatrous among the nations, especially in that by such things they worshiped some profane god, and thus turned to what is infernal the representatives of Divine things, not to mention their addition of other representatives, therefore in order that the representative worship of the Ancient Church might be restored, the same things were recalled.  Hence it is evident that this new church, instituted among the descendants of Jacob, appeared in the outward form like the Ancient Church.

AC 4450. And share kinships with us, give your daughters to us, and take our daughters to you.  That this signifies a union of goods and truths, is evident from the signification of “sharing kinships,” as being union (n. 4434); and from the signification of “daughters,” as being affections, thus goods (n. 489-491, 2362, 3963).  That the union is with truths, is signified by “giving us, and taking to you;” for by “Shechem” and by the “sons of Jacob” are signified truths, as before shown. Hence it is evident that by these words is signified the union of goods and truths, that is, that this new church would by this union be like the Ancient Church, not only in the external, but also in the internal form.

AC 4451. And ye shall dwell with us.  That this signifies life, is evident from the signification of “dwelling,” as being to live (n. 1293, 3384, 3613). Thus “to dwell with us” is to live together, and to make one church.

AC 4452. And the land shall be before you, dwell ye.  That this signifies the church which would be one, is evident from the signification of “land,” as being the church (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1413, 1607, 3355, 4447); and from the signification of “dwelling with us,” as being to live together (n. 4451); thus that the church would be one.

AC 4453. And range through it trading, and get you possession therein. That this signifies doctrinal tenets from what is general that would agree together, is evident from the signification of “trading,” as being to acquire knowledges for one‘s self, and also to communicate them (n. 2967), hence “to range through the land trading” denotes to enter into the knowledges of good and truth signified by Shechem the son of Hamor and his city; and from the signification of “getting possession therein,” as being to make one, thus to agree together, for they who possess a land together, make one and agree.  That “to trade” denotes to acquire knowledges, and also to communicate them, is because in heaven, where the Word is perceived according to its internal sense, there is no trading, for in heaven there is no gold, silver, or anything else such as are traded with in this world; and therefore when we read in the Word of “trading,” this is understood in a spiritual sense, and there is perceived something that corresponds to trading, which--to speak generally-- is the acquisition and communication of knowledges, and specifically, is that [which is indicated by the object] named.  Thus, if “gold” is named, the good of love and wisdom is understood (n. 113, 1551, 1552); if “silver,” the truth which is of intelligence and faith (n. 1551, 2048, 2954); if “sheep,” “rams,” “kids,” or “lambs,” in which they traded in ancient times, such things are understood as these animals signify, and so on.

[2] As in Ezekiel:--

Say unto Tyre, O thou that dwellest at the entrances of the sea, the trader of the peoples unto many isles, Tarshish was thy merchant by reason of the multitude of all kinds of riches; in silver, in iron, in tin and lead they furnished thy fairs. Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders in the soul of man, and in vessels of brass they furnished thy commerce. The sons of Dedan were thy traders, many isles were the merchandise of thine hand.  Syria was thy merchant in the multitude of thy works. Judah and the land of Israel, these were thy traders in wheat, minnith, and pannag, and in honey and oil and balm they furnished thy commerce.  Damascus was thy merchant in the multitude of thy works, by reason of the multitude of all riches, in wine of Heshbon and wool of Zachar. Dan and Javan furnished yarn in thy fairs. Dedan was thy trader in garments of freedom for the chariot. The Arabian and all the princes of Kedar, these were the merchants of thy hand, in lambs and rams and he-goats, in these were they thy merchants. The traders of Shebah and Raamah, these were thy traders in the chief of all spice and by every precious stone and gold they furnished thy tradings. Haran and Canneh and Eden, the traders of Sheba, Asshur, Chilmad was thy trader. These were thy traders with perfections, with balls of blue, and broidered work; and with treasures of precious garments bound with cords and in cedar they were in thy merchandise; whence thou hast been filled and become honored exceedingly in the heart of the seas (Ezekiel 27:3, 12, 13, 15-19, 21-25).

[3] From this and many other passages in the Word it appears that “tradings,” “commerce,” “merchandise,” and “wares,” are nothing else than things which relate to the knowledges of good and truth.  For what has the prophetic Word to do with the tradings of Tyre unless things spiritual and celestial are signified by them?  And because this is so, it must be very evident not only that by the wares are other things signified, but also that by the nation there named are signified those possessed of these other things; and that except from the internal sense it cannot be known what all these signify, as for instance what is signified by “Tarshish,” “Javan,” “Tubal,” “Meshech,” the “sons of Dedan,” “Syria,” “Judah,” “Israel,” “Dan,” “Javan,” “Dedan,” the “Arabian,” “Sheba,” “Raamah,” “Haran,” “Canneh,” “Eden,” “Assyria,” “Chilmad;” and also what is signified by their wares, such as “silver,” “iron,” “tin,” “lead,” “vessels of brass,” “wheat,” “minnith,” “pannag,” “honey,” “oil,” “balm,” “wine of Heshbon,” “wool of Zachar,” “yarn,” “garments of freedom for the chariot,” “lambs,” “rams,” “he-goats,” “spice,” “precious stone,” “gold,” “balls of blue,” “broidered work,” “cords bound,” and “cedar.”  These and the like things signify the goods and truths of the church and the Lord’s kingdom, and also the knowledges of these goods and truths.  It is for this reason that Tyre is here treated of, because by “Tyre” are signified knowledges (n. 1201).  And because such wares, that is, goods and truths, are in the Lord‘s church and kingdom, the land of Canaan (which signifies the Lord’s church and kingdom) bore from the most ancient time a name that is derived from “wares” or “merchandise,” for such is the meaning of the name “Canaan” in the original language.  From all that has been said it is now evident what is signified by “ranging through the land trading.”

AC 4454. And Shechem said unto her father and unto her brothers.  That this signifies a consultation of the truth from the ancient Divine stock with the good and truth of this religiosity, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as here being to consult; from the representation of Shechem, as being truth from the ancient Divine stock (n. 4447); from the signification of “father,” who here is Jacob, as being the good of truth (n. 4273, 4337); and from the signification of “brothers,” who here are the sons of Jacob, as being truths, of which above.  That “Shechem” is truth from the ancient Divine stock is evident from what was adduced above (n. 4447); for Hamor the Hivite, together with his nation and family, were remains in the land of Canaan of the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial.  More than all the churches in the whole world was this church from the Divine, for it was in the good of love to the Lord.  Their voluntary and their intellectual made a one, thus one mind, for which reason they had from good a perception of truth, for the Lord flowed in by an internal way into the good of their will, and through this into the good of their understanding, or into their truth; and this is the reason why this church was pre-eminently called “Man” (n. 477-479), and also a “likeness of God” (n. 51, 473, 1013).  Hence it is evident why Hamor and Shechem are said to be from the ancient Divine stock (n. 4399).  That the Most Ancient Church which was called “Man,” or by the Hebrew word “Adam,” was in the land of Canaan (n. 4447), is very evident from their descendants called “Nephilim” (Gen. 6:4), who were said in (Num. 13:33) to have been in the land of Canaan (n. 581).  But at that time all that land was called the “land of Canaan” which extended from the river of Egypt to the Euphrates (Gen. 15:18).

AC 4455. Let me find grace in your eyes, and what ye say unto me I will give.  That this signifies if they had a like mind on their side to what he had on his, is evident from the signification of “finding grace in one‘s eyes,” as being a phrase that implies inclination (n. 3980), here an inclination to this--that he would give whatever they said unto him.  That by these words is signified that on his side there would be a mind to it if there were a like mind on theirs, is evident from the series in the internal sense, for in this sense “to give what they say” denotes to make a one with them in respect to truth and good.

AC 4456. Multiply upon me exceedingly dowry and gifts and I will give as ye say unto me.  That this signifies that he will accept the things that are with them, and will make them his own, that is, he would accept the external things of the church which belong to them and make them his own together with the internal things which belong to him, and thus they would constitute one church together, is evident from the signification of “giving as ye say,” as being to make a one with them in respect to truth and good (n. 4455).  The very dowry and gift that he said they should multiply upon him, signify agreement into one; for the dowry given to the virgin who was to be betrothed was a token of mutual consent.  He tells them to multiply dowry and gift upon him exceedingly (thus beyond the statute, which was fifty pieces of silver) for the reason that he lay with her before he had accepted their religiosity, and therefore it was for Jacob to consent or refuse, according to the law known to the ancients and stated in (Exodus 22:16); and especially because there was a desire for the conjunction of interior truth which is “Shechem,” with the affection of exterior truth which is “Dinah” The reason why the dowry was a token of consent, and thus a confirmation of initiation, is that to pay or give silver was a sign that the thing was one’s own, and thus that the virgin was his; and to accept it was the reciprocity, thus denoting that the bride was the bridegroom‘s, and the bridegroom the bride’s.

AC 4457. And give me the damsel for a woman.  That this signifies provided there is conjunction, is evident from the signification of “giving for a woman,” as being conjunction (n. 4434), here only provided there is conjunction, because as yet no bargain had been made.

AC 4458. Verses 13-17. And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father in fraud, and spake, because he had defiled Dinah their sister; and they said unto them, We cannot do this word, to give our sister to a man that hath a foreskin, because this would be a reproach unto us.  Nevertheless in this we will consent to you, if ye be as we, to circumcise for you every male.  We will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us; and we will dwell with you, and we will be for one people.  And if ye will not listen unto us to circumcise, we will even take our daughter and go.  “And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father in fraud,” signifies an evil opinion and intention concerning the truth and good of the Church among the Ancients; “and spake, because he had defiled Dinah their sister,” signifies that the initiation to conjunction, which could not be different, should be made by accession; “and they said unto them, We cannot do this word,” signifies that they disapproved; “to give our sister to a man that hath a foreskin,” signifies unless they made the truth and good of the church to consist in representatives, and would recede from the things which these signify; “because this would be a reproach unto us,” signifies that this would be contrary to them; “nevertheless in this will we consent to you, if ye be as we,” signifies accession to their religiosity; “to circumcise for you every male,” signifies an external representative only, and that so they would be pure to them; “we will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us,” signifies conjunction in this manner; “and we will dwell with you,” signifies in respect to life; “and we will be for one people,” signifies in respect to doctrine; “and if ye will not listen unto us to circumcise,” signifies unless they would recede from their truths and accede to external representatives; “We will even take our daughter and go,” signifies that there would be no conjunction.

AC 4459. And the sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father in fraud.  That this signifies an evil opinion and intention concerning the truth and good of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the representation of Shechem, as being the truth among the ancients, or what is the same, truth from the ancient Divine stock (n. 4399, 4454); from the representation of Hamor, as being the good from which came this truth (n. 4399, 4431, 4447, 4454); and from the signification of “fraud,”‘ as being an evil opinion and intention, for in a general sense “fraud” implies evil against another, and against what he speaks and what he does, because he who is in fraud thinks and intends that which is contrary to another, as is also evident from the effect described in this chapter. Hence it is evident that by the “sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father in fraud,” is signified an evil opinion and intention concerning the truth and good of the Church among the Ancients.

[2] The sons or descendants of Jacob could have no other than an evil opinion and intention concerning the truth and good of the internal man, because they were in externals without internals (n. 4281, 4293, 4307, 4429, 4433); and they also made internal things of no account, and therefore utterly despised them.  Such also is that nation at this day, and such are all who are in external things alone. They who are in external things alone do not even know what it is to be in internal things, for they do not know what that which is internal is.  If anyone in their presence mentions what is internal they either affirm it to be so because they know it from doctrine (yet making this affirmation in fraud), or else they deny it with both heart and lips, for they go no further than the sensuous things of the external man.  Consequently they do not believe in any life after death, nor that any resurrection is possible unless they are to rise with their bodies, and therefore they are permitted to have such an opinion of the resurrection, because otherwise they would have none at all, for they vest all life in the body, not knowing that the life of the body is from the life of the spirit which lives after death. They who are in externals alone can have no other belief; for with them external things extinguish all thought about internal things, and consequently all faith in them.

[3] At the present day this kind of ignorance reigns supreme, and therefore it is necessary to state what it is to be in external things apart from internal things.  All those who are devoid of conscience are in external things alone, for the internal man manifests itself by conscience; and all those have no conscience who think and do what is true and good not for the sake of what is true and good, but for the sake of self by reason of their own honor and gain, and also merely on account of the fear of the law and of fear for their life, for if their reputation, honor, gain, or life were not endangered, they would rush without conscience into all kinds of wickedness.  In the other life this is very evident from those who have been of this character in the life of the body, for there, where the interiors are open, they are in the perpetual endeavor to destroy others, and therefore they are in hell, where they are kept bound in a spiritual manner.

[4] That it may be further known what it is to be in external things, and what to be in internal things, and that they who are in external things alone cannot conceive what internal things are, and therefore cannot be affected by them (for no one is affected by things of which he has no conception), let us take as an example that in heaven to be least is to be greatest, and that to be humble is to be exalted; and also that to be poor and needy is to be rich and in abundance.  They who are in external things alone cannot apprehend these things, for they think that the least cannot possibly be the greatest, nor the humble be exalted, the poor rich, or the needy in abundance, although in heaven this is precisely how the matter stands.  And because they cannot apprehend these things they cannot be affected by them, and when from the bodily and worldly things in which they are, they reflect upon them, they feel an aversion for them.  That such things exist in heaven they know not at all, and so long as they are in external things alone they do not desire to know them, nay, they cannot know them.  Nevertheless in heaven the man who knows, acknowledges, and believes from the heart--that is, from affection--that he has no power from himself, but that all the power he has is from the Lord, is said to be the least, and yet is the greatest, because he has power from the Lord. The case is the same with the man who is humble, in that he is exalted; for he who is humble, acknowledging and believing from affection that he has no power of himself, no intelligence and wisdom of himself, and no good and truth of himself, is pre-eminently endowed by the Lord with power, with the intelligence of truth, and with the wisdom of good.  It is the same with the poor and needy in respect to their being rich and in abundance; for he is said to be poor and needy who believes from his heart and from affection that he possesses nothing of himself, that he knows nothing and is wise in nothing of himself, and has no power of himself. In heaven such a man is rich and has abundance, for the Lord gives him all wealth, insomuch that he is wiser than all others and richer than all others, and dwells in the most magnificent palaces (n. 1116, 1626, 1627), and in the stores of all the riches of heaven.

[5] Take also as an example that one who is in external things alone cannot possibly comprehend that heavenly joy is to love his neighbor more than himself and the Lord above all things, and that happiness is according to the quantity and quality of this love; for the man who is in external things alone loves himself more than his neighbor; and if he loves others it is because they favor him, so that he loves them for the sake of himself, thus himself in them, and them in himself.  A man of this character cannot know what it is to love others more than himself, and indeed he neither will nor can know it, and therefore when he is told that heaven consists in such love (n. 548) he feels an aversion for it Hence it is that they who during their bodily life have been of this character cannot approach any heavenly society, for when they do so, in their aversion they cast themselves headlong into hell.

[6] As there are few at this day who know what it is to be in external things, and what to be in internal things, and as most people believe that they who are in internal things cannot be in external things, and the converse, I may for the sake of illustration adduce one more example. Take the nourishment of the body and the nourishment of the soul: one who is in merely external pleasures, makes much of himself, indulges his stomach, loves to live sumptuously, and makes the height of pleasure to consist in eatables and drinkables. One who is in internal things also finds pleasure in these things, but his ruling affection is to nourish his body with food pleasurably for the sake of its health, to the end that he may have a sound mind in a sound body, thus chiefly for the sake of the health of the mind, to which the health of the body serves as a means.  One who is a spiritual man does not rest here, but regards the health of the mind or soul as a means for the acquisition of intelligence and wisdom--not for the sake of reputation, honors, and gain, but for the sake of the life after death. One who is spiritual in a more interior degree regards intelligence and wisdom as a mediate end having for its object that he may serve as a useful member in the Lord’s kingdom; and one who is a celestial man, that he may serve the Lord.  To such a one bodily food is a means for the enjoyment of spiritual food, and spiritual food is a means for the enjoyment of celestial food; and as they ought to serve in this manner, these foods also correspond, and are therefore called foods.  Hence it is evident what it is to be in external things alone, and what it is to be in internal things.  The Jewish and Israelitish nation, treated of in the internal historical sense of this chapter, is (with the exception of those who die in infancy) for the most part of the character that has been indicated, for being in avarice they, more than all others, are in external things.  They who love gains and profits merely for the sake of the gold and silver, in the possession of which consists the sole delight of their life, are in outermost or lowest things, for the objects of their love are merely earthly; whereas they who love gold and silver for the sake of some use, lift themselves above earthly things according to the use.  The very use that a man loves determines his life and distinguishes it from others; an evil use makes the man infernal, and a good use makes him heavenly--not indeed the use itself, but the love of the use, for everyone‘s life is in his love.

AC 4460. And spake, because he had defiled Dinah their sister. That this signifies that the initiation to conjunction, which could not be different, should be made by accession, may be seen from the explication of the words “he took her and lay with her and forced her,” by which is signified that in no other way could this truth be conjoined with the affection of the truth signified by the sons of Jacob her brothers (n. 4433). That he had “defiled” her here involves the like signification.

AC 4461. And they said unto them, We cannot do this word. That this signifies that they disapproved, is evident without explication

AC 4462. To give our sister to a man that hath a foreskin. That this signifies unless they made the truth and good of the church to consist in representatives, and would recede from the things which these signify, is evident from the signification of the “foreskin,” as being an external representative--a sign that they were of the church; and therefore it was usual to speak of circumcision and the foreskin when a distinction was to be made between those who were of the church and those who were not.  For “circumcision” signifies recession from filthy loves, namely, from the love of self and of the world, and accession to heavenly loves, which are love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor, thus accession to the church. Hence it is that by these words is signified accession to their religiosity, and consequently that like them they should make the truth and good of the church consist in representatives by receding from the internal things which are signified, for otherwise they would not be like them, according to the words that follow: “In this will we consent to you, if ye be as we.” Circumcision is a sign of purification from filthy loves, (n. 2039, 2632); and they who are in these loves were called “uncircumcised,” (n. 2049, 3412, 3413).

[2] Scarcely anyone at this day knows what is the specific signification of circumcision, and therefore this must be told.  The genitals in both sexes signify the things which belong to the conjunction of good and truth; nor do they merely signify these things, but also actually correspond to them.  It has been shown at the end of the chapters that all man’s organs and members have a correspondence with spiritual things in heaven, and consequently so have the organs and members allotted to generation. These correspond to the marriage of good and truth; and from this marriage descends conjugial love (n. 2618, 2727-2729, 2803, 3132, 4434).  As the foreskin covers the genital, in the Most Ancient Church it corresponded to the obscuration of good and truth, but in the Ancient Church to their defilement.  For with the man of the Most Ancient Church, who was an internal man, good and truth could be obscured but not defiled; whereas with the man of the Ancient Church, being a comparatively external man, good and truth could be defiled, because it is external things--that is, external loves--which defile.  For this reason they who were of the Most Ancient Church knew nothing of circumcision, but only they who were of the Ancient Church.

[3] From this church circumcision spread to many nations; and it was not enjoined upon Abraham and his descendants as anything new, but merely as a discontinued rite that was to be restored; and it became to his posterity a sign that they were of the church.  But that nation neither knew nor desired to know what this rite signified, for they made their religiosity consist in mere representatives, which are external matters, and therefore they included all the uncircumcised in one general condemnation, although circumcision was only a sign representative of purification from the love of self and of the world. Those who are purified from this love are the spiritually circumcised, and are said to be “circumcised in heart,” as in Moses:--

Jehovah thy God will circumcise thy heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love Jehovah thy God in all thy heart, and in all thy soul (Deut. 30:6).

In the same:--

Ye shall circumcise the foreskin of your heart, and shall no longer harden your neck (Deut. 10:16).

And in Jeremiah:--

Break up your fallow ground, and take away the foreskin of your heart (Jer. 4:3, 4).

[4] But they who are in the loves of self and of the world are called “the uncircumcised,” in spite of the fact that they had been circumcised; as in Jeremiah:--

Behold the days come in which I will visit upon everyone that is circumcised in the foreskin, upon Egypt, and upon Judah, and upon Edom, and upon the sons of Ammon, and upon Moab, and upon all that are cut off at the corner, that dwell in the wilderness; for all the nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in heart (Jer. 9:25, 26);

this passage shows that many other nations were circumcised, for it is said, “I will visit upon everyone that is circumcised in the foreskin,” so that as already stated this was not a new rite, or restricted to the descendants of Jacob as a mark of distinction.  The Philistines were not circumcised, and therefore it is they who are usually meant by “the uncircumcised” (1 Sam. 14:6; 17:26, 36; 31:4; 2 Sam. 1:20).

AC 4463. Because this would be a reproach unto us. That this signifies that this would be contrary to them, is evident from the signification of a “reproach,” as being that which is contrary to their religiosity, and therefore contrary to them.

AC 4464. Nevertheless in this will we consent to you, if ye be as we. That this signifies accession to their religiosity, is evident from the signification of “consenting,” as being accession; and from the signification of “to be as they,” as being that they should be in external things only and not in internal things, for then they would be like them. See in (n. 4459), where it is shown what it is to be in external things alone, and what it is to be in internal things.  It is necessary to state here why man ought to be in internal things.  Everyone who reflects is able to know that it is by means of internal things that man has communication with heaven, for the whole heaven is in internal things, and unless a man is in heaven in respect to his thoughts and affections, that is, in respect to the things of his understanding and of his will, he cannot go to heaven after death, because he has no communication with it This communication is acquired by a man during his bodily life by means of truths that belong to his understanding and goods that belong to his will, and unless he acquires it then he cannot do so afterwards, because after death his mind cannot be opened toward interior things unless it has been opened during the life of the body.

[2] A man is not aware that he is encompassed with a certain spiritual sphere that is in accordance with the life of his affections, and that to the angels this sphere is more perceptible than is the sphere of an odor to the finest sense on earth.  If a man‘s life has been passed in mere external things, that is to say in the pleasures that come from hatred against his neighbor, from the consequent revenge and cruelty, from adulteries, from the exaltation of self and the attendant contempt for others, from clandestine robberies, from avarice, from deceit, from luxury, and from other like evils, then the spiritual sphere which encompasses him is as foul as is in this world the sphere of the odor from carcasses, dung, stinking garbage, and the like.  The man who has lived such a life carries with him after death this foul sphere, and as he is wholly in it he must needs be in hell, the place of spheres of this character. Concerning the spheres in the other life, and whence they are, (n. 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504-1519, 1695, 2401, 2489).

[3] But those who are in internal things, that is to say those who have felt delight in benevolence and charity toward the neighbor, and above all those who have felt blessedness in love to the Lord, are encompassed with a grateful and pleasant sphere which is the heavenly sphere itself, and therefore they are in heaven.  All the spheres which are perceived in the other life originate from the loves and the derivative affections in which the men have been, consequently from their life, for the loves and derivative affections make the life itself; and as the spheres in question originate from the loves and their derivative affections, they originate from the intentions and ends for the sake of which the man so wills and acts, for everyone has for his end that which he loves, and therefore a man’s ends determine his life and constitute its quality, and this is the main source of his sphere.  This sphere is most exquisitely perceived in heaven, because the universal heaven is in the sphere of ends.  We can now see of what quality is the man who is in internal things, and also of what quality is he who is in external things, and also the reason why it is necessary to be in internal things and not in external things only.

[4] But these are matters of perfect indifference to the man who is in external things only, no matter how clever he may be as regards the things of civil life, or what may be the reputation for learning he has acquired on account of what he knows, for he is the kind of man who believes in nothing that he cannot see with his eyes and feel with his touch, consequently not in heaven or hell; and if he were told that he will enter the other life immediately after death, and will then see, hear, speak, and enjoy the sense of touch more perfectly than in the body, he would reject the statement as a paradox or fancy, although such is actually the case; and it would be the same if he were told that the soul or spirit which lives after death is the man himself, and not so the body which he carries about in the world.

[5] It follows from this that they who are in external things alone care nothing for what is said of internal things, although it is these which make men blessed and happy in the kingdom into which they are about to come, and in which they will live to eternity.  Most Christians are in such unbelief, as I am permitted to know from those who have come from the Christian world into the other life, and with whom I have spoken; for in the other life they cannot conceal what they have thought, because the thoughts there show themselves openly nor can they conceal what they have had as their ends, that is, what they have loved, because this manifests itself by their sphere.

AC 4465. To circumcise for you every male. That this signifies an external representative only, and that so they would be pure to them, is evident from the signification of “circumcising every male,” as being an external representative, a sign that they were of the church, here that they were of their religiosity (n. 4462).  That so they would be pure in their eyes, follows, because the posterity of Jacob made purity and holiness to consist in external things and not in internal things.

AC 4466. We will both give our daughters to you, and will take your daughters to us.  That this signifies conjunction in this manner, is evident from what has been said above concerning marriage (n. 4434), namely, that marriage in the spiritual sense is the conjunction of good and truth; for “to give our daughters to you, and to take your daughters to us,” is to intermarry.

AC 4467. And we will dwell with you. That this signifies conjunction in respect to life, is evident from the signification of “dwelling with you,” as being to live together (n. 1293, 3384, 3613, 4451).

AC 4468. And we will be for one people. That this signifies conjunction in respect to doctrine also, is evident from the signification of “people,” as being the truth of the church, consequently doctrine (n. 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581).  Thus “to be for one people,” denotes conjunction by doctrine. There are two things which conjoin together the men of the church, namely, life and doctrine.  When the life conjoins them, the doctrine does not separate them; but if the doctrine alone conjoins them, as is the case at this day within the church, they then separate from one another and make as many churches as there are doctrines; although the doctrine is for the sake of the life, and the life is from the doctrine.  That the men of the church separate from one another if the doctrine alone conjoins them, is evident from the fact that a man who is of one doctrine will condemn him who is of another doctrine, sometimes to hell. But that the doctrine does not separate the men of the church if the life conjoins them, is evident from the fact that a man who is in goodness of life does not condemn another who is of a different opinion, but leaves the matter to his faith and conscience, and this even as regards those who are outside the church; for he says in his heart that ignorance cannot condemn any who live in innocence and mutual love, as do little children, who also are in ignorance when they die.

AC 4469. And if ye will not listen to us to circumcise.  That this signifies unless they would recede from their truths, and accede to external representatives, is evident from what has been above unfolded (n. 4462).  What is said in these verses by the sons of Jacob enfolds within it a contrary sense to that which was in the mind of Hamor and Shechem, and consequently also that which is contrary in the internal sense, as is evident from the explications.  The reason is that as is stated in (verse 13), they spoke in fraud, and one who so speaks thinks differently from him with whom he is speaking.

AC 4470. We will even take our daughter and go.  That this signifies that there would be no conjunction, is evident from the signification of marriage, as being the conjunction of good and truth (n. 4466).  Hence “to take the daughter and go,” is not to give her in marriage, thus that there would be no conjunction.  The sons of Jacob here speak as Jacob their father; for they do not say, “we will take our sister,” but “our daughter,” the reason of which appears from the internal sense, namely, that it was the father‘s part to refuse or comply, according to the law, (Exod. 22:15, 16).  But as the posterity of Jacob and their religiosity are here treated of, it is the sons who represent this, and who therefore here answer in their father’s stead.  Jacob himself could not answer, because he here represents the Ancient Church (n. 4439).

AC 4471. Verses 18-24. And their words were good in the eyes of Hamor, and in the eyes of Shechem Hamor‘s son. And the lad delayed not to do the word, because he was well pleased in Jacob’s daughter; and he was honored above all the house of his father. And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city, and spake unto the men of their city, saying, These men are peaceable with us, and let them dwell in the land, and range through it trading, and behold the land is broad in spaces before them; let us take their daughters to us for women, and let us give our daughters to them. Nevertheless in this will the men consent to us to dwell with us, to be for one people, in every male being circumcised to us, even as they are circumcised. Their acquisition, and their purchase, and all their beast, will they not be ours?  only let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us. And they listened to Hamor and to Shechem his son, all that went out of the gate of his city; and they circumcised every male, all that went out of the gate of his city. “And their words were good in the eyes of Hamor,” signifies condescension in respect to the life; “and in the eyes of Shechem Hamor‘s son,” signifies in respect to the doctrine; “and the lad delayed not to do the word,” signifies a longing to accept; “because he was well pleased in Jacob’s daughter,” signifies in relation to the religiosity of that church; “and he was honored above all the house of his father,” signifies what is primary of the truths of the Church among the Ancients; “and Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city,” signifies the goods and truths that were in the doctrine of those who belonged to the Church among the Ancients; “and spake unto the men of their city, saying,” signifies persuasion; “these men are peaceable with us,” signifies agreement; “and let them dwell in the land,” signifies in respect to life; “and range through it trading,” signifies in respect to doctrine; “and behold the land is broad in spaces before them,” signifies the extension; “let us take their daughters to us for women, and let us give our daughters to them,” signifies conjunction; “nevertheless in this will the men consent to us to dwell with us,” signifies that they would agree in respect to life; “to be for one people,” signifies in respect to doctrine; “in every male being circumcised to us even as they are circumcised,” signifies provided they would be initiated thereby into their representatives and significatives in respect to external things alone; “their acquisition, and their purchase,” signifies their truths; “and all their beast,” signifies their goods; “ will they not be ours?” signifies that these were alike and of one form; “only let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us,” signifies if we condescend; “and they listened to Hamor and to Shechem his son,” signifies consent; “all that went out of the gate of his city,” signifies that they would recede from the doctrine of the Church among the Ancients; “and they circumcised every male, all that went out of the gate of his city,” signifies accession to external things.

AC 4472. And their words were good in the eyes of Hamor. That this signifies condescension in respect to the life, is evident from the signification of “the words were good,” as being condescension; and from the representation of Hamor, as being the good of the Church among the Ancients (n. 4447), here the life, for life is of good, as doctrine is of truth, which is “Shechem,” as immediately follows.  The reason why life and not good is here represented by Hamor, is that he was condescending to the external things of the sons of Jacob.

AC 4473. And in the eyes of Shechem Hamor‘s son.  That this signifies in respect to the doctrine, is evident from the representation of Shechem, as being the truth of the church that was among the ancients, which is from the good which is “Hamor” (n. 4454). But here “Shechem” is doctrine, for the reason mentioned just above (n. 4472).

AC 4474. And the lad delayed not to do the word.  That this signifies a longing to accept, is evident from the signification of “not delaying to do that which is said,” as being a longing to condescend to it, thus to accept it.

AC 4475. Because he was well pleased in Jacob’s daughter. That this signifies in relation to the religiosity of that church, is evident from the representation of Dinah, who here is “Jacob‘s daughter,” as being the affection of the truth of the Ancient Church, for this church is represented by Jacob (n. 4439). There was a longing to be conjoined with the affection of the truth of this church (or what is the same, with this church), but as among the descendants of Jacob this church (here represented by his sons who spoke instead of their father (n. 4470)), had become merely external, and Hamor and Shechem consent ed to accept these externals, therefore by the “daughter of Jacob” is now signified the religiosity of this church

AC 4476. And he was honored above all the house of his father. That this signifies what is primary of the truths of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the signification of “honored above all,” as being what is primary.  He that is “honored above all” is nearly the same as a “prince,” which term denotes what is primary (n. 1482, 2089).  But he is said to be “honored above all the house of his father,” and not a “prince,” because Hamor and Shechem were of the remains of the Most Ancient Church (n. 4447, 4454); and in that church he was said to be “honored,” who in the Ancient Church was called a “prince.” That what is primary of the truths of the Church among the Ancients is signified, is because this is said of Shechem, by whom is represented the truth of the Church among the Ancients, as may be seen above (n. 4454)

AC 4477. And Hamor and Shechem his son came unto the gate of their city. That this signifies the goods and truths that were in the doctrine of those who belonged to the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the representation of Hamor, as being the good of the Church among the Ancients (n. 4447); from the representation of Shechem, as being the truth thence derived (n. 4454); and from the signification of the “gate of a city,” as being the doctrine of truth (n. 2943).

AC 4478. And spake unto the men of their city, saying. That this signifies persuasion, is evident from the signification of “to speak,” as being to will and also to flow in (n. 2951, 3037), here to persuade, because he who wills is in persuasion, and he who flows in therefrom, communicates persuasion. The “men of the city” are they who are in truths of doctrine, here who are in similar truths to those represented by Shechem.  For in ancient times a city was nothing else than one family of a nation, and the dwelling together of those who were of one family was called a “city.” And as in the internal sense it is not the family that is understood, but the quality of the family in respect to life and doctrine, by “city” is signified the truth of doctrine, and by its “inhabitants” the good of doctrine (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2451, 2712, 2943, 3216).  But when the inhabitants of a city are called the “men” of the city, it is not the good of doctrine but its truths which are then signified, for in the Word “men (viri)” denote truths (n. 3134).

AC 4479. These men are peaceable with us.  That this signifies agreement, here as to doctrinal things, is evident from the signification of “men,” as being truths (n. 3134) and therefore also doctrinal things, for the truths of the church when collected into one and acknowledged, are called doctrinal things; and from the signification of “peaceable,” as being that they agree, for in the spiritual sense those are called “peaceable” who are in agreement as to the doctrinal things and dogmas of the church.

AC 4480. And let them dwell in the land. That this signifies in respect to life, is evident from the signification of “to dwell,” as being life (n. 4467).  By the “land” here as elsewhere is signified the church (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447), thus “to dwell in the land” signifies similarity of life according to the things of the church.  Whatever is written in the Word is in itself and in its essence spiritual; it is known that the Word is spiritual, but its spiritual does not appear in the letter, for in the letter it is worldly, especially in the historical parts; but when the Word is being read by man, what is worldly in it becomes spiritual in the spiritual world, that is, with the angels, for they cannot think otherwise than spiritually on every subject; and such is the case with the expression “to dwell in the land.” To think spiritually is to think of the things of the Lord’s kingdom, thus of the things of the church.

AC 4481. And range through it trading.  That this signifies in respect to doctrine, is evident from the signification of “to range through the land trading,” as being to enter into the knowledges of good and truth (n. 4453), thus into doctrine, for this contains and teaches these knowledges.

AC 4482. And behold the land is broad in spaces before them. That this signifies the extension, namely, of the truth of doctrine, is evident from the signification of “land” as being the church (n. 4480); and from the signification of “broad in spaces,” as being extension in respect to truths, thus in respect to the things of doctrine.  In the Word, description according to measures does not signify measures in the internal sense, but qualities of state; for measures imply spaces, and in the other life there are no spaces or times, but states corresponding thereto (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 3404, 4321), and therefore the lengths, breadths, and heights of measured space signify such things as belong to state.  That “length” signifies holiness, “height” good, and “breadth” truth, may be seen above (n. 650, 1613, 3433, 3434), and therefore by a “land broad in spaces” is signified the extension of the truth of doctrine in the church.

[2] This signification of the expression “a land broad in spaces” must excite wonder in one who is not aware that there is something spiritual in the Word other than what appears In the literal sense, but that nevertheless such is the case may be seen from the passages in the Word where “breadth” is mentioned; as in Isaiah:--

Assyria shall go through Judah; he shall inundate and pass through; he shall reach even to the neck, and the extensions of his wings shall be the fullness of the breadth of the land (Isa. 8:8).

In David:--

O Jehovah Thou hast not shut me up into the hand of the enemy, Thou hast made my feet to stand in breadth (Ps. 31:8).

In the same:--

Out of straitness I called upon Jah; He answered me in breadth (Ps. 118:5).

In Habakkuk:--

I raise up the Chaldeans, a bitter and swift nation that walks in the breadths of the land (Habakkuk 1:6);

where by “breadths” nothing else is signified than the truth of the church.

[3] The reason why “breadth” has this signification is that in the spiritual world, or in heaven, the Lord is the center of all things, for He is the sun there.  They who are in a state of good are interior in proportion to the quality and quantity of the good in which they are, and therefore “height” is predicated of good.  They who are in a like degree of good are also in a like degree of truth, and therefore are as it were at a like distance, or, so to speak, in the same circumference, and hence “breadth” is predicated of truths; and therefore when a man is reading the Word this is what the angels who are with him understand by “breadth.”  In those historicals of the Word where the ark, the altar, the temple, and the spaces outside the cities are treated of, by the dimensions of these in respect to lengths, breadths, and heights, are perceived the states of good and truth.  The case is similar where the new earth, the new Jerusalem, and the new temple are treated of in Ezekiel xl. to xlvii, by which are signified heaven and a new church, as may be seen from every particular.  So also in John, where it is said of the new Jerusalem that it will be foursquare, and its length as great as its breadth (Rev. 21:16).

[4] Things which in the spiritual world are interior are described in the Word by things that are higher, and things which are exterior by things that are lower (n. 2148); for while a man is in this world he cannot apprehend interior and exterior things in any other way, because he is in space and time, and the things of space and time have entered the ideas of his thought, and have tinctured most of these; from which it is evident that terms relating to measure, which are limitations of space, such as heights, lengths, and breadths, are in the spiritual sense those which determine the states of the affections of good and the affections of truth.

AC 4483. Let us take their daughters to us for women, and let us give our daughters to them.  That this signifies conjunction, is evident from the explication given above (n. 4466), where similar words occur.

AC 4484. Nevertheless in this will the men consent to us to dwell with us. That this signifies that they would agree in respect to the life, is evident from the signification of “consenting,” as being to agree; and from the signification of “dwelling,” as being life (n. 4451, 4452).

AC 4485. To be for one people. That this signifies in respect to the doctrine, is evident from the signification of “people,” as being doctrine (n. 4468).

AC 4486. In every male being circumcised to us even as they are circumcised.  That this signifies provided they would be initiated thereby into their representatives and significatives in respect to externals alone, is evident from the signification of “to be circumcised,” as being an external representative, a sign that they were of the church, here of the religiosity in which were the descendants of Jacob (n. 4462). And because these men accepted their religiosity, which consisted in externals alone (n. 4281, 4293, 4307), it is therefore said, “even as they are circumcised.” Hence it is evident that the words above quoted signify initiation by the means in question into the Jewish representatives and significatives in respect to externals alone.  What these words further enfold within them will appear from what follows.

AC 4487. Their acquisition, and their purchase. That this signifies their truths, is evident from the signification of “acquisition” and of “purchase,” as being truths, but these terms are distinguished from each other in this way: “acquisition,” when it means small cattle, denotes the good of truth, for this is the signification of “small cattle,” and the good of truth is truth in will and act (n. 4337, 4353, 4390); whereas “purchase,” elsewhere called “purchase of silver,” denotes truth. The former, or good of truth, is called celestial truth; but the latter is called spiritual truth (n. 2048).  The former, or celestial truth, is the truth which has become of the life; but the latter, or spiritual truth, is the truth which is of doctrine.

AC 4488. And all their beast. That this signifies their goods, is evident from the signification of “beast,” as being goods (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 1823, 2179, 2180, 2781, 3218, 3519).

AC 4489. Will they not be ours?  That this signifies that these were alike and of one form, is evident from the series, which is to the effect that the goods and truths of the Most Ancient Church still in part remaining among Hamor and Shechem and their families, would agree with the goods and truths of the Ancient Church among the descendants of Jacob; for the rituals instituted among the descendants of Jacob were merely external things that represented and signified the internal things of the Most Ancient Church.  Hence by “will they not be ours,” or belong to them, is signified that they were alike and of one form.

[2] To illustrate this by an example.  The altar on which they sacrificed was the chief representative of the Lord (n. 921, 2777, 2811); and therefore it was a fundamental of worship in the Ancient Church called “Hebrew;” consequently all things in general and in particular of which the altar was constructed were representative--its dimensions, height, breadth, and length, its stones, its net-work of brass, its horns, also the fire that was to be kept perpetually burning on it, besides the sacrifices and burnt-offerings. What these represented were the truths and goods which are of the Lord and from the Lord, and these were the internal things of worship, which being represented in that external, were alike and of one form with the truths and goods of the Most Ancient Church.  The dimensions, namely, the height, breadth, and length, signified in general good, truth, and the holy thence derived (n. 650, 1613, 3433, 3434, 4482); the stones specifically signified lower truths (n. 1298, 3720); the brass of which the net-work around the altar was made signified natural good (n. 425, 1551); the horns signified the power of truth from good (n. 2832); the fire upon the altar signified love (n. 934); the sacrifices and burnt-offerings signified celestial and spiritual things according to their various species (n. 922, 1823, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519).  Hence it is evident that internal things were contained within these external ones, and that in respect to the internal things the two churches were alike; and the case is the same in regard to all the other rituals.

[3] But the men of the Most Ancient Church cared not for these external things, because they were internal men, and the Lord flowed in with them by an internal way, and taught them what is good.  The varieties and differences of good were to them truths, and hence they knew what each and all things in the world represented in the Lord‘s kingdom; for the whole world, or universal nature, is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom (n. 2758, 3483). But the men of the Ancient Church were not internal but external men; and therefore the Lord could not flow in with them by an internal, but by an external way, to teach them what is good, and this first by such things as were representative and significative (whence arose the representative church), and afterwards by the doctrinal things of good and truth which were represented and signified (whence arose the Christian Church). In respect to its internal form the Christian Church is essentially the same as the representative church; but the representatives and significatives of this church were abrogated after the Lord came into the world, because all and each of them represented Him and consequently the things of His kingdom, for these are from Him, and are so to speak Himself.

[4] But the difference between the Most Ancient Church and the Christian Church is like that between the light of the sun by day, and the light of the moon and stars by night; for to see goods by the internal or prior way is like seeing in the day by the light of the sun; but to see by the external or posterior way is like seeing in the night by the light of the moon or the stars. Nearly the same was the difference between the Most Ancient Church and the Ancient Church, except that the men of the Christian Church were able to be In fuller light if they would have acknowledged internal things, or would have believed and done the truths and goods which the Lord taught.  The good itself is the same in both, but the difference consists in seeing it in clearness or In obscurity. They who see it in clearness, see innumerable arcana, almost as do the angels in heaven, and are also affected by what they see; but they who see it in obscurity, see scarcely anything free from doubt, and the things they see are mingled with the shades of night (that is, with falsities) and cannot inwardly affect anyone.  Now as the good is the same in both churches, consequently also the truth, by the words, “will they not be ours” is signified that the goods and truths were alike and of one form; for as before said Hamor and Shechem were of the remains of the Most Ancient Church, and the posterity of Jacob was of the Ancient Church that was called “Hebrew,” but only In its externals.  But that Hamor and Shechem his son committed an enormous sin in receiving circumcision will be seen in what follows (n. 4493).

AC 4490. Only let us consent to them, and they will dwell with us. That this signifies if we condescend, and that so they would consociate their life; is evident from the signification of “consenting,” as being to condescend; and from the signification of “dwelling with us,” as being to live together or consociate their life (n. 4467).

AC 4491. And they listened to Hamor and to Shechem his son. That this signifies consent, is evident without explication

AC 4492. All that went out of the gate of his city.  That this signifies that they would recede from the doctrine of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the signification of “going out,” as here being to recede; and from the signification of the “gate of a city,” as being doctrine (n. 2943, 4477), here the doctrine of the Church among the Ancients, because it was the gate of “his city,” that is, of Shechem, for by Shechem is represented the truth of the Church among the Ancients (n. 4454). As before said, by the Church among the Ancients is meant that which was from the Most Ancient Church.  How the case herein is will appear from what now follows.

AC 4493. And they circumcised every male, all that went out of the gate of his city.  That this signifies accession to external things, is evident from the signification of “circumcising every male,” as being to be initiated thereby into the representatives and significatives of the descendants of Jacob in respect to the external alone (n. 4486); and from the signification of “going out of the gate of the city,” as being to recede from the doctrine of the Church among the Ancients, concerning which just above (n. 4492). And because recession from their own doctrine and accession to externals are both signified, it is therefore twice said, “all that went out of the gate of his city.” But it is not at the same time said also, as elsewhere, “they that go into it,” because by “going in” is signified accession to doctrine, and recession from externals, whereas here the contrary is signified.

[2] It is necessary to say how the case herein is.  The men of the Most Ancient Church, of the remains of which were Hamor and Shechem with their families, were of a totally different genius and native quality from the men of the Ancient Church; for the men of the Most Ancient Church had a will in which there was soundness, but not so the men of the Ancient Church.  Therefore with the men of the Most Ancient Church the Lord could inflow through the will, thus by an internal way; but not so with the men of the Ancient Church, in whom the will had been destroyed; but with these He inflowed into the understanding, thus not by an internal way, but by an external way, as before said (n. 4489). To inflow through the will is to inflow through the good of love, for all good is of the will part; but to inflow through the understanding is to inflow through the truth of faith, for all truth is of the intellectual part.  When the Lord regenerated the men of the Ancient Church He formed a new will in their intellectual part. Goods and truths were implanted in the will part of the men of the Most Ancient Church, (n. 895, 927), but in the intellectual part of the men of the Ancient Church, (n. 863, 875, 895, 927, 2124, 2256, 4328). A new will is formed in the intellectual part, (n. 928, 1023, 1043, 1044, 4328). There is a parallelism between the Lord and the good that is with man, but not between the Lord and the truth with man, (n. 1831, 1832, 2718, 3514). Hence the men of the Ancient Church were in comparative obscurity, (n. 2708, 2715, 2935, 2937, 3246, 3833). From all this it is evident that the men of the Most Ancient Church were of a totally different genius and native quality from the men of the Ancient Church.

[3] It was for this reason that the men of the Most Ancient Church were internal men and had no externals of worship, and that the men of the Ancient Church were external men and had externals of worship; for the former saw external things through internal ones as in the light of the sun by day, and the latter saw internal things through external ones as in the light of the moon and stars by night.  Therefore also in heaven the Lord appears to the former as a sun, but to the latter as a moon (n. 1521, 1529-1531, 2441, 2495, 4060). In these explications the former are they who are called “celestial,” but the latter “spiritual.”

[4] To illustrate the difference let us take an example: If a man of the Most Ancient Church had read the historic or prophetic Word, he would have seen its internal sense without any previous instruction or explication, and this so fully that the celestial and spiritual things of this sense would have at once occurred to him, and scarcely anything in the sense of the letter; thus the internal sense would have been in clearness to him, but the sense of the letter in obscurity. He would be like one who hears another speaking and gets the meaning without attending to the words.  But if a man of the Ancient Church had read the Word he could not have seen its internal sense without previous instruction or explication; thus the internal sense would have been in obscurity to him, but the sense of the letter in clearness.  He would be like one who hears another speaking and is intent upon the words while not attending to the meaning, which is thus lost to him.  But when a man of the Jewish Church reads the Word, he apprehends nothing beyond the sense of the letter, he is not aware that there is any internal sense, and also denies it; and at the present day the case is the same with a man of the Christian Church.

[5] All this shows what was the difference between those represented by Hamor and Shechem (who being of the remains of the Most Ancient Church were in internals and not in externals), and those signified by the sons of Jacob (who were in externals and not in internals); and it shows further that Hamor and Shechem could not accede to externals and accept those among the sons of Jacob without their internals being closed; thus causing their eternal destruction.

[6] This is the secret reason why Hamor and Shechem with their families were slain, which otherwise would not have been permitted. But this does not exculpate the sons of Jacob from having committed an enormous crime.  They knew nothing of this secret reason, and it was not the end they had in view.  Everyone is judged according to his end or intention, and that their intention was fraudulent is plainly stated in the (verse 13); and when any such crime is permitted by the Lord, it is evil men and their infernal instigators who are the authors of it.  Nevertheless all the evil which the evil intend and do to the good is turned by the Lord into good, as in the present instance, in that Hamor and Shechem with their families were saved.

AC 4494. Verses 25-29. And it came to pass on the third day, when they were in pain, that the two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, brothers of Dinah, took each his sword, and came upon the city boldly, and slew every male.  And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son at the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem‘s house, and went forth.  The sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and plundered the city, because they had defiled their sister.  Their flocks, and their herds, and their asses, and whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field, they took; and all their wealth, and all their babe, and their women, they took captive and made a prey of, and all that was in the house. “And it came to pass on the third day,” signifies what is continuous even to the end; “when they were in pain,” signifies cupidities; “that the two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi,” signifies faith and love; “brothers of Dinah,” signifies the truths and goods of that church; “took each his sword,” signifies falsity and evil; “and came upon the city boldly, and slew every male,” signifies that they extirpated the truths of doctrine of the Church among the Ancients; “and they slew Hamor and Shechem his son at the edge of the sword,” signifies the church itself; “and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house, and went forth,” signifies that they took away the affection of truth; “the sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and plundered the city,” signifies that all that posterity destroyed the doctrine; “because they had defiled their sister,” signifies that they had befouled the truth of faith; “their flocks and their herds,” signifies that they destroyed rational and natural good; “and their asses,” signifies the truths thence derived; “and whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field, they took,” signifies all the truth and good of the church; “and all their wealth,” signifies all the matters of knowledge they had acquired; “and all their babe,” signifies all the innocence; “and their women,” signifies the charity; “they took captive and made a prey of,” signifies that they stripped them and perverted them; “and all that was in the house,” signifies everything of the church.

AC 4495. And it came to pass on the third day.  That this signifies what is continuous even to the end, is evident from the signification of the “third day,” as being what is complete from beginning to end (n. 2788), thus also what is continuous. That this is the signification of the “third day,” can scarcely be believed by those who regard the historicals of the Word as mere worldly histories, holy merely because they are in the sacred volume.  But that not only the historicals of the Word themselves enfold within them spiritual and heavenly things which are not apparent in the letter, but that so also do all the words, and even all the numbers, has been shown in the preceding explications; that such is really the case will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy become still more evident in the prophetic parts, which do not keep the mind so closely engaged with the succession of statements in the sense of the letter as do the historical parts.  But that the number “three,” also the number “seven,” and the number “twelve,” enfold deep secrets within them, must be evident to everyone who examines the Word in regard to its interiors and if these numbers are so full of significance, it follows that there must be something deeply hidden in all the other numbers that occur in the Word, for the Word is holy throughout.

[2] Sometimes when speaking with angels, as it were written numbers appeared before my eyes like those seen on paper in bright day, and I perceived that the very things they were speaking of fell into such numbers; and from this experience I learned that every number mentioned in the Word holds within it some mystery, as is very evident from the following passages:--

He measured the wall of the Holy Jerusalem a hundred and forty-four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel (Rev. 21:17).

And again:--

He that hath intelligence let him compute the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man, and his number is six hundred and sixty-six (Rev. 13:18).

That the number first mentioned--“144,” results from the multiplication of twelve into itself, and that the number “666” is a product of three and six, is manifest, but what holy thing they enfold within them may appear from the holiness of the number “twelve” (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913), and of the number “three” (n. 720, 901, 1825, 2788, 4010).

[3] This latter number--“three,” being significative of what is complete even to the end, thus of one period, great or small, was received in the representative church, and was employed whenever such a thing was signified; and also in the Word (in which all things have a signification both in general and in particular) as may be seen from the following instances:--

That they should go three days’ journey and should sacrifice (Exod. 3:18; 5:3).

That they should be ready against the third day, because on the third day Jehovah would come down upon Mount Sinai (Exod. 19:11, 15, 16, 18).

That nothing should be left of the flesh of the sacrifice until the third day (Lev. 7:16-18; 19:6, 7).

That the water of separation should be sprinkled upon the unclean on the third day and on the seventh day (Num. 19:11-22).

That they who touched one slain in war should be purified on the third day and on the seventh day (Num. 31:19-25).

That Joshua commanded the people to pass over Jordan within three days (Josh. 1:11; 3:2).

That Jehovah called Samuel three times, and Samuel ran to Eli three times, and Eli understood the third time that Jehovah had called Samuel (1 Sam. 3:1-8).

That Jonathan said to David that he should hide himself in the field unto the third day at even, and that Jonathan sent to him on the third morrow, and revealed the disposition of his father; and that Jonathan then shot three arrows at the side of the stone; and that after this David bowed himself three times to the earth before Jonathan (1 Sam. 20:5, 12, 19, 20, 35, 36, 41).

That three things were offered to David to chose from: that there should come seven years of famine, that he should flee three months before his enemies, or that there should be three days‘ pestilence in the land (2 Sam. 24:11-13).

That Rehoboam said to the congregation of Israel who sought to be relieved from the yoke of his father, that they should go away three days, and come again; and that they came to Rehoboam the third day, as the King bade, saying, Come to me again the third day (1 Kings 12:5, 12).

That Elijah stretched himself upon the widow’s son three times (1 Kings 17:21).

That Elijah told the people to pour water upon the burnt-offering and the wood the third time, and they did it the third time (1 Kings 18:34).

That Jonah was in the belly of the whale three days and three nights (Jonah 1:17; Matt. 12:40).

That the Lord spoke of a man who planted a vineyard and sent his servants three times, and afterwards his son (Mark 12:2, 4-6; Luke 20:12, 13).

That He said of Peter that he should deny Him thrice (Matt. 26:34; John 13:38).

That He said to Peter three times, Lovest thou Me? (John 21:15-17).

From these and many other places in the Word it may be seen that there was some mystery in the number “three,” and that therefore this number was received among the significatives in the ancient churches.  That it signifies an entire period of the church and of the things in the church, whether great or small, is manifest; and that it consequently signifies what is complete and also continuous to the end, is very plain in Hosea:--

Jehovah will vivify us after two days; on the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live before Him (Hosea 6:2).

AC 4496. When they were in pain.  That this signifies cupidities is evident from the signification of the “pain” after circumcision, as being cupidity.  The reason why this pain signifies cupidity is that circumcision signifies purification from the love of self and of the world (n. 2039, 2044, 2049, 2632, 3412, 3413, 4462), and all the cupidity of the flesh is from these loves, and is therefore signified by this “pain,” because when a man is being purified from these loves, as is the case when he is being regenerated, he is in pain and anxiety, and it is the cupidities then being removed which are in pain and anguish. When any mystery is being represented by a ritual, each particular of the rite, until it is completed, enfolds something of the mystery. Such is the case with the lancets or knives with which the circumcision was performed, in that they were of stone (n. 2039, 2046, 2799); with the blood shed at the time; with the manner of the operation, and consequently with the state.  This may be seen further from the processes of cleansings, inaugurations, and sanctifications, and all the other ceremonies.  In the present instance by the “pain” after circumcision is signified the cupidity of Hamor, Shechem, and the men of the city, in their having a desire for the externals in which were the descendants of Jacob (n. 4493).

AC 4497. That the two sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi. That this signifies faith and love, is evident from the representation of Simeon, as being faith in the will (n. 3869-3872), and from the representation of Levi, as being spiritual love or charity (n. 3875, 3877).  This is the signification in the genuine sense of “Simeon and Levi” and of the tribes called after them, but in the opposite sense they signify what is false and evil, for falsity is opposite to the truth of faith, and evil to the good of charity.  Such is the representation of Simeon and Levi with respect to the Jewish nation, which had extinguished in itself everything of faith and charity (which were the internals of worship), as may better appear from what follows, where it is said of them that they killed Hamor, Shechem, and the men of the city; and that the sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and made a prey of all things.  The reason why it was Simeon and Levi who did this, was to represent the fact that the truth of faith and the good of charity had become falsity and evil; for when in the church truth becomes falsity and good becomes evil it is all over with the church.

AC 4498. Brothers of Dinah.  That this signifies the truths and goods of that church, is evident from the signification of “brothers,” as being truths and goods, or faith and charity (n. 367, 3303, 3803, 3815, 4121, 4191, 4267); and from the representation of Dinah, as being the affection of truth, and consequently the church (n. 3963, 3964, 4427).

AC 4499. Took each his sword. That this signifies falsity and evil, is evident from the signification of a “sword,” as being truth combating, and hence the defense of truth; and in the opposite sense, falsity combating, and hence the vastation of truth (n. 2799).  That “sword” here signifies evil also, is because Levi also was involved, by whom charity, thus good, was represented; and when this becomes evil it combats by falsity from evil, and what it then does is evil.

AC 4500. And came upon the city boldly, and slew every male. That this signifies that they extirpated the truths of doctrine of the Church among the Ancients, is evident from the signification of a “city,” as being the doctrine of the church (n. 402, 2449, 2943, 3216, 4478), here of the Church among the Ancients, because this church is represented by Hamor and Shechem, whose city it was; from the signification of “boldly,” as being with assurance, here the assurance of what is false and evil; and from the signification of a “male,” as being truth (n. 749, 2046, 4005).  Hence it is evident that by “they came upon the city boldly and slew every male” is signified that from the assurance of falsity and evil they extirpated the truths of doctrine of the Church among the Ancients.  It was the Church among the Ancients (that came from the Most Ancient Church) which would have been set up with the posterity of Jacob, because the Ancient Church had begun to perish; but it is here described in the internal sense that they extinguished in themselves all the truth of faith and good of charity, thus all the internal of worship, and that therefore no church could be instituted with that posterity; from which it came to pass that because they stubbornly insisted, the mere representative of a church was instituted with them (n. 4281, 4288-4290, 4293, 4307, 4314, 4316, 4317, 4429, 4433, 4444).

AC 4501. And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son at the edge of the sword. That this signifies that they extirpated the church itself, is evident from the representation of Hamor, as being the Church among the Ancients as to good (n. 4447); from the representation of Shechem, as being the Church among the Ancients as to truth (n. 4454, 4472, 4473); and from the signification of the “edge of the sword,” as being falsity and evil combating (n. 4499), thus the means by which they extinguished the church in themselves.

AC 4502. And took Dinah out of Shechem‘s house, and went forth. That this signifies that they took away the affection of truth, is evident from the representation of Dinah, as being the affection of truth (n. 4498).  It is according to the proximate internal sense that they took away the affection of truth from those who were of the remains of the Most Ancient Church, because it is said that they “took her out of Shechem’s house,” “Shechem‘s house” signifying the good of the truth of that church.  But as the subject treated of is the extirpation of truth and good among the descendants of Jacob who are here signified by his sons, and as all things are to be taken in application to the subject treated of, therefore by “Shechem’s house” is here signified simply the good of truth such as had existed with the man of the Most Ancient Church; and what is signified is that this was extinguished in the nation sprung from Jacob; for in the internal sense of the Word the signification of the names and words is determined by the subject to which they are applied; yet here there is at the same time signified the breaking down of the good and truth with Hamor and Shechem and his family, because they acceded to externals, as shown above (n. 4493).

[2] That what has thus far been unfolded about Simeon and Levi is really so, may be seen from the prophetic utterances of Jacob just before his death:--

Simeon and Levi are brethren, instruments of violence are their swords; let not my soul come into their secret, in their congregation let not my glory be united, for in their anger they slew a man, and in their pleasure they unstrung an ox; cursed be their anger for it was vehement, and their fury for it was grievous; I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel (Gen. 49:5-7);

by “Simeon and Levi” are signified the truth of faith which with the descendants of Jacob was turned into falsity, and the good of charity which was turned into evil (n. 4499, 4500). They are called “brethren” because good is the brother of truth, or charity is the brother of faith (n. 4498). “Instruments of violence are their swords” signifies that falsities and evils inflicted violence on truths and goods (n. 4499).  “Let not my soul come into their secret, in their congregation let not my glory be united” signifies disjunction as to life and doctrine, for In the Word “soul” is predicated of life (n. 1000, 1040, 1742, 3299), and “glory” of doctrine. “For in their anger they slew a man, and in their pleasure they unstrung an ox” signifies that in evil of set purpose they extinguished the truth of the church and the good of the church, for a “man” is the truth of the church, (n. 3134), and an “ox” is its good, (n. 2180, 2566, 2781).  “Cursed be their anger for it was vehement, and their fury for it was grievous” signifies the penalty for turning away from truth and good, for “to curse” is to turn one‘s self away, and also to be punished therefor, (n. 245, 379, 1423, 3530, 3584); “anger” is a turning away from truth, and “fury,” from good, (n. 357, 3614).  “I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel” signifies that goods and truths will no longer be in the external and the internal of their church. “To divide” and “to scatter” denote to separate and to extirpate from them, (n. 4424); “Jacob” is the external of the church, and “Israel” the internal, (n. 4286).

[3] These things were said of Simeon and Levi in that prophecy because by them is signified the truth and good of the church in general; but when these have become null and void, and still more when falsities and evils succeed in their place, the church is then extinct.  That such is the meaning of these prophetic words is evident from the fact that the tribe of Simeon and the tribe of Levi were not cursed above the other tribes; for the tribe of Levi was taken for the priesthood, and the tribe of Simeon was among the other tribes of Israel as one of them.

AC 4503. The sons of Jacob came upon those who were pierced, and plundered the city. That this signifies that all that posterity destroyed the doctrine, is evident from the signification of the “sons of Jacob,” as being the posterity from Jacob; from the signification of “to plunder” as being to destroy; and from the signification of a “city,” as being the doctrine of the church (n. 4500). That after Simeon and Levi had slain every male in the city, and also Hamor and Shechem, they went forth, and that the sons of Jacob then came upon those who were pierced and plundered the city, is a mystery not manifest except from the internal sense.

[2] This mystery is that after the truth and good of the church represented by Simeon and Levi had been extinguished, and falsity and evil had taken their place, there were then superadded those falsities and evils which are signified in the opposite sense by the rest of the sons of Jacob.  Each son of Jacob represented some general principle of faith and charity, (n. 2129, 3858, 3913, 3926, 3939, 4060); what was represented by Reuben, (n. 3861, 3866, 3870); what by Judah, (n. 3881); what by Dan, (n. 3921-3923); what by Naphtali, (n. 3927, 3928); what by Gad, (n. 3934, 3935); what by Asher, (n. 3938, 3939); what by Issachar, (n. 3956, 3957); and what by Zebulun, (n. 3960, 3961). These generals of faith and charity represented by them become falsities and evils of that kind when once the truth and good of the church have been extinguished, and then these falsities and evils are superadded; for falsities and evils continually grow in the church that has once been perverted and extinguished, and it is these which are signified by the sons of Jacob coming upon those who were pierced and plundering the city, after Simeon and Levi had slain every male in the city, and Hamor and Shechem also, and had taken away Dinah, and had gone forth.

[3] That by “those who are pierced” are signified in the Word truths and goods extinguished is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

Thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre like an abominable shoot, the raiment of the slain that are pierced with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit, as a carcass trodden under foot (Isa. 14:19);

said of Babylon; “those pierced with the sword” denote those who have profaned the truths of the church.  Again:--

So that their pierced shall be cast forth, and the stink of their carcasses shall come up (Isa. 34:3);

treating of the falsities and evils that infest the church, which are meant by the “pierced.”

[4] In Ezekiel:--

The violent of the nations shall draw their sword against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall profane thy comeliness; they shall let thee down into the pit, and thou shall die the deaths of those who are pierced in the midst of the seas (Ezek. 28:7, 8);

said of the prince of Tyre, by whom are signified the primary things of the knowledges of truth and good; “dying the deaths of those who are pierced in the midst of the seas,” denotes those who hatch falsities by means of memory-knowledges, and thereby defile the truths of the church.

[5] Again:--

These also shall go down with them into hell, unto those who are pierced with the sword; when thou shalt be made to go down with the trees of Eden into the earth of lower things, thou shalt lie in the midst of the uncircumcised, with them that are pierced with the sword (Ezek. 31:17, 18).

Again:--

Go down and lie with the uncircumcised; they shall fall in the midst of those who are pierced with the sword; the chief of the mighty ones shall speak to him in the midst of hell (Ezek. 32:19-21);

said of Pharoah and Egypt; “those pierced with the sword” denote those who become insane through knowledges, by which they extinguish in themselves the faith of the truth of the church.

[6] In David:--

I am accounted among those who go down into the pit; I have become as a man that has no strength, neglected among the dead, like the pierced that lie in the grave, whom Thou hast remembered no more, and who have been cut off by Thy hand (Ps. 88:4, 5);

“those who are pierced in hell,” “in the pit,” and “in the grave,” denote those who have destroyed truths and goods in themselves by falsities and evils.  It is obvious that they are not in hell merely because they had been pierced with the sword.

[7] In Isaiah:--

A city of tumults, a city that exulteth, they are not pierced with the sword, and are not slain in war; all who have been found in thee were bound together, they fled from afar (Isa. 22:2, 3);

said of fallacies from sensuous things through which the truths of the church cannot be seen, and concerning which they are therefore in negative doubt, and are said to be “pierced, but not with the sword.”

[8] In Ezekiel:--

I bring a sword upon thee, and I destroy your high places, and your altars shall be destroyed, and your statues shall be broken, and I will cause your pierced ones to lie before your idols; when the pierced ones shall fall in the midst of you, you shall know that I am Jehovah; then ye shall acknowledge, when the pierced ones shall be in the midst of their idols, round about their altar (Ezek. 6:3, 4, 7, 13);

where the “pierced ones” denote those who are in falsities of doctrine.

[9] Again:--

Defile the house, and fill the courts with the pierced ones; they went forth and smote in the city (Ezek. 9:7);

a prophetic vision; “to defile the house and fill the courts with the pierced ones,” denotes to profane goods and truths. Again:--

Ye have multiplied your pierced ones in this city, and ye have filled the streets thereof with the pierced one; wherefore said the Lord Jehovih, Your pierced ones whom ye have put in the midst of it, they are the flesh, and that is the pot, and He shall bring you forth out of the midst of it (Ezek. 11:6, 7).

[10] As by “the pierced” are signified those who have extinguished the truths of the church in themselves by falsities and evils, therefore also in the representative church they who touched one who was pierced were unclean, of whom we read in Moses:--

Whosoever has touched upon the surface of the field one that is pierced with a sword, or the dead, or a bone of a man, or a grave, shall be unclean seven days (Num. 19:16, 18).

And therefore inquiry was made, and expiation was made by means of a calf, as again in Moses:--

If one pierced be found lying in the field, and it be not known who has smitten him, then the elders of the city and the judges shall come forth, and they shall measure toward the cities which are round about him that is pierced; and it shall be, at the city which is nearest unto him that is pierced the elders of that city shall take a she-calf of an ox, by which labor hath not been done, and which hath not drawn in the yoke, and they shall bring her down unto a river or a valley, and shall behead the calf there, and wash their hands over the beheaded calf, and shall say, Our hands have not shed blood, and our eyes have not seen it; expiate Thy people Israel, O Jehovah, and give not innocent blood in the midst of Thy people; and the blood shall be expiated for them (Deut. 21:1-8).

[11] That these laws were given because by the “pierced” is signified the perversion, destruction, and profanation of the truth of the church by falsity and evil, is manifest from every particular in the internal sense.  It is said “a pierced one lying in the field,” because by a “field” is signified the church (n. 2971, 3310, 3766).  A “she-calf” by which labor has not been done signifies that innocence of the external man which is in ignorance.  Unless these things were made known by the internal sense, the enjoining of such an expiatory process would excite universal surprise.

AC 4504. Because they had defiled their sister.  That this signifies that they had befouled the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of “defiling,” as being to befoul; and from the signification of a “sister,” as being truth (n. 1495, 2508, 2524, 2556, 3386), here the truth of faith, because by Dinah, who is here the sister, is signified the affection of all things of faith (n. 4427).  The reason why Shechem’s defiling of their sister signifies that they befouled the truth of faith, is that the affection of all truth, thus the church itself, is represented by her (n. 3963, 3964); and as she was not given by her brothers to Shechem for a woman, but remained with them defiled, therefore the opposite was afterwards represented by her as by her brothers, namely, the affection of all falsities, thus the church corrupted; so that the words “they had defiled their sister” signify that they had befouled the truth of faith.

AC 4505. Their flocks and their herds.  That this signifies that they destroyed rational and natural good, is evident from the signification of “flocks,” as being rational good; and from the signification of “herds,” as being natural good (n. 2566).

AC 4506. And their asses.  That this signifies the truths thence derived, namely, from natural and rational good, is evident from the signification of “asses,” also of the “sons of a she-ass,” and also of “mules,” as being the truths of the natural and of the rational (n. 2781).

AC 4507. And whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field, they took.  That this signifies all the truth and good of the church, is evident from the signification of a “city,” as being doctrine, thus the truth of the church (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493); and from the signification of a “field,” as being the church as to good, thus the good of the church (n. 2971, 3310, 3766, 4440, 4443); so that “whatever was in the city, and whatever was in the field” denotes all the truth and good of the church.

AC 4508. And all their wealth.  That this signifies all the matters of knowledge they had acquired, is evident from the signification of “wealth,” as being matters of knowledge, as is evident from many passages in the Word; for spiritual wealth, thus wealth understood in a spiritual sense, is nothing else. In so far as spiritual wealth consists in what is known, it consists in matters of knowledge; and in the Lord‘s kingdom (and therefore in the church) these constitute the wealth, as of the Lord’s Divine mercy will be confirmed from the Word elsewhere.

AC 4509. And all their babe.  That this signifies all the innocence, is evident from the signification of a “babe,” as being innocence (n. 430, 2126, 3183).

AC 4510. And their women.  That this signifies the charity, is evident from the signification of “females,” of “women,” and of “wives,” as being affections of truth and affections of good-- affections of truth when the consort is mentioned and he is called “husband;” and affections of good when the consort is not mentioned and the expression “man (vir)” is used (n. 915, 1468, 2517, 3236).  In the present instance “women” denote the affections of good, because they were the women of the men of the city, by whom truths are signified (n. 4478); and the city is everywhere called the city of Shechem, by whom was represented the truth of the Church among the Ancients (n. 4454). The affection of spiritual good is the same thing as charity, and therefore by “women” is here signified charity.

AC 4511. They took captive and made a prey of.  That this signifies that they stripped them and perverted them, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense.

AC 4512. And all that was in the house.  That this signifies everything of the church, is evident from the signification of a “house,” as being the church as to good (n. 1795, 3720), thus everything of the church; and because of this signification the “house” is mentioned last.

AC 4513. Verses 30, 31. And Jacob said to Simeon and to Levi, Ye have troubled me, to make me to stink to the inhabitant of the land, to the Canaanite and the Perizzite; and I am mortals [few] of number, and they will be gathered together upon me, and will smite me, and I shall be destroyed, I and my house. And they said, Shall he make our sister as a harlot?  “And Jacob said,” signifies the external Ancient Church; “to Simeon and to Levi,” signifies the representative of spiritual and celestial things; “Ye have troubled me, to make me to stink to the inhabitant of the land,” signifies that those who were of the Ancient Church would abhor them; “to the Canaanite and the Perizzite,” signifies who were in good and truth; “and I am mortals [few] of number,” signifies that it would be easy; “and they will be gathered together upon me, and will smite me, and I shall be destroyed,” signifies that thus the Ancient Church would perish; “I and my house,” signifies as to truth and good; “and they said,” signifies reply; “Shall he make our sister as a harlot?”  signifies that they had no affection.

AC 4514. And Jacob said.  That this signifies the external Ancient Church, is evident from the representation of Jacob, as being the Ancient Church (n. 4439).  And as the Ancient Church, like every church, is external and internal, by Jacob in the Word is represented the external church, and by Israel the internal.

AC 4515. To Simeon and to Levi.  That this signifies the representative of spiritual and celestial things, is evident from the representation of Simeon, as being faith, but in the opposite sense falsity; and from the representation of Levi, as being love, but in the opposite sense evil (n. 4497, 4502, 4503); here therefore they denote the representative of spiritual and celestial things, for the reason that the things of faith are called spiritual things, and those of love celestial things.  It is said that Simeon and Levi signify the “representative” of these things, because to represent them is not to be them; for representations regard not the person, but the thing (n. 665, 1097); so that it was immaterial what kind of person represented (n. 3670).  That the representative of a church could have been instituted among the descendants of Jacob, no matter what the quality, provided they had strictly observed the statutes in the outward form, may be seen above (n. 3147, 4208, 4281, 4292, 4307, 4444).  Hence it is that by “ Simeon and Levi” is here signified the representative of spiritual and celestial things.

AC 4516. Ye have troubled me, to make me to stink to the inhabitant of the land.  That this signifies that they who were of the Ancient Church would abhor them, is evident from the signification of “troubling me, to make me to stink,” as being to cause them to feel abhorrence; and from the signification of “the inhabitant of the land,” as here being those who were of the Ancient Church, for by the “land” is signified the church (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447), thus by the “inhabitant of the land,” those who were of the church, here of the Ancient Church, because this still remained among some nations in the land of Canaan.  The representative of a church was not instituted among the people sprung from Jacob until after this Ancient Church had altogether perished, which is also signified by the fact that the descendants of Jacob were not admitted into the land of Canaan until the iniquity of the inhabitants of the land had been consummated, as is said in (Genesis 15:16); for no new church is set up until the former one has been vastated.

AC 4517. To the Canaanite and the Perizzite.  That this signifies who are in good and truth, is evident from the signification of the “Canaanite,” as here being those who were in the good of the church, and of the “Perizzite,” as being those who were in the truth of the church. The reason why “the Canaanite and the Perizzite” have this signification is that the Ancient Church was still among them there, as stated just above (n. 4516). For in the land of Canaan there existed people of the Most Ancient Church (n. 4447, 4454), and also people of the Ancient Church, especially from that Ancient Church called “Hebrew,” for which reason the inhabitants of the land of Canaan were in general called “Hebrews” (Gen. 40:15), and also had altars, and sacrificed, and therefore after they had become idolaters the destruction of their altars was so frequently enjoined. So long therefore as the church or anything of the church remained among them, the good of the church was signified by the “Canaanite,” and the truth of the church by the “Perizzite.” But when everything of the church with them, had been consummated, evil was signified by the “Canaanite,” and falsity by the “Perizzite” (n. 1573, 1574).

AC 4518. And I am mortals [few] of number.  That this signifies that it would be easy, is evident from the meaning of the expression “mortals few of number,” as being a few; but when in accordance with the series in the internal sense quality is understood instead of quantity, what is easy is signified.  For when, as we now read, “many are gathered together upon” a few, these are easily destroyed.

AC 4519. And they will be gathered together upon me, and will smite me, and I shall be destroyed.  That this signifies that thus the Ancient Church would perish, is evident from the signification of “being gathered together,” “being smitten,” and “being destroyed,” as being to perish.  The reason why the Ancient Church is meant, is that Jacob says this of himself and his house. Jacob here is the Ancient Church, (n. 4514).

AC 4520. I and my house.  That this signifies as to truth and good, is evident from the representation of Jacob, who here is “I,” as being the church, specifically the church as to truth, may be inferred from what has been shown in regard to the representation of Jacob (n. 3305, 3509, 3525, 3546, 3576, 3599, 3775, 4234, 4337), namely, that he represents the Lord as to Divine truth natural.  Now with regard to representations, the man who in the supreme sense represents the Lord as to the Divine truth of the natural, also represents the Lord‘s kingdom as to Divine truth therein, and consequently the church as to truth, for these correspond to each other, because all the truth that is in His kingdom and church is the Lord’s.  And that the church as to good is signified by “my house,” is evident from the signification of a “house,” as being the church as to good (n. 2233, 2234, 3720).

AC 4521. And they said.  That this signifies reply, is evident without explication.

AC 4522. Shall he make our sister as a harlot?  That this signifies that they had no affection, is evident from the representation of Dinah, after she was defiled, or had become a harlot, as being the affection of falsities and thus the church corrupted (n. 4504), which consequently had no longer any affection of truth, as also is there shown.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE EYE AND OF LIGHT WITH THE GRAND MAN

AC 4523. Everyone who has any knowledge of air and sound may know that the ear is formed in precise adaptation to the nature of their modifications, thus that in respect to its bodily and material form, the ear corresponds to them; and he who has acquired any knowledge of the ether and light, knows that in respect to its bodily and material form, the eye has been formed so as to correspond to the modifications of these; and that this is so much the case that whatever secret thing has been stored up in the nature of air and of sound is inscribed on the organism of the ear, and whatever secret thing has been stored up in the nature of the ether and of light is inscribed on the organism of the eye.

[2] Consequently he who is skilled in anatomy and also in physics may know by investigation that as regards their bodily and material forms, the organs both of sense and of motion, together with all the viscera, correspond to various things that exist in the nature of the world; and thus that the whole body is an organ composed of the most secret things in the nature of the world, and in accordance with their secret forces of acting and their wonderful modes of flowing. For this reason man was called by the ancients a little world or microcosm.

[3] He who knows this may also know that whatever exists in the world and its nature does not come forth from itself, but from what is prior to itself; and that this prior cannot come forth from itself, but from something prior to itself; and so on even to the First, from whom the things that follow come forth in order.  And as they come forth from this, they also subsist from it; for subsistence is a perpetual coming forth.  Hence it follows that all things in nature both in general and in particular, down to its last things, have not only come forth from the First, but also subsist from the First; for unless they were perpetually coming forth, and unless there were a continuous nexus, from the First, and thus with the First, they would fall to pieces and perish in an instant.

AC 4524. Now as all and each of the things in the world and its nature come forth, and come forth perpetually, that is, subsist, from things prior to themselves, it follows that they come forth and subsist from a world above nature, which is called the spiritual world; and as in order that they may subsist or perpetually come forth there must be a continuous nexus with that world, it follows that the purer and more interior things which are in nature, and consequently which are in man, are from that world; and also that the purer and more interior things are such forms as can receive the influx.  And as there is only one possible fountain of life, as in nature there is only one fountain of light and heat, it is evident that everything of life is from the Lord, who is the First of life. And because this is so, it follows that all and each of the things which are in the spiritual world correspond to Him, and consequently all and each of the things which are in man; for man is a little spiritual world in the least form. Hence also the spiritual man is an image of the Lord.

AC 4525. From all this it is evident that with man especially there is a correspondence of all things with the spiritual world, and that without this correspondence he cannot subsist even for a moment; for without correspondence there would be nothing continuous from the very being of life, that is, from the Lord; thus there would be what is unconnected; and what is unconnected is dissipated as a nothing.  The reason why correspondence with man is more immediate and hence closer, is that he has been created to apply to himself the life from the Lord, and thence into the capacity of a possible elevation by the Lord above the natural world in regard to his thoughts and affections, and thereby to think of God and to be affected with the Divine, and thus to be conjoined with Him, quite differently from the lower animals.  And when the bodily things of this world are put away, those die not who are thus capable of being conjoined with the Divine, because their interiors remain conjoined with Him.

AC 4526. As to what further regards the correspondence of the sight of the eye, treated of at the end of the foregoing chapter, be it known that its correspondence is with the things which are of the understanding; for the understanding is the internal sight, and this internal sight is in a light which is above the light of this world.  The reason why man is able to acquire intelligence by means of the things which appear before him in the light of this world, is that a higher light (that is, the light of heaven) flows into the objects which are of the light of the world, and causes them to appear representatively and correspondently; for the light which is above the light of the world is a light that proceeds from the Lord, who illumines the universal heaven. The very intelligence and wisdom that are from the Lord appear there as light.  It is this light which produces man‘s understanding or internal sight, and when it inflows through the understanding into the objects of this world’s light, it causes them to appear representatively and correspondently, thus intellectually. And as the eyesight which is in the natural world corresponds to the sight of the understanding which is in the spiritual world, it corresponds to the truths of faith, because these belong to genuine understanding; for truths produce all man‘s understanding, inasmuch as all his thought is employed in deciding that a thing is so, or is not so; that is, that it is true, or is not true. The sight of the eye corresponds to the truths and goods of faith, (n. 4410).

AC 4527. I have spoken with some a few days after their decease, and who being recently arrived were in a light which to them differed but little from the light of this world, which caused them to doubt whether they had the light from any other source.  They were therefore taken up into the entrance of heaven, where there was a light still clearer; and speaking with me from there, they said that they had never seen such a light; and yet this occurred after our sunset.  They then wondered that spirits have eyes wherewith to see, and yet during their bodily life they had believed that the life of spirits is mere thought, abstracted from any subject, for they had not been able to think of any subject of thought because they had not seen it.  And this being the case, they had imagined that as the spirit is mere thought it must be dissipated, like some breath of air or some fire, together with the body that had contained it, unless it were miraculously held together and kept in existence by the Lord.  And they then saw how easily the learned fall into error regarding the life after death, and that above all others they believe nothing but what they see.  They wondered therefore, not merely that they can think, but also that they can see, and enjoy all the other senses, and still more that they appear to themselves exactly like men, and see, hear, and converse with one another, and feel their own members by touch, and this more exquisitely than in the life of the body.  At this they fell into amazement, that men living in this world know nothing of this, and they pitied the human race for their ignorance of such things consequent on their unbelief in them, and especially did they pity those who have more light than others, namely, those who are within the church and have the Word.

[2] Some of them had believed that after death men would he like ghosts, in which opinion they had confirmed themselves from the specters of which they had heard, but In regard to which they had imagined that such a specter must be some gross principle of life, which first exhales from the body’s life, but afterwards sinks back again into the corpse, and is thus extinguished.  Some however had believed that they would not rise again until the time of the last judgment when the world would be destroyed, and they would then rise again with the body, which, though fallen into dust, would then be gathered together, and they would thus rise again with their bones and flesh. And as that last judgment or destruction of the world had been waited for in vain for many centuries, they had fallen into the error that they would never rise again; never thinking of what they had learned from the Word, and from which they had also sometimes spoken, saying that when a man dies his soul is in the hand of God, among the happy or the unhappy according to the life which he had made habitual to himself; nor thinking of what the Lord said about the rich man and Lazarus. But they were instructed that the last judgment of everyone is when he dies; and that he then appears to himself endowed with a body as in the world, and enjoys as here every sense, only more pure and exquisite because bodily things no longer stand in the way, and the things of the light of the world no longer darken those of the light of heaven; thus that they are as it were in a purified body, and that In the other life one could not possibly carry about a body of bones and flesh such as he had in the world, because this would be to be again encompassed with the dust of the earth.

[3] I have spoken on this subject with some on the very day their bodies were being entombed, who saw through my eyes their own corpse, the bier, and the funeral ceremony; and they said that they reject that body, which had served them for uses in the world in which they had been, and that they are now living in a body which serves them for uses in the world in which they are now. They also desired me to tell these things to their relatives who were mourning; but it was given me to reply, that if I should do so they would scoff, because that which they could not see with their own eyes they would believe to be nothing, and would set down as delusive visions. For men cannot be brought to believe that just as they see one another with their eyes, so spirits see one another with theirs; and that a man can only see spirits with the eyes of his own spirit, and that he sees them when the Lord opens his internal sight, as was done to the prophets, who saw spirits and angels, and also many things in heaven; and there is room for doubt whether those now living would have believed these things if they had lived at that time.

AC 4528. The eye, or rather its sight, corresponds especially to those societies in the other life which are in the paradisal regions, which appear above in front a little to the right, where gardens are vividly presented to view, with trees and flowers of so many genera and species that those on the whole earth are comparatively few; and within every object there is something of intelligence and wisdom that shines forth from it, so that you may say that the people in the gardens are at the same time in paradises of intelligence and wisdom, and it is these which inwardly affect them, and thus gladden not only their sight, but also at the same time their understanding.

[2] These paradisal regions are in the first heaven, in the very threshold to the interiors of that heaven, and are representatives which come down from a higher heaven, when the angels of that heaven are conversing with one another intellectually about the truths of faith; and this speech of the angels there is effected by means of spiritual and celestial ideas, which with them are verbal forms, and by a continuous series of representations of inexpressible beauty and pleasantness; and it is these beauties and pleasantnesses of their discourse which are represented as paradisal scenes in the lower heaven.

[3] This heaven is distinguished into many heavens, to which correspond the various things in the chambers of the eye.  There is the heaven of paradisal gardens just described.  There is a heaven where there are atmospheres of various colors, and where the whole air flashes as it were with gold, silver, pearls, precious stones, flowers in least forms, and innumerable other things. There is a rainbow heaven, where are the most beautiful rainbows, great and small, variegated with the most splendid colors. All these come forth by means of the light which is from the Lord, and which contains within it intelligence and wisdom, so that in every object there is something of the intelligence of truth and of the wisdom of good, which is thus shown representatively.

[4] They who have had no idea of heaven, nor of the light there, can with difficulty be brought to believe that such things are there, and therefore those who take this Incredulity with them into the other life, and who have been in the truth and good of faith, are conveyed by the angels into these scenes, and when they see them they are astounded. As regards the paradisal and rainbow scenes, and the atmospheres, see what has been already said from experience, (n. 1619-1626, 2296, 3220); and there are continual representations in the heavens, (n. 1807, 1808, 1971, 1980, 1981, 2299, 2763, 3213, 3216-3218, 3222, 3350, 3475, 3485).

AC 4529. A certain person who had been much talked of and celebrated in the learned world for his skill in the science of botany, after death heard in the other life, to his great surprise, that there also flowers and trees are presented to view; and as botany had been the delight of his life he was fired with a desire to see whether such was the case, and was therefore carried up into the paradisal regions, where he saw most beautiful plantations of trees and most charming flower gardens of immense extent.  And as he then came into the ardor of his delight from affection, he was allowed to wander over the field, and not only to see the plants in detail, but also to gather them and bring them close to his eye, and to examine whether the case was really so.

[2] Speaking with me from thence he said that he could never have believed it, and that if such things had been heard of In the world, they would have been regarded as marvels.  He said further that he saw an immense abundance of flowers there which are never seen in the world, and of which it would be almost impossible there to form any idea; and that they all glow with an inconceivable brightness, because they are from the light of heaven.  That the glow was from a spiritual origin, he was not yet able to perceive, that is, that they glowed because there was in each one of them something of the intelligence and wisdom which are of truth and good. He went on to say that men on earth would never believe this, because few believe there is any heaven and hell, and they who believe only know that in heaven there is joy, and few among them believe that there are such things as eye has not seen, and ear has not heard, and the mind has never conceived; and this although they know from the Word that amazing things were seen by the prophets, such as many things seen by John, as recorded in the Revelation, and yet these were nothing else than the representatives which are continually coming forth in heaven, and which appeared to John when his internal sight was opened.

[3] But these things are comparatively of little moment.  They who are in the very intelligence and wisdom which are the source of these things, are in such a state of happiness that the things which have been related are to them of slight importance.  Some spirits also who when in the paradisal regions said that these surpass every degree of happiness, were therefore carried up into a heaven more to the right, which sparkled with a still greater resplendence, and finally they were carried up into the heaven where there is also a perception of the blessedness of the intelligence and wisdom that exist in such things.  And when they were there, they told me that what they had seen before was comparatively worthless. At last they were carried up into a heaven where on account of the bliss of interior affection, they could scarcely subsist, for the bliss penetrated to the very marrows, and these being as it were dissolved away with bliss, they began to fall into a holy swoon.

AC 4530. Colors also are seen in the other life which in splendor and refulgence surpass the luster of the colors of this world to such a degree that scarcely any comparison is possible. These colors are produced by the variegation of the light and shade there; and as it is the Intelligence and wisdom that come from the Lord which there appear as light before the eyes of angels and spirits, and at the same time inwardly illumine their understandings, in their essence these colors are variations or so to speak modifications of intelligence and wisdom.  The colors there--not only those with which the flowers are adorned, the atmospheres made brilliant, and the rainbows varied, but also those which are distinctly presented in other forms--have been seen by me an almost countless number of times.  They have their brightness from the truth which is of intelligence, and their effulgence from the good which is of wisdom, and the colors themselves are produced from the whiteness and the darkness thereof, thus from light and shade, like the tints of color in this world.  It is for this reason that the colors mentioned in the Word, such as those of the precious stones in Aaron‘s breast plate and upon his garments of holiness, and those of the curtains of the tent where the ark was, and those of the stones of the foundation of the New Jerusalem, described by John In the Revelation, besides others mentioned elsewhere, represented such things as are of intelligence and wisdom.  But what each of these colors represents shall of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told in the explications. In general the colors seen in the other life have splendor and whiteness in so far as they come from the truth of intelligence; and they have refulgence and crimson in so far as they come from the good of wisdom.  Those colors which derive their origin from these sources also belong to the provinces of the eyes.

AC 4531. As it is intelligence and wisdom from the Lord which appear in heaven as light, the angels being therefore called angels of light, so it is the folly and insanity which are from self that reign in hell, causing those who are there to have their name from darkness.  It is true that in hell there is not darkness, but a dusky luminosity like that from a coal fire, in which they see one another, and without which they would not be able to live.  This luminosity comes to them from the light of heaven, which is turned into such a luminosity when it falls into their insanities, that is, into their falsities and cupidities.  The Lord is everywhere present with light, even in the hells, otherwise the infernals would have no capacity to think and thereby to speak, but the light is according to the reception.  This luminosity is what is called in the Word the “shadow of death,” and is compared to “darkness,” and is also turned into darkness with them when they approach the light of heaven; and when they are in darkness, they are in folly and stupidity. Hence it is evident that as light corresponds to truth, so darkness corresponds to falsity, and that they who are in falsities are said to be in “blindness.”

AC 4532. They who believe that they understand good and truth of themselves, and hence trust in themselves alone, and thus deem themselves wiser than all (although they are in ignorance of what is good and true), and especially those who do not desire to understand what is good and true, and consequently are in falsities, in the other life are sometimes let into a state of darkness; and when they are in it, they speak idiotically, for they are in stupidity.  I have been told that there are many such, and among them those who had believed themselves to be set in the greatest light, and had also appeared so to others.

AC 4533. Among the wonderful things that take place in the other life is also this, that when the angels of heaven look at evil spirits, the latter appear altogether different from what they appear to one another. When evil spirits and genii are by themselves, and in their own fatuous luminosity (which as before said is like that of a coal fire), they appear to themselves to be in a human form, and also according to their phantasies not uncomely.  But when the same are looked at by the angels of heaven, that luminosity is instantly dissipated, and they appear with totally different faces, each according to his genius. Some are dusky and black like devils; some have ghastly faces like that of a corpse; some have almost no face at all, and instead of a face there is a mass of hair; some are like grates of teeth; some like skeletons; and what was still more strange, some are like monsters, the deceitful are like serpents, and the most deceitful are like vipers, while others appear differently. But as soon as the angels remove their look from them, they appear in their own previous form, such as they have in their own luminosity. The angels look at the evil whenever they observe them trying to get out of their hells into the world of spirits, intending to do evil to others; and in this way they are detected and are cast back again.  The reason why there is such an efficacy in the look of the angels, is that there is a correspondence between intellectual sight and that of the eye; and therefore there is a sharp-sightedness in their look, before which the infernal luminosity is dissipated, and evil spirits appear in the form and genius that belong to them.

AC 4534. A continuation concerning the Grand Man and Correspondence will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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