HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter37

AC 4661. Before the preceding chapter the explication was continued of what the Lord foretold concerning the last time of the church, and there was unfolded what He foretold by the parable of the ten virgins (Matt. 25:1-13). After this follows another parable that of the servants to whom the man going into a far country gave talents, to one five, to another two, and to another one, that they might trade therewith; and of these servants he who received five talents gained by them five more, he who received two also gained by them two, and he who received the one hid it in the earth. As this parable involves almost the same things as the parable of the ten virgins, I may pass on to explain the concluding part of the same chapter, which in the letter is as follows:-

AC 4662. When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory; and before Him shall be gathered all nations, and He shall separate them one from another as a shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats; and He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left. Then shall the King say unto them on His right hand, Come ye blessed of My Father, possess the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world; for I was a hungered, and ye gave Me to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me to drink; I was a stranger, and ye gathered Me; naked, and ye clothed Me; I was sick, and ye visited Me; I was in prison, and ye came unto Me. Then shall the righteous answer Him, saying, Lord, when saw we Thee a hungered, and fed Thee? or thirsty, and gave Thee to drink? When saw we Thee a stranger, and gathered Thee? or naked, and clothed Thee? Or when saw we Thee sick, or in prison, and came unto Thee? And the King shall answer and say unto them, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the least of these My brethren, ye have done it unto Me. Then shall He say also unto them on the left had, Depart from Me ye cursed into eternal fire, prepared for the devil and his angels; for I was a hungered, and ye gave Me not to eat; I was thirsty, and ye gave Me not to drink; I was a stranger, and ye gathered Me not; naked, and ye clothed Me not; [sick, and in prison, and ye visited Me not]. Then shall they also answer Him, saying, Lord, when saw we Thee a hungered, or athirst, or a stranger, or naked, or sick or in prison, and did not minister unto Thee? Then shall He answer them saying, Verily I say unto you, Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to Me. And these shall go away into eternal punishment, but the righteous into life eternal (Matt. 25:31-46).

AC 4663. One who is unacquainted with the internal sense cannot but think that these words were spoken by the Lord of some last day, when all in the whole world will be gathered before Him, and will then be judged; and also that the procedure of the Judgment will be just as is described in the letter, namely, that He will set those who are to be judged on the right hand and on the left, and will speak to them as in the parable.  But one who is acquainted with the internal sense, and who has learned from other passages in the Word that the Lord judges no one to eternal fire, but that everyone judges himself, that is, casts himself into it; and who has also learned that the Last Judgment of everyone is when he dies, may know in some measure what these words involve in general. And one who from the internal sense and from correspondence knows the interior meaning of the words, may know what they specifically mean, namely, that in the other life everyone receives a reward in accordance with his life in the world,

[2] Those who vaunt the salvation of man through faith alone, cannot explain these words in any other way than by saying that what the Lord said of works means the fruits of faith, and that He mentioned them merely for the sake of the simple, who are unacquainted with mysteries.  But even according to their opinion it would still follow that the faults of faith are what make man blessed and happy after death. The fruits of faith are nothing else than a life in accordance with the precepts of faith; consequently a life in accordance with these precepts saves, but not faith without life; for after death man carries with him all the states of his life, so that he is such as he has been in the body. For instance: one who in the life of the body has despised others in comparison with himself, in the other life also despises others in comparison with himself; one who in the life of the body has regarded the neighbor with hatred, also in the other life regards the neighbor with hatred; one who in the life of the body has acted deceitfully toward his companions, in the other life also acts deceitfully toward his companions; and so in other instances.  Everyone retains in the other life the nature which he has acquired in the life of the body; and it is known that a man’s nature cannot be cast out, and that if it is cast out, nothing of life remains.

[3] It is for this reason that only works of charity are mentioned by the Lord; for he who is in the works of charity, or what is the same, in a life of faith, is capable of receiving faith, if not in the body, yet in the other life; but one who is not in the works of charity, or in a life of faith, is by no means capable of receiving faith, either in the body or in the other life.  For evil does not accord with truth, but the one rejects the other; and if those who are in evil speak truths, they speak them from the lips, and not from the heart, and thus evil and truths are still very far apart.

AC 4664. But what is involved in the internal sense in these things which the Lord here says concerning the Last Judgment, that is, concerning the last judgment of everyone after death, is too much to be unfolded before this chapter, and therefore will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be unfolded in order before the chapters which follow.

GENESIS 37:1-36

1. And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’s sojournings, the land of Canaan.

2. These are the births of Jacob.  Joseph a son of seventeen years was feeding the flock with his brethren; and he was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah his father‘s women; and Joseph brought their evil report unto their father.

3. And Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him a tunic of various colors.

4. And his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren; and they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him,

5. And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it to his brethren, and they added yet to hate him.

6. And he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed;

7. And behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field, and lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright, and behold your sheaves came round about, and bowed down themselves to my sheaf.

8. And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? and they added yet to hate him for his dreams, and for his words.

9. And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said, Behold I have dreamed yet a dream, and behold the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down themselves to me.

10. And he told it to his father, and to his brethren; and his father rebuked him, and said to him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?

11. And his brethren envied him, but his father kept the word.

12. And his brethren went to feed the flock of their father in Shechem.

13. And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? come, and I will send thee unto them. And he said to him, Behold me!

14. And he said to him, Go I pray, see the peace of thy brethren, and the peace of the flock, and bring me word again. And he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.

15. And a man found him, and behold he was wandering in the field; and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou?

16. And he said, I seek my brethren, tell me I pray where they are feeding the flock.

17. And the man said, They are departed hence, for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan.

18. And they saw him afar off, and before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to cause him to die.

19. And they said a man to his brother, Behold this lord of dreams cometh.

20. Come now therefore and let us slay him, and cast him into one of the pits, and we will say, An evil wild beast hath devoured him; and we shall see what his dreams will be.

21. And Reuben heard, and rescued him out of their hand, and said, Let us not smite him, the soul.

22. And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood; cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but lay no hand upon him; that he might rescue him out of their hand, to bring him back to his father.

23. And it came to pass when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stripped Joseph of his tunic, the tunic of various colors that was on him;

24. And they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in it

25. And they sat down to eat bread, and they lifted up their eyes and saw, and behold a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spices and balsam and stacte, going to carry them down to Egypt.

26. And Judah said unto his brethren, What gain is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood?

27. come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh. And his brethren harkened unto him.

28. And there passed by men, Midianites, merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. And they brought Joseph into Egypt.

29. And Reuben returned unto the pit, and behold Joseph was not in the pit, and he rent his garments,

30. And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither do I come?

31. And they took Joseph’s tunic, and killed a he-goat of the goats, and dipped the tunic in the blood;

32. And they sent the tunic of various colors, and they brought it to their father, and said, This have we found; know now whether it be thy son‘s tunic or not.

33. And he knew it, and said, It is my son’s tunic; an evil wild beast hath devoured him; Joseph is surely torn in pieces.

34. And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned over his son many days.

35. And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him; but he refused to comfort himself, and he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son, mourning.  And his father wept for him.

36. And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, Pharoah‘s chamberlain, prince of the guards.

THE CONTENTS

AC 4665. The subject treated of in this chapter in the internal sense is the truths Divine which are from the Lord’s Divine Human, that in course of time they have been rejected in the church, and that at last falsities have been received in their stead.  Specifically, those are described who are in faith  separate from charity, in that they are against the Lord‘s Divine Human.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 4666. Verses 1-3.  And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’s sojournings, in the land of Canaan.  These are the births of Jacob.  Joseph a son of seventeen years was feeding the flock with his brethren; and he was a boy with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah his father‘s women; and Joseph brought their evil report unto their father. And Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons, because he was the son of his old age; and he made him a tunic of various colors. “And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’s sojournings, in the land of Canaan,” signifies that the Lord‘s Divine natural was accordant under Divine rational good; “these are the births of Jacob,” signifies the things which follow; “Joseph,” signifies the Lord’s spiritual Divine Human; “a son of seventeen years,” signifies its state; “was feeding the flock with his brethren,” signifies that it was present with those who were in faith and taught; “and he was a boy,” signifies at first; “with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah his father‘s women,” signifies that it was rejected by them; “and Joseph brought their evil report unto their father,” signifies that from it their quality was apparent; “and Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons,” signifies the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural; “because he was the son of his old age,” signifies its own life in it; “and he made him a tunic of various colors,” signifies the appearances of truth thence, whereby the spiritual of the natural is known and distinguished.

AC 4667. And Jacob dwelt in the land of his father’s sojournings, in the land of Canaan. That this signifies that the Lord‘s Divine natural was accordant under Divine rational good, is evident from the signification of “to dwell,” as being to live (n. 1293, 3384, 3613, 4451); from the representation of Jacob, as being in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine natural (n. 3305, 3509, 3525, 3546, 3576, 3599, 3775, 4009, 4234, 4286, 4538, 4570); from the representation of Isaac, who here is the “father,” as being the Lord‘s Divine rational as to good (n. 1893, 2066, 2630, 3012, 3194, 3210); and from the signification of the “land of Canaan,” as being in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 3038, 3705). From all this it follows that Jacob‘s dwelling in the land of his father’s sojournings in the land of Canaan, denotes the Lord‘s Divine natural living together or accordantly under Divine rational good, in the Divine Human.  The Lord’s natural has been treated of above (Genesis 35:22-26), that all things in it were now Divine (n. 4602-4610); and in (Genesis 35:27-29) the conjunction of the Lord‘s Divine natural with His Divine rational (n. 4611-4619).  Here the conclusion follows: that the Divine natural lived an accordant life under Divine rational good.

[2] It is said “under Divine rational good,” because the natural lives under this; for the rational is higher or interior, or according to a customary form of speaking is prior, while the natural is lower or exterior, consequently posterior; thus the latter is subordinate to the former.  Nay, when they are accordant, the natural is nothing else than the general of the rational; for whatever the natural has does not then belong to it, but to the rational.  The difference is only such as exists between particulars and their general, or between singulars and their form, in which the singulars appear as a one.  It is known to the learned that the end is the all in the cause, and that the cause is the all in the effect; thus that the cause is the end in form, and the effect the cause in form; and hence that the effect entirely perishes if you take away the cause, and the cause if you take away the end; and moreover that the cause is under the end, and the effect under the cause.  It is similar with the natural and the rational.

AC 4668. These are the births of Jacob.  That this signifies the things which follow, is evident from the signification of “births,” as being the derivations of those things which are of the church, namely, of truth from good, or of faith from love; for no other births are meant in the internal sense of the Word. These are also treated of in what follows, wherefore it is said that the “births of Jacob” denote the things which follow, That such is the signification of “births” is evident also from the fact that no genealogical births are mentioned in what follows; but only Joseph, his dreams, the conspirings of his brothers against him, and at last his being carried away into Egypt. “Births” denote such derivations, (n. 1145, 1255, 1330, 3263, 3279, 3860, 3868, 4070).

AC 4669. Joseph. That this signifies the Lord’s Divine spiritual Human, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine spiritual (n. 3969). That the Lord is represented by Joseph is known in the church, for when the heavenly Joseph is spoken of, no one else is thought of; but what of the Lord is represented by Joseph is not so well known, for it is the Divine spiritual which proceeds from His Divine Human.  The Divine spiritual which proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine Human is the Divine truth which is from Him in heaven and in the church. The spiritual in its essence is nothing else. The Divine spiritual, or Divine truth, is also what is called the Lord’s royalty, and it is likewise signified by the Christ, or the Messiah (n. 2015, 3009, 3670). For this reason Joseph was made as it were a king in Egypt, that he might then represent what is of the Lord‘s royalty.

AC 4670. A son of seventeen years. That this signifies its state, is evident from the years of the ages of those mentioned in the Word, in that like other numbers they signify things and states. All numbers in the Word signify things and states, (n. 575, 647, 648, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495); as also years, (n. 487, 488, 493, 893).

[2] It indeed appears as if numbers of years, or years of ages, had no further meaning, because they seem to be more historical than other numbers. But that these also involve things and states is evident from what was unfolded in the fifth chapter of Genesis, and said as to the age of Abraham (Gen. 17:1; 25:7), and that of Isaac (Gen.  35:28); and moreover from the fact that there is no historical statement in the Word which does not involve what is heavenly; into which also it is changed when it passes from the thought of the man who is reading, to the angels with him, and through the angels to heaven, where from every historical of the Word a spiritual sense is produced

[3] But what is signified by Joseph’s age of seventeen years may be seen from the signification of this number in other places, namely, a beginning, but here the beginning of the representation by Joseph, This number signifies a being and what is new, (n. 755, 853). Moreover in a general and potential way this number involves all that is represented by Joseph; for “seven” signifies holy, and “ten,” remains. “Seven” in the Word adds holiness, (n. 881); and “ten” denotes remains, (n. 576, 1906, 2284). That the remains in the Lord by means of which He united the Human essence to the Divine, were Divine and of Himself, (n. 1906).

AC 4671. Was feeding the flock with his brethren.  That this signifies that it was present with those who were in faith and taught, is evident from the signification of “feeding the flock,” as being to teach, specifically from doctrinal things, those who are in the church. A feeder of the flock or “shepherd” denotes one who teaches, (n. 343, 3772, 3795). Here is signified that it was present with those who taught, because it is said that “Joseph was feeding with his brethren;” for his brethren in this chapter represent the church which turns away from charity to faith, and at last to faith separate, and so to falsities, as will appear in what follows.

AC 4672. And he was a boy.  That this signifies at first, is evident from the signification of a “boy,” when predicated of a new church, as being what is at first, or its first state; for the church is as an infant, a boy, a man, and at last an old man, for it passes through its several ages like a man.  The church also in general is like a man, and is so called.  Moreover in the church which from its age is called a “boy,” and is such as quickly to turn away, the Lord is at first present, both with those who teach and with those who learn; but afterwards He is sent away by them, as is represented by Joseph‘s being cast by his brethren into a pit and sold.

[2] Such is every church which begins from faith, but very different is the church which begins from charity.  The church which begins from faith has nothing to direct it but the understanding, and the understanding nothing but what is hereditary in man, that is to say’ the love of self and of the world.  These persuade the understanding to search for things from the Word that will confirm them, “and to explain away what is not confirmatory.  It is otherwise with the church which begins from charity: good is its director, and in good the Lord; for between the Lord and faith there intervenes the good of charity and of love, and without this intervention there can be no spiritual communication, for there is no influx without an intermediate. If evil is in the place of good, it drives away the Lord, and either rejects or perverts all things that are of Him, thus all that are of faith, for faith is from Him through good.

AC 4673. With the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father‘s women. That this signifies that it was rejected by them, is evident from the signification of ”the sons of Bilhah and the sons of Zilpah,“ as being exterior or lower affections of truth that serve as means (n. 3849, 3931); thus ”with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah“ signifies that Divine truth, which is ”Joseph,“ was rejected to lower things, which are relatively things of service. Divine truth is said to be rejected to lower things when faith is placed before charity or becomes primary in the heart, and charity is placed after it and becomes secondary in the heart; for all Divine truth is from Divine good and thence proceeds If the like is not the case with a man, he is not in the Lord. This Divine truth is the holy itself of the spirit which proceeds from the Lord, and which is called the ”Paraclete,“ and the ”Spirit of truth“ (John 14:16, 17).

AC 4674. And Joseph brought their evil report unto their father. That this signifies that from it their quality was apparent, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being the Divine spiritual or Divine truth which is from the Lord (n. 4286, 4675); from the signification of ”father,“ as being good (n. 3703, 3704), here the good of the Ancient Church which is represented by Jacob, as will be seen toward the end of this chapter; and from the signification of an ”evil report,“ as being the faults and vices of those signified by Joseph’s brethren, who as before said (n. 4671) denote those of the church who turn away from good and truth.  This shows what is signified by these words in the proximate internal sense, namely, that the faults and vices signified by Joseph‘s brethren were exposed to dew or made apparent by Divine truth when they were regarded from the good of the Ancient Church; or what is the same thing, that from this truth their quality was apparent.

[2] In regard to these things the case is this: The falsities and evils of the church (that is, of those who are in the church) do not appear to those who are therein, for falsities are not seen from falsities, nor evils from evils, because principles of falsity completely befog truths, and a life of evil extinguishes them.  Both principles of falsity and a life of evil induce an appearance that falsities are truths and truths falsities, and that good is evil and evil good.  That this is so is evident from manifold experience, But the church, or they who are in the church, appear entirely different in heaven; for in heaven there is Divine truth from the Lord, and Divine truth in heaven is light, and in this light their quality is apparent.  For every man as to his soul or spirit is in some society, either angelic or diabolical. His thought is there, but his speech and actions are among men in various intercourse with them.

[3] How the case further is in regard to the quality of those who are in the church being made apparent by Divine truth, or in Divine light, may appear from the following considerations, Before evil spirits who are recently from the world cast themselves into hell, they above all others suppose that they will be received into heaven, believing that only reception is needed, and that everyone, of whatever quality, may of grace be admitted into heaven.  But they are sometimes told that heaven is denied by the Lord to no one, and that they may be admitted if they are able to stay there. Some of them are even taken up into the first societies, at the entrance to heaven; but when they come thither they begin to be tormented and almost suffocated, so distressed is the life of their thought and will the life of their thought from principles of falsity, and the life of their will from a life of evil, in the world.  And when they look at themselves in the light there, they appear to themselves as devils, some as corpses, and others as monsters, and they therefore cast themselves headlong down from that society, and from its light into some dark infernal mist, where they recover their former respiration, and where from phantasy they appear to themselves as spirits not evil. In this way they learn their quality.  From this it is now clear in what manner it should be understood that from it (that is, from Divine truth) their quality was apparent,

AC 4675. Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons. That this signifies the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural, is evident from the representation of Jacob when called ”Israel,“ as being the Divine spiritual of the natural, or the celestial of the spiritual from the natural (n. 4286, 4598); from the representation of Joseph, as being the Divine spiritual of the rational, or the celestial of the spiritual from the rational (n. 4286, 4592); and from the signification of ”loving,“ as being to be conjoined, for love is spiritual conjunction. Hence it is evident that by Israel’s loving Joseph is signified the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural. Because this conjunction is treated of, Jacob here is not called ”Jacob,“ as in the first and second verses, but ”Israel;“ and from the changing of the name it may be inferred that some secret thing is contained here in the internal sense. But what is the nature of the conjunction of the Divine spiritual of the rational with the Divine spiritual of the natural cannot as yet be unfolded, because it is not treated of in this chapter, but in the chapters which follow, in which so far as possible this secret will be unfolded. This only is to be said here that the spiritual is predicated both of the rational and of the natural; for the spiritual is the Divine truth which is from the Lord, and which when it shines in the rational or in the internal man, is called the spiritual of the rational; and when it shines thence in the natural or in the external man, is called the spiritual of the natural.

AC 4676. Because he was the son of his old age. That this signifies its own life in it, is evident from the signification of ”old age,“ as being the putting off of a former state and the putting on of a new one, also as being newness of life (n. 3492, 4620). For ”old age“ in the internal sense does not signify old age, because the internal man, or man‘s spirit, does not know what old age is; but as the body or external man grows old, the internal passes into newness of life, man’s spirit being perfected by age as his bodily powers diminish. This is still more so in the other life, where those who are in heaven are continually brought by the Lord into more perfect life, and at last into the bloom of youth, even those who have died in a good Old age.  From this it may be seen that by ”old age“ in the internal sense, is signified life, What is meant by its own life being in it has been explained above (n. 4667).

[2] It was said that man‘s spirit or internal man does not know what old age is, and yet as before said it is this spirit that thinks in the body, and from it the body has its life.  The reason why this thought of the spirit cannot be communicated to the body, and the man thus know that he lives after death, is that so long as his spirit remains in the body he cannot think otherwise than from the principles which his natural man has become imbued with; and when the principle and persuasion is that only the body lives, and that when this dies everything of man dies, the influx of this reality is not received. But still the influx manifests itself by the fact that most persons are solicitous about their burial and eulogies after death, and some about their reputation then, for which reason they erect magnificent monuments for  themselves, that their memory may not perish, Into such things is turned the influx from heaven in respect to the permanent of life with those who in other respects have no belief in it, For without this influx they would be totally indifferent to all that concerns their memory after death.

AC 4677. And he made him a tunic   of various colors. That this signifies the appearances of truth thence, whereby the spiritual of the natural is known and distinguished, is evident from the signification of a ”tunic,“ as being the truth of the natural, of which hereafter; and from the signification of ”various colors,“ as being the appearance of truth by which the spiritual of the natural is known and distinguished, That these are signified by ”various colors“ cannot be known by anyone unless be knows that colors appear in the other life equally as in the world- colors which in beauty and variety far surpass those in this world and unless he knows what is the source of these colors.  The colors seen in the other life are from the variation of the light there, and are so to speak modifications of intelligence and wisdom; for the light which appears there is from the Divine truth that is from the Lord, or is the Divine spiritual from, Him, or what is the same, is Divine intelligence and wisdom, which appears as light before the eyes of angels  and spirits.  Hence it is evident what is signified by the colors from that light, namely, qualities of truth, thus its appearances, and that they appear from the affections of good and truth. Concerning the colors in the other life see (n. 1042, 1043, 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530).

[2] That a ”tunic“ is the truth of the natural was said above (n. 3301), but as it was not there shown, I may now confirm it here from other passages in the Word.  As the kings in the Jewish Church represented the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, or Divine truth (n. 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670), therefore their daughters were clothed in tunics of various colors, for by ”daughters“ were signified affections of good and truth, and therefore churches (n. 2362, 3963); of whom we read in the second book of Samuel:--

There was upon Tamar, David’s daughter, a tunic of various colors, for with such robes were the king‘s daughters that were virgins apparelled (2 Samuel 13:18).

[3] And because the high priests represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial or Divine good, Aaron was clothed in garments that represented the Divine truth which is from the Divine good of the Lord; for Divine good is in the Lord, but Divine truth proceeds from Him, and is what was represented by these garments.  So also when the Lord was transfigured before Peter, James, and John, the Divine good appeared as the sun, and the Divine truth was presented as raiment which appeared as the light (Matt. 17:2).

[4] The garments in which Aaron and his sons were clothed are thus described in Moses:--

Thou shalt make for Aaron a tunic of fine linen, and a miter of fine linen, and thou shalt make a belt, the work of the embroiderer. And for Aaron’s sons thou shalt make tunics, and thou shalt make for them belts, and headtires shalt thou make for them, for glory and for adornment (Exod. 28:39, 40).

Every particular here signified something pertaining to the Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord, the ”tunic of fine linen“ specifically signifying the Divine spiritual. So also in another place:--

Thou shalt take the garments, and put upon Aaron the tunic, and the robe of the ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, and shalt clothe him with the girdle of the ephod; afterwards thou shall cause his sons to approach, and put tunics upon them (Exod. 29:5, 8; 40:14).

What these particulars signify will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be shown when they come to be treated of. ”Garments“ in general are truths, (n 297, 1073, 2576, 4545).

[5] The prophets also were clothed in tunics, but in tunics of hair; because by the prophets the Lord was represented as to truths of doctrine, and because these are of the natural or external man, the prophets had tunics of hair, for ”hair“ signifies what is natural (n. 3301).

[6] That a ”tunic“ signifies Divine truth from the Lord, is still more obvious from those passages in the New Testament in which ”tunic“ is mentioned, as in John:--

The soldiers took His garments and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and also the tunic; now the tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout They said therefore one to another, Let us not divide it, that the Scripture might he fulfilled which saith, They divided my vestments among them, and upon my tunic did they cast a lot (John 20:23, 24);

one who reads these words supposes that they involve no greater mystery than that the vestments were divided among the soldiers, and that a lot was cast upon the tunic, and yet every particular was representative and significative of something Divine, as well that the vestments were divided into four parts, as that the tunic was not divided, but upon it was cast a lot, especially that the tunic was without seam and woven from the top throughout; for by the ”tunic“ was signified the Lord’s Divine truth, which as being one only and from good, was represented by the tunic being without seam and woven from the top throughout

[7] The like was signified by the ”tunic of Aaron,“ which was woven, or the work of the weaver, as is evident from Moses:--

They made the tunics of fine linen, the work of the weaver, for Aaron and for his sons (Exod. 39:27).

There was also represented that the Lord did not suffer Divine truth to be rent into parts, as was done by the Jews with the lower truths of the church.

[8] Because Divine truth which is from Divine good is one only, the twelve disciples when sent to preach the gospel of the kingdom were commanded not to have two tunics; as in Luke:--

Jesus sent the twelve disciples to preach the kingdom of God and He said unto them, Take nothing for the way, neither staves, nor bag, nor bread, nor silver; neither have two tunics apiece (Luke 9:2, 3);

and in Mark:--

He commanded them that they should take nothing for the way save a staff only, no bag, no bread, no brass in their belt; but be clad with shoes; and put not on two tunics (Mark 6:8, 9);

And in Matthew:--

Possess neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your belts, nor bag for the way, nor two tunics, nor shoes, nor staves (Matthew 10:9, 10).

[9] All the particulars herein are representative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord‘s kingdom which the disciples were sent to preach.  That they were not to take with them gold, silver, brass, bag, nor bread, was because these things signified goods and truths which are from the Lord alone ”gold“ signifying good (n. 113, 1551, 1552); ”silver,“ truth therefrom (n. 1551, 2954); ”brass,“ natural good (n. 425, 1551); ”bread,“ the good of love or celestial good (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 4211, 4217).  But the ”tunic“ and ”shoe“ signified the truths with which they were clothed, and the ”staff“ the power of truth from good. That a ”staff“ is this power see, (n. 4013, 4015); and that a ”shoe“ is the lowest natural, (n. 1748), here as to truth. A ”tunic“ is interior natural truth, and because these things ought not to be double, but single, it was forbidden to have two staves, two pairs of shoes, or two tunics.  These arcana are within this command of the Lord, and cannot possibly be known except from the internal sense.

[10] All and each of the things the Lord said were representative of Divine things, consequently of the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom, and thus were adapted to the apprehension of men, and at the same time to the understanding of spirits and angels; wherefore those things which the Lord said, filled and continue to fill the whole heaven.  From this it is evident of what use and importance it is to know the internal sense of the Word.  Moreover without this sense anyone can confirm from the Word whatever dogma he pleases; and because such is the appearance of the Word to those who are in evil, they therefore deride it, and are ready to believe anything rather than that it is Divine.

AC 4678. Verses 4-11. And his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren; and they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him. And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it to his brethren, and they added yet to hate him. And he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed; and behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field, and lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and behold your sheaves came round about, and bowed down themselves to my sheaf And his brethren said to him, shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? and they added yet to hate him for his dreams, and for his words. And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said, Behold I have dreamed yet a dream, and behold the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down themselves to me. And he told it to his father, and to his brethren; and his father rebuked him, and said to him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? And his brethren envied him, but his father kept the word.  ”And his brethren saw,“ signifies those things which are of faith, and in the proximate sense the posterity of Jacob; ”that their father loved him more than all his brethren,“ signifies that it was conjoined with the Divine natural, and in the proximate sense with the Ancient Church, which is the ”father;“ ”and they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him,“ signifies contempt and aversion; ”and Joseph dreamed a dream,“ signifies preaching concerning the Divine Human; ”and he told it to his brethren,“ signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate; ”and they added yet to hate him,“ signifies still greater contempt and aversion; ”and he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed,“ signifies the contents of the preaching; ”and behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field,“ signifies that they were teaching from doctrine; ”and lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright,“ signifies what is doctrinal concerning the Lord’s Divine Human; ”and behold your sheaves came round about,“ signifies those who were in faith; ”and bowed down themselves to my sheaf,“ signifies adoration; ”and his brethren said to him,“ signifies those who are of faith separate; ”shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us?“ signifies were they to be subject as to the things of the understanding and of the will; ”and they added yet to hate him for his dreams and for his words,“ signifies still greater contempt and aversion because of the preaching of the Word; ”and he dreamed yet another dream,“ signifies again a preaching; ”and told it to his brethren, and said,“ signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate; ”behold I have dreamed yet a dream,“ signifies the contents; ”and behold the sun and the moon,“ signifies natural good and natural truth; ”and eleven stars,“ signifies the knowledges of good and of truth; ”bowed down themselves to me,“ signifies adoration; ”and he told it to his father and to his brethren,“ signifies that it was given to know it; ”and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed?“ signifies indignation; ”father“ here is the Jewish religion derived from the Ancient; ”shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?“  signifies whether the church will adore; ”and his brethren envied him,“ signifies their aversion; ”and his father kept the word,“ signifies that the truth remained in their religiosity.

AC 4679. And his brethren saw. That this signifies those things which are of faith, and in the proximate sense the posterity of Jacob, is evident from the signification of ”seeing,“ as being to notice and understand (n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863); and from the representation of the brethren of Joseph, as being those things which are of faith.  For Joseph in this chapter represents the Divine spiritual or Divine truth of the Lord; and his brethren represent the church which turns away from charity to faith, and then to faith separate from charity, and finally to falsities (n. 4665, 4671).  Thus by the ”brethren“ of Joseph are here signified those things which are of faith; and because such was the posterity of Jacob, in the proximate sense that posterity is signified.

AC 4680. That their father loved him more than all his brethren. That this signifies that it was conjoined with the Divine natural, and in the proximate sense with the Ancient Church, which is the ”father,“ is evident from what was explained above (n. 4675), where similar words occur.  That in the proximate sense this signifies that it was conjoined with the Ancient Church, and that this church is what is meant by ”father,“ is because in this sense, as before said (n. 4679), by Joseph‘s ”brethren“ are signified the posterity of Jacob, and consequently the church which was represented among them.  How these things are to be understood has already been repeatedly stated, but shall be repeated again in a few words for the sake of the series in what follows.

[2] The Ancient Church which was set up by the Lord after the flood was a representative church, and was of such a nature that all and each of its externals of worship represented the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Divine things themselves of the Lord; but all and each of its internals of worship bore relation to charity.  This church was spread over a large part of the Asiatic world, and through many kingdoms there; and although there were differences among them as to doctrinal things of faith, still the church was one, because all in every part of it made charity the essential of the church. Those who at that time separated faith from charity, and made faith the essential of the church were called ”Ham.“ But in course of time this church turned away to idolatry, and in Egypt, Babylon, and other places, to magic; for they began to worship external things without the internal; and as they thus receded from charity, heaven also receded from them, and in its place came spirits from hell who led them.

[3] When this church was desolated, a kind of new church began from Heber, which was called the Hebrew Church.  This church existed in Syria and Mesopotamia, and also among some nations in the land of Canaan; but this new church differed from the Ancient, in that it made the essential of external worship to consist in sacrifices.  It did indeed acknowledge the internal of worship to be charity, but not so much from the heart as did the Ancient Church; but this church also became idolatrous.

[4] At last it pleased the Lord to set up among the posterity of Abraham from Jacob a new kind of church, and to introduce among that nation the externals of worship of the Ancient Church.  But such was the nature of this nation that they could not receive any internal of the church, because their hearts were altogether opposed to charity; and therefore only a representative of a church was instituted among them.  This then is the reason why the sons of Jacob, or Joseph‘s brethren, signify in the proximate sense such a church, and why Jacob their father signifies the Ancient Church. In many other places in the Word, especially the prophetic, the Ancient Church is meant by ”Jacob;“ and sometimes also that Ancient Church is called ”father and mother“, ”father“ as to its good, and ”mother“ as to its truth. From this it is now evident that by their father’s loving Joseph more than all his brethren is signified that the Divine truth of the Lord was conjoined with the Ancient Church.

AC 4681. And they hated him, and could not speak for peace unto him. That this signifies contempt and aversion contempt for the Divine truth which is represented by Joseph, and aversion for it is evident from the signification of ”hating,“ as being to hold in contempt, for ”hatred“ in the internal sense does not signify hatred such as men have who hate, for the signification of the word grows milder as it rises into heaven, because in heaven they do not know what hatred is, and therefore contempt is what is signified; and from the signification of ”not being able to speak for peace unto him,“ as being to be averse to. For to ”speak for peace“ means to wish anyone well, inasmuch as by ”peace“ the ancients understood in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, in the internal sense His kingdom and life therein, or salvation, but in the external sense safety or health in the world. The contrary of this is not to be able to speak for peace to anyone, that is, not to wish him well, thus to be averse to, here to Divine truth.

AC 4682. And Joseph dreamed a dream.  That this signifies preaching concerning It, is evident from the signification of ”dreaming a dream,“ as being to preach; and because the dream treats of Joseph, preaching concerning the Lord‘s Divine Human is signified That a ”dream“ here signifies preaching, is because in Joseph’s two dreams are contained in a summary all the things which were foreseen and provided in regard to Joseph, or in the internal sense all that were foreseen and provided in regard to Divine truth within such a church as is represented by Joseph‘s brethren, or such as begins from faith. Moreover Divine truths were manifested in ancient times either by speech, by visions, or by dreams, and from these were the preachings; consequently by ”prophets“ in the Word, to whom Divine truth was manifested by speech, by visions, or by dreams, are signified those who teach truths, and in the abstract sense the truths of doctrine (n. 2534).

[2] The like is therefore signified by ”seeing visions“ and ”dreaming dreams;“ as in Joel:--

I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions; and also upon the servants and upon the maid-servants in those days will I pour out My spirit (Joel 2:28, 29);

where ”pouring out the spirit upon them“ denotes to instruct concerning truths, and ”prophesying“ denotes to teach and preach them, and the same is signified by ”dreaming dreams.“ ”Old men“ are the wise, ”young men“ the intelligent, ”servants“ those who know.

[3] In Jeremiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah Zebaoth, Attend not unto the words of the prophets that prophesy unto you they make you vain, they speak a vision of their own heart, and not out of the mouth of Jehovah. I have heard what the prophets have said, that prophesy a lie in My name, saying, I have dreamed, I have dreamed. The prophet that hath a dream, let him tell a dream but he that hath My word, let him tell My word in truth. Behold I am against them that prophesy dreams of a lie, saith Jehovah they tell them, and lead My people astray by their lies (Jer. 23:16, 25, 28, 32);

where again ”prophesying“ denotes to teach and preach, but from dreams of a lie, from which is their preaching.

[4] In like manner elsewhere (Jer. 29:8, 9; Zech. 10:2) In Moses:--

If there arise in the midst of thee a prophet, or a dreamer of a dream, who shall give thee a sign or a wonder, and the sign or the wonder come to pass, whereof he spake unto thee, saying, Let us go after other gods which thou hast not known, and let us serve them thou shalt not obey the words of that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream. And that prophet, or that dreamer of a dream, shall be killed, because he hath spoken revolt against Jehovah your God (Deut. 13:1-3, 5);

both a ”prophet“ and a ”dreamer of a dream“ denote one who teaches and preaches, here falsities.

AC 4683. And he told it to his brethren.  That this signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate, is evident from the representation of Joseph’s brethren, as being the church which turns away from charity to faith, or in the abstract sense the things of faith, as above (n. 4665, 4671, 4679); here, those who are of faith separate from charity, because it follows that ”they added yet to hate him,“ by which words are signified still greater contempt and aversion.  For as regards this church the fact is that at its beginning charity is preached, but merely as a matter of doctrine, and thus of memory-knowledge, but not from charity itself, thus not from affection, or from the heart.  In course of time, as charity and affection are obliterated in the heart, faith is preached; and at last when there is no longer any charity, faith alone, and this is said to be saving without works; then also works are no longer called works of charity, but works of faith, and are called the fruits of faith.

[2] In this way men do indeed conjoin charity and faith, but from doctrine merely, not from life.  And because they vest nothing of salvation in a life of faith, or in good, but only in faith (although they know very well from the Word, and also from their own intelligence, that doctrine is nothing without life, or that faith is nothing without fruits), they vest the saving power of faith in confidence, that in this way they may also get away from fruits; not knowing that all confidence derives its being from the life‘s purpose, and that genuine confidence is impossible except in good, but that a spurious and false confidence is possible even in evil.  And in order that they may still further separate faith from charity, they also insist that the confidence of a single moment will save, even  life’s last moments, no matter what the previous life has been; although they know that everyone‘s life remains with him after death, and that everyone will be judged according to the works of his life.  From these few words it may be seen what is the quality of faith separate from charity, and Consequently what the church is that makes faith, and not a life of faith, the essential.  The falsities which flow thence as from their fountain head, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be spoken of in the following pages.

AC 4684. And they added yet to hate him.  That this signifies still greater contempt and aversion, is evident from what was said above (n. 4681), where similar words occur.

AC 4685. And he said unto them, Hear I pray this dream which I have dreamed.  That this signifies the contents of the preaching, is evident from the signification of ”dreaming a dream,“ as being a preaching (n. 4682); here the contents of the preaching, because the description of his dream now follows.

AC 4686. For behold we were binding sheaves in the midst of the field.  That this signifies that they were teaching from doctrine, is evident from the signification of a ”sheaf,“ as being doctrine, and hence of ”binding sheaves,“ as being to teach from doctrine; and from the signification of a ”field,“ as being the, church (n. 2971, 3766, 4440, 4443). The ”midst of the field“ is what is interior in the church, thus it is those who are in the faith of some charity; for the ”midst“ in the internal sense is what is interior and what is inmost (n. 1074, 2940, 2973).  For there are some in every church who are in the midst of it, or who are inmost, being those who are in charity, here those who are in the faith of some charity. With these the Lord is present, because the Lord is in charity, and through charity in faith (n. 4672). That these are signified is evident also from what follows that Joseph‘s sheaf arose, and the other sheaves came round about it; for by Joseph’s sheaf is signified doctrine from the Lord‘s Divine truth.

[2] That a ”sheaf“ signifies doctrine is because as just said a field is the church, and the standing corn in a field is the truth in the church; therefore a sheaf in which there is corn signifies doctrine in which there is truth.  ”Sheaves“ have a similar signification in David:--

They that sow in tears shall reap with singing; going he shall go and weeping he that beareth the cast of seed, but coming he shall come with singing, bearing his sheaves (Ps. 126:5, 6);

said of those who have been in spiritual captivity and are liberated. To ”bear the cast of seed“ denotes instruction in truths, to ”come with singing“ denotes the gladness of the affection of truth, and to ”bear the sheaves,“ the doctrinal things of this truth.

AC 4687. And lo my sheaf arose, and also stood upright.  That this signifies what is doctrinal concerning the Lord’s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of a ”sheaf,“ as being doctrine; and from the signification of ”arising and standing upright,“ as being the supreme that should reign, and that they would adore.  That this is the Lord‘s Divine Human is evident from what follows, namely, that the eleven sheaves bowed down themselves to that sheaf, and in the second dream, that the sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down themselves to Joseph, whereby is signified the supreme that should reign, and that they would adore; wherefore also Jacob says, ”Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?“ As before said the Divine truth of the Lord is what is represented by Joseph; the supreme of this is the Lord Himself, and the supreme among doctrinal things is that His Human is Divine.

[2] With this supreme of doctrinal things the case is this: The Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, and which above all others was called Man, adored the infinite being, and the derivative infinite coming-forth; and because, from the things which could be perceived in their internal man and those which could be felt in their external, and from the visible things in the world, the men of that church could have no perception of the infinite being, but could have some perception of the derivative infinite coming-forth, they therefore adored the infinite coming-forth in which is the infinite being.  The infinite coming-forth in which is the infinite being they perceived as a Divine Man, because they knew that the infinite coming-forth was brought forth through heaven from the infinite being; and as heaven is the Grand Man, corresponding to each and all things that are in man (as has been shown at the end of the preceding chapters, and will be shown at the end of several to follow), they therefore could have no other idea of perception concerning the infinite coming-forth from the infinite being, than as of a Divine Man; for whatever from the infinite being passes through heaven as the Grand Man is attended with an image thereof in each and all things.  When that celestial church began to fall away, they foresaw that the infinite coming-forth could no longer have influx into the minds of men, and that so the human race would perish; therefore it was revealed to them that One should be born who would make the Human in Himself Divine, and in this way become the same infinite coming-forth as had been before, and would at last become one with the infinite being as also it had been before.  From this came their prophecy in Genesis concerning the Lord (Gen. 3:15).

[3] This is described in John in these words:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. The same was in the beginning with God. All thing were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us; and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth (John 1:1-4, 14);

the ”Word“ is the Divine truth, which in its essence is the infinite coming-forth from the infinite being, and is the Lord Himself as to His Human.  This very Human it is from which truth Divine now proceeds and flows into heaven, and through heaven into the minds of men; consequently which rules and governs the universe, as it has ruled and governed it from eternity; for it is one and the same with the infinite being, because He conjoined the Human with the Divine, which was done by this, that He made the Human in Himself also Divine. From this it is now evident that the supreme of truth Divine is the Lord’s Divine Human, and hence that the supreme among the doctrinal things of the church is that His Human is Divine.

AC 4688. And behold your sheaves came round about. That this signifies those who were in faith, namely, in the faith of some charity, is evident from the signification of ”coming round about,“ as here being an approaching to adore, for it follows that ”they bowed down themselves to his sheaf,“ by which is signified adoration; and from the signification of a ”sheaf,“ as being doctrine (n. 4686), here all things of doctrine, or all things of faith. That ”sheaves“ here have such a signification is because in the genuine sense all things of faith are represented by all the sons of Jacob (n. 3858, 3926), thus also by the sheaves, because these in the dream took the place of the sons of Jacob; and also because the scene lay in the midst of the field, and by the midst of the field is signified what is interior, or those who are interior in the church (n. 4686), thus those who are in the faith of some charity. These therefore are the ”sheaves which came round about, and bowed down themselves to the sheaf of Joseph.“ That those are not meant who are exterior or more remote from the midst, and who in the proper sense are here the ”brethren“ of Joseph, is plain from what precedes and what follows that they hated him more and more, that is, despised him and felt aversion; for ”hating,“ ”not speaking for peace,“ and ”envying,“ which are said of his brethren, signify contempt and aversion.

AC 4689. And bowed down themselves to my sheaf. That this signifies adoration, is evident from the signification of ”bowing down themselves,“ as being the effect of humiliation (n. 2153), consequently adoration; and from the signification of ”Joseph‘s sheaf,“ as here being the doctrine concerning the Lord’s Divine Human (n. 4686), thus it signifies the Divine Human which those in the interior of the church adored.  but those who are exterior, that is, those who are of faith separate, are as far as possible from adoring.  Faith separate from charity has this effect because as before said the Lord is present in charity, and in faith only through charity; for charity is the conjoining medium.  What is truth without good? and what is the intellect without the will? thus what is faith without charity? or what is confidence without its essence?

[2] That they who are in faith separate from charity do not at all adore the Lord‘s Divine Human, was made evident to me from those of this character who come into the other life from the Christian world, with many of whom I have spoken; for in that life the heart speaks, and not the mouth as in the world.  The thoughts of everyone are there communicated much more clearly than by any speech in the world; and no one is allowed to speak otherwise than as he thinks and believes.  Many of those who in the world have even preached the Lord, there wholly deny Him; and when it is inquired from what end or for what reason they preached Him, and also in outward holy form adored Him, it is found that they did so because it was incumbent upon them on account of the office which they held, and because they thereby gained honors and wealth; and that those who did not preach Him, but yet confessed Him, did so because they were born in the church, and because they would lose their reputation if they should speak against religion. Not a single person from the Christian world knew that the Lord’s Human is Divine; and scarcely anyone knew that He alone rules heaven and the universe, still less that His Divine Human is the all in heaven.  That this is so, could not be openly revealed, because it was foreseen by the Lord that the Christian Church would turn away from charity to faith, consequently would separate itself from Him, and so not only reject but also profane the holy which is from His Divine Human; for faith separate from charity cannot do otherwise.

[3] That faith is at this day separated from charity, is evident; for churches separate from one another according to their dogmas, and whoever believes differently from what their dogma teaches is cast out from their communion, and is also defamed. But one who robs, and without mercy deprives others of their possessions, provided he does not do it openly, who schemes craftily against the neighbor, who brings the works of charity into disrepute, and who commits adultery - he is nevertheless called a Christian, provided he frequents sacred observances and speaks in accordance with doctrine. From this it is evident that at this day it is doctrine, not life, that constitutes the church; and that the fruits which are adjoined to faith are in their doctrine only, and not at all in their minds.

AC 4690. And his brethren said to him. That this signifies those who are of faith separate, is evident from the representation of Joseph‘s brethren, as being the church which turns away from charity to faith, and at last separates faith from charity (n. 4665, 4671, 4679); but those who are interior in this church are signified by the ”sheaves“ in the dream (n. 4686, 4688). The reason why Joseph’s brethren represent this church is that in the proximate sense they signify the representative of a church, or the religiosity which was instituted among the posterity of Jacob, which posterity did not indeed know anything about faith as it is understood in the Christian Church, but only about the Truth was to them the same as faith is to Christians, moreover in the Hebrew language the same word is used for both. But the Jewish Church understood by truth the precepts of the Decalogue, and also the laws, judgments, testimonies, and statutes, which were handed down by Moses. They did not know the interiors of truth, nor did they wish to know them.

[2] The Christian Church however gives the name of faith to those doctrinal matters which they say are the interior things of the church and must be believed; for by faith the common people understand no other than the faith of creeds, or that which book of creeds teach; but those who think that the doctrinal things of faith or the knowledge of them cannot save anyone, and that few are in a life of faith, call confidence faith.  These however are above the common people, and are more learned than others. From these things it is evident that the subject here treated of in the internal sense is not only the representative of a church which was instituted with the posterity of Jacob, but also the Christian Church which succeeded; for the Word of the Lord is universal, and comprehends in general every church.  For it was equally foreseen by the Lord both how the case would be with the Christian Church, and how it would be with the Jewish Church, but proximately with the Jewish, wherefore this sense is called the proximate sense, or the internal historical sense, and the other the internal sense.

AC 4691. Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us?  That this signifies were they to be subject as to the things of the understanding and of the will, is evident from the signification of ”reigning,“ as being to be subject as to the things of the understanding; and from the signification of ”having dominion,“ as being to be subject as to the things of the will.  That ”to reign over them and to have dominion over them“ denotes that they were to be made subject is evident, but the reason why the two expressions are here used is that one refers to the things of the understanding, and the other to the things of the will. It is common in the Word, especially the prophetic, for one thing to be expressed in two ways; and he who does not know the mystery in this, cannot but think it a mere repetition for the sake of emphasis.  But this is not so, for in every particular of the Word there is the heavenly marriage, namely, the marriage of truth with good and of good with truth; just as there is a marriage of the understanding and the will in man. One expression has reference to truth, the other to good; thus one has reference to the intellect, for to this belongs truth, and the other to the will, for to this belongs good. Moreover the expressions in the Word consist of terms that constantly have such a signification.  This is the secret which lies concealed in two expressions being used for one thing (n. 683, 793, 801, 2173, 2516, 2712, 4138). So also here in regard to ”reigning over them“ and ”having dominion over them“ - ”reigning“ refers to truth which is of the understanding, and ”having dominion“ to good which is of the will. ”Kingdom“ is also predicated of truth (n. 1672, 2547), and ”dominion“ of good, as in Daniel, in which passage also the subject is the Lord‘s Divine Human:

There was given Him dominion and glory and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages should worship Him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not perish (Daniel 7:14);

and in David:

Thy kingdom is a kingdom of all eternities, and Thy dominion is into all generation and generation (Ps. 145:13).

AC 4692. And they added yet to hate him for his dreams, and for his words. That this signifies still greater contempt and aversion because of the preaching of truth - here concerning the Lord’s Divine Human - is evident from the signification of ”adding,“ as being more; from the signification of ”hating,“ as being to despise and be averse to (n. 4681); from the signification of a ”dream,“ as being preaching (n. 4682, 4685); and from the signification of ”words,“ as being truths. That ”words“ denote truths is because every word in heaven is from the Lord; therefore ”words“ in the internal sense signify truths, and the ”Word“ in general signifies all Divine truth.

[2] As regards the subject itself, this is the supreme truth of all which the church that has separated faith from charity especially despises, and to which it is averse, namely, that the Human of the Lord is Divine.  All who were of the Ancient Church and did not separate charity from faith, believed that the God of the universe was a Divine Man, and that He was the Divine being; and hence they named Him ”Jehovah.“ They knew this from the most ancient people, and also because He had appeared as a Man to some of their brethren. They also knew that all the rituals and externals of their church represented Him. But those who were of faith separate could not so believe, because they could not comprehend how the Human could be Divine, nor could they comprehend that the Divine love effected this; for whatever they did not comprehend from some idea received through the external senses of the holy, they regarded as nothing. Faith separate from charity is attended with this, for with those who hold it the internal of perception is closed, as there is no intermediate through which there can be influx.

[3] The Jewish Church which succeeded did indeed believe that Jehovah was Man and also God, because He had appeared as a man to Moses and the prophets, for which reason the Jews called every angel who appeared to them ”Jehovah;“ nevertheless they had no other idea of Him than the Gentiles had of their gods, to whom the Jews preferred Jehovah God because He could perform miracles (n. 4299), not knowing that Jehovah was ”the Lord“ in the Word (n. 2921, 3035), and that it was His Divine Human which all their rituals represented.  Their only thought of the Messiah or Christ was that He would be the greatest prophet, greater than Moses; and the greatest king, greater than David, who would bring them with stupendous miracles into the land of Canaan.  They did not wish to hear anything about His heavenly kingdom, because they apprehended nothing but worldly things, for they were separated from charity.

[4] The Christian Church, however, in external worship does indeed adore the Lord‘s Human as Divine, especially in the Holy Supper, because He said that the bread therein was His body, and the wine His blood; but in their doctrine they make His Human not Divine, for they make a distinction between the Divine nature and the human nature.  The reason of this also is that the church has turned away from charity to faith, and at last to faith separate.  And because they do not acknowledge the Lord’s Human to be Divine, many stumble and at heart deny Him (n. 4689). Nevertheless the truth is that the Lord‘s Divine Human is the Divine coming-forth from the Divine being, spoken of above (n. 4687), and that He is the Divine being, for the Divine being and the Divine coming-forth are one, as also the Lord plainly teaches in John

Jesus said to Philip, Have I been so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:9-11);

and also in other places.  For the Divine coming-forth is the Divine Itself proceeding from the Divine being, and in image is a Man; because heaven, of which it is the all, represents a Grand Man, as was said above (n. 4687), and has been shown at the end of the chapters, in the correspondence of all things in man therewith.

[5] The Lord was indeed born as is another man, and had an infirm human from the mother; but this human the Lord entirely cast out, so that He was no longer the son of Mary, and made the Human in Himself Divine, which is meant by His being glorified; and He also showed to Peter, James, and John, when He was transfigured, that He was a Divine Man.

AC 4693. And he dreamed yet another dream. That this signifies again a preaching, is evident from the signification of a ”dream,“ as being a preaching (n. 4682).

AC 4694. And told it to his brethren, and said. That this signifies in the presence of those who are of faith separate, is evident from the representation of Joseph’s brethren, as being those who are of faith separate (n. 4665, 4671, 4679, 4690).

AC 4695. Behold I have dreamed yet a dream. That this signifies the contents of the preaching, is evident from what was said above (n. 4685).

AC 4696. And behold the sun and the moon. That this signifies natural good and natural truth, is evident from the signification of the ”sun,“ as being celestial good (n. 1529, 1530, 2120, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060); and from the signification of the ”moon,“ as being spiritual good, or truth (n. 1529, 1530, 2495). The ”sun“ in the supreme sense signifies the Lord, because He appears as a sun to those in heaven who are in celestial love; and the ”moon“ also in the supreme sense signifies the Lord, because He appears as a moon to those in heaven who are in spiritual love; all the light in heaven is thence. Therefore the light from the sun there is the celestial of love, or good, and the light from the moon there is the spiritual of love, or truth; in the present passage therefore the ”sun“ is natural good, and the ”moon“ natural truth, because they are predicated of Jacob and Leah, as is evident from (verse 10), where Jacob says, ”Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?“ for by Jacob is represented natural good, and by Leah natural truth, as before occasionally shown. The Divine which comes from the Lord is in the supreme sense the Divine in Him; but in the relative sense is the Divine from Him.  The Divine good from Him is what is called celestial, and the Divine truth from Him is what is called spiritual.  When the rational receives these, the good and the truth of the rational are what are signified; but when the natural receives them, the good and truth of the natural are what are signified. Here they are the good and truth of the natural, because they are predicated of Jacob and Leah.

AC 4697. And eleven stars.  That this signifies the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the signification of ”stars,“ as being the knowledges of good and truth.  That ”stars“ have this signification in the Word is because they are small luminaries which shine at night, when they give forth into our atmosphere gleams of light, just as knowledges give forth gleams of good and truth.  That such knowledges are signified by ”stars,“ is evident from many passages in the Word, as in Jeremiah:

Thus said Jehovah who giveth the sun for a light by day, and the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night, who stirreth up the sea that the waves thereof are tumultuous (Jer. 31:35);

where a new church is treated of, and by ”giving the sun for a light by day“ is signified the good of love and of charity, and by ”giving the ordinances of the moon and of the stars for a light by night“ is signified truth and knowledges.

[2] So too in David:

Jehovah who made great luminaries, the sun to rule by day, and the moon and stars to rule by night (Ps. 136:7-9);

one who knows nothing of the internal sense of the Word will believe that by the ”sun“ here is meant the sun of the world, and by the ”moon and stars,“ the moon and stars of the world; but from this arises no spiritual and heavenly sense, and yet the Word is heavenly in every particular; from which again it is evident that the goods of love and charity, and the truths of faith, together with the knowledges of these, are what is signified.

[3] So also in the first chapter of Genesis, where the new creation of the celestial man is described:

God said, Let there be luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to distinguish between the day and the night; and let them be for signs and for stated times, and for days and for years; and let them be for luminaries in the expanse of the heavens to give light upon the earth; and it was so And God made two great luminaries; the greater luminary to rule by day, and the lesser luminary to rule by night; and the stars. And God set them in the expanse of the heavens to give light up on the earth, and to rule in the day and in the night, and to distinguish between the light and the darkness (Gen. 1:14-18; n. 30-38).

[4] In Matthew:

Immediately after the affliction of those days the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken (Matthew 24:29);

that here by the ”sun and moon“ are signified love and charity, or good and truth, and by the ”stars“ knowledges, may be seen above (n. 4060); and because the last day or the last state of the church is here treated of, by ”the sun being darkened and the moon not giving her light“ is signified that then the good of love and of charity Will perish; and by ”the stars falling from heaven,“ that the knowledges of good and of truth will also perish.

[5] That these things are signified, is evident from the prophetic parts of the Word, in which similar things are said of the last state of the church, as in Isaiah;

Behold the day of Jehovah cometh cruel, to make the earth a waste, and He shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it For the stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not shine with their light the sun shall be darkened in his rising, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine (Isa. 13:9, 10).

In Joel:

The day of Jehovah is near. The sun and the moon have been blackened, and the stars have withdrawn their shining (Joel 3:14, 16).

In Ezekiel:

When I shall extinguish thee I will cover the heavens, and I will blacken the stars thereof; I Will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not make her light to shine, all the luminaries of light in heaven will I make black over thee, and will set darkness upon thy land. (Ezek. 32:7, 8)

And in the Revelation:

The fourth angel sounded, and the third part of the sun was smitten, and the third part of the moon, and the third part of the stars; that the third part of them should be darkened, and the day should not shine for the third part of it, and the night in like manner (Rev. 8:12).

[6] Moreover that ”stars“ are the knowledges of good and truth is plain from the following passages: in Daniel:

Out of one of the horns of the he-goat came forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward adornment. And it grew even to the army of the heavens; and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them (Daniel 8:9, 10);

and in the Revelation:

The great dragon with his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth (Rev. 12:4).

That ”stars“ are not meant in these passages, is evident.  In Daniel and the Revelation is described the state of the church in its last times.

[7] Likewise in David:

Jehovah counteth the number of the stars; He giveth names to all (Ps. 147:4).

Again:

Praise ye Jehovah sun and moon, praise Him all ye stars of light (Ps 148:3)

And in the Revelation:

A great sign was seen in heaven; a woman encompassed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars (Rev. 12:1).

[8] As ”stars“ signify the knowledges of good and truth, they signify also the doctrinals of the church, for these are knowledges.  The doctrinal respecting faith separate from charity in the last times, is thus described by a star in the Revelation:

The third angel sounded, and there fell from heaven a great star burning as a torch, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters; and the name of the star is called Wormwood, and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter (Rev. 8:10, 11)

the waters made bitter by this star are truths, and the ”rivers and fountains of waters“ are intelligence thence and wisdom from the Word. ”Waters“ are truths, (n. 2702, 3058, 3424); ”rivers“ are intelligence, (n. 3051); and ”fountains“ are wisdom from the Word, (n. 2702, 3424).

AC 4698. Bowed down themselves to me.  That this signifies adoration, is evident from the signification of ”bowing down themselves,“ as being adoration, of which above (n. 4689).

AC 4699. And he told it to his father, and to his brethren. That this signifies that it was given to know it, may be seen without explication.

AC 4700. And his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? That this signifies indignation, is evident from the signification of ”rebuking,“ as being to be indignant, and this because of the preaching of truth concerning the Lord‘s Divine Human, which preaching is signified by ”dreaming a dream“ (n. 4682, 4693, 4695). The father and brethren of Joseph here denote the Jewish religion derived from the ancient. The external of this religion was for the most part like the external of the Ancient Church. With those who were of the Ancient Church however there was an internal in their externals, but not with those who were of the Jewish religion, because the Jews did not acknowledge any internal, nor do they at this day; and yet there was an internal within. This external with its internal is what is here called ”father,“ and the external without the internal is what is called ”brethren;“ hence the statement follows that ”his brethren envied him, but his father kept the word;“ and by the first words are signified the aversion of those who are in an external without the internal, and by the last is signified that truth still remained in their religion.

[2] This is the same as it is in the Christian Church, where those who are in the external without the internal eat the bread and drink the wine in the Holy Supper with no other thought than that this should be done because it has been commanded and is accepted by the church. Some of them believe that the bread and the wine are holy, but not that the holiness in them comes from the fact that ”bread“ is the holy of love and charity in heaven, and that ”wine“ is the holy of charity and faith there (n. 3464, 3735). Whereas those who are in external and at the same time in internal worship do not adore the bread and wine, but the Lord whom these represent, and from whom is the holy of love, of charity, and of faith; and this they do, not from doctrine, but from love, charity, and faith, appropriated to the life.

AC 4701. Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth? That this signifies will the church adore, is evident from the signification of  ”coming to bow down,“ as being to be about to adore (n. 4689, 4698); and from the signification of ”father“ (who here is ”I“), and ”mother“ and ”brethren,“ as being the church, here the Jewish Church, as just shown.

AC 4702. And his brethren envied him.  That this signifies their     aversion, is evident from the signification of ”envying,“ as also being aversion, like ”to hate,“ and ”not to speak to him for peace,“ as above (n. 4681); for in the original the word ”envying“ signifies also being jealous and quarreling; and as jealousy and quarreling are the effects of hatred, aversion also is signified by the same word.

AC 4703. But his father kept the word.  That this signifies that truth remained in their religiosity, is evident from the signification here of ”father“ as being the Jewish religion derived from the ancient (n. 4700); and from the signification of ”keeping,“ as being to preserve inwardly, thus to remain; and from the signification of ”word,“ as being truth (n. 4692).  What is further meant by truth remaining in their religiosity may be seen above (n. 4700).

AC 4704. Verses 12-17. And his brethren went to feed the flock of their father in Shechem.  And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem.” come, and I will send thee into them. And he said to him, Behold me! And he said to him, Go I pray see the peace of thy brethren, and the peace of the flock, and bring me word again.  And he sent him out of the valley of Hebron, and he came to Shechem.  And a man found him, and behold he was wandering in the field; and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou? And he said, I seek my brethren, tell me I pray where they are feeding the flock. And the man said, They are departed hence, for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan.  And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan. “And his brethren went to feed the flock,” signifies those who teach from faith; “of their father,” signifies of the Ancient and of the Primitive Church; “in Shechem,” signifies the first rudiments; “and Israel said unto Joseph,” signifies perception from the Divine spiritual; “Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem?” signifies that they are teaching; “come, and I will send thee  unto them,” signifies that it should teach Divine spiritual goods; “and he said to him, Behold me,” signifies affirmation; “and he said to him, Go I pray see the peace of thy brethren,” signifies every coming of the Lord, and perception how it was with those who taught; “and the peace of the flock,” signifies how it was with those who were learning, or the church; “and bring me word again,” signifies knowledge; “and he sent him out of the valley of Hebron,” signifies from the natural and sensuous Divine; “and he came to Shechem,” signifies the knowledge of general doctrinals; “and a man found him, and behold he was wandering in the field,” signifies that they were fallen away from the general truth of the church; “and the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou?” signifies foresight; “and he said, I seek my brethren, tell me I pray where they are feeding the flock,” signifies the knowledge of how the case was, and in what state they were; “and the man said, They are departed hence, for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan,” signifies that they betook themselves from generals to special things of doctrine; “and Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan,” signifies that they were in the special things of false principles.

AC 4705. And his brethren went to feed the flock. That this signifies those who teach from faith, is evident from the signification of Joseph’s “brethren,” as being those in the church who are of faith (n. 4665, 4671, 4679, 4690); and from the signification of “feeding the flock,” as being to teach (n. 343, 3767, 3768, 3772, 3783).

AC 4706. Of their father. That this signifies of the Ancient and of the Primitive Church, is evident from the signification here of “father,” or Jacob, as being the Ancient Church (n. 4680); that the Primitive Christian Church is likewise signified; may also be seen above (n. 4690). By the Primitive Church is meant the Christian Church in its beginning. In general four churches distinct from one another are treated of in the Word. There is the church which existed after the flood and was named Man; this is called the Most Ancient Church. Next is the one that existed after the flood, which is called the Ancient Church. Then followed that with the posterity of Jacob, which was not a church, but the representative of a church; which representative is also called a religiosity. And there is the one that was set up after the Lord‘s coming, which is called the Christian Church.  It is this in its beginning that is called the Primitive Church.

AC 4707. In Shechem.  That this signifies the first rudiments, is evident from the signification of “Shechem,” as being truth derived from the ancient Divine stock (n. 4399, 4454), and as being doctrine (n. 4472, 4473), here the first rudiments of doctrine concerning faith; for the predication of a name is according to the subject in its series.  The first rudiments are also the generals of doctrinals; the generals being what are received first, and the specific things then following.

AC 4708. And Israel said unto Joseph.  That this signifies perception from the Divine spiritual, is evident from the signification of “saying” in the historicals of the Word as being perception (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619, 2862, 3395, 3509); and from the representation of Joseph as being the Divine spiritual (n. 4669).

AC 4709. Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem? That this signifies that they are teaching, is evident from the signification of “feeding the flock” as being to teach (n. 4705); and from the signification of “Shechem” as being the first rudiments of doctrine concerning faith (n. 4707).

AC 4710. Come, and I will send thee unto them.  That this signifies that it should teach Divine spiritual goods, is evident from the representation of Joseph as being the Lord’s Divine spiritual (n. 4669, 4708). When this is said to be “sent,” it denotes to teach Divine spiritual goods; for in the internal sense “to be sent” is to go forth and to proceed In. 2397), and also at the same time to teach; here therefore it is to teach the Divine spiritual goods which proceed from the Lord‘s Divine  spiritual.  Divine spiritual goods are those which are of love and charity; but Divine spiritual truths are those which are of the faith thence.  One who teaches the former, teaches also the latter; for the latter are from the former and concerning them. That in the internal sense “to be sent” is to proceed and to teach, is evident from many passages in the Word, as where it is often said of the Lord that He was “sent” by the Father, whereby is signified that He proceeded from Him, that is, from the Divine good; and also that the Lord “sends” the Comforter, or the Spirit of Truth, whereby is signified that holy truth proceeds from Him. The prophets also were “sent,” by which is signified that they taught what proceeds from the Lord.  Everyone may confirm these things from the Word, where they Often occur.

AC 4711. And he said to him, Behold me! That this signifies affirmation, is evident without explication.

AC 4712. And he said to him, Go I pray see the peace of thy brethren. That this signifies every coming of the Lord, and perception how it was with those who taught, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being perception (n. 4708); and from the signification of “peace,” as being safety (n. 4681), thus how it was with them; and from the representation of brethren, as here being those who teach from faith (n. 4705). From this it is plain that by these words is signified perception how it was with those who taught. That every coming of the Lord is also signified, is because by Joseph is represented the Lord as to the Divine spiritual (n. 4669, 4708, 4710); and therefore when it is said that Joseph should go and see the peace of his brethren, the coming of the Lord is signified. By every coming is meant whenever truth from the Word flows into the thought.

AC 4713. And the peace of the flock. That this signifies how it was with those who were learning, or the church, is evident from the signification of “peace” as being how it was with them (n. 4712); and from the signification of a “flock” as being those who are learning. For a “shepherd,” or one who feeds the flock, denotes one who teaches the good of charity and leads to it; and the “flock” denotes one who learns and is led (n. 343); thus also the church.

AC 4714. And bring me word again. That this signifies knowledge, is evident from the signification of “bringing word again,” as being to report how matters were, thus knowledge.

AC 4715. And he sent him out of the valley of Hebron. That this signifies from the natural and sensuous Divine, is evident from the signification of “to be sent,” as being to proceed and to teach (n. 4710); and from the signification of a “valley” as being those things which are below (n. 1723, 3417); and from the signification of “Hebron” as being the Lord’s church as to good (n. 2909).  Thus by these words is signified that it taught the lower things of the church, and this because they did not comprehend higher things.  For he who teaches faith, and not charity, is unable to notice the higher or interior things of the church; because he has nothing to guide him, and to dictate whether this or that is of faith, or is true.  But if he teaches charity, he then has good, and this is to him a dictate and guides him; for all truth is from good and treats of good, or what is the same, everything of faith is from charity and treats of charity.  Everyone, from mere natural light, can know that everything of doctrine has regard to life.

[2] That by these words is signified from the natural and sensuous Divine, is the higher sense; for the lower things of the church are said to be from the Lord‘s natural and sensuous Divine; not that in the Lord these things are lower, because in the Lord and in His Divine Human all is infinite, inasmuch as He is Jehovah as to each essence (n. 2156, 2329, 2921, 3023), but because it is so in man. For those who are sensuous men apprehend sensuously the things which are in the Lord and from Him, and those who are natural apprehend them naturally.  It is so said because of the quality of those who receive.  But those who are celestial men, and thence truly rational, perceive interior things, and it is said of them that they are taught from the Lord’s rational Divine.  This as before said is the higher sense signified by the words.

[3] That a “valley” is the lower things of the church, is evident from other passages in the Word, as in Isaiah;

The prophecy of the valley of vision. What hast thou here, that thou art wholly gone up to the housetops? It is a day of tumult, and of treading down, and of perplexity, to the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth, in the valley of vision (Isa. 22:1, 5);

the “valley of vision” denotes phantasies concerning spiritual things from sensuous, thus from lower things.  Again:

The choice of thy valleys were full of chariots, and the horsemen placing placed themselves at the gate (Isa. 22:7);

the “choice of the valleys” denotes good and true things in the natural or external man.  Again:

The voice of one crying in the Wilderness, Prepare ye the Way of Jehovah, make level in the solitude a pathway for our God; every valley shall be exalted (Isa. 40:3, 4);

a “valley” denotes low things.

[4] In Jeremiah:

How sayest thou, I am not defiled, I have not gone after the Baalim? See thy way in the valley, acknowledge what thou hast done (Jer. 2:23);

where “valley” denotes things of the memory and of the senses, which are lower things by which they perverted truths. Again:

I am against thee O inhabitress of the valley, and rock of the plain, saith Jehovah; who say, Who will come down against us? (Jer. 21:13);

the “inhabitress of the valley and rock of the plain” denote faith in which there is no charity.  Again:

The waster shall come upon every city, and no city shall escape but the valley shall perish, and the plain shall be destroyed (Jer. 48:8);

with a similar meaning.  Again:

Thou shalt not glory in the valleys; thy valley hath flowed away O perverse daughter (Jeremiah 49:4);

“valley” denotes external things in worship, which are also the lowest.

[5] In Ezekiel:

I will give to Gog a place for burial in Israel, the valley of them that pass through, and there shall they bury Gog and all his multitude whence they shall call it, The valley of the multitude of Gog (Ezek. 39:11, 15)

“Gog” denotes those who are in external worship without internal (n. 1151), whence his burial place is called “the valley of them that pass through,” and “the valley of the multitude of Gog.” In David:

Yea, when I walk through the valley of shadow I will fear no evil (Ps. 23:4);

where the “valley of shadow” denotes lower things, which are relatively in shade.

[6] As valleys were between mountains and hills, and below them, therefore by “valleys” are signified the lower or exterior things of the church, because by hills and mountains are signified its higher or interior things, by “hq” things which are of charity, and by “mountains” those which are of love to the Lord (n. 795, 1430, 2722, 4210); and as by the land of Canaan is signified the Lord‘s kingdom and His church, therefore it is called “a land of mountains and valleys, that drinketh water of the rain of heaven” (Deut. 11:11).  That Joseph is here said to have been sent out of the valley of Hebron is because the mission was to those who taught concerning faith (n. 4705); for those who are in faith, and not in’ charity, are in lower things; because with them faith is only in the memory and thence in the mouth, but not in the heart and thence in the work.

AC 4716. And he came to Shechem.  That this signifies knowledge of general doctrinals, is evident from the signification of “Shechem,” as being the first rudiments, or what is the same thing, the generals of doctrinals (n. 4707).

AC 4717. And a man found him, and behold he was wandering in the field.  That this signifies that they were fallen away from the general truth of the church, is evident from the signification of “wandering in the field,” as being to fall away from the general truth of the church; for a “field” is the church as to good (n. 2971, 3196, 3766), and a “man of the field” is the good of life from doctrinals (n. 3310).  It is said a “man,” because by a “man (vir)” is signified the truth of the church (n. 3134).  Those are said to fall away from the general truth of the church who acknowledge the Lord, but not His Human as Divine; and also those who acknowledge faith as essential, but not charity.  Each is a general truth of the church, and when a man recedes from it he falls away from general truth; and whoever does this, soon falls away from specific truths; just as when anyone starts with a false principle and from it deduces consequences, these also become false, because the principle rules in the consequents, and by these the false principle is also strengthened.

AC 4718. And the man asked him, saying, What seekest thou? That this signifies foresight, may be seen from the series, for the series involves foresight.

AC 4719. And he said, I seek my brethren; tell me I pray where they are feeding the flock?  That this signifies knowledge of how the case was, and what state they were in; proximately, according to the words, how it was with those who taught from faith, and to learn their state, is evident; for by the “brethren” are signified those who teach from faith (n. 4712); how it was with them is signified by “seeking them,” or “seeing their peace” (n. 4712, 4713); by “where” is signified state, for in the internal sense everything relating to place denotes state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321); and by “those who feed” are signified those who teach (n. 343, 3767, 3768, 3772, 3783).

AC 4720. And the man said, They are departed hence, for I heard them say, Let us go to Dothan. That this signifies that they betook themselves from generals to special things of doctrine, is evident from the signification of “departing,” as being to betake themselves; and from the signification of “from Shechem,” which is the place they departed from, as being from the generals of doctrine (n. 4707, 4716); and from the signification of “Dothan,” as being the special things of doctrine. That “Dothan” is the special things of doctrine cannot so well be confirmed from other passages in the Word, because it is mentioned in the second book of Kings only (2 Kings 6:13), where it is related that the king of Syria sent chariots and horsemen and a great army to Dothan to take Elisha, and that they were smitten with blindness and led by Elisha to Samaria.

[2] As all the historicals of the Word are representative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord‘s kingdom, so also is this, and by the king of Syria are represented those who are in the knowledges of truth (n. 1232, 1234, 3249, 3664, 3680, 4112); here in the opposite sense those who are in the knowledges of what is not true; by Elisha is represented the Word of the Lord (n. 2762); by Dothan, doctrinals from the Word; by the chariots and horsemen and the great army which the king of Syria sent, are signified falsities of doctrine; by the mountain full of horses and chariots of fire round about Elisha, which his young man saw, are signified the good and true things of doctrine from the Word (n. 2762); by the blindness with which those were smitten who were sent thither by the king of Syria, are signified the falsities themselves (n. 2383); and by their being led by Elisha to Samaria, where their eyes were opened, is signified instruction by means of the Word.  Such things are involved in this history, in which by Dothan, where Elisha was, are signified doctrinal things of good and truth from the Word.  Its signification in the present verse is similar, the special things of doctrine being nothing else; but here the special things of false principles are signified, because the subject treated of is the church that begins from faith, which it thus separates from charity from the very beginning.  All the doctrinals which are then formed savor of the general principle, thus of faith without charity; whence come the falsities which are the special things of the false principles.

[3] Every church in its beginning knows only the generals of doctrine, for it is then in its simplicity, and as it were in its childhood; but in the course of time it adds particulars, which in part are confirmations of the generals, and in part additions (which however are not contrary to the generals), and also explanations to reconcile plain contradictions and to avoid violence to the dictates of common sense.  All these things are nevertheless the special things of false principles; for all things of every doctrine which recognize the general principle as father, have relation to one another as in a kind of fellowship, and are conjoined as if by relationships of blood and of marriage.  It is plain from this that when the general principle is false, all things savor of falsity.

AC 4721. And Joseph went after his brethren, and found them in Dothan.  That this signifies that they were in the special things of false principles, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being the Lord as to Divine truth (n. 4669); from the representation of his brethren, as being the church that turns away from charity to faith, and at last to faith separate (n. 4665, 4671, 4679, 4680, 4690); and from the signification of “Dothan,” as being the special things of false principles (n. 4720).  From this it is plain that by these words is signified that it found them in the special things of false principles.

[2] That it may be known what is meant by the special things of false principles, let us take for illustration some of the doctrinals of a church which acknowledges faith alone as a principle, as that man is justified by faith alone, that then all sins are wiped away from him, that he may be saved by faith alone even in the last hour of his life, that salvation is merely admission into heaven through grace, that children also are saved by faith, that the Gentiles because they have no faith are not saved; besides many others.  These and the like are the special things belonging to the principle of faith alone. But if the church would acknowledge as its principle the life of faith, it would acknowledge charity toward the neighbor and love to the Lord, consequently the works of charity and of love, and then all these special things would fall to pieces; and instead of justification it would acknowledge regeneration, in regard to which the Lord says in John,

“Except a man be born anew, he cannot see the kingdom of God” (John 3:3);

and it would acknowledge that regeneration is effected by a life of faith, but not by faith separate. Neither would it profess that all sins are then wiped away from man, but that it is of the Lord’s mercy that he is withheld from them, and kept in good and thence in truth; thus that all good is from the Lord, and all evil from himself. Nor would the church profess that man may be saved by faith in the last hour of his life, but by the life of faith which abides with him. Neither would it profess that salvation is mere admission into heaven through grace, for heaven is denied by the Lord to no one; but it would acknowledge that if one‘s life is not such that he can be with angels, he flees from heaven of his own will (n. 4674). Nor would it profess that children are saved by faith, but that in the other life they are instructed in the goods of charity and the truths of faith by the Lord, and so are received into heaven (n. 2289-2308). Nor would it profess that because the Gentiles have no faith they are not saved; but that their life remains with them as with others, and that those who have lived in mutual charity are instructed in the goods of faith, and are alike received into heaven, as is both wished and believed by those who are in the good of life (n. 2589-2604); and so in many other particulars.

[3] The church which acknowledges faith alone as a principle cannot know what charity is, nor even what the neighbor is, thus not what heaven is; and it will wonder that anyone should ever say that the happiness of the life after death and the joy in heaven is the Divine which flows into willing well and doing well to others, and that the happiness and the blessedness therefrom transcend all perception, and that the reception of this influx can never be given to anyone who has not lived a life of faith, that is, who has not been in the good of charity. That a life of faith saves, the Lord teaches plainly in (Matthew 25:31-46), and in many other places; and hence also the creed which is called the creed of Athanasius teaches at the end, “Everyone shall render an account of his works; he who has done well shall enter into life eternal, but he who has done ill into eternal fire.”

AC 4722. Verses 18-22.  And they saw him afar off, and before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to cause him to die.  And they said a man to his brother, Behold this lord of dreams cometh.  Come now therefore and let us slay him, and cast him into one of the pits, and we will say, An evil wild beast hath devoured him; and we shall see what his dreams will be.  And Reuben heard, and rescued him out of their hand, and said, Let us not smite him, the soul.  And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood; cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but lay no hand upon him; that he might rescue him out of their hand, to bring him back to his father.  “And they saw him afar off,” signifies perception of the Lord’s Divine Human remotely; “and before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to cause him to die,” signifies that they wished to extinguish the Divine spiritual which is from the Lord‘s Divine Human; “and they said a man to his brother,” signifies their mutual thoughts; “behold, this lord of dreams cometh,” signifies that those things were empty; “come now therefore and let us slay him,” signifies the extinction of the essential of doctrine concerning the Lord’s Divine Human; “and cast him into one of the pits,” signifies among falsities; “and we will say an evil wild beast hath devoured him,” signifies a lie from a life of cupidities; “and we shall see what will become of his dreams,” signifies that the teachings concerning it would thus be false and would appear so; “and Reuben heard,” signifies confession of the faith of the church in general; “and rescued him out of their hand,” signifies liberation; “and said let us not smite him, the soul,” signifies that it must not be extinguished, because it is the life of religion; “and Reuben said unto them,” signifies exhortation; “shed no blood,” signifies that they should not do violence to what is holy; “cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness,” signifies that they should conceal it meanwhile among their falsities; “but lay no hand upon him,” signifies that they should not do violence to it; “that he might rescue him out of their hind, to bring him back to his father,” signifies that it might claim it for the church.

AC 4723. And they saw him afar off.  That this signifies perception of the Lord‘s Divine Human remotely, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being perception (n. 2150, 3764); from the signification of “afar off,” as being remotely; and from the representation of Joseph, who it was that they saw afar off, as being the Lord as to Divine truth (n. 4669). That it is the Lord’s Divine Human which is here meant by “Joseph,” is because this is the supreme of Divine truth. There are two essentials which constitute the church, and hence two principal things of doctrine - one, that the Lord‘s Human is Divine; the Other, that love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor make the church, and not faith separate from love and charity. Because these are the primary things of Divine truth, these also are represented by Joseph; for the same person that represents Divine truth in general, represents also the specific things of Divine truth; but what is specifically represented, is evident from the series.

AC 4724. And before he came near into them, they conspired against him to cause him to die. That this signifies that they wished to extinguish the Divine spiritual which is from the Lord’s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of “conspiring,” as being to will from a depraved mind, since whatever men will from a depraved mind, they conspire to accomplish; and from the signification of “slaying,” as being to extinguish; and from the representation of Joseph, as being the Divine spiritual or Divine truth, as repeatedly shown above.  Because Divine truth proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine Human, it is therefore said, the Divine spiritual which is from the Lord’s Divine Human.

[2] The case herein is this: All the Divine truth in the whole heaven proceeds from no other source than the Lord‘s Divine Human. That which is from the Divine Itself cannot flow in immediately with any angel, because it is infinite; but only mediately through the Lord’s Divine Human, as is also meant by these words of the Lord,

“No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth” (John 1:18).

For this reason also the Lord as to the Divine Human is called Mediator

[3] This also was from eternity, for the Divine being, without Bowing through heaven and becoming thence the Divine coming-forth, could not be communicated to any angel, still less to any spirit, and less still to any man.  That the Lord as to the Divine Itself is the Divine being, and as to the Divine Human is the Divine coming-forth, may be seen above (n. 4687).  Neither could the Lord‘s Human itself have received any influx from the Divine being, unless in Him the Human had been made Divine; for that which receives the Divine being must also be Divine.  From these few things it may be seen that Divine truth does not proceed immediately from the Divine Itself, but from the Lord’s Divine Human.

[4] This also do they extinguish in themselves who battle for faith alone and do not live a life of faith; for they believe that the Lord‘s Human is purely human, not unlike the human of another man; and hence many of them deny the Divine of the Lord, however they may profess Him with the lips.  But those who live a life of faith, on bended knees and with humble hearts adore the Lord as God the Saviour, and do not then at all think from doctrine of the distinction between the Divine and the human nature; and they do the same in the Holy Supper. Hence it is plain that with them the Lord’s Divine Human  is in their hearts.

AC 4725. And they said a man to his brother.  That this signifies their mutual thoughts, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being to perceive and to think (n. 3395); and from the signification of “a man to his brother,” as being mutually. It was a customary form of speech with the ancients to say “a man to his brother” when what is mutual was signified; for the reason that a “man” signified truth (n. 3134, 3459), and a “brother” good (n. 4121), between which there intervenes a most intimate mutual relation; for the conjunction of truth with good and of good with truth takes place mutually and reciprocally (n. 2731).

AC 4726. Behold this lord of dreams cometh. That this signifies that those things were empty, is evident from the signification of “dreams,” as being preachings (n. 4682), here preachings of Divine truth, because it is said of Joseph.  But because Divine truth as to its essentials is rejected by those who are faith alone (as was shown in regard to the Lord‘s Divine Human and charity), therefore by “dreams” are here signified empty things; for to such persons falsities appear as truths, and truths as falsities, or if not as falsities, yet as empty things; and the “lord of dreams” is the preacher of these.  That Divine truths appear to such persons as empty, is evident from many thing as for example, it is a Divine truth that the Word is holy and Divinely inspired as to every jot, and that its holiness and Divine inspiration are in consequence of everything in it being representative and significative of heavenly and spiritual things of the Lord’s kingdom. But when the Word is open to the internal sense, and it is taught what its particulars represent and signify, then such as are in faith alone reject these things as empty, saying that they are of no use; although these heavenly and spiritual things are what would affect the internal man with greater delight than worldly things affect the external man; and so in many other instances.

AC 4727. Come now therefore and let us slay him. That this signifies the extinction of the essential of doctrine concerning the Lord‘s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of “slaying,” as being to extinguish; and from the representation of Joseph, whom they wished to kill, as being the Divine truth of the Lord, and specifically the doctrine concerning His Divine Human, which has been shown above to be an essential of doctrine (n. 4723). That the church in acknowledging faith alone has extinguished this essential truth, is known; for which of them believes the Lord’s Human to be Divine? Do they not turn away at the very proposition? when yet in the ancient churches it was believed that the Lord who was to come into the world was a Divine Man, and also when seen by them He was called Jehovah, as is plain from many passages in the Word, but for the present only this from Isaiah will be adduced:

The voice of one crying the wilderness, Prepare ye the Way of Jehovah, make level in the solitude a pathway for our God (Isa.  40:3).

That these words were spoken of the Lord, and that by John the Baptist the way was prepared and a pathway made level for Him, is very evident from the evangelists (Matt. 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4; John 1:23); and further from the Lord‘s own words, that He was one with the Father, and that the Father was in’ Him, and He in the Father; also that to Him was given all power in heaven and on earth, and that judgment belonged to Him.  One who knows even a little about power in heaven and on earth, and about judgment, can know that they would be nothing unless He were Divine as to the Human also.

[2] Those who are in faith alone cannot know what makes man new or sanctifies him, still less what made the Lord‘s Human Divine; for they know nothing of love and charity, and it is love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor that make man new and sanctify him, while the Divine love itself made the Lord Divine. For love is the very being of man, and hence is his living; and it forms man according to an image of itself, just as the soul of man, which is his interior essence, as it were creates or fashions the body into an image, of itself; and indeed in such a way that by means of the body it acts and has sensation just as it wills and thinks.  Thus the body is as the effect, and the soul as the cause in which is the end; consequently the soul is the all in the body, as the cause of the end is the all in the effect.  The Human of Him whose soul was Jehovah Himself (as was the case with the Lord, for He was conceived of Jehovah) could not when glorified be other than Divine.  From this it is plain how greatly those err who make the Lord’s Human, after it was glorified, to be like the human of a man, when yet it is Divine. From His Divine Human proceeds all the wisdom, all the intelligence, and also all the light, in heaven.  Whatever proceeds from Him is holy; and the holy that is not from the Divine is not holy.

AC 4728. And cast him into one of the pits.  That this signifies among falsities, is evident from the signification of “pits,” as being falsities.  That “pits” are falsities, is because men who have been in principles of falsity are after death kept awhile under the lower earth, until falsities have been removed from them, and as it were rejected to the sides.  These places are called “pits,” and those who go into them are such as must be in vastation (n. 1106-1113, 2699, 2701, 2704).  It is for this reason that by “pits,” in‘ the abstract sense, are signified falsities. The lower earth is next under the feet and the region round about for a short distance. Here are most persons after death, before they are taken up into heaven. This earth is also frequently mentioned in the Word. Beneath it are the places of vastation, which are called “pits,” and below them and round about for a considerable extent, are hells.

[2] From this it is in some measure plain what is meant by “hell,” what by the “lower earth,” and what by a “pit,” when mentioned in the Word, as in Isaiah:

Thou hast been brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.  Thou hast been cast forth out of thy grave like an abominable shoot, the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit (Isa. 14:15, 19);

speaking of the king of Babylon, by whom is represented the profanation of truth; for a “king” is truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581), and “Babylon” profanation (n. 1182, 1326). “Hell” is where the damned are, and their damnation is compared to an abominable shoot, and to the raiment of those that are slain and thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit. The “raiment of those that are slain” is truth profaned; “those thrust through with the sword” are they in whom truth has been extinguished; the “pit” is falsity which must be vastated; “stones” are the borders, whence also they are called the “sides,” for round about the pits are hells. “Raiment” is truth, (n. 2576); the “raiment of those that are slain” is truth profaned, for the “blood” by which it is stained is what is profane, (n. 1003); and “those thrust through with a sword” are they in whom truth has been extinguished, (n. 4503). From this it is also plain that without the internal sense it could not possibly be known what is here meant. 

[3] So too in Ezekiel:

Then I shall bring thee down with them that descend into the pit, to the people of an age, and shall make thee to dwell in the earth of the lower regions, in desolations from an age, that thou dwell not With them that go down into the pit; then will I set adornment in the land of the living (Ezek. 26:20);

“they that descend into the pit” denote those who are sent into vastation; “not to dwell with them that go down into the pit” means to be delivered from falsities.

[4] Again:

That none of all the trees of the Waters exalt themselves for their stature, neither send their branch among the tangled boughs, nor stand over them for their height, all that drink water; they shall all be delivered unto death, to the lower earth in the midst of the sons of men, to them that go down into the pit.  I will make the nations to shake at the sound of his ruin, when I make him go down into hell with them that go down into the pit; and all the trees of Eden, the choice and chief of Lebanon, all that drink waters, shall be comforted in the lower earth (Ezek. 31:14, 16);

this is said of Egypt, by which is signified the knowledge that of itself enters into the mysteries of faith, that is, those who so enter (n. 1164, 1165, 1186). From what has been said above it is clear what is signified by “hell,” by the “pit,” and by the “lower earth,” which are here mentioned by the prophet; nor does it appear except from the internal sense what is signified by the “trees of the waters,” the “trees of Eden,” the “branch sent among the tangled boughs,” the “choice and chief of Lebanon,” and “all that drink waters.”

[5] Again:

Son of man, wail for the multitude of Egypt, and cause her to go down, even her, and the daughters of the august nations, unto the earth of the lower regions, with them that go down into the pit.  Asshur is there, whose graves are set in the sides of the pit, all slain by the sword (Ezek. 32:18, 22, 23);

the signification of which may be seen from what has been explained above.  In David:

O Jehovah, Thou hast brought up my soul from hell; Thou hast kept me alive, from among them that go down into the pit (Ps. 30:3).

Again:

I am accounted with them that go down into the pit; I am accounted as a man that hath no strength.  Thou hast set me in a pit of the lower regions, in darkness, in the depths (Ps. 88:4, 6).

In Jonah:

I went down to the cuttings off of the mountains the bars of the earth were upon me forever; yet hast Thou brought up my life from the pit (Jonah 2:6);

where the subject treated of is the Lord’s temptations, and deliverance from them.  The “cuttings off of the mountains” are where the most damned are, the dark clouds which appear about them being the “mountains.”

[6] That a “pit” is the vastation of falsity, and in‘ the abstract sense falsity, is still more evident in Isaiah:

They shall be gathered with a gathering as the bound to the pit, and shall be shut up in the prison; yet after a multitude of days shall they be visited (Isa. 24:22).

Again:--

Where is the anger of him that causeth straitness? he that leadeth forth shall hasten to open; and he shall not die at the pit, neither shall bread fail (Isa. 51:13, 14).

In Ezekiel:

Behold I bring strangers upon thee the violent of the nations, who shall draw their swords upon the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall profane thy brightness.  They shall bring thee down into the pit, and thou shalt die the deaths of them that are pierced in the heart of the seas (Ezek. 28:7, 8);

speaking of the prince of Tyre, by whom are signified those who are in principles of falsity.

[7] In Zechariah

Exult greatly, O daughter of Zion sound, O daughter of Jerusalem behold thy King cometh unto thee; He is just, wretched, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of she-asses. By the blood of thy covenant I will send forth thy bound out of the pit wherein is no water (Zech. 9:9, 11);

where the “pit wherein is no water” denotes falsity in which there is nothing true; as also in what follows it is said that they cast Joseph into the pit, and the pit was empty, there was no water in it (Genesis 38:24).  In David:

Unto thee O Jehovah will I cry, my Rock be not Thou silent unto me, lest if Thou be silent unto me I seem like them that go down into the pit (Ps. 28:1).

Again:

Jehovah brought me up also out of a pit of vastation, out of the miry clay and He set my feet upon a rock (Ps. 40:2).

Again:

Let not the billow of waters overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up, and let not the pit shut her mouth upon me (Ps 69:15).

[8] Again:--

He sent His word, and healed them, and rescued them from their pits (Ps. 107:20);

“from their pits” denoting from falsities.  Again:

“make haste, answer me, O Jehovah; my spirit is consumed, hide not Thy faces from me, lest I become like them that go down into the pit (Ps. 142:7).

As a ”pit“ signifies falsity, and the ”blind“ signify those who are in falsities (n. 2383), the Lord therefore says,

”Let them alone; they are blind leaders of the blind, for if the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into a pit“ (Matt. 15:14; Luke 6:39).

Something similar to what was represented by Joseph was also represented by Jeremiah the prophet, concerning which be says:

They took Jeremiah, and cast him into the pit that was in the court of the guard and they let down Jeremiah with cords, into the pit where was no water (Jeremiah 38:6);

that is, they rejected Divine truths among falsities in which was nothing of truth.

AC 4729. And we will say, An evil wild beast hath devoured him.  That this signifies a lie from a life of cupidities, is evident from the signification of a ”wild beast,“ as being affection and cupidity (n. 45, 46); for a ”wild beast“ in the genuine sense denotes what is living (n. 774, 841, 908); hence by an ”evil wild beast“ is here signified a life of cupidities; that it is a lie is plain. This has reference to what goes before that their rejecting that Divine truth among falsities, was a lie from a life of cupidities. For there are three sources of falsity, one the doctrine of the church, another the fallacy of the senses, and the third a life of cupidities. That which is from the doctrine of the church takes hold of man’s intellectual part only; for he is persuaded from infancy that it is so, and confirmatory things afterwards strengthen it. But that which is from the fallacy of the senses does not so much affect the intellectual part; for those who are in falsity from the fallacy of the senses have but little insight from the understanding, because they think from lower and sensuous things. But the falsity which is from a life of cupidities springs from the will itself, or what is the same, from the heart; for what man wills from the heart, he desires. This falsity is the worst of all, because it inheres, and is not eradicated except by new life from the Lord.

[2] There are, as is known, two interior faculties in man, the understanding and the will. What the understanding absorbs and becomes imbued with, does not for this reason pass into the will; but what the will absorbs does pass into the understanding.  For whatever a man wills, he thinks; and therefore when he wills evil from cupidity, he thinks it and confirms it. The confirmations of evil by the thought are what are called falsities from a life of cupidities. These falsities appear to him as truths; and when he has confirmed them in himself, truths appear to him as falsities; for he has then shut out the influx of light through heaven from the Lord. But if he has not confirmed these falsities in himself, then the truths with which his understanding had previously been imbued, resist and do not permit them to be confirmed.

AC 4730. And we shall see what his dreams will be. That this signifies that the preachings concerning it would thus be false and would appear so, is evident from the signification of ”dreams,“ as being preachings (n. 4682); and as in their eyes these appeared as falsities (n. 4726, 4729), therefore by ”dreams“ here are signified preachings concerning Divine truth, especially that the Lord‘s Human is Divine, which preachings in their opinion were false. That they also appeared to them as falsities, is signified by their saying, ”We shall see what his dreams will be.“ That the preaching concerning the Lord’s Divine Human appeared and still appear as falsities to those who are in faith alone, may be seen from what was said just above (n. 4729); for what is confirmed from a life of cupidities has no other appearance.

[2] That falsities are confirmed from a life of cupidities is also from this cause, that they do not know what heaven is, nor hell, neither what love toward the neighbor is, nor the love of self and the world. If they knew these things, and even if they were but willing to know them, they would think very differently. Who at this day knows otherwise than that love toward the neighbor is to give what one has to the poor, and to assist every man with one‘s wealth, and to benefit him in every way, without distinction as to whether he is good or evil? And because by these means one would be stripped of his wealth, and would himself become poor and wretched, be therefore rejects the doctrine of charity, and embraces that of faith; and then he confirms himself against charity by many things, as by thinking that he was born in sins and hence can do no good of himself, and that if he does the works of charity or piety, he cannot but place merit in them. And when he thinks thus on the one hand, and from a life of cupidities on the other, he betakes himself to the side of those who say that faith alone saves. And when he is there, he confirms himself still more, until he believes that the works of charity are not necessary to salvation; and when these are excluded, he falls into this new notion that because such is the nature of man, a means of salvation has been provided by the Lord, which is called faith; and at last into this, that he may be saved if even at the very hour of death he says with confidence or trust that God has mercy upon him through looking to the Son as having suffered for him, making nothing of what the Lord has said in (John 1:12, 13), and many other places.  It is for this reason that faith alone has been acknowledged in the churches as the essential; but that it has not been everywhere acknowledged in this manner, is because the parsons cannot gain anything by preaching faith alone, but only by the preaching of works.

[3] But had these men known what charity toward the neighbor is, they would never have fallen into this falsity of doctrine. The fundamental of charity is to act rightly and justly in everything which be longs to one’s duty or employment as for example, if one who is a judge punishes an evil doer according to the laws, and does so from zeal, he is then in charity toward the neighbor; for he desires his amendment, thus his good, and also wills well to society and his country, that it receive no further injury from the evildoer; thus he can love him if he amends, as a father the son whom he chastises; and thus he loves societies and his country, which are to him the neighbor in general.  It is similar in all other instances.  But of the Lord‘s Divine Mercy this will be shown more fully elsewhere.

AC 4731. And Reuben heard.  That this signifies the confession of the faith of the church in general, is evident from the representation of Reuben, as being faith in the understanding or doctrine, which is the first thing of regeneration the complex the truth of doctrine by which the good of life can be attained (n. 3861, 3866); and here therefore the confession of the faith of the church in general.  That Reuben here interposes is because the church which begins from faith would cease to be a church unless this Divine truth remained in it-that the Lord’s Human is Divine, for this is the supreme or inmost truth of the church. For this reason Reuben wished to rescue Joseph, by whom this truth is here represented, out of the hand of his brethren, to restore him to his father by which is signified that it wished to claim this truth for the church. Moreover when Reuben returned to the pit and saw that Joseph was not there, he rent his clothes and said to his brethren, ”The child is not, and I, whither do I come?“ (verses 29, 30) by which is signified that there was no longer any faith in the Lord, and thus no church

[2] This supreme or inmost truth, that the Lord‘s Human is Divine, is denied by those in the church who are in faith alone; and yet because they know from the Word that in the Lord there is the Divine, and do not apprehend how the Human can be Divine, they therefore attribute both to the Lord, making a distinction between His Divine nature and His Human nature. Those however who are in a life of faith, or in charity, adore the Lord as their God and saviour; and when in adoration, they think of the Lord’s Divine without separating it from the Human, and thus at heart acknowledge all in the Lord to be Divine. But when they think from doctrine, because they likewise cannot comprehend how the Human can be Divine, they speak according to their doctrine.

AC 4732. And rescued him out of their hand. That this signifies liberation, is evident without explication.

AC 4733. And said, Let us not smite him, the soul. That this signifies that it must not be extinguished, because it is the life of religion, is evident from the signification of ”smiting,“ as being to extinguish; and from the signification of ”soul“ as being life (n. 1000, 1005, 1436, 1742), here the life of religion That acknowledgment and adoration of the Lord‘s Divine Human is the life of religion, is plain from what was said just above (n. 4731); and also from the fact that men are of such a nature as to desire to worship that of which they can have some perception and thought, and sensuous men even that which they can perceive by some sense, nor are they willing to worship unless the Divine is therein. This is common to the human race.  For this reason Gentiles worship idols in which they believe there is the Divine, and others worship men after their death whom they believe to be either gods or saints.  For nothing can be called forth in man unless there is something to affect his senses.

[2] Those who say that they acknowledge a Supreme Being, of whom they have no idea of perception, for the most part acknowledge no God, but nature instead, because they comprehend this.  Very many of the learned among Christians are such, and this also because they do not believe the Human of the Lord to be Divine.  Lest therefore men who have removed themselves so far from the Divine, and have become so far corporeal, should worship wood and stones; and lest they should worship some man after his death, and thus under him some devil, and not God Himself, because they could not in any way perceive Him, and thus everything of the church should perish, and with the church the human race, the Divine Itself willed to assume the Human and to make it Divine.  Let the learned take heed therefore, lest they think of the Lord’s Human and do not at the same time believe it to be Divine, for in so doing they make for themselves a stumbling block, and at last believe nothing.

AC 4734. And Reuben said unto them.  This signifies exhortation, in the proximate sense confession of the faith of the church in general, which is ”Reuben,“ (n. 4731) exhorting or dictating that they should not do violence, as in what follows.

AC 4735. Shed no blood.  That this signifies that they should not do violence to what is holy, is evident from the signification of ”blood“ as being what is holy which in what follows; hence ”to shed blood“ is to do violence to what is holy.  All the holy in heaven proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine Human, and therefore all the holy in the church; wherefore that violence might not be done to it, the Holy Supper was instituted by the Lord, in which it is expressly said that the bread is His flesh, and the wine His blood, thus that it is His Divine Human from which the holy then comes.  With the ancients, flesh and blood signified the human own, because the human consists of flesh and blood; thus the Lord said to Simon,

”Blessed art thou, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but My Father who is in the heavens“ (Matt. 16:17)

The flesh and the blood, therefore, signified by the bread and the wine in the Holy Supper, denote the Lord’s Human own The Lord‘s own itself, which He acquired to Himself by His own power, is Divine. His own from conception was what He had from Jehovah His Father, and was Jehovah Himself. Hence the own which He acquired to Himself in the Human, was Divine. This Divine own in the Human is what is called His flesh and blood; ”flesh“ is His Divine good (n. 3813), and ”blood“ is the Divine truth of Divine good.

[2] The Lord’s Human, after it was glorified or made Divine, cannot be thought of as human, but as the Divine love in human form; and this so much the more than the angels, who, when they appear (as seen by me), appear as forms of love and charity under the human shape, and this from the Lord; for the Lord from Divine love made His Human Divine; just as man through heavenly love becomes an angel after death, so that he appears, as just said, as a form of love and charity under the human shape. It is plain from this that by the Lord‘s Divine Human, in the celestial sense, is signified the Divine love itself, which is love toward the whole human race, in that it wills to save them and to make them blessed and happy to eternity, and to make its Divine their own so far as they can receive it. This love and the reciprocal love of man to the Lord, and also love toward the neighbor, are what are signified and represented in the Holy Supper the Divine celestial love by the flesh or bread, and the Divine spiritual love by the blood or wine.

[3] From these things it is now evident what is meant in John by eating the Lord’s flesh and drinking His blood:  I am the living bread which came down from heaven. If anyone eat of this bread he shall live forever; and the bread that I will give is My flesh. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of Man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you. Whoso eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, hath eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day. For My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. He that eateth My flesh and drinketh My blood abideth in Me, and I in him. This is the bread which came down from heaven (John 6:51-58). As ”flesh and blood“ signify as before said the Divine celestial and the Divine spiritual which are from the Lord‘s Divine Human, or what is the same, the Divine good and the Divine truth of His love, by ”eating and drinking“ is signified making them One’s own; and this is effected by a life of love and charity, which is also a life of faith. ”Eating“ is making good one‘s own, and ”drinking“ making truth one’s own, (n. 2187, 3069, 3168, 3513, 3596, 3734, 3832, 4017, 4018).

[4] As ”blood“ in the celestial Sense signifies the Divine spiritual or the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord‘s Divine Human, it therefore signifies the holy proceeding; for the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human is the holy itself.

[5] Holiness is nothing else, nor from any other Source.  That ”blood“ signifies this holy, is evident from many passages in the Word, of which we may adduce the following:

Son of man thus saith the Lord Jehovih, Say to every bird of the heaven, to every wild beast of the field, Assemble yourselves and come; gather yourselves from every side upon My sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, even a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood. Ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, of rams, of lambs, and of goats, [of bullocks,] all of them fatlings of Bashan. And ye shall eat fat till ye be full, and drink blood till ye be drunken, of My sacrifice which I will sacrifice for you. And ye shall be sated at My table with horse and chariot, with the strong, and with every man of War. And I will set My glory among the nations (Ezek. 39:17-21).

The subject here treated of is the calling together of all to the Lord‘s kingdom, and specifically the setting up again of the church among the Gentiles; and by their ”eating flesh and drinking blood“ is signified making Divine good and Divine truth their own, thus the holy which proceeds from the Lord’s Divine Human.  Who cannot see that by ”flesh“ is not meant flesh, nor by ”blood,“ blood, where it is said that they should eat the flesh of the mighty and drink the blood of the princes of the earth, and that they should be sated with horse and chariot, with the strong, and with every man of war?

[6] So likewise in the Revelation.

I saw an angel standing in the sun and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in mid-heaven, Come and gather yourselves unto the supper of the great God that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of the strong, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit thereon, and the flesh of all men, both free and bond, both small and great (Rev. 19:17, 18);

who would ever understand these words unless he knew what is signified in the internal sense by ”flesh,“ and what by ”kings,“ ”captains,“ ”the strong,“ ”horses,“ ”those that sit thereon,“ ”free and bond?“

[7] Further in Zechariah:

He shall speak peace to the nations; and His dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth. As for Thee also, through the blood of Thy covenant I will send forth Thy bound out of the pit (Zech. 9:10, 11);

where the Lord is spoken of; the ”blood of Thy covenant“ is the Divine truth proceeding from His Divine Human, and is the holy itself which, after He was glorified, went forth from Him. This holy is also what is called the Holy Spirit, as is evident in John:

Jesus said, If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink. Whosoever believeth in Me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living Water. But this spake He of the Spirit, which they that believe on Him should receive for the Holy Spirit Was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:37-39).

That the holy proceeding from the Lord is the ”spirit,“ may be seen in (John 6:63).

[8] Moreover that ”blood“ is the holy proceeding from the Lord‘s Divine Human, in David:

Bring back their soul from deceit and violence; and precious shall their blood in His eyes (Ps. 72:14)

”precious blood“ denotes the holy which they wood receive. In the Revelation:

These are they who come out of great affliction, and they washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb (Rev. 7:14).

And again:

They overcame the dragon by the blood of the lamb, and by the Word of their testimony; and they loved not their soul even unto death (Rev. 12:11).

[9] The church at this day does not know otherwise than that the ”blood of the lamb“ here signifies the Lord’s passion, because it is believed that they are saved solely by the Lord having suffered, and that it Was for this that He was sent into the world; but let this view of it be for the simple, who cannot comprehend interior arcana The Lord‘s passion was the last of His temptation, by which He fully glorified His Human (Luke 24:26; John 12:23, 27, 28; 13:31, 32; 17:1, 4, 5); but the ”blood of the lamb“ is the same as the Divine truth, or the holy proceeding from the Lord’s Divine Human; thus the same as the ”blood of the covenant“ spoken of just above, and of which it is also written in uses:

[10] Moses took the book of the covenant, and read in the ears of the people; and they said, All that Jehovah hath spoken will we do, and hear. Then Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant which Jehovah hath made with you upon all these words (Exod. 24:7, 8); the ”book of the covenant“ was the Divine truth which they then had, which was confirmed by the blood testifying that it was from His Divine Human.

[11] In the rituals of the Jewish Church blood had no other signification than the holy proceeding from the Lord‘s Divine Human, wherefore when they were sanctified, it was done by blood as when Aaron and his sons were sanctified, blood was sprinkled upon the horns of the altar, the remainder at the bottom of the altar, also upon the tip of the right ear, the thumb of the right hand, and the great toe of the right foot, and upon his garments (Exod. 29:12, 16, 20; Lev. 8:15, 19, 23, 30). And when Aaron entered within the veil to the mercy-seat, blood was also to be sprinkled with the finger upon the mercy-seat eastward seven times (Lev. 16:12-15).  So also in the rest of the sanctifications, and also in the expiations and cleansings, in regard to which see the following passages, (Exod. 12:7, 13, 22; 30:10; Lev. 1:5, 11, 15; 3:2, 8, 13; 4:6, 7, 17, 18, 25, 30, 34; 5:9; 6:27, 28; 14:14-19, 25-30; 16:12-15, 18, 19; Deut. 12:27)

[12] As by ”blood“ in the genuine sense is signified the holy, so in the opposite sense by ”blood“ and ”bloods“ are signified those things which offer violence to it, because by shedding innocent blood is signified doing violence to what is holy.  For this reason wicked things of life and profane things of worship were called ”blood.“ That ”blood“ and ”bloods“ have such a signification, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:

When the Lord shall have washed the excrement of the daughters of Zion, and shall have washed away the bloods of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of expurgation (Isa. 4:4)

Again:

The Waters of Dimon are full of blood (Isa. 15:9).

Again:

Your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity. Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood; their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity (Isa.  59:3, 7).

In Jeremiah:

Also in thy skirts is found the blood of the souls of the innocent poor (Jer. 2:34).

[13] Again:

It is because of the sins of her prophets, and the iniquities of her priests, that have shed the blood of the just in the midst of Jerusalem. They have wandered blind in the streets, they are polluted with blood; those which they cannot [pollute] they touch With their garments (Lam. 4:13, 14).

In Ezekiel:

I have passed by thee, and sad thee trodden down in thy bloods, and I said unto thee, Live in thy bloods, and I said unto thee, Live in thy bloods. I washed thee with Waters, and washed away thy bloods from upon thee, and I anointed thee with oil (Ezek. 16:6, 9).

Again:

Thou son of man, Wilt thou debate with a city of bloods? Make known to her all her abominations. Thou art become guilty through thy blood that thou hast shed, and art defiled through thine idols which thou hast made. Behold the princes of Israel, everyone according to his arm, have been in thee and have shed blood; men of slander have been in thee to shed blood; and in thee they have eaten at the mountains (Ezek. 22:2-4, 6, 9).

In Moses:

If anyone shall sacrifice elsewhere than upon the altar at the tent, it shall be blood; and as if he had shed blood (Lev.  17:1-9).

[14] Falsified and profaned truth is signified by the following passages concerning blood. In Joel:

I will set wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke. The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day come (Joel 2:30, 31).

In the Revelation:

The sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the whole moon became as blood (Rev. 6:12).

Again

The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea and the third part of the sea became blood (Rev. 8:8).

Again:--

The second angel poured out his vial into the sea; and it became blood as of a dead man, and every living soul died in the sea. And the third angel poured out his vial into the rivers, and into the fountains of water, and there became blood (Rev. 16:3, 4).

[15] Similar is what is said in (Exodus 7:15-22), about the rivers, ponds, and pools of water in Egypt being turned into blood; for by ”Egypt“ is signified the memory-knowledge which from itself enters into heavenly mysteries, and hence perverts, denies, and profanes Divine truths (n. 1164, 1165, 1186). All the miracles in Egypt, being Divine, involved such things. The ”rivers which were turned into blood“ are the truths of intelligence and wisdom (n. 108, 109, 3051); ”waters“ have a similar signification (n. 680, 2702, 3058), and also ”fountains“ (n. 2702, 3096, 3424); ”seas“ are truths in the complex which are a matter of memory-knowledge (n. 28); the ”moon,“ of which it is also said that it should be ”turned into blood,“ is Divine truth (n. 1529-1531, 2495, 4060).  It is evident from this, that by the moon, the sea, fountains, waters, and rivers, being turned into blood, is signified truth falsified and profaned.

AC 4736. Cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness. That this signifies that they should conceal it meanwhile among their falsities, that is, that they should regard it as false, but still retain it because it was of importance to the church, is evident from the signification of a ”pit,“ as being falsities (n. 4728); and from the signification of a ”wilderness,“ as being where there is no truth. For the word ”wilderness“ has a wide signification, it means where the land is uninhabited, and thus not cultivated; and when predicated of the church, it denotes where there is no good, and consequently no truth (n. 2708, 3900). Thus by a ”pit in the wilderness“ are here meant falsities in which there is no truth, because no good.  It is said in which there is no truth because no good; for when anyone believes that faith saves without works, truth may indeed exist, but still it is not truth in him, because it does not look to good, nor is it from good.  This truth is not alive, because it has in it a principle of falsity, consequently with anyone who has such truth, the truth is but falsity from the principle which rules in it. The principle is like the soul, from which the rest have their life.  On the other hand there are falsities which are accepted as truths, when there is good in them, especially if it is the good of innocence, as with the Gentiles and also with many within the church.

AC 4737. But lay no hand upon him.  That this signifies that they should not do violence to it, is evident without explication.

AC 4738. That he might rescue him out of their hand, to bring him back to his father.  That this signifies that it might claim it for the church, is evident from the signification of ”rescuing out of their hand,“ as being to set free - as above (n. 4732); and from the signification of ”bringing back to his father,“ as being to claim for the church; for by Jacob, who is here the ”father,“ is represented the Jewish religion derived from the Ancient Church, as above (n. 4700, 4701).  It was the Divine truth concerning the Lord’s Divine Human that it would claim for the church, for by Joseph, as before said, this truth is specifically signified.

[2] As further regards this truth, be it known that the Ancient Church acknowledged it, and also the primitive Christian Church; but after the papal sway had grown even to domination over all human souls, and had exalted itself - as is said of the King of Babylon in Isaiah,

”Thou saidst in thy heart, I will ascend into the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of heaven, and I will sit in the mount of congregation, I will ascend above the heights of the cloud, I will become like the Most High“ (Isa. 14:13, 14)

- then the Divine was taken away from the Lord‘s Human, that is, a distinction was then made between His Divine and His Human.

[3] How this was decreed in a certain council has also been revealed to me.  There appeared to me certain spirits in front to the left on the plane of the sole of the foot, at some distance from me, who were talking together, but about what I did not hear.  I was then told that they were some of those who composed the council in which the decree was made regarding the Lord’s two natures, the Divine and the human.  Presently it was granted me to converse with them. They said that those who had the greatest influence in the council, and who were superior to the rest in rank and authority, came together in a dark room and there concluded that both a Divine and a human nature should be attributed to the Lord; chiefly for the reason that otherwise the papal sway could not be maintained.  For if they had acknowledged the Lord to be one with the Father, as He Himself says, no one could have been acknowledged as His vicar on earth; for schisms were arising at that time by which the papal power might have fallen and been dissipated unless they had made this distinction; and for the strengthening of this invention they sought out confirmations from the Word, and persuaded the rest.

[4] The spirits added that by this means they were able to rule in heaven and on earth, because they had it from the Word that to the Lord was given all power in heaven and on earth, which power could not have been attributed to any vicar if His Human also were acknowledged to be Divine; for they knew that no one was allowed to make himself equal to God, and that the Divine had this power of Itself, but not the Human, unless it had been given it, as it was afterwards to Peter.  They continued, that the schismatics of that day were men of acute discernment, whom in this way they were able to quiet, and by this means the papal power was also confirmed.  From all this it is evident that this distinction was invented merely for the sake of dominion; and that for this reason they were not willing to know that the power given to the Lord‘s Human in heaven and on earth shows that it also is Divine.  That Peter, to whom the Lord gave the keys of heaven, does not mean Peter, but the faith of charity, which, because it is from the Lord alone, is the power of the Lord alone, (n. 2760).

AC 4739. Verses 23-30. And it came to pass when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stripped Joseph of his tunic, the tunic of various colors that was on him, and they took him, and cast him into the pit; and the pit was empty, there was no water in it. And they sat down to eat bread, and they lifted up their eyes and saw, and behold a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead, with their camels bearing spices and balsam and stacte, going to carry them down to Egypt. And Judah said unto his brethren, What gain is it if we slay our brother, and cover up his blood? Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites, and let not our hand be upon him, for he is our brother, our flesh. And his brethren hearkened unto him. And there passed by men, Midianites, merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. And they brought Joseph into Egypt. And Reuben returned unto the pit, and behold Joseph was not in the pit, and he rent his garments. And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither do I come? ”And it came to pass when Joseph was come unto his brethren,“ signifies when it was preached about; ”that they stripped Joseph of his tunic,“ signifies that they dispelled and annihilated the appearances of truth; ”the tunic of various colors that was on him,“ signifies the quality of the appearances as to truths from good; ”and they took him and cast him into the pit,“ signifies among falsities; ”and the pit was empty, there was no water in it,“ signifies that there was then nothing true; ”and they sat down to eat bread,“ signifies appropriation of evil from falsity; ”and they lifted up their eyes and saw,“ signifies further thought; ”and behold a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead,“ signifies those who are in simple good, such as the Gentiles are in; ”with their camels bearing spices and balsam and stacte,“ signifies interior natural truths; ”going to carry them down to Egypt,“ signifies instruction from memory-knowledges; ”and Judah said unto his brethren,“ signifies the depraved in the church who are against whatever is good; ”What gain is it if we slay our brother and cover up his blood?“ signifies that there would be nothing of profit or of eminence, if this should be wholly extinguished; ”come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites,“ signifies that they acknowledge it who are in simple good; ”and let not our hand be upon him,“ signifies that they may be without blame; ”for he is our brother, our flesh,“ signifies because what is from them is accepted; ”and his brethren hearkened unto him,“ signifies compliance; ”and there passed by men, Midianites, merchantmen,“ signifies those who are in the truth of this good; ”and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit,“ signifies aid from them that it might not be among falsities; ”and sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites,’ signifies reception by those who are in simple good, and alienation on the part of those who are in faith separate; “for twenty pieces of silver,” signifies estimation; “and they brought Joseph into Egypt,” signifies consultation from memory-knowledges; “and Reuben returned unto the pit,” signifies the faith of the church in general; “and behold Joseph was not in the pit,” signifies that there was no longer any faith; “and he rent his garments,” signifies mourning; “and he returned unto his brethren,” signifies those who teach; “and said, The child is not,” signifies that there was no faith in it; “and I, whither do I come?” signifies where now is the church?

AC 4740. And it came to pass when Joseph was come unto his brethren.  That this signifies when it was preached about, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being truth Divine, especially concerning the Lord‘s Divine Human.  When this is said to “come unto them,” it means that it is preached to them; for his brethren represent the church which is in faith separate, to whom this is preached.

AC 4741. That they stripped Joseph of his tunic. That this signifies that they dispelled and annihilated the appearances of truth, is evident from the signification of “stripping,” when predicated of Divine truth, which here is “Joseph,” as being to dispel and also to annihilate; and from the signification of the “tunic,” because it was of various colors, as being appearances of truth (n. 4677).  The dispelling and annihilating of the appearances of truth takes place after truth itself has been rejected; for truth itself shines forth of itself in the mind, and however it may be extinguished, still appears, especially in those who are in good.  This is also clearly seen by those who have annihilated truth in themselves, wherefore also they endeavor to dispel and to annihilate these appearances.

[2] Take as an example for the sake of illustration - who does not see that to will well and do well is the veriest Christian life? And if anyone is told that this is charity, he cannot but affirm it; and those who affirm it will even say that they know what this is, because this is of the life. But as regards thinking this or that to be true, even from confidence (as they are willing to do who are in faith separate), they will say that they do not know what it is, for they have no other perception of it than as of smoke which vanishes. As faith alone and the confidence from it appear of this character to everyone who thinks seriously about it, especially to the good, therefore such persons labor to dispel and annihilate even these appearances, by thus paring off whatever touches them more nearly, and whatever is round about this Divine truth.  This is signified by stripping Joseph of the tunic that was on him.

[3] The same persons also believe that those are wiser than all others, who having once accepted a dogma, whatever it may be, can confirm it by various things, and by various reasonings make it appear like truth.  But nothing could be less the part of a wise man; it is what everyone can do who possesses any ingenuity, and the evil more skilfully than the upright.  For to do this is not the part of a rational man, inasmuch as a rational man can see, as from above, whether that which is confirmed is true or false; and because he sees this, he regards confirmations of falsity as of no account, and they appear to him as simply ludicrous and empty, no matter how much anyone else believes them to have been taken from the school of wisdom itself.  In a word, nothing is less the part of a wise man, nay, nothing is less rational, than to be able to confirm falsities; for it is the part of a wise man and it is rational, first to see that a thing is true, and then to confirm it.  In fact to see what is true is to see from the light of heaven, which is from the Lord; but to see what is false as true is to see from a fatuous light, which is from hell.

AC 4742. The tunic of various colors that was on him.  That this signifies the quality of the appearances as to truths from good, is evident from the signification of a “tunic of various colors,” as being the appearances of truth by which the spiritual of the natural is known and distinguished (n. 4677), here therefore the quality of the appearances; for which reason also a tunic is twice mentioned - “they stripped Joseph of his tunic, the tunic of various colors.” That the quality of appearances is according to the truths from good, may be seen from the appearances of truth when presented to view in the light of heaven, that is, in the other life, where there is no other light than that which comes through heaven from the Lord, and which comes forth from His Divine truth; for this before the eyes of angels appears as light (n. 2776, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3339, 3340, 3636, 3643, 3993, 4302, 4413, 4415). This light is varied with everyone according to the reception.  All the thought of the angels is effected through the variegation of this light, as also is the thought of man, although he is not aware of it; because with man this light falls into material images or ideas, which, being in his natural or external man, are from the light of the world.  Thus the light of heaven is obscured in him to such a degree that he scarcely knows that his intellectual light and sight are from it.  But in the other life, when the sight of the eye is no longer in the light of the world, but in the light of heaven, it becomes manifest that his thought is from this source.

[2] When this light passes from heaven into the world of spirits, it is there presented under the appearance of various colors, which in beauty, variety, and loveliness immeasurably surpass the colors which are from the light of the world. (n. 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530, 4677). As the colors in the other life are from this source, they are in their origin nothing else than appearances of truth from good. For truth does not shine from itself, because there is nothing flaming in it alone; but it shines from good, for good is like a flame which gives forth light.  Such therefore as the good is, such does the truth from it appear; and such as the truth is, in such a manner does it shine from good.  From this it is evident what is signified in the internal sense by the tunic of various colors, namely, the quality of appearances as to truths from good; for by Joseph to whom the tunic belonged, is represented Divine truth, as before shown.

AC 4743. And they took hid, and cast him into the pit.  That this signifies among falsities, is evident from what has been said above (n. 4728, 4736), where similar words occur.

AC 4744. And the pit was empty, there was no water in it. That this signifies that there was then nothing true, is evident from the signification of a “pit,” as being falsities (n. 4728); from the signification of “being empty, ”as being where there is nothing true because nothing good; and from the signification of “water,” as being truth (n. 680, 739, 2702, 3058, 3424).  That “being empty” denotes where there is nothing true because nothing good, is evident from other passages in the Word, as in Jeremiah:--

Their great ones have sent their little ones for waters they came unto the pits, and found no waters; they returned with their vessels empty they were affected with shame and ignominy, and covered their head (Jer. 14:3);

where “empty vessels” denote truths in which there is no truth from good.  Again:--

Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath troubled me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up (Jer. 51:34);

where an “empty vessel” denotes where there is no truth; and “Babylon,” those who vastate, that is, deprive others of truths (n. 1327). Again:--

I beheld the earth, and lo it was void and empty; and the heavens, and they had no light (Jer. 4:23).

In Isaiah:--

The cormorant and the bittern shall possess it and the owl and the raven shall dwell therein and they shall stretch over it the line of a void, and the plummet of emptiness (Isa. 34:11).

[2]Again:--

The city of emptiness shall be broken; every house shall be shut up, that no one may come in. There is a cry in the streets upon the one, the joy of the land shall be exiled, what is left in the city shall be a waste (Isa. 24:10-12);

here “emptiness” is expressed by another word in the original tongue, which however involves a similar meaning.  That “emptiness” is where there is no truth because no good, is evident in the internal sense from the particulars mentioned, as from the signification of a “city,” of a “house,” of a “cry,” of “wine,” and of “streets.”  In Ezekiel:--

Hath said the Lord Jehovih, Woe to the city of bloods I will also make the hearth great, setting the pot empty upon the coals that it may be hot, and the brass thereof may be heated, and that the uncleanness thereof may melt therein, the scum thereof be consumed (Ezek. 24:9, 11);

it is evident here what “being empty” signifies; an “empty pot” is that in which there is uncleanness and scum, that is, evil and falsity.

[3] So in Matthew:--

When the unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh through dry places, seeking rest, but findeth none. Then he saith, I will return into my house whence I came out; and when he is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and prepared for him. Then goeth he, and joineth to himself seven other spirits more wicked than himself, and they enter in and dwell there (Matthew 12:43-45);

the “unclean spirit” denotes uncleanness of life in man, and also the unclean spirits with him, for unclean spirits dwell in the uncleanness of man’s life; “dry places,” or where there is no water, denote where there are no truths; the “empty house” denotes the interiors of man again filled with uncleanness, that is, with falsities from evil.  In Luke:

God hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich He hath sent empty away (Luke 1:53);

“the rich” denote those who know many things; for “riches” in the spiritual sense are memory-knowledges, doctrinal things, and the knowledges of good and truth.  They are called the “empty rich” who know these things, and do not do them; for truths to them are not truths, because without good (n. 4736).

AC 4745. And they sat down to eat bread.  That this signifies the appropriation of evil from falsity, is evident from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 3832); and from the signification of “bread,” as being the good of love (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735), and also in general all food (n. 2165). Here however “bread” signifies the contrary, namely, evil; for it is known that they who eat the bread in the Holy Supper unworthily, do not appropriate good to themselves, but evil; whence it is evident that in the contrary sense by “eating bread” is signified the appropriation of evil.  It was a custom among the ancients to eat together when they had made an important decision which was confirmed by the rest, by which they signified their approbation, and thus that they made it their own; as in Ezekiel:--

Behold, the princes of Israel, everyone according to his arm, have been in thee and have shed blood; men of calumny have been in thee to shed blood; and in thee they have eaten at the mountains (Ezek. 22:6, 9).

Be it known further that there are in general two origins of evil, one from life, and the other from doctrine.  The evil which is from the doctrine of falsity is called evil from falsity, and it is this evil which is here meant.

AC 4746. And they lifted up their eyes and saw.  That this signifies further thought, is evident from the signification of “lifting up the eyes and seeing,” as being intentness and thought, or intense thought (n. 2789, 2829, 3198, 3202, 4339). That here further thought is signified, is evident from the series.

AC 4747. And behold a company of Ishmaelites came from Gilead. That this signifies those who are in simple good, such as the Gentiles are in, is evident from the representation of the Ishmaelites, as being those who are in simple good as to life, and thence in natural truth as to doctrine (n. 3263); and from the signification of “Gilead,” as being exterior good, by which man is first initiated when he is being regenerated (n. 4117, 4124).  From this it is evident that by a “company of Ishmaelites from Gilead” is signified such good as is with the Gentiles, that is, those who are in such simple good.

[2] How these things are circumstanced may be seen from what has been already said, and also from what follows.  This only need now be said in advance: they who are within the church and have confirmed themselves against Divine truths, especially against these - that the Lord‘s Human is Divine, and that the works of charity contribute to salvation - if they have confirmed themselves against them, not only by doctrine but also by life, they have reduced themselves to such a state as to their interiors that afterwards they cannot possibly be brought to receive them, for what is once confirmed by doctrine, and at the same time by life, remains to eternity.  Those who do not know the interior state of man may suppose that anyone, no matter how he has confirmed himself against these truths, can yet easily accept them afterwards, provided he is convinced.  But that this is impossible has been granted me to know by much experience in regard to such persons in the other life. For whatever is confirmed by doctrine is absorbed by the intellectual part, and what is confirmed by life is absorbed by the will part; and that which is inrooted in both man’s lives, the life of his understanding and the life of his will, cannot be rooted out. The very soul of man which lives after death is formed thereby, and is of such a nature that it never recedes therefrom. This is also the reason why the lot of those within the church with whom this is the case, is worse than the lot of those who are out of the church; for those who are out of the church, who are called Gentiles, have not confirmed themselves against these truths, because they have not known them; and therefore such of them as have lived in mutual charity, easily receive Divine truths, if not in the world, yet in the other life.  See what was adduced from experience in regard to the state and lot of the Gentiles and other peoples in the other life, (n. 2589-2604).

[3] For this reason when any new church is being set up by the Lord, it is not set up with those who are within the church, but with those who are without, that is, with the Gentiles. These things are often treated of in the Word.  This much is premised in order that it may be known what is involved in Joseph‘s being cast into the pit by his brethren, and in his being drawn out thence by the Midianites, and sold to the Ishmaelites. For by Joseph’s brethren are represented those within the church who have confirmed themselves against Divine truth, especially against the two truths, that the Lord‘s Human is Divine, and that works of charity contribute to salvation, and this not only by doctrine, but also by life; while by the Ishmaelites are represented those who are in simple good, and by the Midianites those who are in the truth of this good.  It is related of the latter that they drew Joseph out of the pit; and of the former that they bought him. But what is signified by their bringing him into Egypt, and their selling him to Potiphar Pharaoh’s chamberlain, will be shown in what follows.

AC 4748. With their camels bearing spices and balsam and stacte.  That this signifies interior natural truths, is evident from the signification of “camels,” as being in general those things of the natural man that serve the spiritual, and specifically general memory-knowledges in the natural man (n. 3048, 3071, 3114, 3143, 3145, 4156); and from the signification of “spices, balsam, and stacte,” as being interior natural truths conjoined with good in the natural man.  In the holy worship of the ancients use was made of sweet-smelling and fragrant things, among which were their frankincense and incenses; and the like things were also mixed with the oils with which they were anointed. But the origin of this practice is at this day unknown, because it is entirely  unknown that the things which were used in the worship of the ancients originated in spiritual and celestial things which are in the heavens, and corresponded to them. Man has so far removed himself from the things of heaven, and plunged into natural, worldly, and bodily things, that he is in obscurity, and many are in the negative, as to the existence of anything spiritual or celestial.

[2] The reason why frankincense and incenses were used in sacred rites among the ancients, is that odor corresponds to perception, and a fragrant odor, such as that of spices of various kinds, to a grateful and pleasing perception, such as is that of truth from good, or of faith from charity.  Indeed the correspondence is such that in the other life, whenever it is the good pleasure of the Lord, perceptions themselves are changed into odors (n. 925, 1514, 1517-1519, 3577, 4624-4634).  What is here signified in detail by “spices, balsam, and stacte,” may be seen from other passages in which they are mentioned.  In general they signify interior truths in the natural, but such as are from good therein; for truths by themselves do not make the natural, but good by truths. Hence its varieties are according to the quality of the truth conjoined with good, consequently according to the quality of the good; for good has its quality from truths.

[3] As by “Gilead” is signified exterior good such as is of the senses and is called pleasure (n. 4117, 4124), and as by “Egypt” in a good sense are signified memory-knowledges which are the external truths of the natural man corresponding to this good, or agreeing with it (n. 1462), therefore by Ishmaelites from Gilead carrying on camels those spices down to Egypt, is signified that they carried their interior truths from their own memory-knowledges, to the memory-knowledges signified by Egypt.  Interior truths are conclusions from exterior truths, or from memory-knowledges; for the memory-knowledges of the natural man serve as a means for drawing conclusions about, and thus viewing, interior things; in like manner as anyone views the mind of another in his countenance, in the vibration of the light in his eyes, and in the life of the tone of his voice, and in that of his gesture and action.

[4] As it is by such truths that man‘s natural is perfected and also amended, healing is therefore ascribed to spices of this kind - as to balsam in Jeremiah:--

Is there no balsamic gum in Gilead? is there no physician there?  Why then doth not the health of My people go up? (Jer.  8:22).

Again:--

Go up into Gilead, and take balsam, O virgin daughter of Egypt; in vain hast thou multiplied medicines there is no healing for thee (Jer. 46:11).

Again:--

Babylon is suddenly fallen and shattered, howl upon her, take balsam for her pain, if so be she may be healed (Jer. 51:8).

[5] That such things have a spiritual signification is very evident in the Revelation:--

The merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over Babylon; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more; merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stone, and pearl, and fine linen, and crimson, and silk, and scarlet; and all thyine wood, and every vessel of ivory, and every vessel made of most precious wood, and brass, and iron, and marble; and cinnamon, and incense, and ointment, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and cattle, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and bodies and souls of men (Rev. 18:11-13);

these things would never have been so specifically enumerated unless each one of them signified such things as are in the Lord’s kingdom and in His church, for otherwise they would have been words without meaning.  It is known that by “Babylon” are signified those who have turned aside all worship of the Lord to the worship of self, and who are thus in a profane internal while they are in a holy external, wherefore by their “merchandise” are signified the things which they have studiously and artfully invented for the sake of self-worship, and also doctrinal things and knowledges of good and truth from the Word which they have perverted in their own favor. Thus by the particulars here mentioned such things are specifically signified, and by “cinnamon,” “incense,” “ointment,” and “frankincense,” truths from good; but in relation to them truths perverted and falsities from evil.

[6] The same is true of what is related in Ezekiel of the merchandise of Tyre:--

Judah and the land of Israel were thy traders; in wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, in honey and oil, and balsam, they furnished thy trading (Ezek. 27:17);

here also by “balsam” is signified truth from good.  To one who does not believe in the internal sense of the Word, all the foregoing expressions must be bare words, thus vessels containing nothing within; and yet Divine, celestial, and spiritual things are in them.

AC 4749. Going to carry them down to Egypt.  That this signifies instruction in memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “Egypt,” as being memory-knowledges (n. 1164, 1165, 1462); and as by “spices, balsam, and stacte” are signified interior truths from the memory-knowledges of those who are in simple good, such as the Gentiles are in, therefore by “going to carry them down thither,” is signified to be instructed. In regard to these things the case is this: the memory-knowledges which are signified by “Egypt” are those which conduce to spiritual life, and which correspond to spiritual truths; for formerly the Ancient Church was in Egypt also; but after it had been there turned into magic, the memory-knowledges which pervert spiritual things were signified by “Egypt.” Thence it is that memory-knowledges in a good, and also in the opposite, sense, are signified in the Word by “Egypt” (n. 1164, 1165, 1462); and here in a good sense.  The memory-knowledges from which are the interior truths signified by the Ishmaelites‘ carrying on camels spices, balsam, and stacte, are not such as are of the church, but such as are with the Gentiles.  The truths from these memory-knowledges cannot be corrected and made sound by any other means than by the memory-knowledges of the genuine church, thus by instruction in these.  This is what is here signified.

AC 4750. And Judah said unto his brethren.  That this signifies the depraved in the church who are against whatever is good, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being in a good sense the good of celestial love (n. 3654, 3881), but in the opposite sense to be against all good whatever; and from the signification of his “brethren,” as being those in the church who are in faith separate.  That by Judah are here represented those who are against all good whatever, is because in a good sense they who are in the good of celestial love are represented in the Word by him. Celestial love is love to the Lord and the derivative love toward the neighbor.  They who are in this love are most closely conjoined with the Lord, and are therefore in the inmost heaven, where they are in a state of innocence, from which they appear to the rest as little children, and wholly as loves in form.  Others are not able to go near them, and therefore when they are sent to others, they are encompassed by other angels, by whom the sphere of their love is tempered, which would otherwise throw into a swoon those to whom they are sent; for the sphere of their love penetrates even to the marrows.

[2] As this love or this good of love which is called celestial is represented by Judah in a good sense, so in the opposite sense is represented by him that which is contrary to celestial good, and thus contrary to all good whatever.  Most things in the Word have a twofold sense, namely, a good sense and its opposite.  From the good sense the quality of the opposite one is known; for whatever is contained in the opposite sense is diametrically opposed to what is contained in the good sense.

[3] The goods of love are in general two - the good of celestial love, and the good of spiritual love.  Diametrically opposed to the good of celestial love, is the evil of the love of self; and diametrically opposed to the good of spiritual love, is the evil of the love of the world.  They who are in the evil of the love of self are against all good whatever; but not so much so they who are in the evil of the love of the world.  In the Word, by Judah in the opposite sense are represented those who are in the love of self; and by Israel they who are in the love of the world.  The reason of this is that by Judah was represented the Lord’s celestial kingdom, and by Israel His spiritual kingdom.

[4] The hells also are distinct according to these two loves.  They who are in the love of self, being against all good whatever, are in the deepest and therefore the most grievous hells; but they who are in the love of the world, being not so much against all good whatever, are in hells not so deep, and therefore less grievous.

[5] The evil of the love of self is hot, as is generally thought, that external elation which is called pride; but it is hatred against the neighbor, and thence a burning desire for revenge, and delight in cruelty. These are the interiors of the love of self.  Its exteriors are contempt for others in comparison with self, and an aversion to those who are in spiritual good, and this sometimes with manifest elation or pride, and sometimes without it; for one who holds the neighbor in such hatred, interiorly loves no one but himself and those whom he regards as making one with himself; thus he loves them in himself, and himself in them, for the sole end of self.

[6] Such is the quality of those who are represented by Judah in the opposite sense.  The Jewish nation had been in such love even from the first, for they had looked upon all in the whole world as the vilest slaves, and as worthless in comparison with themselves, and had also held them in hatred; and what is more, when the love of self and of the world had not mutually conjoined them, they persecuted even their associates and brothers with similar hatred.  This disposition still remains with that nation; but because they now dwell in foreign lands on sufferance, they keep it concealed.

AC 4751. What gain is it if we slay our brother, and cover up his blood?  That this signifies that there would be nothing of profit or of eminence if this should be wholly extinguished, is evident from the signification of, “What gain is it?” as being that there would be nothing of profit, and also nothing of eminence; and from the signification of “slaying,” as being to extinguish, here Divine truth, specifically that concerning the Lord‘s Divine Human, which is meant by the “brother,” that is, Joseph; and from the signification of “covering up blood,” as being to entirely hide holy truth. “Blood” denotes holy truth may be seen above, (n. 4735). How the case is in regard to these things, is evident from what follows.

[2] That “gain” here signifies not only what is profitable but also eminence, or that, “What gain is it?”  signifies that there would be nothing of profit or of eminence, is because this was said from cupidity and avarice; for the cupidity of gain and avarice has within it the desire not only to possess the whole world, but also to plunder and even to kill everyone for the sake of gain; indeed one impelled by such cupidity would commit murder for but little were not the laws a hindrance.  Moreover such a man in his possession of gold and silver regards himself as the greatest in power, however in external appearance he may seem otherwise, which shows that there is in avarice not only the love of the world, but also the love of self, and indeed the filthiest love of self.  For elation of mind, or pride, in those who are sordidly avaricious, is not so conspicuous outwardly, because it is sometimes unconcerned about wealth for the sake of display; nor is it that kind of the love of self which is usually conjoined with pleasures; for such have little concern about the body, and its food and clothing.  But it is a love entirely earthly, having no other end than money, in the possession of which it believes itself, not actually but potentially, above all others.  It is evident from this that in avarice there is the lowest and vilest love of self, for which reason in the other life the avaricious appear to themselves to be among swine (n. 939); and they above all others are against all good whatever.  Consequently they are in such thick darkness that they are utterly unable to see what is good and what is true; they do not at all apprehend that there is any internal belonging to man which lives after death, and at heart they laugh at those who say so.

[3] The Jewish nation had been of such a nature from the beginning, and therefore it was impossible for anything internal to be opened plainly to them, as is evident from the Word of the Old Testament; and being rooted in this worst kind of the love of self, they would defile interior truths and goods, and would thus profane them more than all others, unless they were removed by avarice so far from internal things, and were thereby kept in thick darkness, for they cannot profane so long as they do not acknowledge (n. 1008, 1010, 1059, 2051, 3398, 3402, 3489, 3898, 4289, 4601).  It is for this reason that the Lord says of them in John,

“Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do.  He was a murderer from the beginning” (John 8:44);

and of Judas Iscariot, who represented the Jewish Church, “Have not I chosen you twelve, and one of you is a devil?” (John 6:70).  By Judas also in that he sold the Lord, the like is represented as here by Judah, who said, “Come and let us sell Joseph.”

AC 4752. Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites. That this signifies that those acknowledge it who are in simple good, is evident from the “selling” as being to alienate from themselves - thus to be received by others (n. 4098), which when predicated of truth, as here, denotes to be acknowledged by them; and from the representation of the Ishmaelites, as being those who are in simple good, of which above (n. 4747). That they who are in simple good acknowledge Divine truth, especially that concerning the Lord’s Divine Human, has been shown above.

AC 4753. And let not our hand be upon him.  That this signifies that they may be without blame, is evident from the signification of “not letting the hand be upon anyone,” as being not to offer violence, as above (n. 4737); and because not to offer violence denotes that they may be without blame, this also is signified by these words.

AC 4754. For he is our brother, our flesh.  That this signifies because what is from them is accepted, is evident from the signification of a “brother,” as being consanguinity from good (n. 3815); and from the signification of “flesh,” as being one‘s own in both senses (n. 3813), thus that it was accepted, because from those who are of the church, and that it was accepted by these, because by those who are in simple good.  For the Ishmaelites represent those who are in simple good, and Joseph’s brethren represent the church which is in faith separate from charity.  Those who are in simple good acknowledge that the Lord‘s Human is Divine, and also that in order for man to be saved the works of charity ought to be done.  Those who are in faith separate know this, and therefore they do not strongly insist on this faith before everyone, and scarcely at all before those who are in simple good; chiefly because they dare not speak contrary to common sense, and because they would thus detract from their own dignity and gain.  For if they should deny these truths, those who are in simple good would say of them that they are foolish; for those who are in simple good know what love is, and what the works of love are; but what faith separate from them is they do not know.  Arguments in favor of faith as opposed to works, and concerning the distinction between the Human and the Divine of the Lord, they would call sophisms which they do not comprehend. Wherefore in order that they may be accepted, and because what is from them is accepted, those who are in faith separate willingly make concessions; for if these truths were extinguished they would be without profit and eminence (n. 4751).

AC 4755. And his brethren hearkened unto him.  That this signifies compliance, is evident without explication.

AC 4756. And there passed by, men, Midianites, merchantmen. That this signifies those who are in the truth of this good, is evident from the representation of the Midianites, as being those who are in the truth of simple good (n. 3242); and from the signification of “merchantmen,” as being those who have the knowledges of good and truth; for these in the spiritual sense are “riches,” “wealth,” and “merchandise.” Hence “to trade” is to procure and to communicate these knowledges (n. 2967, 4453). Here it is not the knowledges of good that are signified, but the knowledges of truth; for the “Midianites” are those who are in the truth of simple good, as before said; and from this also they are called “men (viri),” for those are so called who are in truth (n. 3134, 3309). From the historical series it is evident that Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites, but that he was drawn out of the pit by the Midianites, and was also sold by the Midianites in Egypt to Potiphar, for in the last verse of this chapter it is said, “and the Midianites sold him to Egypt unto Potiphar, Pharaoh’s chamberlain.” It may be supposed that as Joseph was sold to the Ishmaelites, he was sold in Egypt by them, and not by the Midianites; but still this was brought to pass for the sake of the representation of the things in the internal sense; for Joseph (that is, Divine truth) cannot be sold by those who are in good, but by those who are in the truth of this good.  The reason will be seen in the explication of the last verse of this chapter.

AC 4757. And the drew and lifted up Joseph out of pit.  That this signifies aid from them that it might not be among falsities, is evident from the signification of “drawing and lifting up,” as being to set free and thus to lend aid; and from the signification of a “pit,” as being falsities (n. 4728), thus that it might not be among falsities.  That drawing and lifting up here denotes lending aid, is because truth is what aids good; for power is ascribed to truth, because good exercises power by means of truth (n. 3091, 3563); and moreover it is truth by which falsity is known, thus by which anyone is aided so that he be not among falsities. Hence it is that the Midianites were those who drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and the Ishmaelites were those who bought him.

AC 4758. And sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites.  That this signifies reception by those who are in simple good, and alienation from those who are in faith separate, is evident from the signification of “selling,” as being to alienate in respect to those who are in faith separate, who here are Joseph‘s brethren, for they sold him; and as being to be received in respect to those who are in simple good, who are here the Ishmaelites, for they bought him. The “Ishmaelites” are those who are in simple good, (n. 3263, 4747).  On this subject see what was said before, n. 4756).

AC 4759. For twenty pieces of silver.  That this signifies estimation, is evident from the signification of “twenty,” as being the good and truth stored up by the Lord in the interior man, which are called remains (n. 2280), thus holy good or truth, here holy truth, because it is said “twenty pieces of silver;” for “silver” is truth (n. 1551, 2954).  The same number signifies also what is not holy, because most of the expressions used in the Word have also an opposite sense; and here what is not holy in respect to those who alienated Divine truth, or sold Joseph (n. 4758), but what is holy in respect to those who received it, or bought him.  Thus it denotes what is not holy in respect to Joseph’s brethren, that is, to those in the church who are in faith separate, but what is holy in respect to the Ishmaelites, that is, to those who are in simple good.  These are the things which are meant by estimation.

[2] That “twenty” signifies also what is not holy, is because “twenty” denotes remains, as before said. The holy in those who have no remains of good and truth in their interior man, but instead of them evil and falsity, is not holy, but is either filthy or profane, according to the kind of evil and falsity.  That “twenty” denotes also what is not holy, is evident in Zechariah:--

I saw and behold a flying roll. And he said unto me, What seest thou? And I answered, I see a flying roll the length thereof is twenty ells, and the breadth thereof ten ells. Then said he unto me, This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole earth (Zech. 5:1-3).

In Haggai:--

When one came to the wine-press to draw out fifty out of the wine-press, there were twenty. I smote you with blasting, and with mildew, all the work of your hands (Haggai 2:16, 17).

[3] In Ezekiel:--

Thy food which thou shalt eat shall be by weight, twenty shekels a day; from time even in time shalt thou eat it. And thou shalt eat it as a barley cake, and thou shalt make it in their eyes with dung that cometh out of man. For thus, Jehovah said, shall the sons of Israel eat their bread unclean among the nations (Ezek. 4:10, 12, 13).

In these passages “twenty” denotes that which is unholy, unclean, and profane. That all who were more than twenty years old should die in the wilderness (Num. 14:29; 32:11), represented also what is holy in respect to those who were under that number of years, and what is unholy in respect to those who were over it. All numbers in the Word signify things, (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 4264, 4495, 4670); and remains are good and truth stored up by the Lord in the interior man, (n. 468, 530, 560, 561, 576, 660, 798, 1050, 1738, 1906, 2284).

AC 4760. And they brought Joseph into Egypt. That this signifies consultation from memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “Egypt,” as being memory-knowledges (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462); and when Divine truth is brought to these it is to consult them; for by Joseph as before shown is represented Divine truth. What is meant by consultation about Divine truth from memory-knowledges shall be briefly described. To consult memory-knowledges about Divine truth is to see from them whether it is so. But this is done in one way by those who are in the affirmative that truth is truth, and who when they consult memory-knowledges, confirm the truth by them, and thus strengthen their faith; and in another way by those who are in the negative, who when they consult memory-knowledges cast themselves still more into falsities; for with these the negative rules, but with the former the affirmative. Moreover this is according to the intellectual faculty of every man. If those who have not a higher, that is, an interior insight, consult memory-knowledges, they do not see the confirmation of truth in them, and they are therefore carried by the memory-knowledges into the negative; but those who have a higher, that is, an interior insight, see confirmations, and if in no other way, still by correspondences.

[2] Take for example the truth that man lives after death.  When those who are in the negative as to this being true consult memory-knowledges, they confirm themselves against it by innumerable considerations, such as that brute animals equally live, have sensation, and act, and in many things more acutely than man; and that thought, which man has above the brutes, is a thing which he obtains by coming to maturity later; and that man is this kind of animal; and by a thousand other considerations.  Thus it is evident that if those who are in the negative consult memory-knowledges, they cast themselves still more into falsities, so that at last they believe nothing whatever relating to eternal life.

[3] But when those who are in the affirmative as to the truth that man lives after death consult memory-knowledges, they confirm themselves by them, and this also by things innumerable; for they see that everything in nature is below man, and that the brute animal acts from instinct, while man acts from reason, and that brutes cannot but look downward, while man can look upward, and by thought comprehend the things of the spiritual world, and also be affected by them, and even by love be conjoined with God Himself, and thus appropriate to himself life from the Divine; and that it is in order that he may be led and elevated thither that he comes to maturity so late. Moreover man sees confirmations in everything else that belongs to nature, and at last sees in universal nature a representative of the heavenly kingdom.

[4] It is as is well known a common thing for the learned to have less belief in a life after death than the simple, and in general to see Divine truths less clearly than the simple. The reason of this is that they consult memory-knowledges (of which they possess a greater abundance than others) from a negative standpoint, and thereby destroy in themselves insight from what is higher or interior; and when this is destroyed, they no longer see anything from the light of heaven, but only from the light of the world; for memory-knowledges are in the light of the world, and if these are not illuminated by the light of heaven they induce darkness, however different it may appear to themselves.  For this reason it was that the simple believed in the Lord, but not the scribes and Pharisees who were the learned in the Jewish nation, as is evident from these words in John:--

Many of the multitude when they heard these words said, This is truly the Prophet. Others said, This is the Christ (Messias).  The Pharisees answered them, Hath any of the rulers or of the Pharisees believed in Him? (John 7:40, 41, 47, 48).

And in Luke:--

Jesus said, I confess to Thee O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that Thou hast hid these things from the wise and intelligent, but hast revealed them unto babes (Luke 10:21);

“babes” denote the simple.  Also in Matthew:--

Therefore speak I to them by parables because seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand (Matthew 13:13).

AC 4761. And Reuben returned unto the pit. That this signifies the faith of the church in general, is evident from the representation of Reuben, as being the confession of the faith of the church in general (n. 4731, 4734); and from the signification of a “pit,” as being falsities (n. 4728). Hence by Reuben‘s returning to the pit is signified that the faith of the church in general came to view the falsities which belonged to faith separate.

AC 4762. And behold Joseph was not in the pit. That this signified that there was no longer any faith, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being Divine truth; and when this appears among falsities, which are signified by the “pit” (n. 4728), there is no longer any faith.

AC 4763. And he rent his garments.  That this signifies mourning, is evident from the signification of “rending the garments,” as being mourning, namely, on account of truth having been destroyed, or because there was no faith.  We often read in the Word, especially the historic, of persons rending their garments; but the origin of this is not known at the present day, and it is also unknown that it was representative of grief on account of truth being lost.  This act became representative from the fact that “garments” signified truths, as before shown (n. 4545).  Further on in this chapter it is also said that when Jacob recognized his son’s tunic he rent his garments (verse 34), and by this is signified mourning for truth destroyed.  So in other places in the Word, as when Rabshakeh, who was sent by Sennacherib the king of Assyria, spoke insults against Jerusalem; whereupon Eliakim who was over the King‘s household, and Shebna the scribe, and Joah the recorder, rent their garments and told these things to King Hezekiah; and when the king heard it he also rent his garments, and covered himself with sackcloth (Isa. 36:22; 37:1; 2 Kings 18:37; 19:1).  The insults which Rabshakeh spoke were against God, the King, and Jerusalem, thus against Divine truth, as is still plainer from the internal sense of the passage; hence the garments were rent because of mourning.

[2] When Jehudi had read before the king the roll of the book which Jeremiah wrote, it is said that the king cast it into the fire, and that the king and his servants, who heard all those words, did not rend their garments (Jer. 36:23, 24); their not rending their garments denoted that they did not mourn when Divine truth was not received.  The rending of their garments by Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh, when the spies brought an evil report of the land of Canaan, and their speaking against them (Num. 14:6), involves a similar meaning; for the land of Canaan signifies the Lord’s kingdom, to speak against which is to speak falsity against Divine truth.  When the ark of God was taken by the Philistines, and the two sons of Eli were slain, that there ran a man out of the army to Shiloh with his garments rent and dust upon his head (1 Sam. 4:11, 12), signified mourning over lost Divine truth and Divine good; for, as the ark represented the Lord‘s kingdom, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself, and hence the holy of the church, the rent garments signified mourning over lost Divine truth; and dust upon the head, over lost Divine good.

[3] We read of Samuel and Saul:--

As Samuel turned about to go away, Saul laid hold upon the skirt of his tunic, and it was torn off. And Samuel said unto him, Jehovah hath rent the kingdom of Israel from upon thee this day, and hath given it to thy companion.  I will not return with thee, for thou hast rejected the word of Jehovah, and Jehovah hath rejected thee from being king over Israel (1 Sam. 15:26-28);

Saul’s tearing off the skirt of Samuel‘s tunic represented what Samuel said - that the kingdom should be rent from him, and that he should no longer be king of Israel; for “kingdom” in the internal sense signifies Divine truth (n. 1672, 2547, 4691), as also do a “king” and “royalty” (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581), and specifically the Kingdom and king of Israel, because by Israel was represented the Lord’s royalty. So what is related of Jeroboam and the prophet Ahijah:--

When Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, and the prophet Ahijah found him in the way, when he had clad himself with a new garment, and they two were alone in the field, Ahijah laid hold of the new garment that was upon him, and rent it in twelve pieces; and he said to Jeroboam, Take thee ten pieces; for thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel, Behold I rend the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon, and will give ten tribes to thee (1 Kings 11:29-31).

[4] The same is true of their rending their garments when Saul was slain in battle, as related in the second book of Samuel:--

After Saul had been slain in battle, on the third day a man came from the camp whose garments were rent; and when David heard of the death of Saul, David took hold of his garments and rent them; as did all his servants that were with him (2 Sam. 1:1, 2, 11);

by this also was represented mourning on account of Divine truth lost and thrown away by those who were in faith separate; for as before said Divine truth was signified by royalty, and they who were in faith separate were represented by the Philistines, by whom Saul was slain (n. 1197, 1198, 3412, 3413); as also is evident from David‘s lament over him in the same chapter (2 Samuel 1:17-27).

[5] When Absalom had smitten his brother Amnon, and the tidings came to David that Absalom had smitten all the king’s sons, David “rent his garments and lay on the earth, and all his servants stood by with their garments rent” (2 Sam.  13:28, 30, 31); this also was done for the sake of representing that truths from the Divine were destroyed, these being signified in the internal sense by the king‘s sons.  So when David fled before Absalom he was met by Hushai the Archite with his tunic rent (2 Sam. 15:32); for in the Word by a king, especially by David, is represented Divine truth.  In like manner also when Elijah spoke to Ahab king of Israel the words of Jehovah, that he should be extirpated on account of the evil which he had done, Ahab rent his garments and put sackcloth upon his flesh (1 Kings 21:27).

[6] That the rending or tearing of garments represented mourning on account of lost truth, is further evident from the following passages:--

Hilkiah the priest found the book of the law in the house of Jehovah; and Shaphan read it before king Josiah. And when the king heard the words of the book of the law, he rent his garments (2 Kings 22:11);

manifestly on account of the Word (that is, Divine truth) having been so long lost, and obliterated in hearts and life. When the Lord confessed that He was the Christ the Son of God, that the high priest rent his garments, saying, He hath spoken blasphemy (Matt. 26:63-65; Mark 14:63, 64), signified that he had no other belief than that the Lord spoke against the Word, and thus against Divine truth.

[7] When Elijah went up in a whirlwind, and Elisha saw it, he took hold of his own garments, and rent them in two pieces; and he took up the tunic of Elijah that fell from upon him, and smote the waters, and they were parted hither and thither, and Elisha went over (2 Kings 2:11-14); that Elisha then rent his garments in two pieces was on account of mourning that the Word (that is, Divine truth) was lost; for by Elijah is represented the Lord as to the Word, that is, Divine truth (n. 2762).  The tunic falling from Elijah, and being taken up by Elisha, represented that Elisha continued the representation.  That a tunic is Divine truth may be seen above (n. 4677), wherefore also the garment which was rent in such mourning was the tunic, as is evident from some of the passages above cited.  As a “garment” signified the truth of the church, and in the supreme sense Divine truth, it was therefore a disgrace to go with rent garments, except in such mourning - as is evident from what was done to the servants of David by Hanun the king of the sons of Ammon, in that he shaved off half of their beards, and cut off their garments in the middle, even to their buttocks; for which reason they were not admitted to David (2 Sam. 10:4, 5).

AC 4764. And he returned unto his brethren.  That this signifies those who teach, is evident from the representation of Joseph’s brethren, as being those who are of faith separate; and because they were shepherds, as being also those who teach from faith, as above (n. 4705).

AC 4765. And said, The child is not.  That this signifies that there was no faith in it, is evident from the signification of a “child,” as being the truth of faith, for truth is signified by a “son” (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704), thus by the “child,” who here is Joseph, and who as already shown represents Divine truth. And as all truth is of faith - for what in the ancient churches was called true or truth, in the new church is called faith (n. 4690) - therefore, by that “the child is not,” is signified that there was no faith in it.

AC 4766. And I whither do I come? That this signifies Where now is the church? is evident from the representation of Reuben as being the faith of the church in general (n. 4731, 4734, 4761); and as Reuben says of himself, “and I, whither do I come?” it signifies Where now is the faith of the church? or what is the same, Where now is the church? That there is no church where the heavenly Joseph is not (that is, the Lord as to Divine truth, specifically as to the Divine truth that the Lord‘s Human is Divine, and that charity is the essential of the church and consequently the works of charity) may be seen from what has been shown in this chapter concerning both these truths.

[2] If this Divine truth, that the Lord’s Human is Divine, is not received, it necessarily follows that a trine should be adored, and not one; and also that half of the Lord, namely, His Divine, should be adored, but not His Human; for who adores what is not Divine?  And is the church anything where a trine is adored, one separately from another, or what is the same, where three are equally worshiped?  For although the three are called one, still the thought distinguishes and makes three, and only the speech of the mouth says one.  Let everyone consider in himself when he says that he acknowledges and believes in one God, whether he does not think of three; and when he says that the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and these also distinct in persons, and distinct as to functions, whether he can think that there is one God, except in the way that three distinct from one another make one by harmony, and also by condescension in so far as one proceeds from another.  When therefore three gods are adored, where is the church?

[3] But when the Lord only is adored, in whom there is a perfect trine, and who is in the Father and the Father in Him, as He Himself says: “Though ye believe not Me, believe the works; that ye may Know and believe, that the Father is in Me, and I in the Father” (John 10:38);

“he that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; believest thou not Philip that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me” (John 14:9-11);

“He that seeth Me seeth Him that sent Me” (John 7:45);

“All Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine” (John 17:10),

then there is the Christian Church, as there is when the church abides in this that the Lord said: “The first of all the commandments is, Hear O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord; and thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy mind, and from all thy strength, this is the first commandment; and the second is like, namely this, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself; there is none other commandment greater than these” (Mark 12:29-31).  That the “Lord our God” is the Lord, may be seen in other places (Matt. 4:7, 10; 22:41-45; Luke 1:16, 17; John 20:28), as also that “Jehovah” in the Old Testament is called “Lord” in the New (n. 2921).

[4] If also this Divine truth is not received both in doctrine and in life - that love toward the neighbor, or charity, and hence the works of charity, are an essential of the church, it necessarily follows that it is of the church to think what is true, but not to think what is good; and thus that the thought of the man of the church may be in contradiction and opposition to itself; that is, may think what is evil and at the same time may think what is true; thus may by thinking evil be with the devil, and by thinking truth be with the Lord; when yet truth and evil do not at all agree, for “No servant can serve two lords, for either he will hate the one and love the other” (Luke 16:13).  When faith separate establishes this, and also confirms it in life, no matter how it may speak of the fruits of faith, where then is the church?

AC 4767. Verses 31-35. And they took Joseph‘s tunic, and killed a he-goat of the goats, and dipped the tunic in the blood; and they sent the tunic of various colors, and they brought it to their father, and said, This have we found; know now whether it be thy son’s tunic or not.  And he knew it, and said, It is my son‘s tunic; an evil wild beast hath devoured him; Joseph is surely torn in pieces.  And Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned over his son many days.  And all his sons and all his daughters rose up to comfort him: but he refused to comfort himself and he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son mourning.  And his father wept for him. “And they took Joseph’s tunic,” signifies appearances; “and killed a he-goat of the goats,” signifies external truths from delights; “and dipped the tunic in the blood,” signifies that they defiled it with falsities from evils; “and they sent the tunic of various colors,‘ signifies appearances thus defiled; ”and they brought it to their father,“ signifies comparison with the goods and truths of the Ancient and the Primitive Church; ”and said, “This have we found,” signifies that it so appears to them; “know I pray whether it be thy son’s tunic or not,” signifies whether there was a likeness; “and he knew it,” signifies that indeed it was; “and said, It is my son‘s tunic,” signifies that it was the truth of the church; “an evil wild beast hath devoured him,” signifies that the cupidities of evil had extinguished it; “Joseph is surely torn in pieces,” signifies that it is such from falsities as to be not at all; “and Jacob rent his garments,” signifies mourning for truth destroyed; “and put sackcloth upon his loins,” signifies mourning for goods destroyed; “and mourned over his son many days,” signifies the state; “and all his sons,” signifies those who are in falsities; “and all his daughters, rose up,” signifies those who are in evils; “to comfort him,” signifies to interpret from the sense of the letter of the Word; “and be refused to comfort himself,” signifies that this could not be; “and he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son mourning,” signifies that the Ancient Church would perish; “and his father wept for him,” signifies interior mourning.

AC 4768. And they took Joseph’s tunic.  That this signifies appearances, is evident from the signification of a “tunic,” here a tunic of various colors, as being appearances of truth (n. 4677, 4741, 4742).  In what now follows, the subject treated of is exculpation from the wicked deed they had committed; and in the internal sense the confirmation of falsity against Divine truths (n. 4766), and this by appearances, which are presented by reasoning from the sense of the letter of the Word.  All confirmations of falsity by interpretations from the sense of the letter of the Word are appearances, by which the simple are wont to be misled, and falsity to be presented as truth, and truth as falsity.  These appearances are treated of in the internal sense of the following verses.

AC 4769. And killed a he-goat of the goats. That this signifies external truths from delights, is evident from the signification in the Word of a “he-goat of the goats,” as being natural truths, that is, truths of the external man from which are the delights of life; and as also being external truths derived from delights, of which hereafter.  The truths of the external man, from which are the delights of life, are Divine truths such as those of the literal sense of the Word, from which truths the doctrinals of a genuine church are derived; these truths are properly signified by a “he-goat,” and the delights from them are signified by “ goats;” thus by a “he-goat of the goats,” in the genuine sense, are signified those who are in such truths and in delights therefrom.  In the opposite sense however, by a “he-goat of the goats” are signified those who are in external truths (that is, in appearances of truth derived from the sense of the letter) which are in agreement with the delights of their life, such as the delights of the body, which in general are called pleasures, and the delights of the lower mind, which in general are honors and gains.  Such persons are signified by a “he-goat of the goats” in the opposite sense.  In a word, by a “he-goat of the goats” in this sense are signified those who are in faith separate from charity, for these select from the Word those truths only which are in agreement with the delights of their life, that is, which favor the loves of self and the world. The other truths they bring into conformity by interpretations, and thereby present falsities as appearances of truth

[2] That a “he-goat of the goats” signifies those who are in faith separate, is evident from Daniel:--

Behold a he-goat of the goats came from the west over the faces of the whole earth, and touched not the earth and the he-goat had a horn of aspect between his eyes. Out of one of the four horns came forth a little horn, and it grew exceedingly toward the south, and toward the east, and toward comeliness. Yea it grew even to the army of the heavens; and some of the army and of the stars it cast down to the earth, and trampled upon them; and it cast down truth unto the earth (Daniel 8:5, 9, 10, 12);

the subject here treated of is the state of the church in general, not only the state of the Jewish Church, but also that of the following, which is the Christian Church; for the Word of the Lord is universal.  The “he-goat of the goats,” in respect to the Jewish Church, signifies those who made nothing of internal truths, but accepted external truths so far as they favored their loves, which were that they might be the greatest and the wealthiest. For this reason they recognized the Christ or Messiah whom they were expecting, simply as a king, who would exalt them above all the nations and peoples in the whole world, and would make these subject to them as vilest slaves; this was the source of their love for Him.  They did not at all know what love toward the neighbor was, except that it was conjunction by participation in such honor, and through gain.

[3] But the “he-goat of the goats” in respect to the Christian Church signifies those who are in external truths from delights, that is, who are in faith separate; for these also care nothing for internal truths, and if they teach them it is only that they may thereby win reputation, be exalted to honors, and acquire gain.  These are the delights which are in their hearts while truths are in their mouth.  Moreover by wrong interpretations they force the truths which are of genuine faith to favor their loves.  Hence it is evident what is signified in the internal sense by the above words in Daniel namely, that by a “he-goat of the goats” are signified those who are in faith separate. The he-goat‘s coming from the west denotes from evil. The “west” denotes evil, (n. 3708).  His coming over the face of the whole earth, not touching the earth, denotes that he came over the whole church; for by the “earth” in the Word nothing else is meant than the land where the church is, thus the church (n. 566, 662, 1068, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4453). The “horns” which he had are powers from falsity (n. 2832).  The “horn of aspect between the eyes” is power from reasoning about the truths of faith, as may be seen from what was shown concerning the eye (n. 4403-4421, 4523-4534). The “one horn which grew toward the south, the east, and comeliness” is power from faith separate growing even toward those things which are states of the light of heaven, and states of good and truth. That the “south” is a state of light may be seen above (n. 3708), and that the “east” is a state of good (n. 1250, 3249, 3708); that “comeliness” is a state of truth is evident from the Word here and there.  Its “growing even to the army of the heavens, and casting down to the earth some of the army and of the stars, and trampling upon them” denotes that it did so with the knowledges of good and truth. The “army of the heavens” and the “stars” are the knowledges of good and truth, (n. 4697). From this is known what is meant by “casting down truth unto the earth,” namely, the casting down of real faith, which in itself is charity; for faith has regard to charity, because it proceeds from charity.  That which in the Ancient Church was called truth, in the new church is called faith (n. 4690).

[4] The “he-goat” has a similar signification in Ezekiel:--

Behold I judge between small cattle and small cattle, between the rams and the he-goats. Is it a small thing to you that ye eat up the good pasture, and trample with your feet the residue of your pastures? ye drink the settling of the waters, the remains ye disturb with your feet; ye strike with your horns all the infirm till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:17, 18, 21);

in this passage also by “he-goats” are signified those who are in faith separate, that is, who set doctrine before life, and at last have no care about life; when yet life, and not doctrine separate, makes the man; and the life remains after death, but not doctrine except in so far as it partakes of the life. Of these it is said that they “eat up the good pasture, and trample with their feet the residue of the pastures;” and that they “drink the settling of the waters, and disturb the remains with their feet;” also that they “strike the infirm with their horns till they have scattered them.”

[5] From all this it is now evident who are meant by the “he-goats” and who by the “sheep” of whom the Lord speaks in Matthew:--

Before Him shall be gathered all nations, and He shall separate them one from another as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the he-goats; and He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the he-goats on the left, etc. (Matthew 25:32, 33);

that the “sheep” are they who are in charity and thence in the truths of faith, and that the “he-goats” are they who are in no charity, although in the truths of faith, that is, who are in faith separate, is clear from the particulars, in which such persons are described.

[6] Who and of what quality are those who are in faith.  separate and are meant by “he-goats” may be seen from the two following passages: “Every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit shall be hewn down, and cast into the fire. Wherefore by their fruits ye shall Know them. Not everyone that saith unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the Kingdom of the heavens; but he that doeth the will of My Father who is in the heavens. Many will say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied by Thy name? and by Thy name cast out demons? and in Thy name done many mighty works? And then will I confess unto them, I know you not; depart from Me ye workers of iniquity” (Matt. 7:19-23).  And in Luke:

“Then will ye begin to stand without, and to knock at the door, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us; but He shall answer and say to you, I know you not whence ye are.  Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk before Thee, and Thou hast taught in our streets. But He shall say, I tell you I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me all ye workers of iniquity” (Luke 13:25-27).

These are they who are in faith separate, and are called “he-goats.” But what “he-goats” signify in a good sense-as those used in sacrifices and occasionally mentioned in the prophets-will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told elsewhere.

AC 4770. And dipped the tunic in the blood. That this signifies that they defiled it with falsities from evils, is evident from the signification of “dipping in blood,” as being to defile with falsities; for “blood” in the opposite sense is truth falsified (n. 4735). As it was the blood of the he-goat, by which are signified external truths from delights, such as those have who are in faith separate, it is clear that falsities from evils are meant - as is evident also from what follows, where Jacob says, “An evil beast hath devoured him; Joseph is surely torn in pieces;” for by these words is signified that the cupidities of evil had extinguished it, and thus that from falsities it became such as to be not at all. That there are three origins of falsity -  the doctrine of the church, the fallacies of the senses, and a life of cupidities - and that the falsity from this last is the worst, may be seen above (n. 4729).

AC 4771. And they sent the tunic of many colors. That this signifies appearances thus defiled, is evident from the signification of a “tunic of various colors,” as being appearances (n. 4677, 4741, 4742, 4768). That they were defiled is meant by the tunic being dipped in blood (n. 4770).

AC 4772. And they brought it to their father. That this signifies comparison with the goods and truths of the Ancient and the Primitive Church, is evident from the representation of Jacob, who here is the “father,” as being the Ancient Church (n. 4680, 4700), and also the Primitive Church, that is, the Christian Church in its beginning, of which hereafter. To bring such a tunic to this church, is in the internal sense to institute a comparison of falsified goods and truths with the goods and truths of the genuine church. That by Jacob is here represented not only the Ancient, but also the Primitive Church, that is, the Christian Church in its beginning, is because these are altogether the same as to internals, and differ only in externals. The externals of the Ancient Church were all representative of the Lord and of the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom, that is, of love and charity and the faith thence derived, consequently of such things as are of the Christian Church. Thus when the externals of the Ancient, and also of the Jewish Church, are unfolded and as it were unwrapped, the Christian Church is disclosed. This was signified also by the veil of the temple being rent asunder (Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45). It is for this reason that by Jacob the father is represented not only the Ancient, but also the Primitive Christian Church.

AC 4773. And said, This have we found.  That this signifies that it so appears to them, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense; for they did not say that it was Joseph‘s tunic, but that they found it; leaving it to their father to know whether it were his son’s tunic or not.  Hence it follows that by these words is signified that it so appears to them.

AC 4774. Know I pray whether it be thy son‘s tunic or not. That this signifies whether there was a likeness, is evident from the signification of “Knowing whether it be,” as being whether it is like. This refers to what precedes, and follows from it, namely, that a comparison was instituted of falsified goods and truths with the genuine goods and truths of the church, as is signified by their bringing the tunic dipped in blood to their father (n. 4772). Hence in this passage, by “Know I pray whether it be thy son’s tunic,” is signified that he should compare whether it was like, or whether there was a likeness.

AC 4775. And he knew it.  That this signifies that indeed it was, and that and said, It is my son‘s tunic signifies that it was the truth of the church, is evident from the signification of a “tunic,” as being the truth of the church (n. 4677).  But as it was defiled, it was indeed known that it was [the truth of the church] but not truth like that of the Ancient and the Primitive Church; hence it is said that indeed it was.

AC 4776. An evil wild beast hath devoured him.  That this signifies that the cupidities of evil had extinguished it, is evident from the signification of an “evil wild beast,” as being a lie from a life of cupidities (n. 4729), consequently cupidities; and from the signification of “devouring,” as being to extinguish, because predicated of the truth of the church. The veriest truth of the church is that love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor are the primary things (Mark 12:29-31). Cupidities extinguish this truth; for those who are in a life of cupidities cannot be in a life of love and charity, for the two are exact opposites.  A life of cupidities consists in loving self only, and not the neighbor except from self, or for the sake of self. Hence those who are in this life extinguish charity in themselves; and those who extinguish charity, extinguish also love to the Lord; for there is no other means of loving the Lord than charity, because the Lord is in charity.  The affection of charity is heavenly affection itself, which is from the Lord alone.  From this it may be seen that the cupidities of evil extinguish the veriest truth of the church, on the extinction of which a means is devised which is called saving, namely, faith; and when this is separated from charity, truths themselves are defiled, for then it is no longer known what charity is, nor even what the neighbor is, and consequently neither what the internal of man is, nor even what heaven is.  For the internal of man, and heaven in man, is charity - that is, willing well to another, to society, to one’s country, to the church, to the Lord‘s kingdom, and thus to the Lord Himself.  From this we may conclude what is the quality of the truths of the church when those things which are essential are not known, and when the things contrary to them, or cupidities, reign. When a life of cupidities speaks concerning these truths, are not they defiled to such a degree that they can no longer be recognized?

[2] That no one can be saved unless he has lived in the good of charity, and so has become imbued with its affections, which are to will well to others, and from willing well to do well to them; and that no one can receive the truths of faith - that is, become imbued with them and appropriate them to himself - but he who is in a life of charity, has been made manifest to me from those who are in heaven, with whom I have been permitted to converse. There all are forms of charity, with beauty and goodness according to the quality of their charity; their delight, satisfaction, and happiness are from their being able to do good to others from good-will.  The man who has not lived in charity cannot possibly Know that heaven and its joy consist in Willing well and in doing well from willing well, because his heaven is willing well to himself, and from this willing well doing well to others, when yet this is hell.  For heaven is distinguished from hell in this, that heaven, as above said, is doing good from good-will, and hell is doing evil from ill-will. They who are in love toward the neighbor do good from good-will; but they who are in the love of self do evil from ill-will.  The reason of this is, that they love no one but themselves, and others only so far as they see themselves in them, and them in themselves; they also regard these with hatred, which manifests itself as soon as they recede and are no longer theirs. This is like robbers, who so long as they are banded together love one another, but still at heart desire to kill one another, if plunder may thus be obtained.

[3] From these things it may be seen what heaven is, that it is love toward the neighbor; and what hell is, that it is the love of self.  They who are in love toward the neighbor are capable of receiving all the truths of faith, and of being imbued with them and making them their own; for in love toward the neighbor there is the all of faith, because heaven and the Lord are in it.  They on the other hand who are in the love of self can in no wise receive the truths of faith, because hell is in this love; nor can they receive the truths of faith in any other way than for the sake of self-honor and gain; thus they cannot possibly become imbued with them and make them their own.  But the things which they become imbued with and make their own are denials of truth, for at heart they do not believe even that there is a hell and a heaven, nor that there is a life after death, and therefore they believe nothing that is said about hell and heaven, or about a life after death, thus nothing at all that is said from the Word and from doctrine about faith and charity. When they are in worship they appear to themselves to believe, but this because it has been implanted in them from early childhood to put on this state at such a time; but as soon as they are out of worship they are also out of this state; and then thinking in themselves, they believe nothing at all, and also according to the life of their loves devise things to favor them, which they call truths, and which they confirm from the literal sense of the Word, when yet they are falsities. Such are all who in life and doctrine are in faith separate.

[4] Be it known moreover that all things are in the loves, for the loves are what make the life; consequently the Lord’s life flows solely into the loves.  Such therefore as are the loves, such are the lives, because such are the receptions of life.  Love toward the neighbor receives the life of heaven, and the love of self receive the life of hell; thus in love toward the neighbor there is the all of heaven, and in the love of self the all of hell That all things are in the loves may be illustrated from many things in nature.  Animals, both those that walk on the earth and those that fly in the air or swim in the water, are all impelled according to their loves, and into their loves flows whatever is conducive to their life, that is, to their sustenance, habitation, and procreation.  Hence animals of every kind know their food, their abodes, and what concerns their conjugial, such as mating, building nests, laying eggs, and bringing up their young.

[5] The bees also know how to build cells, to suck honey from flowers, to fill with it the honey-combs, and to make provision for themselves against winter, and even to conduct a certain form of government under a queen; besides other marvels.  All these things are effected by influx into their loves; the effects of life being varied only by the forms of their affections.  All these things are in their loves; what then would there not be in heavenly love, if man were in this? Would there not be the all of wisdom and intelligence, which is in heaven?  From this also it is that they who have lived in charity, and no others, are received into heaven; and that from charity they have the capacity of receiving and being imbued with all truths, that is, with all things of faith.  But the contrary happens to those who are in faith separate, that is, in some truths and not in charity Their loves receive such things as are in agreement with them, that is to say, the loves of self and of the world receive those things which are contrary to truths, such as are in the hells.

AC 4777. Joseph is surely torn in pieces. That this signifies that it is such from falsities as to be not at all, is evident from the signification of “being torn in pieces,” as being to be dissipated by falsities, or what is the same, to be such from falsities as to be not at all.  Falsities from evils or from cupidities are what are here meant (n. 4770); in regard to which see what was said just above (n. 4776).

AC 4778. And [Jacob] rent his garments.  That this signifies mourning for destroyed truths, is evident from the signification of the “rending of garments,” as being a representative of mourning for destroyed truth, of which above (n. 4763).

AC 4779. And put sackcloth upon his loins. That this signifies mourning for destroyed good, is evident from the signification of “putting sackcloth upon the loins,” as being a representative of mourning for destroyed good. For the “loins” signify conjugial love, and hence all celestial and spiritual love (n. 3021, 3294, 4277, 4280, 4575), and this from correspondence; for as all the organs, members, and viscera of the human body correspond to the Grand Man - as has been shown at the end of the chapters - so also the loins correspond to those in the Grand Man, or heaven, who have been in genuine conjugial love; and as conjugial love is the fundamental of all loves, therefore by the “loins” is signified in general all celestial and spiritual love. From this came the rite of putting sackcloth on the loins when they mourned over good destroyed, for all good is of love.

[2] That they put sackcloth on the loins to testify to this mourning may be seen from the historic and prophetic parts of the Word, as in Amos:--

I will turn your feasts into mourning, and all your songs into lamentation; thus I will bring up sackcloth upon all loins, and baldness upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning of an only-begotten, and the end thereof as a bitter day (Amos 8:10);

where “bringing up sackcloth upon all loins” denotes mourning over destroyed goods; “all loins” denotes all the goods of love. In Jonah:--

The men of Nineveh believed in God, and therefore they proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least. And when the word came unto the king of Nineveh, he arose from his throne, and laid his robe from upon him, and covered him with sackcloths, and sat on ashes. And he made proclamation, Let man and beast be covered with sackcloth (Jonah 3:5-8);

manifestly for a sign representative of mourning over the evil on account of which Nineveh was to perish; thus over destroyed good.

[3] In Ezekiel:--

They shall utter a cry over thee with their voice, and shall cry bitterly, and shall cause dust to come up upon their heads, they shall roll themselves in ashes and they shall make themselves bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloths (Ezek. 27:30, 31);

said of Tyre, the particulars being representative of mourning for falsities and evils, thus for destroyed truths and goods. “To utter a cry and to cry bitterly” denotes a lamentation over falsity or destroyed truth (n. 2240); “causing dust to come up upon the head” denotes being damned on account of evil (n. 278); “rolling themselves in ashes” denotes being damned on account of falsity; “making themselves bald” denotes mourning because the natural man had no truth (n. 3301); “girding them with sackcloths” denotes mourning because it had no good.  Likewise in Jeremiah:--

0 daughter of My people gird thyself with sackcloth, and roll thyself in ashes; make thee the mourning of an only-begotten, the wailing of bitternesses; for the spoiler shall suddenly come upon us (Jer. 6:26).

Again:--

The elders of the daughter of Zion shall sit in the earth, they shall keep silence, they shall cause dust to go up upon their head, they shall gird themselves with sackcloths, the virgins of Jerusalem shall cause their head to go down into the earth (Lam. 2:10);

here there are similar representatives according to the kinds of good and truth which were destroyed, as above.

[4] In Isaiah:--

The prophecy concerning Moab; he shall go up to Bayith and Dibon, into the lofty places to weep Moab shall howl over Nebo, and over Medeba; on all his heads is baldness, every beard is shaven.  In his streets they have girded on sackcloth, on his housetops and in his streets he shall wholly howl, going down into weeping (Isa. 15:2, 3);

“Moab” denotes those who adulterate goods (n. 2468).  The mourning over this adulteration which is signified by “Moab,” is described by such things as correspond to evil of this kind; and therefore almost the same occurs in Jeremiah:--

Every head is baldness, and every beard shaven; upon all hands are cuttings, and upon the loins sackcloth. On all the housetops of Moab and in the streets thereof is wholly mourning (Jer. 48:37, 38).

[5] When king Hezekiah heard the blasphemies which Rabshakeh spoke against Jerusalem, he rent his garments and covered himself with sackcloths (Isa. 37:1; 2 Kings 19:1); because he spoke against Jehovah, the king, and Jerusalem, wherefore there was mourning; that it was against truth is signified by his rending his garments (n. 4763); and that it was against good, by his covering himself with sackcloth. For where truth is treated of in the Word, good also is treated of,  on account of the heavenly marriage which is that of good and truth and of truth and good in every particular; as also in David:--

Thou hast turned my mourning into dancing; Thou hast opened my sackcloth and girded me with joy (Ps. 30:11);

here “dancing” is predicated of truths, and “joy” of goods, as also in other passages in the Word; thus “to open sackcloth” denotes to take away mourning over destroyed good.

[6] In the second book of Samuel:--

David said to Joab and to all the people that were with him, Rend your garments, and gird yourselves with sackcloth, and mourn before Abner (2 Sam. 3:31);

because a wicked deed had been committed against what is true and good, it was therefore commanded by David that they should rend their garments and gird themselves with sackcloth.  So likewise because Ahab had acted contrary to what was equitable and just (in the spiritual sense contrary to truth and good), when he heard the words of Elijah that he should be cut off, he rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his flesh, and fasted, and lay in sackcloth, and went slowly (1 Kings 21:27).

[7] That sackcloth is predicated of destroyed good, is also evident in the Revelation:--

When he opened the sixth seal, lo there was a great earthquake, and the sun became black as sackcloth, and the whole moon became as blood (Rev. 6:12);

an “earthquake” denotes a change of the state of the church as to good and truth (n. 3355); the “sun” denotes the good of love (n. 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4300, 4696), and therefore sackcloth is predicated of it when it is destroyed; the “moon” denotes the truth of faith (n. 1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4060), of which blood is predicated, because “blood” is truth falsified and profaned (n. 4735).

[8] As being clothed in sack-cloth and rolling in ashes represented mourning over evils and falsities, it also represented humiliation, and likewise repentance; for the primary thing in humiliation is to acknowledge that of himself one is nothing but evil and falsity.  The same is true of repentance, which is effected solely through humiliation, and this through the confession of the heart that of himself one is of such a nature.  That putting on sackcloth was a token of humiliation can be seen in (1 Kings 21:27-29); and that it was of repentance, in (Matthew 11:21; Luke 10:13); but that it was nothing but a representative, thus only an external thing of the body, and not an internal thing of the heart, is plain from Isaiah:--

Is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to lie in sackcloth and ashes? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to Jehovah? Is not this the fast that I choose, to open the bonds of wickedness, to break bread to the hungry? etc. (Isa. 58:5-7).

AC 4780. And mourned over his son many days.  That this signifies the state, namely, the state of mourning for destroyed good and truth, is evident from the representation of Joseph, who here is the “son,” as being Divine truth, specifically those truths spoken of above (n. 4776); and from the signification of “days,” as being states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3785), here a state of great mourning, because it is said “many days.”

AC 4781. And all his sons.  That this signifies those who are in falsities, is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being truths, and in the opposite sense falsities, or those who are in truths or falsities (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704), here those who are in falsities, because by the sons of Jacob, or Joseph‘s brethren, are represented those who are in faith separate, thus those who have extinguished Divine truth, and hence are in falsities--as was shown above.

AC 4782. And all his daughters rose up.  That this signifies those who are in evils, is evident from the signification of “daughters,” as being goods, and in the opposite sense evils, or those who are in goods or evils (n. 489-491, 568, 2362, 3024, 3963).

AC 4783. To comfort him. That this signifies to interpret from the sense of the letter of the Word, is evident from the signification of “comforting,” as being to allay unrest of mind by the hope of something (n. 3610), here unrest or mourning over destroyed good and truth; and as this mourning cannot be allayed except by interpretations from the Word, and as the sons and daughters of Jacob are here treated of, by whom are signified those who are in falsities and evils (n. 4781, 4782), therefore by “comforting” are signified the interpretations which are made from the sense of the letter.  For the sense of the letter has general things, which are as vessels, and can be filled with truths and also with falsities, and thus be so explained as to favor anything; and because they are general things, they are also comparatively obscure, having light from no other source than the internal sense; for the internal sense is in the light of heaven, because it is the Word for the angels; but the sense of the letter is in the light of the world, because it is the Word for men before they come into the light of heaven from the Lord, from which they then have enlightenment. From this it is evident that the sense of the letter is of service to the simple for initiation into the internal sense.

[2] That by interpretations from the sense of the letter the Word can be so explained as to favor anything, is very manifest from the fact that all kinds of doctrines, and even of heresies, are thus confirmed, as for instance the dogma concerning faith separate is confirmed by these words of the Lord:--

God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but should have eternal life (John 3:16);

from which words, and also from other passages, it is concluded that faith alone without works is what gives eternal life; and when those who are in this faith have persuaded themselves of this, they no longer attend to what the Lord so often said concerning love to Him, and concerning charity and works (n. 1017, 2371, 3934), thus not to what is said in John:

“As many as received, to them gave He power to be sons of God, even to them that believe in His name; who were born not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God” (John 1:12, 13).

If they are told that no one can believe in the Lord unless he is in charity, they straightway take refuge in interpretations such as these--that the law has been abrogated, that they were born in sins and so cannot do good of themselves, and that they who practise cannot but claim merit for themselves; and they also confirm these things from the sense of the letter of the Word, as from what is said in the parable of the Pharisee and the publican (Luke 18:10-14), and from other passages; although these do not at all apply to the case.

[3] They who are in faith separate cannot believe otherwise than that anyone can be admitted into heaven out of grace, no matter how he has lived, thus that not the life but the faith remains with man after death.  This they confirm also from the sense of the letter of the Word, when yet it is evident from the very spiritual sense of the Word that the Lord has mercy toward everyone, thus that if heaven were of mercy or grace, regardless of what the life has been, everyone would be saved.  The reason why they who are in faith separate so believe is that they do not at all know what heaven is, and this because they do not know what charity is.  If they knew how much peace and joy and happiness there is in charity, they would know what heaven is; but this is altogether hidden from them.

[4] Again, they who are in faith separate cannot believe otherwise than that they will rise again with the body, and this only at the day of judgment; which they also confirm from many passages of the Word explained according to the sense of the letter, and at the same time taking no thought of what the Lord said concerning the rich man and Lazarus (Luke 16:22-31); and of what He said to the thief: “Verily I say unto thee, To-day shalt thou be with Me in paradise” (Luke 23:43); and of what He said at other times.  The reason why they who are in faith separate so believe is that if they were told that the body will not rise again, they would wholly deny any resurrection, for they do not know nor apprehend what the internal man is, since no one can know what the internal man is, and his life after death, save he who is in charity, for charity is of the internal man.

[5] They who are in faith separate cannot believe otherwise than that the works of charity consist solely in giving to the poor and in assisting the miserable, and this they also confirm from the sense of the letter of the Word; when yet the works of charity consist in doing what is just and equitable, each in his own employment, from the love of what is just and equitable, and of what is good and true.

[6] They who are in faith separate see nothing else in the Word than what confirms their dogmas, for they have no interior insight; they who are not in the affection of charity having only an external sight, or lower insight, from which no one can possibly see higher things, since they appear to him like darkness.  Hence they see falsities as truths, and truth as falsities, and thus by interpretations from the sense of the letter they destroy the good pasture, and defile the clear waters of the sacred fountain or the Word, according to these words in Ezekiel:--

Is it a small thing to you that ye eat up the good pasture, and trample with your feet the remainder of your pastures? ye drink the settling of the waters, the remains ye disturb with your feet; ye strike with your horns all the infirm till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:18, 21).

AC 4784. And he refused to comfort himself. That this signifies that this could not be, is evident from what has now been said.

AC 4785. And he said, For I shall go down to the grave to my son mourning.  That this signifies that the Ancient Church would perish, is evident from the representation of Jacob, who says this of himself, as being the Ancient Church (n. 4680, 4700, 4772); and from the representation of Joseph who here is “my son,” as being the Divine spiritual, or the Divine truth, of which above; and from the signification of “going down to the grave mourning,” as being to die, and when predicated of the church and also of Divine truth, to perish.

AC 4786. And his father wept for him.  That this signifies interior mourning, is evident from the signification of “weeping,” as being grief and sadness to the last degree, thus interior mourning.  Among the externals by which internals were represented in the ancient churches was wailing and weeping over the dead, by which was signified interior mourning (although the mourning itself was not interior), as we read concerning the Egyptians who went with Joseph to bury Jacob:--

When they came to the threshing floor of Atad, which is in the passage of Jordan, they wailed there with a very great and sore wailing; and he made a mourning for his father seven days. And the inhabitant of the land, the Canaanite, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, and they said, This is a grievous mourning to the Egyptians (Gen. 1:10, 11);

and concerning David’s weeping over Abner:--

They buried Abner in Hebron; and the king lifted up his voice and wept at the grave of Abner, and all the people wept (2 Sam. 3:32).

AC 4787. Verse 36. And the Midianites sold him into Egypt unto Potiphar, Pharaoh‘s chamberlain, prince of the guards. “And the Midianites sold him into Egypt,” signifies that those who are in some truth of simple good consulted memory-knowledges; “unto Potiphar, Pharaoh’s chamberlain,” signifies interior memory-knowledges; “prince of the guards,” signifies things which are primary for interpretation.

AC 4788. And the Midianites sold him into Egypt. That this signifies that those who are in some truth of simple good consulted memory-knowledges, is evident from the representation of the Midianites, as being those who are in the truth of simple good (n. 3242, 4756); and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being memory-knowledges (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 4749); and from the signification of “selling,” as being to alienate (n. 4752, 4758); and from the representation of Joseph, as being Divine truth.  When this is said to be sold or alienated by those who are in the truth of simple good to memory-knowledges, which are “Egypt,” it denotes that they consulted them; for those who are in the truth of simple good suffer themselves to be very much led away by the fallacies of the senses, and thus by memory-knowledges, which are therefrom.

[2] It was said above (verse 28) that Joseph was drawn out of the pit by the Midianites, but that he was sold to the Ishmaelites; whence it might seem that he could have been sold in Egypt only by the Ishmaelites.  But the reason why he was not sold by the Ishmaelites but by the Midianites, is that the Ishmaelites represent those who are in simple good (n. 4747), and the Midianites those who are in the truth of this good.  Joseph, or the Divine truth, could not be sold by those who are in good, but only by those who are in truth; for those who are in good know from good what Divine truth is, but not so those who are in truth.

[3] The men of the church are distinguished into two kinds--those who are in good, and those who are in truth.  Those who are in good are called celestial, but those who are in truth are called spiritual.  Between these two kinds there is a great difference.  Those who are in good are in the affection of doing good for the sake of good, and without recompense from others; for it is recompense to them to be permitted to do good, since in so doing they perceive joy; but those who are in truth are in the affection of doing good, not for its own sake, but because it is so commanded, and for the most part they think of recompense; their joy is from this, and also from glorying.

[4] From this it is evident that those who do good from good, do it from internal affection; while those who do good from truth, do it from some external affection.  Hence the difference is evident, namely, that the former are internal men, and the latter external.  Those therefore who are internal men cannot sell, that is, alienate, the Divine truth which is represented by Joseph, because they perceive truth from good; and hence neither the fallacies of the senses, nor consequently memory-knowledges, lead them away.  But those who are external men can sell or alienate it, because they do not perceive truth from good, but only know it from doctrine and teachers; and if they consult memory-knowledges, they suffer themselves to be easily led away by fallacies, for they have no inward dictate.  It is for this reason that Joseph was not sold by the Ishmaelites, but by the Midianites.

AC 4789. Unto Potiphar, Pharaoh‘s chamberlain. That this signifies interior memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of a “chamberlain,” as being what is interior, of which presently; and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being memory-knowledges; for by “Egypt” are signified memory-knowledges in general, as shown above (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462), and in like manner by “Pharaoh;” for that which in the Word is signified by a land or a nation, is signified also by its king, he being the head of the nation.  That interior memory-knowledges are what are signified by “Pharaoh’s chamberlain,” is because chamberlains were connected with the internal affairs of a king; for they were his more intimate courtiers and his more eminent officers, as is manifest also from the signification of this word in the original tongue.

AC 4790. Prince of the guards. That this signifies things which are primary for interpretation, is evident from the signification of “prince,” as being what is primary (n. 1482, 2089). That the “prince of the guards” here denotes things primary for interpretation, is because the subject treated of is Divine truth, which was sold by those who were in the truth of simple good by their consulting memory-knowledges; whence came a wandering and estrangement from Divine truth, and hence interpretations from the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 4783); and by “guards” are signified those things which minister.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN, HERE CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE THEREWITH OF THE TASTE AND THE TONGUE, AND ALSO OF THE FACE

AC 4791. The tongue affords entrance to the lungs, and also to the stomach, thus it represents as it were the court to spiritual and celestial things--to spiritual because it ministers to the lungs and thence to the speech, to celestial because it ministers to the stomach, which supplies food to the blood and heart. That the lungs correspond to spiritual, and the heart to celestial things, may be seen above (n. 3635, 3883-3896). Wherefore the tongue corresponds in general to the affection of truth, or to those in the Grand Man who are in the affection of truth, and afterwards in the affection of good from truth; and therefore they who love the Word of the Lord, and desire there from the knowledges of truth and of good, belong to this province; but with the difference that there are some who belong to the tongue itself, some to the larynx and the trachea, some to the throat, some to the gums, and some to the lips; for there does not exist even the least thing in man with which there is not correspondence. That they who are in the affection of truth belong to this province as understood in a wide sense, has often been granted me to experience, and this by manifest influx from them, now into the tongue, and now into the lips; and it has also been given me to converse with them, and to observe that there are some who correspond to the interiors of the tongue and of the lips, and others to the exteriors. The operation of those who receive with affection exterior truths only, and not interior, but without rejecting the latter, I felt not into the interiors of the tongue, but into the exteriors.

AC 4792. As food and nourishment correspond to spiritual food and nourishment, therefore taste corresponds to the perception and affection of this food. Spiritual food is knowledge, intelligence, and wisdom, for from these, spirits and angels live and are nourished, and they desire and have appetite for them just as men who are hungry desire and have appetite for food. Hence appetite corresponds to this desire.  And wonderful to say, from this food they grow to maturity; for little children who die appear in the other life no otherwise than as little children, and also are such as to understanding; but as they increase in intelligence and wisdom, they appear not as little children, but as advancing in age, and at last as adults.  I have conversed with some who had died in infancy, and were seen by me as young men, because they were then intelligent. From this it is evident what spiritual food and nourishment are.

AC 4793. As the taste corresponds to the perception and affection of knowing, understanding, and growing wise, and as the life of man is in this affection, therefore no spirit or angel is permitted to flow into man‘s taste, for this would be to flow into the life which is proper to him.  Yet there are roaming spirits of the infernal crew, more pernicious than others, who because they had accustomed themselves in the life of the body to enter into man’s affections for the purpose of doing harm, in the other life also retain this desire, and strive in every way to enter into man‘s taste, and when they have entered into it they possess his interiors, that is, the life of his thoughts and affections, for as before said they correspond, and things which correspond act as a one.  Very many at this day are possessed by these spirits; for there are at this day interior obsessions, but not as formerly exterior ones.

[2] Interior obsessions are effected by such spirits, and their quality may be seen if attention is paid to the thoughts and affections, especially to the interior intentions, which men fear to manifest, and which are so insane in some that unless they were restrained by external bonds, such as honor, gain, reputation, the fear of death and of the law, they would more than the obsessed rush into murder and robbery. Who and of what quality those spirits are who obsess the interiors of such men may be seen above (n. 1983).

[3] In order that I might know how this is, they were permitted to attempt to enter into my taste, which they endeavored to the utmost of their power to do; and I was then told that if they penetrated quite into the taste they would possess the interiors also, for the reason that the taste depends on these interiors by correspondence.  But this was permitted only to the end that I might know how the case is with the correspondence of the taste; for they were instantly driven away from there.

[4] These pernicious spirits try especially to loose all internal bonds, which are the affections of what is good and true, and of what is just and fair, fear of the Divine law, and a sense of shame in doing harm to society and to one’s country; and when these internal bonds are loosed the man is obsessed by such spirits. When they are not able to get into the interiors by persistent endeavor, they try to do so by magical arts, of which there are many in the other life wholly unknown in the world; and by means of them they pervert the memory-knowledges in the man, and apply those only which favor their foul desires.  Such obsessions cannot be avoided unless the man is in the affection of good, and hence in faith in the Lord.

[5] It was also shown how they were driven away. When they thought that they were penetrating toward the interiors of the head and brain, they were conveyed along by excrementitious passages, and thence toward the externals of the skin; and they were then seen to be cast into a ditch full of liquid filth.  I was informed that such spirits correspond to the dirty little pits in the outermost skin, where scall arises; thus that they correspond to scall.

AC 4794. A spirit, or man after death, has all the senses that he had while he lived in the world, namely, sight, hearing, smell, and touch; but not taste, but instead of it something analogous which is adjoined to the sense of smell.  The reason why he has not taste is that he may not he able to enter into the taste of man and thus possess his interiors; also that this sense may not turn him away from the desire of knowing and of being wise, thus from spiritual appetite.

AC 4795. From all this it is evident why the tongue is assigned a double office, namely, the office of aiding in speech, and that of aiding in nourishment.  For in so far as it aids in nourishment it corresponds to the affection of knowing, understanding, and being wise as to truths; for which reason also wisdom (sapientia) and being wise (sapere) are so called from relish (sapor); and in so far as it aids in speech, it corresponds to the affection of thinking and producing truths.

AC 4796. When angels present themselves to the sight, all their interior affections appear clearly and shine forth from the face, so that the face is an external form and representative image of them.  It is not permitted in heaven to have any other face than that of one‘s affections.  Those who simulate another face are cast out from the society.  From this it is evident that the face corresponds to all the interiors in general, both to man’s affections and to his thoughts, or to what is of his will and to what is of his understanding. Hence also in the Word by “face” and “faces” are signified affections; and by the Lord‘s “lifting up His faces” upon anyone, is signified that He pities him from Divine affection, which is of love.

AC 4797. The changes of state of the affections appear to the life in the face of angels.  When they are in their own society they are in their own face, but when they come into another society their faces are changed according to the affections of good and truth of that society; and yet the genuine face is as a plane, which is recognized in these changes.  I have seen the successive variations according to the affections of the societies with which they were communicating, for every angel is in some province of the Grand Man, and thus communicates generally and widely with all who are in the same province, though he himself is in the part of that province to which he properly corresponds.  I have seen that they varied their faces by changes from one limit of affection to another; but it was observed that the same face in general was retained, so that the ruling affection always shone forth with its variations, and thus the faces of the whole affection in its extension were shown.

[2] And what is more wonderful, the changes of affections from infancy even to adult age were also shown by means of variations of the face, and it was given me to know how much of infancy it had retained in adult age, and that this was the human itself of it. For in an infant there is innocence in external form, and innocence is the human itself, for into it as into a plane flow love and charity from the Lord.  When man is being regenerated and becoming wise, the innocence of infancy, which was external, becomes internal.  It is for this reason that genuine wisdom dwells in no other abode than innocence (n. 2305, 2306, 3183, 3994); also that no one can enter heaven unless he has something of innocence, according to the Lord’s words,

“Except ye become as little children, ye shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens” (Matt. 18:3; Mark 10:15).

AC 4798. Evil spirits may also be known from their faces, for all their cupidities or evil affections are inscribed on their faces, and it may also be known from their faces with what hells they communicate; for there are very many hells, all distinct according to the genera and species of the cupidities of evil.  Their faces in general when seen in the light of heaven are almost without life, some being ghastly like those of corpses, some black, and others monstrous; for they are the forms of hatred, cruelty, deceit, and hypocrisy. But in their own light and among themselves they appear otherwise, from phantasy.

AC 4799. There were spirits with me from another earth whose faces were different from the faces of the men of our earth, being prominent, especially about the lips, and moreover free. I conversed with them about their manner of living, and the state of conversation among them. They said that they converse with one another chiefly by variations of the face, especially by variations about the lips; and that they express their affections by the parts of the face which are about the eyes, so that their companions can fully comprehend thence both what they are thinking and what they are willing. They endeavored also to show me this by means of an influx into my lips, by means of various foldings and bendings round about them. But I could not receive the variations, because my lips had not been initiated from infancy into such things; and yet by the communication of their thought I could perceive what they said. But that speech in general can be expressed by the lips was evident to me from the manifold series of muscular fibers folded into one another in the lips, which if they should be unfolded, and thus should act openly and freely, would be able to present there many variations which are unknown to those in whom these muscular fibers lie compressed.

[2] That the speech of these people was of such a nature is because they are incapable of simulation, or of thinking one thing and looking another. For they live together in such sincerity that they conceal nothing at all from their companions, it being instantly known what they are thinking and willing, what is their quality, and also what they have been doing; for the acts performed by those who are in sincerity are in the conscience; and thus their interior expressions of countenance, that is, their minds, can be discriminated by others at first sight.

[3] They showed me that they do not force the face, but let it forth freely, otherwise than is the case with those who from youth have been accustomed to simulate, that is, to speak and act differently from what they think and will.  The face of the latter is contracted, so as to be ready to vary itself as cunning suggests.  Whatever a man wishes to conceal contracts his face, which from being contracted is expanded when anything seemingly sincere is feignedly put forth.

[4] While I was reading in the Word of the New Testament concerning the Lord, the spirits now described were present, and also some Christians, and it was perceived that the latter cherished inwardly stumbling blocks against the Lord, and also that they desired to tacitly communicate them. Those who were from another earth wondered at their being of such a quality, but it was given to tell them that in the world they had not been such in mouth but in heart; and that there were also some who, though of this quality, had preached the Lord, and were then able by the zeal of feigned piety to move the common people to sighs and sometimes to tears, not in the least communicating what was in their hearts.  At this they were amazed in that there could be such a disagreement of interiors and exteriors, or of thought and speech, and then said that they were entirely ignorant of such a disagreement, and that it was impossible for them to speak with their mouth and show in their face anything not in accordance with the affections of the heart; and that were it otherwise they would be torn asunder and would perish.

AC 4800. Very few can believe that there are societies of spirits and of angels to which all the things in man correspond; also that the more societies there are, and the more in a society, the better and stronger is the correspondence; for in unanimous numbers there is strength.  In order that I might know that this is so, it was shown how they act and flow into the face, how into the muscles of the forehead, into those of the cheeks, and into those of the chin and throat.  Those who belonged to this province were permitted to flow in, and then every particular was varied according to their influx.  Some of them also conversed with me, but they did not know that they were assigned to the province of the face; for to what province they are assigned is unknown to spirits, but not to angels.

AC 4801. A certain one conversed with me who at the time that he lived in the world had more than others known the exterior truths of faith, but still had not led a life in conformity with the precepts of faith; for he had loved himself only, and had despised others in comparison with himself, and had believed that he would be among the first in heaven; but because he was of such a quality he could not have any other opinion of heaven than as of a worldly kingdom. When in the other life he found that heaven was entirely different from what he had conceived it to be, and that those were chief who had not set themselves above others, especially those who had believed that they were unworthy of mercy, and thus that according to their merits they were the last, he was very indignant, and rejected the things that in the life of the body had been of his faith. He was continually endeavoring to do violence to those who were in the province of the tongue. It was granted me clearly to perceive his effort for several weeks, and hence also to know who and of what quality are those who correspond to the tongue, and who they are that are opposed to them.

AC 4802. There are also spirits who though evil still in some measure admit the light of heaven and receive the truths of faith, so that they have come perception of truth.  They also eagerly receive truths, yet not for the purpose of living according to them, but that they may glory in seeming more intelligent and sharp-sighted than others; for the intellect of man is such that it can receive truths, and yet truths are not appropriated to any but those who live according to them.  Unless man‘s intellect were such he could not be reformed.

[2] They who in the world have been of such a quality, that is, have understood truths and yet have lived a life of evil, are in the other life also of this quality, but there abuse their capacity to understand truths in order to acquire dominion; for they know there that by means of truths they have communication with come societies of heaven, and consequently that they can be with the evil and have power; for in the other life truths have power in them; but because their life is evil they are in hell.

[3] I have spoken with two persons who had been such in the life of the body, and they wondered at their being in hell, when yet they had had a persuasive belief in the truths of faith.  But they were told that the light with them by which they understood truths was a light like that of winter in the world, in which objects appear in their beauty and colors equally as in the light of summer; but that nevertheless in this winter light all things are torpid, and nothing pleasant and gladsome is produced; and that as their end of understanding truths had been glorying, and consequently self, therefore when the sphere of their ends exalts itself toward the interior heavens to the angels there, by whom ends only are perceived, it cannot be endured, but is rejected; and that for this reason they are in hell.

[4] It was added that formerly such persons were pre-eminently called serpents of the tree of knowledge, because when they reason from the life they speak against truths; and moreover that they were like a woman with a lovely face, and a noisome odor, and who wherever she goes is therefore rejected from societies.  Moreover when in the other life such persons come to angelic societies they actually have a foul smell, and this even they themselves perceive as soon as they approach those societies.  From this also it is evident what faith is without a life of faith.

AC 4803. It is worthy of mention, being wholly unknown in the world, that the states of good spirits and of angels are continually changing and perfecting, and that they are thus raised into the interiors of the province in which they are, and so into nobler functions; for in heaven there is a continual purification, and so to speak new creation; but still the case is such that no angel can possibly attain absolute perfection even to eternity.  The Lord alone is perfect; in Him and from Him is all perfection.  They who correspond to the mouth are continually desiring to speak, for in speaking they find their greatest pleasure.  When they are being perfected they are reduced to this--that they do not speak anything but what is of service to their companions, to the common good, to heaven, and to the Lord.  The delight of so speaking is enhanced with them in the degree of the loss of the desire to regard themselves in their speech, and to seek wisdom from their own.

AC 4804. There are very many societies in the other life that are called societies of friendship. They are composed of those who in the life of the body preferred to every other delight that of conversation, and who loved those with whom they conversed, not caring whether they were good or evil, provided they were entertaining; and thus who were not friends to good or to truth.  They who have been such in the life of the body are such also in the other life, in which they associate solely from the delight of conversation. Many such societies have been with me, but at a distance, being seen chiefly a little to the right above the head.  That they were present it was given me to note by a torpor and dulness, and by a privation of the delight in which I was, the presence of such societies inducing these effects. For wherever they come they take delight away from others, and wonderful to say, they make it their own; for they turn away the spirits who are with others, and turn them to themselves, whereby they transfer another’s delight to themselves; and as they are on this account troublesome and injurious to those who are in good, they are therefore kept away by the Lord, lest they should come near to the heavenly societies. From this it was given me to know how much injury friendship occasions man as to his spiritual life if the person and not good is regarded; everyone may indeed be friendly to another, but still he should be most friendly to what is good.

AC 4805. There are also societies of interior friendship which do not take away another‘s external delight and divert it to themselves, but take away his internal delight or blessedness, arising from the affection of spiritual things. These societies are in front to the right close above the lower earth, and some of them a little higher. I have several times conversed with those who were below; and then those who were above inflowed in general. In the life of the body their nature was such that they loved from the heart those who were within their common fellowship, and also embraced one another with brotherly affection. They had believed that they only were living and in the light, and that those who were outside of their society were comparatively not living and not in the light; and because they were of such a quality they also thought that the Lord’s heaven consists solely of those few.

[2] But it was given to tell them that the Lord‘s heaven is immense, and that it consists of every people and tongue, and that all are there who have been in the good of love and of faith; and it was shown that there are those in heaven who relate to all the provinces of the body both as to its exteriors and as to its interiors; but that if they aspired beyond the things which correspond to their life, especially if they condemned others who were outside of their society, they could not have heaven; and that in this case their society is a society of interior friendship, which as before said is of such a nature that when they approach others they deprive them of the blessedness of spiritual affection; for they regard them as not being the elect, and as not living; and when this thought is communicated, it induces sadness, which however according to the law of order in the other life returns to themselves.

AC 4806. A continuation concerning Correspondence with the Grand Man will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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