HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter38

AC 4807. Before the preceding chapter (n. 4661-4664) a beginning was made of unfolding what the Lord says in (Matthew 25:31-46) concerning the Judgment upon the good and the evil, who are there called sheep and goats. What the internal sense of these words is, has not yet been unfolded, but is now to be unfolded before this and some following chapters.  And it will then be evident that by the Last Judgment is not there meant the last time of the world, and that the dead will then for the first time rise again and be gathered together before the Lord and judged; but that there is meant the last time of everyone who passes out of the world into the other life; for then is his Judgment, and this is the Judgment which is meant.  Yet that this is so does not appear from the sense of the letter, but from the internal sense.  The reason why the Lord so spoke, is that He spoke here, as everywhere else in the Word of the Old and the New Testament, by representatives and significatives; for to speak by representatives and significatives is to speak at the same time to the world and to heaven, or to men and to angels.  Such speech is Divine, because universal, and hence is proper to the Word. Wherefore they who are in the world and care for worldly things only, do not apprehend anything else from what the Lord says here concerning the Last Judgment than that all are to rise again at one and the same time, and even that the Lord will then sit upon a throne of glory, and will speak to those gathered together according to these words. But they who care for heavenly things know that the time of everyone’s resurrection is when he dies, and that the Lord‘s words here involve that everyone will be judged according to his life, thus that everyone carries his judgment with him, because he carries his life.

AC 4808. That this is involved in the internal sense of the words in question will appear from the explication of the particulars according to this sense; but here only those things will be unfolded which are contained in (verses 31 to 33):--When the Son of man shall come in His glory, and all the holy angels with Him, then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory; and before Him shall be gathered all nations, and He shall separate them one from another as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats; and He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left.

AC 4809. When the Son of man shall come in His glory; signifies when the Divine truth shall appear in its light, which takes place with every man when he dies, for he then comes into the light of heaven, in which he can perceive what is true and good, and hence what is his quality. The “Son of man,” in the internal sense of the Word, is the Lord as to Divine truth, thus is the Divine truth which is from the Lord.  “Glory” is the intelligence and wisdom thence derived, which appear as light, and before the angels as the resplendence of light.  This resplendence of light, in which are wisdom and intelligence derived from the Divine truth which is from the Lord, is what in the Word is called “glory.” The “Son of man” in the internal sense is the Divine truth, (n. 2159, 2803, 2813, 3704).

[2] And all the holy angels with Him; signifies the angelic heaven.  The “holy angels” are the truths which are from the Lord’s Divine good; for by “angels” in the Word are not meant angels, but those things which are from the Lord (n. 1925, 4085); for the angels are recipients of the life of truth proceeding from the Lord‘s Divine good, and in so far as they receive, so far they are angels.  From this it is plain that “angels” are these truths.  As the subject here treated of is the state of everyone after death, and the judgment of everyone according to his life, it is said that all the holy angels will be with Him; and by this is signified that the judgment will be effected by means of heaven; for all influx of Divine truth takes place through heaven, and immediate influx can be received by no one. 

[3] Then shall He sit upon the throne of His glory; signifies the Judgment, for a “throne” is predicated of the Lord’s royalty, and the Lord‘s royalty is the Divine truth (n. 1728, 2015, 3009, 3670), and the Divine truth is that from which and according to which is the Judgment. 

[4] And before Him shall be gathered all nations; signifies that the goods and evils of all will be made manifest; for by “nations” in the internal sense of the Word are signified goods, and in the opposite sense evils (n. 1259, 1260, 1416, 2588, 4574); thus that goods and evils will appear in Divine light, that is, in light from the Divine truth, is signified by all nations being gathered before Him. 

[5] And He shall separate them one from another, as the shepherd separateth the sheep from the goats; signifies the separation of good from evil; for the “sheep” are they who are in good, and the “goats” they who are in evil. They are properly called “sheep” who are in charity and thence in faith, and they “goats” who are in faith and not in charity--both being here treated of.  That “sheep” are they who are in charity and thence in faith, may be seen above (n. 2088, 4169), and “goats” they who are in faith and not in charity (n. 4769).

[6] And He shall set the sheep on His right hand, but the goats on the left; signifies separation according to truths from good, and according to falsities from evil.  In the other life they who are in truths from good actually appear to the right, and they who are in falsities from evil to the left.  Hence to be set on the right hand and on the left, is to be set in order according to the life.

AC 4810. From all this it is evident what these words of the Lord involve, and that they are not to be understood according to the letter (namely, that the Lord at some last time will come in glory, and all the holy angels with Him, and will sit upon a throne of glory, and judge all nations gathered before Him), but that everyone will be judged according to his life, when he passes out of life in the world into life eternal.

GENESIS 38:1-30

1. And it came to pass in this time and Judah went down from his brethren, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite, and his name was Hirah.

2. And Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and her name was Shua; and he took her, and came to her.

3. And she conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Er.

4. And she conceived again and bare a son, and she called his name Onan.

5. And she added again and bare a son, and she called his name Shelah; and he was in Chezib when she bare him.

6. And Judah took a woman for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar.

7. And Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and Jehovah caused him to die.

8. And Judah said unto Onan, Come to thy brother‘s wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her, and raise up seed to thy brother.

9. And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and it came to pass when he came to his brother‘s wife, and he destroyed it to the earth, that he might not give seed to his brother.

10. And the thing which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him also to die.

11. And Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in thy father’s house, till Shelah my son be grown up; for he said, Lest he also die, like his brethren.  And Tamar went and abode in her father‘s house.

12. And the days were multiplied, and Shua’s daughter died, the wife of Judah; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto the shearers of his flock, he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite, to Timnah.

13. And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold, thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his flock.

14. And she put off from upon her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself in a veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the gate of the fountains which is upon the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him for a woman.

15. And Judah saw her, and thought her to be a harlot, because she had covered her face.

16. And he turned aside unto her to the way, and said, Grant I pray that I may come to thee; for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law.  And she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come to me?

17. And he said, I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock.  And she said, If thou wilt give a pledge, till thou send it?

18. And he said, What pledge shall I give thee?  And she said, Thy signet, and thy kerchief, and thy staff that is in thy hand.  And he gave them to her, and came to her; and she conceived to him.

19. And she arose, and went, and put off her veil from upon her, and put on the garments of her widowhood.

20. And Judah sent the kid of the goats by the hand of his companion the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman‘s hand; and he found her not.

21. And he asked the men of that place, saying, Where is the harlot that was at the fountains upon the way? And they said, There was no harlot there.

22. And he returned to Judah and said, I have not found her; and also the men of the place said, There was no harlot there.

23. And Judah said, Let her take it to her, haply we shall be put to shame; behold I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.

24. And it came to pass about three months after, and it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover behold she is with child to whoredoms. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.

25. She was brought forth, and she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man whose these are am I with child; and she said, Acknowledge I pray thee whose are these, the signet and the kerchief and the staff.

26. And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She is more just than I; forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son. And he added no further to know her.

27. And it came to pass in the time of her travail, and behold twins were in her womb.

28. And it came to pass when she travailed, that one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound double-dyed upon his hand, saying, This came out first.

29. And it came to pass as he drew back his hand, that behold his brother came out; and she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach? and he called his name Perez.

30. And afterward came out his brother, that had the double-dyed upon his hand; and he called his name Zerah.

THE CONTENTS

AC 4811. The subject treated of in this chapter, in the internal Sense, is the Jewish Church and the genuine church; the Jewish Church is described by Judah, and the genuine church by Tamar.

AC 4812. The sons by Tamar signify the two essentials of the church, namely, faith and love--Perez faith, and Zerah love. Their birth represents that love is actually the firstborn of the church, and faith only apparently so.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 4813. Verses 1-5. And it came to pass in this time and Judah went down from his brethren, and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite, and his name was Hirah. And Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite, and her name was Shua; and he took her, and came to her. And she conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Er.  And she conceived again and bare a son, and she called his name Onan.  And she added again and bare a son, and she called his name Shelah; and he was in Chezib when she bare him. “And it came to pass in this time,” signifies the state of the things that follow; “and Judah went down from his brethren,” signifies the posterity of Jacob, specifically the tribe of Judah, which was separated from the rest; “and turned aside even to a man, an Adullamite,” signifies to falsity; “and his name was Hirah,” signifies its quality; “and Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite,” signifies the affection of evil from the falsity of evil; “and her name was Shua,” signifies its quality; “and he took her, and came to her,” signifies that the tribe of Judah conjoined itself with these things; “and she conceived and bare a son,” signifies that the falsity of the church was thence derived; “and he called his name Er,” signifies its quality; “and she conceived again and bare a son,” signifies evil; “and she called his name Onan,” signifies its quality; “and she added again and bare a son,” signifies what is idolatrous; “and called his name Shelah,” signifies its quality; “and he was in Chezib when she bare him,” signifies the state.

AC 4814. And it came to pass in this time.  That this signifies the state of the things that follow, is evident from the signification of “time,” as being state (n. 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3404, 3938).  That it is the state of the things that follow, is signified by its being said “it came to pass in this time,” for what came to pass is related in what follows. Moreover the things which follow in a series flow from those which precede, for in the preceding chapter it is said of the sons of Jacob that they sold Joseph, and that Judah persuaded them to do it; of whom it is said in that chapter,

“And Judah said unto his brethren, What gain is it if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? Come and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites” (Gen. 37:26, 27),

whereby was signified that the Divine truth was alienated by them, especially by Judah, by whom is there signified in the proximate sense the tribe of Judah, and in general the depraved in the church who are against all good whatever (n. 4750, 4751).  This is referred to by its being said “in this time,” for the subject now treated of is Judah, and his sons by the Canaanite woman, and afterward by Tamar his daughter-in-law; and by these things in the internal sense is described the tribe of Judah in respect to the things of the church instituted with that tribe.

[2] That by “time” is signified state, and hence by its “coming to pass in this time,” the state of the things that follow, cannot but appear strange; for the reason that it cannot be comprehended how the notion of time can be changed into the notion of state, or that when “time” occurs in the Word, something relating to state is to be understood.  But be it known that the thoughts of angels do not derive anything from time or from space, because they are in heaven; for when they left the world, they left also the notion of time and space, and put on notions of state, that is, of the state of good and truth.  Wherefore when man reads the Word and then thinks of time and of the things belonging to time, the angels with him do not perceive anything of time, but perceive instead the things that are of state, which also correspond thereto.  Neither does man in his interior thought perceive time, but only in his exterior, as may appear from the state of man when his exterior thought is lulled to rest, that is, when he is sleeping; and also from various other experiences.

[3] But be it known that there are in general two states, a state of good and a state of truth.  The state of good is called a state of being, but the state of truth a state of coming into existence; for being is of good, and the derivative coming into existence is of truth.  Space corresponds to the state of being, and time to the state of coming into existence.  Hence it may be seen that when man reads “and it came to pass in this time,” the angels with him can by no means perceive these words as man does.  So likewise in other instances. For whatever is written in the Word is of such a nature that with angels it is turned into a corresponding sense, which does not at all appear in the sense of the letter; because what is worldly of the sense of the letter is turned into what is spiritual of the internal sense.

AC 4815. And Judah went down from his brethren.  That this signifies the posterity of Jacob, and specifically the tribe of Judah, which was separated from the rest, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being in the universal sense the posterity of Jacob, and in the specific sense the tribe called the tribe of Judah; and from the signification of “going down from his brethren,” as being to be separated from the rest of the tribes, here to go into worse evil than they; for “going down” involves to be cast down to evil, as “going up” involves elevation to good (n. 3084, 4539). The reason of this as before said is that the land of Canaan represented the Lord’s kingdom, and Jerusalem and Zion the inmost of it; but the regions outside the boundaries of that land represented those things which are outside the Lord‘s kingdom, namely, falsity and evil. Therefore going from Zion and Jerusalem toward the boundaries was called “going down;” but going from the boundaries to Jerusalem and Zion was called “going up.” Hence “going up” involves elevation to what is true and good, and “going down,” to be cast down to what is false and evil.  As the falsity and evil to which the tribe of Judah cast itself down are here treated of, it is said that Judah “went down,” and then that he “turned aside to a man, an Adullamite;” and by “turning aside” is signified turning to falsity, and afterward to evil.

[2] It is known that the tribe of Judah was separated from the rest of the tribes, and the reason was that this tribe might represent the Lord’s celestial kingdom, but the rest of the tribes His spiritual kingdom.  For this reason also Judah in the representative sense is the celestial man, and in the universal sense the Lord‘s celestial kingdom (n. 3654, 3881); and the rest of the tribes were called by the one name, “Israelites,” for Israel--in the representative sense is the spiritual man, and in the universal sense the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 3654, 4286).

[3] That the tribe of Judah went into worse evil than the rest is specifically signified by these words: “Judah went down from his brethren, and turned aside.”  That the tribe of Judah went into worse evil than the rest is evident from many passages in the Word, especially in the prophets; as in Jeremiah:--

Her treacherous sister Judah saw when for all the ways whereby backsliding Israel committed adultery I had put her away and given her a bill of divorcement; yet treacherous Judah her sister feared not, but she also went and committed whoredom, so that by the voice of her whoredom the land was profaned, she committed adultery with stone and wood; yet for all these things treacherous Judah hath not returned unto Me; backsliding Israel hath justified her soul more than treacherous Judah (Jer. 3:7-11).

And in Ezekiel:--

Her sister indeed saw, yet she corrupted her love more than she, and her whoredoms above the whoredoms of her sister (Ezek.  23:11-49);

speaking of Jerusalem and Samaria, or of the tribes of Judah and the tribes of Israel.  So in many other places.

[4] In the internal sense that tribe is described as to how it lapsed into falsity, and thence into evil, and at last into mere idolatry. This is indeed described in the internal sense before that tribe was separated from the rest, and before it so came to pass; but what is in the internal sense is Divine, and to the Divine future things are present. See what is foretold of this nation in (Deut. 31:16-22; 32:15-44).

AC 4816. And turned aside to a man, an Adullamite.  That this signifies to falsity, is evident from the signification of “turning aside,” as being to go away into what is perverse, for “turning aside,” like “going down,” is predicated of far removal from good to evil, and from truth to falsity; and from the signification of a “man (vir)” as being one who is intelligent, and in the abstract sense truth, because the genuine intellectual is from truths (n. 265, 749, 1007, 3134, 3309); but in the opposite sense it is one who is not intelligent, and consequently falsity. This falsity is represented by an Adullamite, for Adullam was on the boundary of the inheritance of Judah (Josh. 15:35), and hence signified the truth which is from good; as also in Micah:--

Yet will I bring an heir to thee O inhabitress of Mareshah, even to Adullam shall come the glory of Israel (Micah 1:15);

but as most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so too has Adullam, and it then signifies the falsity which is from evil.  That most things have also an opposite sense is because before the land of Canaan was made an inheritance for the sons of Jacob, it was possessed by nations by whom were signified falsities and evils; and also afterwards when the sons of Jacob went into what is contrary; for lands take on the representation of the nations and peoples who inhabit them, according to their quality.

AC 4817. And his name was Hirah. That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of “name‘s and of ”calling a name,“ as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421).  The quality of the falsity spoken of just above is what is signified; for by the names both of places and of persons in the Word are signified states and things (n. 1224, 1264, 1876, 1888, 1946, 2643, 3422, 4298, 4442).

AC 4818. And Judah saw there a daughter of a man, a Canaanite. That this signifies the affection of evil from the falsity of evil, is evident from the signification of a ”daughter,“ as being the affection of good (n. 2362), and in the opposite sense the affection of evil (n. 3024); and from the signification of a ”man,“ as being one who is intelligent, and in the abstract sense truth, but in the opposite sense one who is not intelligent, and falsity, as just above (n. 4816); and from the signification of a”Canaanite,“ as being evil (n. 1573, 1574).  From this it is evident that by a ”daughter of a man a Canaanite“ is signified evil which is from the falsity of evil.  What evil from the falsity of evil is, will be shown below.

[2] Here some thing must first be said about the origins of the tribe of Judah, for they are described in this chapter.  There are three origins of this tribe, or of the Jewish nation--one from Shelah, the son of Judah, by his Canaanite wife; another from Perez, and the third from Zerah, the sons of Judah by Tamar his daughter-in-law.  That the whole Jewish nation was from these three sons of Judah is evident from the enumeration of the sons and grandsons of Jacob who came with him into Egypt (Gen. 46:12); and also from their classification according to families, in Moses:--

The sons of Judah according to their families were of Shelah, the family of the Shelanites; of Perez, the family of the Perezites; of Zerah, the family of the Zerahites (Num. 26:20; 1 Chron. 4:21);

this shows what the origin of that nation was, namely, that one third of them was from the Canaanite mother, and that two thirds of them were from the daughter-in-law; consequently that all were from an illegitimate connection, for marriages with the daughters of the Canaanites were strictly forbidden (Gen. 24:3; Exod. 34:16; Deut. 7:3; 1 Kings 11:2; Ezra 9:1-15; 10:1-44), and to lie with one’s daughter-in-law was a capital offence, as is evident in Moses:--

If a man lie with his daughter-in-law, both of them shall surely be put to death; they have wrought confusion; their bloods shall be upon them (Lev. 20:12).

Judah‘s referring this deed with his daughter-in-law to the levirate law in which an ordinance is made regarding the brother, but by no means regarding the father (verse 26), implies that his sons by Tamar should be acknowledged as the sons of Er his firstborn, who was born of the Canaanite mother, and who was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and was therefore caused to die (verse 7); for those who were born first to the husband’s brother were not his by whom they were conceived, but his whose seed they raised up, as is evident from (Deuteronomy 25:5, 6), and also from (verses 8 and 9) of this chapter.  Moreover those who were born of Tamar were born of fornication; for Judah thought when he went unto her that she was a harlot (verses 15, 16, 21).  This shows whence and of what quality was the origin of the Jewish nation, and that they spoke falsely when they said, ”We were not born of fornication“ (John 8:41).

[3] What this origin involves and represents is plain from what follows, namely, that their interiors were of such a quality, or had such an origin.  Judah‘s marrying a Canaanite involves an origin from the evil which is from the falsity of evil, for this is signified in the internal sense by ”a daughter of a man a Canaanite;“ his lying with his daughter-in-law involves and represents damnation from falsified truth from evil, for everywhere in the Word whoredom signifies the falsification of truth (n. 3708). Evil from the falsity of evil is evil of life from false doctrine which has been hatched by the evil of the love of self (that is, by those who are in this evil), and confirmed by the sense of the letter of the Word.  Such is the origin of evil with the Jewish nation, and such is its origin with some in the Christian world, especially with those who in the Word are meant by Babylon.  This evil is of such a nature that it closes every way to the internal man, insomuch that nothing of conscience can be formed therein; for the evil which a person does from false doctrine, he believes to be good, because he believes it to be true; and therefore he does it freely and with delight, as allowable.  Thus heaven is so closed to him that it cannot he opened.

[4] The quality of this evil may be shown by an example.  With those who from the evil of the love of self believe that Jehovah has chosen a single nation only, and that all the rest of mankind are relatively slaves, and so vile that they may be killed at pleasure or he cruelly treated--as the Jewish nation believed, and at this day the Babylonish nation also believes--and confirm this belief from the sense of the letter of the Word, then whatever evil they do from this false doctrine and others built upon this as a foundation, is evil from the falsity of evil, and destroys the internal man, preventing any conscience from ever being formed therein. These are they spoken of in the Word who are said to be ”in bloods,“ for they are in cruel rage against the whole human race which does not adore their articles of faith, and thus themselves, and does not offer its gifts upon their altars.

[5] Take another example with those who from the evil of the love of self and of the world believe that there must be some one as the Lord’s vicar on earth, who has the power of opening and shutting heaven, and thus of ruling over the minds and consciences of all, and who confirm this falsity from the sense of the letter of the Word, whatever of evil they do from this belief is evil from the falsity of evil, which in like manner destroys the internal man with those who from this evil claim for themselves this power, and in this way rule; and this evil is destructive to such a degree that they no longer know what the internal man is, nor that anyone has conscience, consequently they no longer believe that there is any life after death, nor that there is a heaven or a hell, no matter how they may speak of these things.

[6] This evil, as regards its quality, cannot be distinguished by men in the world from other evils, but in the other life it is known by the angels as in clear day; for evils and falsities are manifest in that life as to their distinctions of quality and origin, which are innumerable; and according to the genera and species of these also are the distinctions of the hells.  Concerning these innumerable differences man knows scarcely anything; he merely believes that evil exists, but what its quality is he does not know, and this for the sole reason that he does not know what good is, and this because he does not know what charity is; for if he had known the good of charity he would have known also the opposites or evils, with their distinctions.

AC 4819. And her name was Shua.  That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of ”name,“ as being quality (n. 4817), here the quality of evil from the falsity of evil (n. 4818).

AC 4820. And he took her, and came to her.  That this signifies that the tribe of Judah conjoined itself with these things, namely, with evils from the falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of ”taking her“--that is to say, for a woman--and ”coming“ or ”entering to her,“ as being to be conjoined, as explained several times above.  For in the internal sense marriages represent the conjunction of good and truth, because this is their source (n. 2727-2759), but in the opposite sense the conjunction of evil and falsity, here the conjunction of the tribe of Judah with evil and falsity; for this is said of Judah, by whom is signified the tribe named after him, as may be seen above (n. 4815).  It is not said here that he took her for a wife, but only that he took her and came to her, for the reason that the connection was unlawful (n. 4818); and also because it was thus tacitly indicated that it was not a marriage, but a whoredom, thus that the sons born of her were born of whoredom. The conjunction of evil with falsity is nothing else. Her being afterwards called his wife; in these words--”and the days were multiplied, and Shua‘s daughter died, the wife of Judah“ (verse 12), will be spoken of below.

AC 4821. And she conceived, and bare a son.  That this signifies that the falsity of the church was thence derived, is evident from the signification of ”conceiving and bearing,“ as being to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and from the signification of a ”son,“ as being the truth of the church, but in the opposite sense falsity (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 3373, 4257).  Hence by her ”conceiving and bearing a son“ is here signified that the church with the tribe of Judah acknowledges falsity in faith and act.  That by this son is signified the falsity of the church, is because he was the first born, and in the ancient churches by the firstborn was signified the truth of faith (n. 352, 3325), and in the opposite sense falsity--as was also signified by the firstborn of men and of beasts in Egypt (n. 3325). That not truth but falsity is signified, is plain from what shortly follows; for it is said, ”Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and Jehovah caused him to die“ (verse 7).  The name of his son Er also involves this quality, as likewise the name of the second son Onan involves his quality, namely, what is wrong or evil.

AC 4822. And he called his name Er.  That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of ”calling a name,“ as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421), namely, the quality of the falsity of the church, of which just above (n. 4821).  It is said ”the quality of the falsity,“ because falsities differ one from another, just as truths do, and to such a degree that their different kinds can scarcely he enumerated; and each kind of falsity has its own quality by which it is distinguished from another.  There are general falsities which reign with the depraved in every church, and the falsity is varied with everyone in the church according to his life.  The falsity which was in the Jewish Church, and which is here treated of, was falsity from the evil of the love of self, and of the derivative love of the world (n. 4818).

AC 4823. And she conceived again, and bare a son.  That this signifies evil, is evident from the signification of a ”son,“ as being truth, and also good (n. 264); thus in the opposite sense falsity and also evil, but the evil which is from falsity.  This evil in its essence is falsity, because it is from it; for one who from a false doctrine does what is evil, does also what is false; but because it is done in act, it is called evil. That by the firstborn son is signified falsity, and by this one evil, is evident from its being related of this son that he did evil in act, namely, that ”he destroyed the seed to the earth, that he might not give seed to his brother.  And the thing which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and He caused him also to die“ (verses 9 and 10). Here also it is evident that this evil was from falsity.  Moreover in the ancient churches by the second son was signified the truth of faith in act; and therefore by this son falsity in act, that is, evil.  That evil is what is signified by him, may be seen also from the fact that Er the firstborn was named by his father, or Judah; while this son, or Onan, was named by his mother, the daughter of Shua, as may be seen in the original tongue.  For in the Word by a ”man“ is signified falsity, and by a ”woman“ the evil thereof (n. 915, 2517, 4510). That by the daughter of Shua is signified evil, may be seen above (n. 4818, 4819). Wherefore Er, because he was named by his father, signifies falsity, and Onan, because he was named by his mother, signifies evil; for the former was thus as it were the father‘s son, but the latter as it were the mother’s.

[2] In the Word ”man and wife,“ and also ”husband and wife,“ are often mentioned; and when ”man and wife“ are mentioned, by ”man“ is signified truth, and by ”wife“ good, and in the opposite sense by ”man“ is signified falsity, and by ”wife“ evil; but when ”husband and wife“ are mentioned, good is signified by ”husband,“ and truth by ”wife,“ and in the opposite sense evil is signified by ”husband,“ and falsity by ”wife.“ The reason of this mystery is this: in the celestial church the husband was in good, and the wife in the truth of this good; but in the spiritual church the man is in truth, and the wife in the good of this truth; such were they in fact then, and such are they now, for the interiors of man have undergone this change.  Hence where celestial good and celestial truth from it are treated of in the Word, it is said ”husband and wife;“ but where spiritual good and spiritual truth from it are treated of, it is said ”man and wife,“ or rather ”man and woman.“  From this, as also from the expressions themselves, it is known what good and what truth are treated of in the Word, in its internal sense.

[3] This too is the reason of its having been occasionally stated that marriages represent the conjunction of good and truth, and of truth and good.  Moreover conjugial love has its origin from this conjunction of good with truth; and conjugial love with the spiritual from the conjunction of truth with good.  Marriages also actually correspond to these conjunctions.  From all this it is evident what is involved in the father‘s naming the first son, and the mother’s naming the second, and also the third-- as appears from the original tongue--namely, that the father named the first son, because by him was signified falsity, and that the mother named the second, because by him was signified evil.

AC 4824. And she called his name Onan. That this signifies its quality, namely, the quality of the evil spoken of just above (n. 4823), is evident from the signification of ”calling a name,“ as being the quality (n. 4822).  ”Onan“ signifies and involves the quality of this evil.

AC 4825. And she added again and bare a son.  That this signifies what is idolatrous, is evident from the signification of a ”son“ here, as being what is idolatrous, for those who were born before signified falsity and evil (n. 4821, 4823).  From this it follows that the third son means what is idolatrous, for both falsity and evil produce this, and are in it.  Of the three sons who were born to Judah of the Canaanite woman, this son was the only one that survived, from whom came a third part of the Jewish nation; and that this nation took its rise from what is idolatrous, is here meant in the internal sense.  That this nation was very prone to idolatry is evident from the historic and prophetic parts of the Word according to the sense of the letter; and that it was continually idolatrous is plain from the internal sense.  For idolatry consists not only in worshiping idols, graven images, and other gods, but also in worshiping external things without their internals.  In this that nation was continually idolatrous, adoring external things only, and entirely removing internal things, not being willing even to know about them.  They had indeed holy things with them--as the tent of meeting, with the ark, the mercy-seat on it, the tables on which were the loaves, the lampstand, incenses, and the altar outside the tent, on which were offered burnt-offerings and sacrifices--all which things were called holy; and the inmost of the tent was called the holy of holies, and also the sanctuary.  They also had with them the garments that belonged to Aaron and to their high priests, and were called the garments of holiness; for there was the ephod with the breast-plate in which was the Urim and Thummim, besides other things.  Yet these things were not holy in themselves, but were holy from representing holy things, namely, the Divine celestial and spiritual things of the Lord‘s kingdom, and also the Lord Himself.  Still less were they holy from the people with whom they were, for that people were not at all affected by the internal things which were represented, but only by the external; and to be affected by external things only is idolatrous, for it is to worship wood and stone, and also the gold and silver with which they are covered, from a phantasy that they are holy in themselves.  Such was that nation, and such also it is at this day.

[2] But still there might be with them a representative of a church, because the representative does not regard the person, but the thing (n. 665, 1097, 3670, 4208, 4281, 4288).  Thus their worship did not make them blessed and happy in the other life, but only prosperous in the world so long as they continued in the representatives, and did not turn aside to the idols of the Gentiles, and thus become openly idolaters; for then not anything of the church could any longer be represented with that nation.  These are the things which are meant by what is idolatrous that is signified by the third son of Judah by the Canaanite woman.  This idolatry with that nation had its origin from their internal idolatry, for they above other nations were in the love of self and the world (n. 4459, 4750); and those who are in the love of self and of the world are in internal idolatry, for they worship themselves and the world, and perform holy ceremonies for the sake of self-adoration and gain, that is, for self as an end--not for the Lord’s church and kingdom as an end, thus not for the Lord.

AC 4826. And she called his name Shelah.  That this signifies its quality, is evident from the signification of ”calling a name,“ as being quality, of which above, where the two former sons of Judah, Er and Onan, are treated of (n. 4822, 4824). The quality of the idolatry is what is signified by Shelah, for there are many idolatries--there is external idolatry and there internal, both being in general the worship of falsity and evil.

AC 4827. And he was in Chezib when she bare him.  That this signifies the state, is evident from the signification of ”Chezib,“ as being the state, namely, the state of the idolatry signified by Shelah, in which the Jewish nation was; and from the signification of ”bearing,“ as being to be conjoined in act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and because the conjunction was with the evil that is in idolatry it is said that ”she“ called his name Shelah, as appears from the original language; for by ”her,“ namely, the daughter of Shua, is signified evil from the falsity of evil (n. 4818, 4819).

AC 4828. Verses 6-10.  And Judah took a woman for Er his firstborn, and her name was Tamar. And Er, Judah‘s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah; and Jehovah caused him to die. And Judah said unto Onan, Come to thy brothels wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her, and raise up seed to thy brother.  And Onan knew that the seed would not be his; and it came to pass when he came to his brother‘s wife, and he destroyed it to the earth, that he might not give seed to his brother. And that which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah, and He caused him also to die.  ”And Judah took a woman,“ signifies the church which was for his posterity; ”for Er his firstborn,“ signifies falsity of faith; ”and her name was Tamar,“ signifies the quality of the church, that it was a church representative of spiritual and celestial things; ”and Er, Judah’s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah,“ signifies that it was in the falsity of evil; ”and Jehovah caused him to die,“ signifies that there was no representative of the church; ”and Judah said unto Onan,“ signifies to preserve a representative of the church; ”Come to thy brother‘s wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her,“ signifies that it should be continued; ”and raise up seed to thy brother,“ signifies lest the church should perish; ”and Onan knew that the seed would not be his,“ signifies aversion and hatred; ”and it came to pass when he came to his brother‘s wife, and he destroyed it to the earth,“ signifies what is contrary to conjugial love; ”that he might not give seed to his brother,“ signifies that thus there was no continuation; ”and that which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah,“ signifies that it was contrary to the Divine order; ”and He caused him also to die,“ signifies that thee was also no representative of the church.

AC 4829. And Judah took a woman. That this signifies the church which was for his posterity, is evident from the representation of Tamar, who is the ”woman“ here, as being the church, of which in what follows. That it was for the posterity of Judah, is signified by his taking her for Er his first-born, that he might have descendants thence.

AC 4830. For Er his firstborn. That this signifies falsity of faith, is evident from the representation of Er, as being falsity (n. 4821, 4822); and from the signification of the ”firstborn,“ as being faith (n. 352, 3325, 4821).

AC 4831. And her name was Tamar. That this signifies the quality of the church, that it was a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, is evident from the signification of ”name,“ as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421), here the quality of the church, because in this chapter by Tamar is represented the church, and indeed a church representative of spiritual and celestial things which was to be instituted among the posterity of Judah. That this church is represented by Tamar, is evident from what follows. This entire chapter in the internal sense treats of the Jewish Church, that it should become representative of the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom, as had been the Ancient Church; and this not only in external, but also in internal form.  For the church is not a church from externals, that is, from rituals, but from internals, which are essential, while externals are only formal. The posterity of Jacob were such as not to be willing to receive internal things; therefore with them the Ancient Church could not be renewed, but only a representative of that Church (n. 4307, 4444, 4500).  The internal of the church here is Tamar, and its external is Judah with his three sons by the Canaanite woman.

AC 4832. And Er, Judah‘s firstborn, was evil in the eyes of Jehovah. That this signifies that he was in the falsity of evil, is evident from the representation of Er and the signification of the ”firstborn,“ as being falsity of faith, of which just above (n. 4830). That this falsity was the falsity of evil, is evident from what was said above (n. 4818); but the falsity of evil in this son was of such a nature that not even a representative of a church could be instituted among any posterity from him; wherefore it is said that he was ”evil in the eyes of Jehovah and Jehovah caused him to die.“ With that whole nation from its first origin, especially from Judah, there was falsity of evil, that is, false doctrine from evil of life, but different in one son of Judah from what it was in another.  It was foreseen what might be serviceable, and that it was not that which was in Er the firstborn, nor that which was in Onan the second son, but only that which was in Shelah.  Therefore the first two were destroyed, and the last was preserved.  That falsity of evil was with that whole nation from its first origin is plainly described in Moses in these words:--

They have corrupted themselves, they are not His sons, it is their blemish; they are a perverse and crooked generation.  And Jehovah saw and reprobated because of indignation His sons and His daughters. And He said, I will hide My faces from them, I will see what their posterity shall be; for they are a generation of perversities, sons in whom is no faithfulness; I will add evils upon them, I will spend Mine arrows upon them. They shall be exhausted with hunger, and consumed with burning coals, and bitter overthrow. They are a nation void of counsels, and there is no intelligence in them. Their vine is of the vine of Sodom, and of the fields of Gomorrah; their grapes are grapes of gall, their clusters are of bitternesses their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel gall of asps. Is not this laid up in store with Me, sealed in My treasuries? The day of their destruction is at hand, and the things that are to come upon them make haste (Deut. 32:5, 19-24, 28, 32-35);

by these words in the internal sense is described the falsity of evil in which that nation was, and which was rooted in them.

AC 4833. And Jehovah caused him to die.  That this signifies that there was no representative of the church, is evident from the signification of ”dying,“ as being to cease to be such (n. 494), and also the end of representation (n. 3253, 3259, 3276), here therefore is signified that there could be no representative of the church among any posterity from him, according to what was said just above (n. 4832).

AC 4834. And Judah said unto Onan. That this signifies to preserve a representative of the church, is evident from the things which follow, to which they have reference; for he said to him that he should perform to his brother the duty of a husband’s brother, by which was represented the preservation and continuation of the church, now to be spoken of.

AC 4835. Come to thy brother‘s wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her.  That this signifies that he should continue it, namely, the representative of the church, is evident from the signification of ”to come“ or ”enter to a brother‘s wife, and perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her,“ as being to preserve and continue that which is of the church. The commandment in the Mosaic law that if any man died childless, his brother should take the widow to wife and raise up seed to his brother, and that the firstborn should be called by the name of the deceased brother, but the rest of the sons should be his own, was called ”the duty of the husband‘s brother.“ That this statute was not a new thing originating in the Jewish Church, but had been in use before, is evident from this history, and the same is true of many other statutes that were commanded the Israelites by Moses--as that they should not take wives of the daughters of the Canaanites, and that they should marry within their families (Gen. 24:3, 4; 28:1, 2). From these and many other instances it is evident that there had been a church before, in which such things had been instituted as were afterwards promulgated and enjoined upon the sons of Jacob. That altars and sacrifices had been in use from ancient times is plain from (Genesis 8:20, 21; 22:3, 7, 8, 13). From this it is clear that the Jewish Church was not a new church, but that it was a resuscitation of the Ancient Church which had perished.

[2] What the law in regard to the husband’s brother had been is evident in Moses:--

If brethren dwell together, and one of them die, and have no son, the wife of the deceased shall not marry without, to a strange man her husband‘s brother shall enter to her, and take her to him to wife, and thus perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto her.  Then it shall be that the first-born whom she beareth shall stand upon the name of his deceased brother, that his name be not blotted out of Israel. But if the man will not marry his brother‘s wife, his brother’s wife shall go up to the gate unto the elders, and say, My husband‘s brother refuses to raise up unto his brother a name in Israel he will not perform the duty of a husband’s brother unto me. Then the elders of his city shall call him, and speak unto him; and if he stand and say, I desire not to take her; then shall his brother‘s wife come near unto him in the sight of the elders, and shall draw his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face and she shall answer and say, So shall it be done unto the man that doth not build up his brother’s house; whence his name shall be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe taken off (Deut. 25:5-10).

[3] One who does not know what the duty of a husband‘s brother represents, can have no other belief than that it was merely for the sake of preserving the name, and hence the inheritance; but the preservation of a name and of an inheritance was not of so much importance that for the sake of it a brother should enter into marriage with his brother’s wife; but this was enjoined that thereby might he represented the preservation and continuation of the church.  For marriage represented the marriage of good and truth, that is, the heavenly marriage, and consequently the church also, for the church is a church from the marriage of good and truth; and when the church is in this marriage it makes one with heaven, which is the heavenly marriage itself.  As marriage has this representation, therefore sons and daughters represented and also signified truths and goods; wherefore to be childless signified a deprivation of good and truth, thus that there was no longer any representative of the church in that house, consequently that it was out of communion.  Moreover the brother represented kindred good, with which might be conjoined the truth which was represented by the widowed wife; for in order that truth may be the truth which has life and produces fruit, and so continue that which is of the church, it cannot be conjoined with any other than its own and kindred good.  This is what is perceived in heaven by the duty prescribed to the husband‘s brother.

[4] That if the man would not perform the duty of a husband’s brother, his brother‘s wife should take his shoe from off his foot and spit in his face, signified that, as one who was devoid of external and internal good and truth, he would destroy the things of the church; for a ”shoe“ is what is external (n. 1748), and the ”face“ is what is internal (n. 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796).  From this it is evident that by the duty of the husband’s brother was represented the preservation and continuation of the church.  But when the representatives of internal things ceased by the coming of the Lord, then this law was abolished.  This is circumstanced as are the soul or spirit of man and his body.  The soul or spirit of man is his internal, and the body is his external; or what is the same, the soul or spirit is the very form of man, but the body is his representative image; and when a man rises again, his representative image, or his external, which is the body, is put off; for he is then in his internal, or in his form itself.  It is circumstanced also as is one who is in darkness, and from it sees the things which are of the light; or what is the same as is one who is in the light of the world, and from this sees the things which are of the light of heaven; for the light of the world in comparison with the light of heaven is as darkness.  In darkness, or in the light of the world, the things which are of the light of heaven do not appear such as they are in themselves, but as in a representative image, as the mind of man appears in his face; and therefore when the light of heaven appears in its clearness, the darkness or representative image is dissipated. This was effected by the coming of the Lord.

AC 4835a. And raise up seed to thy brother.  That this signifies lest the church should perish, is evident from the signification of ”seed,“ as being truth from good, or the faith of charity (n. 1025, 1447, 1610, 1940, 2848, 3310, 3373, 3671). The like is also signified by the ”firstborn who was to stand upon the name of the deceased brother“ (n. 352, 367, 2435, 3325, 3494). To ”raise up the seed to a brother“ is to continue that which is of the church, according to what was said just above (n. 4834), thus lest the church should perish.

AC 4836. And Onan knew that the seed would not be his. That this signifies aversion and hatred, is evident from the representation of Onan, as being evil (n. 4823, 4824); and because not to give seed to one‘s brother, or not to perform the duty of a husband’s brother, is not to will the good and truth of the church, and its continuation (n. 4834), therefore by these words is signified aversion and hatred; for evil is nothing else than aversion and hatred toward the good and truth of the church.

AC 4837. And it came to pass, when he came to his brother‘s wife, and he destroyed it to the earth.  That this signifies what is contrary to conjugial love, is evident from what now follows. By Er Judah’s firstborn is described the falsity of evil in which the Jewish nation was at first; by Onan the second son is described the evil which is from the falsity of evil, in which that nation was afterwards; and by Shelah the third son is described the idolatry thence derived, in which they were thereafter continually (n. 4826).  Evil from the falsity of evil is described by what Onan did, that he was not willing to give seed to his brother, but that he destroyed it to the earth.  That by this is signified what is contrary to conjugial love, is because in the internal sense by the conjugial is meant what is of the church; for the church is the marriage of good and truth, and to this marriage, evil from the falsity of evil is altogether contrary, that is, those who are in such evil are contrary to this marriage.

[2] That this nation had not anything conjugial, whether understood in a spiritual or in a natural sense, is very evident from the fact that they were permitted to have more wives than one; for where there is the conjugial as understood in a spiritual sense, that is, where the good and truth of the church are, consequently where the church is, this is by no means permitted, for the genuine conjugial is never possible except among those with whom the church or kingdom of the Lord is, and not with these except between two (n. 1907, 2740, 3246). Marriage between two persons who are in genuine conjugial love corresponds to the heavenly marriage, that is, to the conjunction of good and truth, the husband corresponding to good, and the wife to the truth of this good; moreover when they are in genuine conjugial love, they are in this heavenly marriage.  Therefore wherever the church is, it is never permitted to have more wives than one; but because there was no church among the posterity of Jacob, but only a representative of a church, or the external of a church without its internal (n. 4311, 4500), it was therefore permitted among them.  Further, the marriage of one husband with several wives would present in heaven an idea or image as if one good were conjoined with several truths which do not agree together, and thus as if there was no good; for a good from truths which do not agree together becomes none at all, since good has its quality from truths and their agreement.

[3] It would also present an image as if the church were not one, but several, and these distinct from one another according to the truths of faith, or according to doctrinals; when yet it is one when good is the essential in it and this is qualified and as it were modified by truths.  The church is an image of heaven; for it is the kingdom of the Lord on earth.  Heaven is distinguished into many general societies, and into lesser ones subordinate to these; but still they are one through good; for the truths of faith there are in agreement according to good; for they have regard to good, and are from it.  If heaven were distinguished according to the truths of faith, and not according to good, there would be no heaven, for there would be no unanimity; for the angels could not have from the Lord a oneness of life, or one soul.  This is possible only in good, that is in love to the Lord, and in love toward the neighbor.  For love conjoins all; and when everyone has love for good and truth, they have a common life, which is from the Lord, and thus have the Lord, who conjoins all.  The love of good and truth is what is called love toward the neighbor; for the neighbor is he who is in good and thence in truth, and in the abstract sense is good itself and its truth.  From these things it may be seen why within the church marriage must be between one husband and one wife; and why it was permitted the descendants of Jacob to take a number of wives; and that the reason for this was that there was no church among them, and consequently a representative of a church could not be instituted among them by marriages, because they were in what is contrary to conjugial love.

AC 4838. That he might not give seed to his brother. That this signifies that thus there was no continuation, is evident from the signification of ”giving seed to one‘s brother,“ or performing the duty of a husband’s brother, as being to continue that which is of the church, of which above (n. 4834); and therefore by ”not giving seed to his brother,“ is signified that the there was no continuation.

AC 4839. And that which he did was evil in the eyes of Jehovah.  That this signifies that it was contrary to the Divine order, is evident from the signification of ”evil in the eyes of Jehovah,“ or evil against Him, as being what is contrary to the order which is from Him.  This appears also from the deed, and likewise from the statute in regard to the husband‘s brother, namely, that his brother’s wife should take his shoe from off his foot, and spit in his face, and that his name should be called in Israel, The house of him that hath his shoe taken off (Deut. 25:8-10), whereby was signified that he was without good external or internal; and they who are without good, and are in evil, are against Divine order.  All that evil which springs or flows forth from interior evil (that is, from the intention or end of evil, such as was this of Onan‘s), is contrary to Divine order; but that which does not spring or flow forth from interior evil, that is, from an intention or end of evil, though it sometimes appears like evil, yet is not so, provided the end is not evil, for the end qualifies every deed.  For man’s life is in his end, because what he loves and thence thinks, he has for his end; the life of his soul being nothing else.

[2] Everyone is able to know that evil is contrary to Divine order, and good according to it; for Divine order is the Lord Himself in heaven, because the Divine good and truth which are from Him constitute order, insomuch that they are order, Divine good its essential, and Divine truth its formal.  When Divine order is represented in form it appears as a man; for the Lord, from whom it is, is the only Man (n. 49, 288, 477, 565, 1871, 1894, 3638, 3639); and in so far as angels, spirits, and men receive from Him, that is, in so far as they are in good and thence in truth, thus in so far as they are in His Divine order, so far they are men. From this it is that the universal heaven represents one man, which is called the Grand Man, and that the whole and every part of man corresponds thereto, as has been shown at the end of the chapters.  From this also it is that the angels in heaven all appear in the human form; and that, on the other hand, the evil spirits who are in hell, though from fantasy they appear to one another like men, in the light of heaven appear as monsters, more dire and horrible according to the evil in which they are (n. 4533); and this because evil itself is contrary to order, and thus contrary to the human form; for as before said the Divine order when represented in form appears as a man.

AC 4840. And He caused him also to die. That this signifies that there was also no representative of the church, is evident from what was shown above (n. 4833), where similar words occur.

AC 4841. Verse 11. And Judah said to Tamar his daughter-in-law, Remain a widow in thy father‘s house, till Shelah my son be grown up; for he said, Lest he also die, like his brethren. And Tamar went and abode in her father’s house. ”And Judah said,“ signifies in general the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah; ”to Tamar his daughter-in-law,“ signifies a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is called ”daughter-in-law“ from truth; ”Remain a widow in thy father‘s house,“ signifies alienation from itself; ”till Shelah my son be grown up,“ signifies until the time; ”for he said,“ signifies thought; ”Lest he also die, like his brethren,“ signifies fear lest it should perish; ”and Tamar went and abode in her father’s house,“ signifies alienation from itself.

AC 4842. And Judah said.  That this signifies in general the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah, is evident from the signification of ”Judah“ in the proximate sense, as being the nation which was from Jacob, and specifically that which was from Jacob by Judah, as also above (n. 4815). In the Word a distinction is indeed made between Judah and Israel, and in the historic sense by ”Judah“ is meant the tribe of Judah, and by ”Israel“ the ten tribes which were separated from that tribe.  But in the internal or spiritual sense by Judah is represented the celestial or good of the church, and by Israel the spiritual or truth of the church; while in the opposite sense by Judah is represented the evil of the church, and by Israel the falsity of the church, wherever these existed, whether with the Jews or with the Israelites.  For the internal or spiritual sense of the Word is universal, and does not distinguish the tribes, as does the external or historic sense. Hence it is that by ”Judah“ in the proximate sense is signified the whole nation which was from Jacob, and specifically that which was from Jacob by Judah.

AC 4843. To Tamar his daughter-in-law.  That this signifies a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is called ”daughter-in-law“ from truth, is evident from the representation of Tamar, as being a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, of which above (n. 4831); and from the signification of a ”daughter-in-law,“ as being the spiritual or truth of the church. That a ”daughter-in-law“ has this meaning in the internal sense is because all things belonging to marriage, and all who were born from marriage, represented such things as are of the heavenly marriage (n. 4837), and consequently which are of good and truth; for these are of the heavenly marriage.  From this it is that in the Word a husband signifies good, and a wife truth; and also that sons and daughters signify the truths and goods that are from them. Hence a daughter-in-law, being the wife of a son now become a husband, signifies the truth of the church conjoined with good and so on.  But in regard to those who are of the celestial church these significations are different from what they are in regard to those who are of the spiritual church; for in the spiritual church the husband is called ”man,“ and signifies truth; and the wife is called ”woman,“ and signifies good (n. 4823).

[2] That by a ”daughter-in-law“ in the internal sense of the Word is signified the truth of the church adjoined to its good, consequently in the opposite sense the falsity of the church adjoined to its evil, is also evident from the passages in the Word in which ”daughter-in-law“ is mentioned as in Hosea:

They sacrifice upon the heads of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, under the oak, and the poplar, and the terebinth, because the shadow thereof is good therefore your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery. Shall not I visit upon your daughters because they commit whoredom, and upon your daughters-in-law because they commit adultery? (Hosea 4:13, 14);

where the subject treated of is the worship of evil and falsity, the worship of evil being signified by ”sacrificing upon the heads of the mountains,“ and the worship of falsity by ”burning incense upon the hills.“ A life of evil is signified by the ”daughters committing whoredom,“ and the doctrine of falsity from which is a life of evil is signified by the ”daughters-in-law committing adultery.“ That in the Word adulteries and whoredoms signify adulterations of good and falsifications of truth may be seen above (n. 2466, 2729, 3399); and therefore ”daughters-in-law“ here denote affections of falsity.

[3] In Micah:

The great one speaketh the perversity of his soul; and he wresteth it. Their good one is as a thorn the upright, as a bramble. The son lightly esteemeth the father, the daughter riseth up against her mother, the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; a man‘s foes are they of his household (Micah 7:3, 4, 6);

where the subject treated of is the falsity from evil in which the church is in the last time, when vastated, and in the proximate sense that in which the Jewish Church was. The ”daughter rising up against her mother,“ signifies that the affection of evil is opposed to truth; and the ”daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law,“ that the affection of falsity is opposed to good.

[4] As the case is similar with the man who is in temptations for in these there is a combat of evil against truth and of falsity against good, spiritual temptations being nothing else than vastations of the falsity and evil in a man therefore temptations or spiritual combats are described by the Lord in almost the same words, in Matthew:

Jesus said, Think not that I am come to send peace on the earth I am not come to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law and a man’s foes shall be they of his household (Matthew 10:34-36);

the like words quoted just above from the prophet signified the vastation of the church, but here they signify the temptations of those who are of the church, because as already said temptations are nothing else than vastations, or removals, of falsity and evil; and for this reason both temptations and vastations are also signified and described by inundations of water and by floods (n. 705, 739, 756, 907).  Here also therefore the ”daughter being at variance against her mother“ denotes the affection of evil opposed to truth, and the ”daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law,“ the affection of falsity opposed to good; and because in the man who is in temptation evils and falsities are within or are his, they are said to be of his household ”a man‘s foes shall be they of his household.“ That temptations are what are thus described is plain from the Lord’s saying that He came not to send peace upon the earth, but a sword, for by a ”sword“ is signified truth combating, and in the opposite sense falsity combating (n. 2799, 4499), when yet He came to give peace (John 14:27; 16:33).  That it is temptations which are so described is evident from what follows in that chapter: ”He that taketh not up his cross, and followeth after Me, is not worthy of Me.“

[5] So also in Luke:

Suppose ye that I am come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, Nay; but division for from henceforth there shall be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three. The father shall be divided against the and the son against the father; the mother against the daughter, and the daughter against the mother; the mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law (Luke 12:51-53);

from these sayings also it is plain that by ”father,“ ”mother,“ ”son,“ ”daughter,“ ”daughter-in-law,“ and ”mother-in-law,“ are signified those things which are from the heavenly marriage, namely, goods and truths in their order, and also their opposites; as likewise in Mark:

Jesus said, There is no man that has left house or brethren or sisters or father or mother or wife or children or fields, for My sake and the gospels, but he shall receive a hundred-fold in this time, houses and brethren and sisters and mothers and children and fields, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life (Mark 10:29, 30);

one unacquainted with the internal sense of the Word will suppose that nothing more than house, brethren, sisters, father, mother, wife, children, and fields are signified by these words here; but it is such things as appertain to man, his own, which he must forsake; and the spiritual and celestial things that are of the Lord which he must receive in their place, and this by means of temptations, which are meant by ”persecutions.“ Everyone can see that if he forsake a mother he will not receive mothers; in like manner neither brethren, sisters, etc.

AC 4844. Remain a widow in thy father‘s house.  That this signifies alienation from itself, is evident from the fact that thereby he wanted her to go away and return no more to him. He indeed told her to remain there until Shelah his son was grown up; but still he thought that she would not be given to Shelah his son, for he said in himself, ”Lest he also die, like his brethren.“ This is proved also by his action in the matter, as appears from (verse 14): ”Tamar saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife.“ From this it follows that by his words is signified that he alienated her away from himself; that is, in the internal sense, that the church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is represented by Tamar (n. 4811, 4831), was alienated from the Jewish Church, which is represented by Judah.  For they could not agree together, because Judaism was only a representative of a church, and not a representative church (n. 4307, 4500); because it acknowledged what is external, but not what is internal.

[2] A ”widow“ also signifies the truth of the church without its good, because a ”wife“ in the representative sense signifies truth, and a ”husband“ good (n. 4823, 4843); wherefore a wife without a husband is the truth of the church without its good.  And when it is said of her that she should ”remain in her father’s house,“ it signifies that the truth of the church would be alienated, and also that it would not be received in his house; neither could the Jewish nation receive it, because it was not in good, but in evil.

[3] A ”widow“ is often mentioned in the Word, and one unacquainted with the internal sense cannot but believe that by a ”widow“ is signified a widow.  But a ”widow“ in the internal sense signifies the truth of the church without good, that is, those who are in truth without good and still desire to be in good, consequently who love to be led by good; and a ”husband“ is the good which should lead.  In the Ancient Church such persons were understood in the good sense by widows, whether they were women or men.  For the Ancient Church distinguished the neighbor toward whom they were to exercise charity into a number of classes, some of which they called poor, some miserable and afflicted, some bound and in prison, some blind and lame, and others strangers, orphans, and widows; and they dispensed works of charity to them according to their qualities.  Their doctrinals taught them these things; and that church knew no other doctrinals.  Wherefore they who lived at that time both taught and wrote according to their doctrinals, and consequently when they spoke of widows they had in mind no other than such as were in truth without good and yet desired to be led by good.

[4] From this it is also plain that the doctrinals of the Ancient Church taught those things which related to charity and the neighbor, and that their knowledges consisted in knowing what external things signified.  For the church was representative of spiritual and celestial things, and therefore the spiritual and celestial things which were represented and signified were what they learned by means of doctrinals and knowledges.  But these doctrinals and knowledges are at this day entirely obliterated, and indeed to such a degree that it is not known that they ever existed; for the doctrinals of faith succeeded in their place, which if widowed and separated from those of charity, teach almost nothing.  For the doctrinals of charity teach what good is, but the doctrinals of faith what truth is, and to teach truth without good is to walk as one who is blind, because good is what teaches and leads, and truth is what is taught and led.  There is as great a difference between these two doctrinals as between light and darkness; and unless the darkness be illumined by the light, that is, unless truth be illumined by good, or faith by charity, there is nothing but darkness.  Hence it is that no one knows by looking at it, and consequently neither from perception, whether truth is truth, but only from doctrine imbibed in childhood and confirmed in adult age.  Hence also it is that churches differ so widely that what one calls truth, another calls falsity, and they are never in agreement.

[5] That by ”widows“ in a good sense are signified those who are in truth without good, but still desire to be led by good, is evident from the passages in the Word in which ”widows“ are mentioned as in David:  Jehovah, who executeth judgment for the oppressed, who giveth food to the hungry, Jehovah who looseth the bound, Jehovah who openeth [the eyes of] the blind, Jehovah who raiseth up them that are bowed down, Jehovah who loveth the just, Jehovah who preserveth the sojourners; He upholdeth the orphan and the widow (Ps.  146:7-9); here in the internal sense those are meant who are instructed in truths and led to good by the Lord; but some of these are called the ”oppressed,“ some the ”hungry,“ others the ”bound,“ the ”blind,“ those who are ”bowed down,“ the ”sojourners,“ the ”orphan,“ and the ”widow,“ and this according to their quality; but what this is, no one can know except from the internal sense.  The doctrinals of the Ancient Church taught this.  In this passage, as in several others, the sojourner, orphan, and widow are named jointly, because by the ”sojourner“ are signified those who wish to be instructed in the truths of faith (n. 1463, 4444), by the ”orphan,“ those who are in good without truth and desire to be led to good by means of truth, and by the ”widow,“ those who are in truth without good, and desire to be led to truth by means of good.  These three are named jointly here and elsewhere in the Word for the reason that in the internal sense they constitute one class, inasmuch as by them, taken together, are signified those who wish to be instructed and to be led to good and truth.

[6] Again:

A father of the orphans, and a judge of the widows, is God in the habitation of His holiness (Ps. 68:5);

the ”orphans“ denote those who, like little children, are in the good of innocence, but not yet in truth, whose father is said to be the Lord, because He leads them as a father, and this through truth into good, that is, into the good of life or of wisdom. ”Widows‘ denote those who as adults are in truth, but not yet in good, whose judge is said to be the Lord, because He leads them, and this through good into truth, that is, into the truth of intelligence; for by a “judge” is signified one who leads. Good without truth, which is the “orphan,” becomes the good of wisdom through the doctrine of truth; and truth without good, which is the “widow,” becomes the truth of intelligence through a life of good.

[7] In Isaiah:

Woe unto them that decree statutes of iniquity to turn aside the poor from judgment, and to take away into judgment the miserable of My people, that widows may be their spoil, and that they may plunder the orphans (Isa. 10:1, 2);

here by the “miserable,” the “poor,” the “widows,” and the “orphans,” are signified not those who are naturally, but those who are spiritually such; and because in the Jewish church, as in the Ancient, all things were representative, it was also representative to do good to the orphans and the widows; for thus charity toward those who in the spiritual sense were such was represented in heaven.

[8] In Jeremiah:

Do ye judgment and justice, and rescue the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor; and defraud not the sojourner, the orphan, or the widow, neither do violence, neither shed innocent blood in this place (Jer. 22:3);

here also by the “sojourner, the orphan, and the widow” are signified those who are spiritually such; for in the spiritual world or heaven it is not known who the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow are, those who have been in this condition in the world not being so there; and therefore when these words are read by man, they are perceived by angels according to their spiritual or internal sense.

[9] Likewise in Ezekiel:

behold, the princes of Israel, everyone according to his arm, have been in thee to shed blood. In thee have they set light by father and mother; in the midst of thee have they dealt by oppression with the sojourner; in thee have they defrauded the orphan and the widow (Ezek. 22:6, 7).

Also in Malachi:

I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against false swearers, and against those that oppress the hireling in his wages, the widow, and the orphan, and that turn aside the sojourner, and fear not Me (Mal. 3:5).

And in Moses:

A sojourner shalt thou not wrong, neither shalt thou oppress him. Ye shall not afflict any widow or orphan. If thou shalt afflict them in any wise, and they cry at all unto Me, I will surely hear their cry and My anger shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword, and your wives shall be widows, and your sons orphans (Exod. 22:21-24).

[10] This, like all the rest of the precepts, judgments, and statutes in the Jewish Church, was representative; and in that church they were kept so to do in externals, and by such things to represent the internal things of charity, although they had nothing of charity, nor did them from internal affection.  The internal was from affection to instruct in truths and to lead by truths to good those who were in ignorance, and to lead by good to truths those who had knowledge; whereby they would have done good in the spiritual sense to the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow.  Yet that the external might remain for the sake of representation, it was among the curses pronounced on Mount Ebal, to turn aside the judgment of the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow (Deut. 27:19).  To “turn aside their judgment” means to do what is contrary, that is, by instruction and life to lead to what is false and evil.  And because depriving others of goods and truths, and appropriating them to self for the sake of self-honor and gain was among those curses, the Lord said:

Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees for ye devour widows’ houses, and for a pretence make long prayers therefore ye shall receive more abundant judgment (Matt. 23:14; Luke 20:47);

“devouring widows‘ houses” means taking away truths from those who desire them, and teaching falsities.

[11] In like manner it was representative that what was left in the fields, oliveyards, and vineyards, should be for the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow (Deut. 24:19-22); and also that when they had made an end of tithing the tithes of their increase in the third year, they should give it to the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow, that they might eat within their gates, and be filled (Deut. 26:12).  Because it is the Lord alone who  instructs, and leads to good and truth, it is said in Jeremiah:

Leave thy orphans, I will make them alive; and the widows shall confide upon Me (Jer. 49:11);

and in Moses:

Jehovah doth execute the judgment of the orphan and widow, and loveth the sojourner, in giving him bread and raiment (Deut. 10:18);

“bread” denotes the good of love (n. 2165, 2177, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735); “raiment,” the truth of faith (n. 4545, 4763).

[12] What is related of Elijah, that when there was a famine for want of rain in the land he was sent to Zarephath to a widow, and that he asked of her a little cake, which she was first to make and to give to him, and was afterwards to make for herself and her son, and that then the barrel of meal with her was not consumed, and the cruse of oil did not fail (1 Kings 17:1-16), was representative, like all the other things related of Elijah, and in general all that are in the Word.  The famine that was in the land because there was no rain, represented the vastation of truth in the church (n. 1460, 3364); the widow in Zarephath represented those outside of the church who desire truth; the cake which she was to make for him first, represented the good of love to the Lord (n. 2177), whom, out of the little she had, she was to love above herself and her son; the barrel of meal signifies truth from good (n. 2177), and the cruse of oil charity and love (n. 886, 3728, 4582); Elijah represents the Word, by means of which such things are done (n. 2762).

[13] This is meant also, in the internal sense, by the Lord’s words in Luke:

No prophet is accepted in his own country. But I tell you of a truth, Many widows were in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when there was a great famine over all the land; but unto none of them was Elijah sent, except to Zarephath of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow (Luke 4:24-26);

that is, to those without the church who desire truth.  But the widows within the vastated church, to whom Elijah was not sent, are they who are not in truth, because not in good, for wherever there is no good there is also no truth, however much truth may appear with them in outer form like truth, and yet be as a shell without a kernel.

[14] They who are in such truth, and also they who are in falsity, are signified by “widows” in the opposite sense as in Isaiah:

Jehovah will cut off from Israel head and tail, branch and rush, in one day. The elder and the honored in faces is the head, and the prophet the teacher of a lie is the tail. Therefore the Lord will not be glad over their young men, neither will He have compassion on their orphans and widows (Isa. 9:14, 16, 17).

In Jeremiah:

I will fan them with a winnowing fan in the gates of the land; I will bereave them of children, I will destroy My people they have not turned from their ways. Their widows are increased to Me above the sand of the seas; I will bring to them, upon the mother a young man, a waster at noonday. She that hath borne seven languisheth; she hath breathed out her soul, her sun is gone down while it is yet day (Jer. 15:7-9).

Again:

Our inheritance is turned unto strangers, our houses unto aliens. We have become fatherless orphans, our mothers are as widows (Lam. 5:2, 3).

[15] As by “widows” were signified those who are not in truth because not in good, it was reproachful for churches, even such as were in falsities from evil, to be called widows as in the Revelation:

She hath said in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and I shall not see mourning. Therefore in one day shall her plagues come, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be burned with fire (Rev. 18:7, 8);

speaking of Babylon.  In like manner of the same in Isaiah:

Hear this, thou delicate one, that sitteth securely, that sayest in thy heart, I am, and there is none else like me I shall not sit a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children. But these two evils shall come to thee in a moment in one day, the loss of children, and widowhood (Isa. 47:8, 9).

[16] From all this it is now evident what is meant by a “widow” in the internal sense of the Word; and as a widow represented and thence signified the truth of the church without its good because a wife signifies truth and a husband good therefore, in the ancient churches, where all things in general and particular were representative, it was forbidden the priests to marry a widow who was not the widow of a priest, as is written in Moses:

The high priest shall take a wife in her virginity. A widow, or one divorced, or a polluted woman, or a harlot, these shall he not take; but a virgin of his own people shall he take to wife (Lev. 21:13, 14);

and concerning the new temple and the new priesthood in Ezekiel:

The priests, the Levites, shall not take for their wives a widow, nor one divorced but they shall take virgins of the seed of the house of Israel yet a widow that is the widow of a priest they may take (Ezek. 44:22).

For the virgins whom they were to marry represented and thence signified the affection of truth, and the widow of a priest the affection of truth from good; for a “priest” in the representative sense is the good of the church.  For this reason it was also allowed the widows who were daughters of a priest, who were childless, to eat of the offerings or holy things (Lev. 22:12, 13).

[17] That this is the signification of a “widow,” was known from their doctrinals to those who were of the Ancient Church; for their doctrinals were doctrinals of love and charity, which contained innumerable things that at this day are wholly obliterated.  From these doctrinals they knew what charity to exercise, or what duty they owed the neighbor, thus who were called widows, who orphans, who sojourners, and so on.  Their knowledges of truth and memory-knowledges were to know what the rituals of their church represented and signified; and those who were learned among them knew what the things on the earth and in the world represented; for they knew that universal nature was a theater representative of the heavenly kingdom (n. 2758, 2989, 2999, 3483). Such things elevated their minds to heavenly things, and their doctrinals led to life. But after the church turned aside from charity to faith, and still more after it separated faith from charity, and made faith saving without charity and its works, men‘s minds could no longer be elevated by knowledges to heavenly things, nor by doctrinals be led to life; and this to such a degree that at last scarcely anyone believes that there is any life after death, and scarcely anyone knows what the heavenly is.  That there is any spiritual sense in the Word which does not appear in the letter, cannot be believed.  In this way men’s minds have been closed.

AC 4845. Till Shelah my son be grown up.  That this signifies until the time, is evident from the signification of “growing up,” as being to be of this age, thus until the time; and from the representation of Shelah, the son, as being what is idolatrous, of which above (n. 4825, 4826), thus the Jewish religion, which with them was idolatrous (n. 4825) Hence by the words, “till Shelah my son be grown up,” is signified until the time that the Jewish religion can receive internal things, or the spiritual and celestial things of the representative church, which is Tamar (n. 4829, 4831, 4843).

AC 4846. For he said.  That this signifies thought, is evident from the signification of “saying” in the historic parts of the Word, as being to perceive and also to think (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 3395).  Here therefore by “he said” is signified that he said in himself, or thought, that Tamar would not be given to Shelah his son for a wife in the internal sense that the internal things of the representative church would be alienated (n. 4844).

AC 4847. Lest he also die, like his brethren.  That this signifies fear lest it should perish, namely, the representative of a church that was with the posterity descended from Jacob, and specifically that descended from Jacob through Judah, is evident from the signification of “lest he also die,” as being fear lest it should perish.  In regard to this that the representative of a church which was with the posterity of Jacob would perish if the internal things of a genuine representative church were adjoined to it, the case is as follows.  A representative church, such as had existed among the ancients, was to have been instituted with the posterity of Jacob; but that nation was of such a quality that they wished to worship and to adore external things only, and did not wish to know anything at all about internal things; for they were immersed in the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, and thence in falsities. That nation, more than the Gentiles, believed that there were many gods, but that Jehovah was greater than they because He could do greater miracles; and therefore as soon as the miracles ceased, and also when they had become little esteemed because or being frequent and familiar, they straightway turned to other gods, as is very evident from the historic and prophetic parts of the Word.

[2] Because that nation were of such a quality, a representative church such as had existed among the ancients could not be instituted with them, but only the representative of a church; and it was provided by the Lord that some communication with heaven might thereby be effected; for what is representative is possible with the evil, because it regards not the person, but the thing.  From this it is plain that in so far as they were concerned their worship was merely idolatrous (n. 4825), although the representatives contained within them holy Divine things.  With such idolatrous worship, what is internal could not be conjoined, for if what is internal had been conjoined, that is, if they had acknowledged internal things, they would have profaned holy things; for if a holy internal is conjoined with an idolatrous external it becomes profane.  It is for this reason that internal things were not disclosed to that nation, and that if they had been disclosed it would have perished.

[3] That that nation could not receive and acknowledge internal things, however much they might have been revealed to them, is very plain from what they are at this day; for they now know internal things, because they live among Christians; but still they reject and also scoff at them.  Even the most of those who have been converted do the same at heart.  Thus it is evident that a church representative of spiritual and celestial things was not with that nation, but only the representative of a church, that is, the external without the internal, which in itself is idolatrous.  From these things it may also be seen how erroneously those Christians think who believe that at the end of the church the Jewish nation will be converted, and be chosen in preference to Christians; and still more those who believe that the Messiah, or the Lord, will then appear to them and by a great prophet and great miracles bring them back into the land of Canaan. But into these errors those fall who by “Judah,” “Israel, and the ”land of Canaan,“ in the prophetic parts of the Word, understand simply Judah, Israel, and the land of Canaan; and who thus believe only the literal sense, and care not for any internal sense.

AC 4848. [And Tamar went] and abode in her father‘s house.  That this signifies alienation from itself, is evident from the signification of abiding a widow in the house of a father, as being alienation, of which above (n. 4844).

AC 4849. Verses 12-14.  And the days were multiplied, and Shua’s daughter died, the wife of Judah; and Judah was comforted, and went up unto the shearers of his flock, he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite, to Timnah. And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his flock. And she put off from upon her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself in a veil, and wrapped herself and sat in the gate of the fountains which is noon the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given to him for a woman.  ”And the days were multiplied,“ signifies a change of state; ”and Shua‘s daughter died,“ signifies as to evil from falsity; ”the wife of Judah,“ signifies the religiosity with the nation descended from Jacob, specifically that from Judah; ”and Judah was comforted,“ signifies rest; ”and went up unto the shearers of his flock,“ signifies some elevation to take counsel for the church; ”he and his companion Hirah the Adullamite,“ signifies that it was still in falsity; ”to Timnah,“ signifies the state; ”and it was told Tamar, saying,“ signifies some communication with a church representative of spiritual and celestial things; ”Behold thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his flock,“ signifies that the Jewish Church wished to take counsel for itself; ”and she put off from upon her the garments of her widowhood,“ signifies a simulation of the truth that is from good; ”and covered herself in a veil,“ signifies truth obscured; ”and wrapped herself,“ signifies thus not acknowledged; ”and sat in the gate of the fountains which is upon the way to Timnah,“ signifies what is intermediate to the truths of the church and to falsities; ”for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given to him for a woman,“ signifies discernment that it could not otherwise be conjoined with the religiosity in which was the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah.

AC 4850. And the days were multiplied. That this signifies a change of state, is evident from the signification of ”days being multiplied,“ as being the changing of the states; for ”day“ or ”time“ in the internal sense is state (n. 23, 487, 488, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785), and ”being multiplied,“ when predicated of days or times, is being changed. That it is a change of state which is signified, is evident also from what follows.  It is said ”were multiplied,“ because a change of state is involved as to truths, for ”multiplying“ is predicated of truths (n. 43, 55, 913, 983, 2846, 2847). As state and change of state are so often mentioned, and as few know what is meant, it will be well to explain.  Time and the succession of time, or space and the extension of space, cannot be predicated of man’s interiors, that is, of his affections and the thoughts therefrom; because these interiors are not in time nor in place although to the senses in the world it appears as if they were but are in interior things which correspond to time and place. These interior things which correspond we have to call states, because there is no other word by which these corresponding things can be expressed. The state of the interiors is said to be changed when the mind or heart is changed as to affections and consequent thoughts as from sadness to joy, or from joy to sadness again; from impiety to piety or devotion; and so on. These changes are called changes of state, and are predicated of the affections, and of the thoughts also in so far as they are governed by the affections; but changes of state of the thoughts are in those of the affections like particulars in generals, and are relatively variations.

AC 4851. And Shua‘s daughter died. That this signifies as to evil from falsity, is evident from the signification of ”dying,“ as being to cease to be of such quality (n. 494); and from the signification of ” Shua’s daughter,“ as being evil from falsity, of which above (n. 4818, 4819). Here therefore by Shua‘s daughter dying after multiplied or many days, is signified a change of state as to evil from falsity, so that it was not such as before.

AC 4852. The wife of Judah. That this signifies the religiosity with the nation descended from Jacob, specifically that from Judah, is evident from the signification of a ”wife,“ as being the church (n. 252, 253, 409, 749, 770), but here a religiosity, because it is said of the Jewish nation, with which there was no church, but only the external of a church separate from the internal (n. 4281, 4288, 4289, 4311, 4433, 4500, 4680, 4825, 4844, 4847), which cannot be called anything else than a religiosity, for they could be in a holy external, yet entirely without a holy internal (n. 4293); and from the representation of Judah, as being the nation descended from Jacob, and specifically from Judah, of which above (n. 4815, 4842).

AC 4853. And he went up unto the shearers of his flocks.  That this signifies some elevation to take counsel for the church, is evident from the signification of ”going up,“ as being to be elevated, namely, from what is exterior to what is interior (n. 3084, 4539); and from the signification of a ”shearer,“ as being use (n. 4110), thus to will use, or to take counsel for it; and from the signification of a ”flock,“ as being the church (n. 343, 3767, 3768, 3772).

AC 4854. He and his companion Hirah the Adullamite.  That this signifies that it was still in falsity, is evident from the representation of Hirah the Adullamite, as being falsity, of which above (n. 4816, 4817).  When therefore he is said to be ”his companion,“ it is signified that falsity was adjoined to it, or that it was still in falsity.

AC 4855. To Timnah. This signifies the state, namely, the state in which it was of taking counsel for the church.  That ”Timnah“ signifies this state is evident also from the book of Judges, in which Samson is spoken of as going down to Timnah and taking there a wife of the daughters of the Philistines (Judges 14:1-4, 7), where by ”Timnah“ in like manner is signified the state of taking counsel for the church.  The wife whom he took of the daughters of the Philistines, in the representative sense is truth from what is not good, thus truth obscured, which is  represented here also by Tamar; for the ”Philistines“ are those who are in the doctrinals of faith, and not in a life according to them (n. 1197, 1198, 3412, 3413).  Moreover Timnah is mentioned among the places of inheritance for the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:43). That all names of places in the Word signify things and states, may be seen above (n. 1224, 1264, 1888, 3422, 4298, 4442).

AC 4856. And it was told Tamar, saying. That this signifies some communication with a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, is evident from the signification of ”being told,“ as being perception, (n. 3608), thus communication, here something of communication; and from the representation of Tamar, as being a church representative of spiritual and celestial things (n. 4829, 4831). There is said to be communication with this church when the state was changed and there was some elevation to take counsel for the church, as above (n. 4850, 4853). 

AC 4857. Behold thy father-in-law goeth up to Timnah to shear his flock. That this signifies that the Jewish Church wished to take counsel for itself, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being the church that was with the nation descended from Jacob, specifically with Judah (n. 4815, 4842, 4852), who is here called ”father-in-law,“ because there was something of communication with a church representative of spiritual and celestial things, which is here the ”daughter-in-law;“ and from the signification of ”going up,“ as being some elevation, of which just above (n. 4853); and from the signification of ”shearing the flock,“ as being to consult for the church, of which above (n. 4853) the state of taking counsel for it being ”Timnah“ (n. 4855).

[2] That this internal sense is contained in these words can by no means appear from the letter, for when they are read the mind thinks of Judah, Timnah, and the shearing of a flock, and not of spiritual things, which are separate from person, place, and worldly use. And yet angels, because they are in spiritual things, perceive nothing else by these words than such things as have been told; for when the literal sense passes into the spiritual, such things perish as relate to person, place, and the world; and those take their place that relate to the church, its state, and use therein.

[3] It indeed appears incredible that it should be so, but this is because so long as man lives in the world he thinks from the natural and worldly things which are there, and not from spiritual and celestial things; and they who are immersed in bodily and earthly things do not know that there is anything spiritual and celestial, and still less that spiritual and celestial things are distinct from worldly and natural things, when yet they are distinct as the spirit of man is distinct from his body. Neither do they know that the spiritual sense lives in the literal sense as the spirit of man in his body, and also that the spiritual sense in like manner survives when the literal sense perishes; whence the internal sense may be called the soul of the Word.

AC 4858. And she put off from upon her the garments of her widowhood.  That this signifies a simulation of the truth that is from good, is evident from the signification of a ”widow,“ as being those who are in truth without good and yet desire to be led by good (n. 4844). The garments with which widows were clothed represented such truth, and this because ”garments“ signify truths (n. 2576, 4545, 4763).  Hence ”to put off these garments“ is to put off the representation of a widow, that is, of truth without good; and because she covered herself with her veil, to simulate the truth that is from good.

AC 4859. And covered herself in a veil. That this signifies truth obscured, is evident from the signification of ”covering herself “ or her face ”with her veil,“ as being to conceal, and thus to obscure the truth which pretended to be from good, as just above (n. 4858); and this for the purpose of conjunction with Judah. For when a bride first approached the bridegroom she covered herself with a veil as we read of Rebekah when she came to Isaac (Gen.  24:65); and by this were signified appearances of truth (n. 3207). For a wife signifies truth, and a husband good; and as truth does not appear in its quality until it is being conjoined with its good, therefore for the sake of representing this the bride covered herself with a veil on first seeing her husband.  The case is similar here with Tamar, for she regarded Shelah Judah’s son as her husband, but because she was not given to him, she regarded his father in his stead as one to perform the duty of a husband‘s brother.  Therefore she covered herself with a veil as a bride, and not as a harlot, though Judah believed the latter because harlots also were wont at that time to cover their faces, as is evident from (verse 15).  The reason why Judah so regarded her was that the Jewish nation, which is there signified by ”Judah,“ regarded the internal truths of the representative church no otherwise than as a harlot; and therefore Judah was conjoined with her as with a harlot, but not so Tamar with him.  Because internal truths could not appear otherwise to that nation, therefore truth obscured is here signified by Tamar’s covering herself in a veil.  That the truth of the church is obscured to them, is represented also at this day by their covering themselves with veils in their synagogues.

[2] There was a similar representation with Moses when the skin of his face shone as he came down from Mount Sinai, so that he covered himself with a veil whenever he spoke to the people (Exod. 34:28-35).  Moses represented the Word which is called the Law (n. 2135a); for which reason it is sometimes said the ”Law and the Prophets“ (Matt. 5:17; 11:13; 22:36, 40); and sometimes ”Moses and the Prophets“ (Luke 16:29, 31; 24:27, 44).  By the shining of the skin of his face was represented the internal of the Word, for the ”face“ is the internal (n. 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 4797), which being spiritual is in the light of heaven. His veiling his face whenever he spoke to the people represented that internal truth was covered to them, and thus obscured so that they should not have to endure any light from it

AC 4860. And wrapped herself. That this signifies thus not acknowledged, is evident from the signification of ”wrapping,“ as being to conceal, thus not to be acknowledged, see what was said just above (n. 4859).

AC 4861. And sat in the gate of the fountains which is upon the way to Timnah.  That this signifies what is intermediate to the truths of the church and to falsities, is evident from the signification of ”fountains,“ as being the truths of the church which are from the Word; for ”fountain“ in the universal sense is the Word (n. 2702, 3096, 3424).  ”In the gate of the fountains“ is in the entrance to these truths; and because the external truths of the sense of the letter of the Word furnish an entrance, they are the ”gate.“ But unless these truths are enlightened by internal truths, that is, by those of the internal sense, they present falsities with those who are in evil; wherefore what is intermediate to the truths of the church and to falsities is here signified by the ”gate of the fountains.“ ”Upon the way to Timnah“ is to the use of the church, for ”Timnah“ is the state of taking counsel for the church (n. 4855, 4857).

AC 4862. For she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given to him for a woman.  That this signifies discernment that it [the truth of the representative church] could not otherwise be conjoined with the religiosity in which was the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah, is evident from the signification of ”seeing,“ as being discernment (n. 2150, 2325, 3764, 3863, 4403-4421). That the discernment here is that it could not otherwise be conjoined with the religiosity in which was the posterity of Jacob, specifically that from Judah, is because by ”Judah“ is signified that posterity (n. 4815, 4842, 4852), consequently their religiosity, to which it was conjoined, because it could not be conjoined with Shelah.  By Shelah also is represented what is idolatrous (n. 4825, 4826, 4845), with which the truth of a representative church, which is Tamar, could not be conjoined.

AC 4863. Verses 15-18. And Judah saw her, and thought her to be a harlot, because she had covered her faces.  And he turned aside unto her to the way, and said, Grant I pray that I may come to thee; for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. And she said, ”What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come to me? And he said, I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock. And she said, If thou wilt give a pledge till thou send it? And he said, what pledge shall I give thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy kerchief, and thy staff that is in thy hand. And he gave them to her, and came to her; and she conceived to him. “And Judah saw her,” signifies how the religiosity of the Jewish nation at that time regarded the internal things of the representative church; “and thought her to be a harlot,” signifies no otherwise than as falsity; “because she had covered her faces,” signifies that interior things were hidden to them; “and he turned aside unto her to the way,” signifies that it adjoined itself because it was such; “and said, Grant I pray that I may come to thee,” signifies lust for conjunction; “for he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law,” signifies that it did not perceive it to be the truth of the representative church; “and she said, What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come to me?” signifies the reciprocal of conjunction with a condition; “and he said, I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock,” signifies a pledge of conjunction; “and she said, If thou wilt give a pledge till thou send it?” signifies the reciprocal if there is certainty; “and he said, What pledge shall I give thee?” signifies that it was certain; “and she said, Thy signet,” signifies a token of consent; “and thy kerchief,” signifies by means of truth; “and thy staff that is in thy hand,” signifies by means of its power; “and he gave them to her,” signifies that thus it was certain; “and came to her,” signifies conjunction; “and she conceived to him,” signifies thus reception.

AC 4864. And Judah saw her.  That this signifies how the religiosity of the Jewish nation at that time regarded the internal things of the representative church, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to notice and understand (n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863), thus to consider; and from the representation of Tamar, who is meant by “her,” as being a church representative of spiritual and celestial things (n. 4829, 4831), here the internal of that church, because the subject treated of is the way in which that internal was regarded and received by the religiosity of the Jewish nation and from the representation of Judah, as being specifically the Jewish nation (n. 4815, 4842), consequently the religiosity of that nation; for where that nation is mentioned in the Word, something relating to its church is meant in the internal sense.  For the internal sense has no concern with the events and history of any nation, but only with its quality as to the things of the church.  From this it is evident that by Judah‘s seeing her is signified how the religiosity of the Jewish nation at that time regarded the internal things of a representative church.

AC 4865. And thought her to be a harlot.  That this signifies no otherwise than as falsity, is evident from the signification of a “harlot,” as being falsity (n. 2466, 2729, 3399); and thus it means that the Jewish nation from its religiosity regards the internal of the church no otherwise than as falsity.  That a “harlot” denotes falsity, is because marriage represents the heavenly marriage, which is of good and truth, the husband representing good, and the wife truth; and hence sons represent truths, and daughters goods; and son-in-law and daughter-in-law, father-in-law and mother-in-law, and the several relationships, according to their degrees, represent those things which are of the heavenly marriage.  Therefore adulteries and harlotries, being opposite, signify evil and falsity; and they are opposite in reality, for those who spend their lives in adultery and harlotry care nothing for good and truth.  The reason is, that genuine conjugial love descends from the heavenly marriage, that is, from the marriage of good and truth; but adulteries and harlotries arise from the conjunction of evil and falsity, which is from hell (n. 2727-2759).

[2] That the Jewish nation regarded, and also at this day regards, the internal things of the church no otherwise than as falsities, is what is signified by Judah’s regarding Tamar his daughter-in-law no otherwise than as a harlot, and by his conjoining himself with her as with a harlot.  By this origin of that nation is represented the origin and quality of their religiosity.  That this nation regards the internal of the church as a harlot, or as falsity, is very evident.  As for example, if anyone tells them that it is an internal of the church that the Messiah whose coming is predicted in the prophetic parts of the Word and whom they therefore expect is the Lord, they utterly reject it as false.  If anyone tells them that it is an internal of the church that the Messiah‘s kingdom is not worldly and temporal, but heavenly and eternal, they pronounce this also to be false. If anyone tells them that the rituals of their church represented the Messiah and His heavenly kingdom, they do not know what this means.

[3] If anyone tells them that the internal of the church is the good of charity, and the truth of faith in doctrine and at the same time in life, they regard it as no otherwise than false.  And so in all other instances.  Nay, at the mere suggestion of the church having an internal, they laugh stupidly.  The reason is that they are solely in externals, and indeed in the lowest of externals, namely, the love of earthly things; for they above all other men are in avarice, which is altogether earthly.  Such men cannot possibly regard the interior things of the church in any other way; for they are more remote from heavenly light than the rest of mankind, thus above all others are in thick darkness.

AC 4866. For she had covered her faces. That this signifies that interior things were hidden to them, is evident from the representation of Tamar, as being the representative church (n. 4829, 4831); and from the signification of “covering,” as being to be hidden; and from the signification of “faces,” as being the internals (n. 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 3573, 4066, 4326, 4796-4799). From this it is evident that by her covering her face is signified that the interior things of the church were hidden to them (n. 4859, 4865).

AC 4867. And he turned aside unto her to the way.  That this signifies that it [the religiosity of the Jewish nation] adjoined itself because it was of such a quality, is evident from the signification of a “way,” as being truth (n. 627, 2333, 3123, 3142, 3477), thus in the opposite sense falsity, here falsity because he regarded her as a harlot, by whom falsity is signified, as may be seen just above (n. 4865). On this account also it is said that he turned aside to the way; for “to turn aside” is predicated of falsity (n. 4815, 4816).

AC 4868. And said, Grant I pray that I may come to thee. That this signifies lust for conjunction, is evident from the signification of “coming or entering to anyone,” as being to be conjoined (n. 4820).  That lust is meant such as is that for conjunction with a harlot, is plain; in the internal sense, with falsity.  That the Jewish nation, which is here signified by “Judah” (n. 4815, 4842, 4864), regarded the internal truth of the representative church no otherwise than as falsity, and also at this day so regards it, can be seen above (n. 4865). What is now here treated of is that nevertheless this nation conjoined itself with this truth, yet not as with a wife, but as with a harlot, that is, not as with truth, but as with falsity.  Lust is predicated of conjunction with falsity, just as of conjunction with a harlot.

[2] All those conjoin themselves with internal truth as with a harlot who believe only the external sense of the Word, that is, only its literal sense, and entirely reject all its internal, that is, its spiritual sense; but especially those who apply the external or literal sense of the Word to favor the cupidities of the love of self and of the world, or of rule and gain.  They who do this cannot but regard internal truth in this way; and if they conjoin themselves with it, they do so from lust as for conjunction with a harlot.  This is done especially by those who are of the Jewish nation, and also by those who in the Word are meant by Babylon; but not by those who indeed believe in simplicity the literal sense of the Word, and yet live according to those things which are of the internal sense, that is in love and charity, and thence in faith for these are of the internal sense of the Word and who also from the literal sense teach these things; for the internal and the external sense come together in the two precepts to love the Lord above all things, and the neighbor as one’s self.

[3] That the Jewish nation regard internal truth as a harlot, and that, if they conjoin themselves with it, they do so from lust as for conjunction with a harlot, may be illustrated by the following examples.  If they are told that the Word is holy, even most holy, also that every tittle therein is holy, they acknowledge it and conjoin themselves, but this from such lust; for they believe that it is holy in the letter, and not that by this means the holy flows in with those who when they read it are in the affection of good and truth.

[4] If they are told that many who are mentioned in the Word are to be venerated as holy as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, David, they acknowledge it and conjoin themselves, but from such a lust; for they believe that these persons were chosen in preference to others, that they are therefore holy, and that they should for this reason be worshiped as deities; when yet these men have holiness from no other source than this, that they represented the Lord; and a holy representative does not at all affect the person.  Moreover the life of everyone without distinction remains with him after death.

[5] If they are told that the ark that was with them, the temple, the altar of burnt offering, the altar of incense, the bread upon the table, the lampstand with its lamps, the perpetual fire, the sacrifices, the incenses, the oil, also the garments of Aaron, especially the breastplate on which were the Urim and Thummim, were holy, they acknowledge it and conjoin themselves, but from the same lust; for they believe that these things were holy in themselves, thus that the wood, the stone, the gold, silver, bread, and fire were holy, and this interiorly because Jehovah was in them, or that the holiness of Jehovah applied to them was actually in them.  This is their internal truth, which yet is relatively falsity; for the holy is solely in good and truth, which is from the Lord in love to Him and in love toward the neighbor, and thence in faith; thus only in living subjects, that is, in men who receive these things from the Lord.

[6] Again, if they are told that the Christian Church is one with the church that was instituted with them, but that it is internal, whereas theirs was external, so that when the church instituted with them is stripped of its externals and laid bare, the Christian Church comes to view, they do not acknowledge this truth otherwise than as a harlot, that is, as falsity. Never the Less some of them, who are converted from Judaism to Christianity, conjoin themselves with this truth, but also from the same lust.  Such things in the Word are often called “whoredoms.” In regard to those however who are signified in the Word by “Babylon,” these regard in a similar way the internal truths of the church; but because they are acquainted with internal things, and also acknowledge them in childhood, but deny them in adult age, they are described in the Word by foul adulteries and abominable copulations; for they are profanations.

AC 4869. For he knew not that she was his daughter-in-law. That this signifies that it did not perceive it to be the truth of the representative church, is evident from the signification of a “daughter-in-law,” as being the truth of the church adjoined to its good (n. 4843).  That it is the truth of the representative church which is signified, is because by Tamar, who is here the daughter-in-law, is represented a church representative of spiritual and celestial things (n. 4829, 4831). On this subject see what was shown above (n. 4865, 4866, 4868).

AC 4870. And she said, What wilt thou give me that thou mayest come to me? That this signifies the reciprocal of conjunction with a condition, is evident from the signification of “to come to me,” as being conjunction (n. 4820, 4868).  That it is what is reciprocal with a condition, is evident without explication.

AC 4871. And he said, I will send thee a kid of the goats from the flock.  That this signifies a pledge of conjunction, is evident from the signification of a “kid of the goats,” as being the innocence of the external or natural man (n. 3519); and because it is innocence, it is a pledge of conjugial love, or a pledge of conjunction, for genuine conjugial love is innocence (n. 2736). Hence it was a custom received from the ancients that when they went anew unto their wives, they sent before-hand a kid of the goats, as appears also from what is related of Samson in the book of Judges:

It came to pass after days, in the days of wheat harvest, that Samson visited his wife with a kid of the goats for he said, I will enter to my wife into the chamber (Judges 15:1).

In like manner in the present case; but as the promised kid of the goats was not to be accepted, Tamar required a pledge.  It is said a pledge of conjunction, not a marriage pledge, because on the part of Judah it was conjunction like that with a harlot.

AC 4872. And she said, If thou wilt give a pledge till thou send it? That this signifies the reciprocal if there is certainty, is evident from what was said above by Tamar, “What wilt thou give me, that thou mayest come to me?” as signifying the reciprocal of conjunction with a condition (n. 4870), here the reciprocal in case of certainty, because the pledge was for certainty that the thing promised would be given.

AC 4873. And he said, What pledge shall I give thee?  That this signifies that it was certain, is evident from the signification of a “pledge,” as being certainty, of which just above (n. 4872). That it was certain is evident also from what now follows  that the pledge was given.

AC 4874. And she said, Thy signet.  That this signifies a token of consent, is evident from the signification of a “signet,” as being a token of consent.  That a “signet” is a token of consent, is because in  ancient times decrees were confirmed by a signet, and therefore by a signet is properly signified confirmation itself and testification that it is so.  Tamar‘s asking for his signet, kerchief, and staff, as a pledge that a kid of the goats would be sent, which afterwards she did not accept, involves a mystery which without the internal sense cannot possibly be known. The mystery is this: as a kid of the goats signified the genuine conjugial, consequently what is internal  for everything genuine is at the same time internal and as there was not this on the part of Judah, Tamar therefore did not accept a kid of the goats, as appears from what follows; but instead of it took an external with which the internal of the church, signified by “Tamar,” might be conjoined.  The external of the church is signified by the signet, kerchief, and staff by the “signet” consent itself, by the “kerchief” external truth, and by the “staff” the power of this truth; moreover these things are pledges of the conjunction of the external or natural man.

[2] The conjunction of internal truth with the external or with the religiosity of the Jewish nation, is represented by the conjunction of Tamar with Judah as a daughter-in-law with her father-in-law under the pretext of the duty of a husband’s brother; and the conjunction of the religiosity of the Jewish nation with the internal of the church is represented by the conjunction of Judah with Tamar as with a harlot.  Moreover the conjunctions are precisely of this nature; but their quality cannot be so well explained to the apprehension To angels and good spirits however their quality is very manifest, for it is presented to them in the light of Heaven, in which the arcana of the Word lie open as in clear day quite otherwise than as in the light of the world, which exists with man.  In brief: the representatives instituted with the posterity of Jacob were not precisely like those in the Ancient Church; but were for the most part like those in the church instituted by Hebrew, which was called the Hebrew Church.  In this church were many new kinds of worship, such as burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and other things, which were unknown in the Ancient Church; but the internal of the church was not conjoined with these representatives in the same way as with those of the Ancient Church. But the way in which the internal of the church was conjoined with the representatives among the Jewish nation, and the converse, is described in the internal sense by the conjunction of Tamar with Judah as a daughter-in-law with her father-in-law under the pretext of the duty of a husband‘s brother; and by the conjunction of Judah with Tamar as with a harlot.  In regard to the Hebrew Church see above (n. 1238, 1241, 1327, 1343, 3031, 4516, 4517); and in regard to the sacrifices in this church not existing in the Ancient (n. 923, 1128, 1343, 2180, 2818).

AC 4875. And thy kerchief. That this signifies by means of truth, namely, a token of consent, is evident from the signification of a “kerchief,” as being truth.  That a “kerchief” denotes truth, is because it is among those things which relate to garments, and by garments are in general signified truths; for as garments clothe the flesh, so truths clothe good (n. 297, 2132, 2576, 4545, 4763).  Among the ancients therefore, everything with which they were clothed signified some special and particular truth; hence a tunic signified one truth, the outer garment (chlamys) another, the outermost garment (toga) another; the coverings of the head too, as the miter and turban, another; also the coverings of the thighs and feet, as breeches and stockings, another; and so on.  But a “kerchief” signified outermost or lowest truth, being made of threads twisted together, by which the determinations of such truth are signified.  A “kerchief” signifies such truth also in Moses: Every open vessel upon which there is not a cloth (or kerchief) for a covering, it is unclean

 (Num. 20:15);

whereby was signified that nothing should be indeterminate; for whatever is indeterminate is open.  Moreover it is outermost truths to which interior truths are determined, and in which they terminate.

AC 4876. And thy staff that is in thy hand. That this signifies by means of its power, that is, of that truth, is evident from the signification of a “staff,” as being power, of which presently; and from the signification of a “hand,” as being also power (n. 878, 3091, 3387, 3563). It is said “that is in thy hand,” because the power of that lowest truth is signified such as belonged to the religiosity of the Jewish nation, which here is “Judah.” That power is predicated of truth may be seen above (n. 3091, 3563). A “staff” is frequently mentioned in the Word, and it is surprising that scarcely anyone at this day knows that anything in the spiritual world was represented by it, as where Moses was commanded that whenever miracles were wrought, he was to lift up his staff, and thereby they were wrought.  This was known among Gentiles also, as is evident from their fabulous tales in which staffs are ascribed to magicians.  That a “staff” signifies power, is because it is a support; for it supports the hand and arm, and through them the whole body; wherefore a staff takes on the signification of the part which it immediately supports, that is, the hand and arm, by both of which in the Word is signified the power of truth. Moreover it will be seen at the end of the chapters that in the Grand Man the hand and are correspond to this power.

[2] That by a staff was represented power, appears, as just said, from what is related of Moses, in that he was commanded to take a staff (or rod), with which he was to do miracles; and that he took the rod of God in his hand (Exod. 4:17, 20); that when smitten by the rod, the waters in Egypt became blood (Exod. 7:15, 19, 20); that when the rod was stretched out over the streams, frogs came up (Exod. 8:1-11); that when the dust was smitten by the rod, it became lice (Exod. 8:16-20); that when the rod was stretched out toward heaven, there was hail (Exod. 9:23); and that when the rod was stretched out over the land, locusts came up (Exod. 10:3-21). As the hand is the principal, by which power is signified, and a rod is the instrumental, therefore miracles were also wrought when his hand was stretched forth (Exod. 10:12, 13); when his hand was stretched forth toward heaven, there was thick darkness over the land of Egypt (Exod. 10:21, 22); and when his hand was stretched forth over the sea Suph, by an east wind the sea was made dry land; and on again stretching forth his hand, the waters returned (Exod. 14:21, 26, 27).

[3] Moreover when the rock of Horeb was smitten with the rod, waters flowed out (Exod. 17:5, 6; Num. 20:7-10). When Joshua fought against Amalek,

“Moses said unto Joshua, Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek; tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand. And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed” (Exod. 17:9, 11).

From these passages it is very evident that a rod or staff, like the hand, represented power, and in the supreme sense the Divine omnipotence of the Lord; and it is also evident that at that time representatives constituted the externals of the church; and that the internals, which are spiritual and celestial things such as are in heaven, corresponded to them; and that from this came their efficacy.  From this it is also plain how irrational those are who believe that there was any power infused into the staff or the hand of Moses.

[4] That in the spiritual sense, a “staff” is power, appears also from many passages in the prophets, as in Isaiah:

Behold the Lord Jehovah Zebaoth doth take away from Jerusalem staff and stay, the whole staff of bread, and the whole staff of water (Isa. 3:1);

the “staff of bread” denotes support and power from the good of love, and the “staff of water,” support and power from the truth of faith.  That “bread” is the good of love may be seen above (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735); and that “water” is the truth of faith (n. 28, 680, 739, 2702, 3058, 3424).  The “staff of bread” is mentioned in like manner in (Ezekiel 4:16; 5:16; 14:13; Ps. 105:16).

[5] Again in Isaiah:

Thus said the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth, O My people that dwellest in Lion, be not afraid of Asshur, who shall smite thee with a rod, and shall lift up his staff upon thee, in the way of Egypt. Jehovah shall stir up against him a scourge, as in the plague of Midian at the rock of Oreb; and his staff shall be over the sea, and he shall lift it up in the way of Egypt (Isa. 10:24, 26);

where “staff” denotes power from reasoning and memory-knowledge, such as is the power of those who reason from memory-knowledges against the truths of faith, and either pervert them or make them of no account.  This is signified by the “rod” with which Asshur shall smite, and by the “staff” which he shall lift up in the way of Egypt.  That by “Asshur” is meant reasoning may be seen above (n. 1186); and that by “Egypt” is meant memory-knowledge (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462).

[6] In like manner in Zechariah:

The pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the staff of Egypt shall depart away (Zech. 10:11).

In Isaiah:

Thou hast trusted on the staff of a bruised reed, even upon Egypt; whereon if a man lean it will go into his hand and pierce it (Isa. 36:6);

“Egypt” denotes memory-knowledges, as above; power from them in spiritual things is the “staff of a bruised reed;” the “hand” which it goes into and pierces, is power from the Word.  Again:

Jehovah hath broken the staff of the wicked, the rod of the rulers (Isa. 14:5);

where “staff” and “rod” manifestly denote power.

[7] In Jeremiah:

Grieve, all ye circuits of Moab, and say, How is the staff of strength broken, the staff of beauty (Jer. 48:17);

the “staff of strength” denotes power from good, and the “staff of beauty” power from truth.

[8] In Hosea:

My people interrogate their wood, and their staff will answer them; for the spirit of whoredom hath led them astray (Hosea 4:12);

“interrogating wood” means consulting evils; the “staff answering” means that falsity is thence, which has power from the evil which they confirm; the “spirit of whoredom” denotes a life of falsity from evil. In David:

Yea, when I walk in the valley of shadow, I will fear not evil to me; for Thou art with me; Thy rod and Thy staff comfort me (Ps. 23:4);

“Thy rod and Thy staff” denote the Divine truth and good, which have power.  Again:

The staff of wickedness shall not rest upon the lot of the just (Ps. 125:3).

[9] Again:

Thou shalt crush them with a rod of iron thou shalt scatter them like a potter’s vessels (Ps. 2:9);

a “rod of iron” denotes the power of spiritual truth in natural, for all natural truth in which there is spiritual truth has power; “iron” is natural truth (n. 425, 426).  So also in the Revelation:

He that overcometh, and keepeth My works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations; that he may pasture them with a rod of iron as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers (Rev. 2:26, 27; 12:5; 19:15).

[10] Because a staff represented the power of truth, that is, the power of good through truth, therefore kings had scepters, which were made like short staffs; for by kings the Lord is represented as to truth, the Divine truth being the royalty itself (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3670, 4581). The scepter signifies the power belonging to them, not by dignity, but by the truth which should rule, and no other truth than that which is from good; thus principally the Divine truth, and with Christians the Lord, from whom is all Divine truth.

AC 4877. And he gave them to her. That this signifies that thus it was certain, is evident from the signification of the pledge which Tamar requested and which was given to her, as being what is certain (n. 4872, 4873).

AC 4878. And came to him. That this signifies conjunction, is evident from the signification of “coming” or “entering to anyone,” as being conjunction, of which also above (n. 4820, 4868, 4870).

AC 4879. And she conceived to him. That this signifies reception thereby, is evident from the signification of “conceiving,” as being reception (n. 3860, 3868, 3919); but what the quality of the reception was may be seen above (n. 4874).

AC 4880. Verses 19-23. And she arose, and went, and put off her veil from upon her, and put on the garments of her widowhood. And Judah sent the kid of the goats by the hand of his companion the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman‘s hand; and he found her not. And he asked the men of that place, saying, Where is the harlot that was at the fountains upon the way? And they said, There was no harlot there.  And he returned to Judah and said, I have not found her; and also the men of the place said, There was no harlot there. And Judah said, Let her take it to her; haply we be put to shame; behold I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her. “And she arose,” signifies elevation; “and went,” signifies life; “and put off her veil from upon her,” signifies that what was obscure was dissipated; “and put on the garments of her widowhood,” signifies intelligence; “and Judah sent the kid of the goats,” signifies a marriage pledge; “by the hand of his companion the Adullamite,” signifies by falsity; “to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand,” signifies in the place of external pledges; “but he found her not,” signifies because there was not anything conjugial on his part; “and he asked the men of that place, saying,” signifies that truths were consulted; “Where is the harlot?”  signifies whether it was falsity; “that was at the fountains upon the way,” signifies that it appeared as truth; “and they said,” signifies perception from truths; “There was no harlot there,” signifies that it was not falsity; “and he returned to Judah,” signifies reflection; “and said, I have not found her,” signifies that this cannot be disclosed by falsity; “and also the men of the place said, There was no harlot there,” signifies perception from truths that it was not falsity; “and Judah said, Let her take it to her,” signifies that it was indifferent to him; “haply we be put to shame,” signifies although it was a disgrace; “behold I sent this kid,” signifies that it is enough that there is a pledge; “and thou hast not found her,” signifies if there is not anything conjugial.

AC 4881. And she arose.  That this signifies elevation, is evident from the signification of “arising,” as involving some elevation (n. 2401, 2785, 2912, 2927, 3171, 4103).  The elevation which is signified by “arising” is in the spiritual sense an elevation from an obscure state into a clearer one, as from a state of ignorance into one of intelligence; for in this way man is elevated from a state of the light of the world into a state of the light of heaven.

AC 4882. And went.  That this signifies life, is evident from the signification of “going,” as being to live (n. 3335, 3690).  That in the internal sense “to go” is to live does indeed appear rather remote or abstracted from the ideas of thought in which man is, and this because man is in space and in time, and has formed the ideas of his thought therefrom, as for instance his idea of going, advancing, journeying, traveling, and moving.  As these actions exist in space, and also in time, and as space and time are therefore inwoven in his ideas concerning them, it is difficult for man to apprehend that states of life are signified by them. But when the idea from space and time concerning them is separated or put off, there results the spiritual thing which is signified.  For in the spiritual world or in heaven nothing of space or time enters the ideas, but instead what belongs to the state of life (n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3356, 3404, 3827, 4814).  It does indeed appear to spirits and angels that they advance and move from place to place, just as it appears to men; but still it is changes of the state of life that produce this appearance; just as it appears to them, as well as to men, that they live from themselves, when yet they do not live from themselves, but from the Divine of the Lord from whom is the all of life.  These appearances with the angels are called real, because they appear as if they really were.

[2] I have some times spoken with spirits about these appearances; and those who are not in good, and consequently not in truth, are unwilling to hear that it is an appearance that they live of themselves, for they wish to live of themselves.  But besides their being shown by living experience that they do not live of themselves, and that progressions from place to place are changes and progressions of the state of life, they were also told that they might be satisfied in not knowing but that they have life from themselves, as they could have no more even if the life in them were really from themselves; but that still it is better to know how the case really is, because then they are in the truth, and if in the truth, they are also in the light of heaven, for the light of heaven is the truth itself which is from the Divine of the Lord; and thus they would neither claim good for themselves, nor would evil adhere to them.  The angels are in this truth, not only by knowledge, but also by perception.

[3] That times and spaces in the spiritual world are states of life, and that the all of life is from the Lord, may be seen from the following experience.  Every spirit and angel sees the good at the right, and the evil at the left, and this to whatever quarter he turns; the good and the evil so appear to him if he looks toward the east, and so if he looks to the west, or to the south, or the north.  This is true of every spirit and angel; so that if two were looking, one toward the east, and the other toward the west, still to both the good would appear on the right, and the evil on the left.  The appearance is the same to those who are remote from the spirits who are seen, even though these should be behind them. From this it may be clearly inferred that the all of life is from the Lord, or that the Lord is in the life of everyone; for the Lord appears there as the sun, and on His right are the good, or the sheep, and on his left are the evil, or the goats.  Hence it is similar with everyone, because as already said the Lord is the all of life.  This cannot but seem a paradox to man, because so long as he is in the world he has ideas from worldly things, and consequently from space and time; whereas in the spiritual world, as said above, the ideas are not from space and time, but from the state of the affections and of the derivative thoughts.  From this also it is that spaces and times in the Word signify states.

AC 4883. And put off her veil from upon her. That this signifies that what was obscure was dissipated, is evident from the signification of “covering herself with her veil,” as being to obscure the truth, of which above (n. 4859); hence “to put off the veil” is to dissipate this obscurity.

AC 4884. And put on the garments of her widowhood. That this signifies intelligence, is evident from the signification of a “widow,” as being one who is in truth without good but still desires to be led by good, of which above (n. 4841); and from the signification of “garments,” as being truths (n. 297, 2576, 4545, 4763).  That these things taken together signify intelligence, is because nothing but truths constitute intelligence, since those who are in truths from good are in intelligence; for through truths from good the intellectual mind is in the light of heaven, and the light of heaven is intelligence, because it is Divine truth from Divine good. A further reason why putting on the garments of widowhood here signifies intelligence is that in the general sense a “widow” is one who is in truth and desires to be led by means of good into the truth of intelligence (n. 4844), thus into intelligence.

[2] That it may be known how the case herein is, it must be briefly explained. The truth in man is not the truth of intelligence until it is led by means of good; and when it is led by means of good, it then for the first time becomes the truth of intelligence. For truth has no life from itself, but from good, and it has life from good when man lives according to truth; for then it infuses itself into man‘s will, and from his will into his actions, thus into the whole man. The truth which man only knows or apprehends, remains outside of his will, and so outside of his life; for man’s will is his life.  But when man wills the truth, it is then on the threshold of his life; and when from willing he does it, then the truth is in the whole man; and when he does it frequently, it not only recurs from habit, but also from affection, thus from freedom. Let anyone who pleases, consider whether man can be imbued with anything but that which he does from will. That which he only thinks and does not do, and still more that which he thinks and is not willing to do, is merely outside of him, and is also dissipated like chaff by the slightest wind, as it is in fact dissipated in the other life; from which it may be known what faith is without works.  From these things it is now plain what the truth of intelligence is, namely, that it is the truth which is from good.  Truth is predicated of the understanding, and good of the will, or what is the same, truth is of doctrine and good is of life.

AC 4885. And Judah sent the kid of the goats. That this signifies a marriage pledge, is evident from the signification of a “kid of the goats,” as being a pledge of conjugial love, or a pledge of conjunction, of which above (n. 4871).)

AC 4886. By the hand of his companion the Adullamite.  That this signifies by falsity, is evident from the representation of Hirah the Adullamite, who was the “companion” of Judah, as being falsity (n. 4817, 4854).

AC 4887. To receive the pledge from the woman‘s hand. That this signifies in the place of external pledges, is evident from the signification of the “signet, kerchief, and staff,” which were the pledge, as being pledges of the conjunction of the external or natural man, and thus external pledges (n. 4874).

AC 4888. But he found her not.  This signifies because there was not anything conjugial on his part, namely, on the part of Judah; for be came to her, not as to a wife, but as to a harlot; for which reason Tamar did not desire a kid of the goats, by which a marriage pledge was signified (n. 4885). Nor indeed was there anything of genuine marriage on the part of Tamar; for her conjunction was that of a daughter-in-law with her father-in-law under the pretext of the duty of a husband’s brother.  These things are signified by his not finding her.

AC 4889. And he asked the men of that place.  That this signifies that truths were consulted, is evident from the signification of “asking,” as being to consult; and from the signification of “men,” as being truths (n. 265, 749, 1007, 3134, 3309). “The men of the place” are truths in respect to the state of this thing, for “place” is state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387).

AC 4890. Where is the harlot? That this signifies as to whether it was falsity, is evident from the signification of a “harlot,” as being falsity (n. 4865).

AC 4891. That was at the fountains upon the way.  That this signifies that it appeared as truth, is evident from the signification of “fountains,” as being the truths of the church (n. 2702, 3096, 3424, 4861).  It is said “upon the way,” because a “way” is predicated of truth, and in the opposite sense of falsity (n. 627, 2333, 3123, 3142); and as it is asked, “where is the harlot that was at the fountains upon the way?” thereby is signified whether it was falsity that appeared as truth.

AC 4892. And they said.  That this signifies perception from truths, is evident from the signification of “saying,” in the historic parts of the Word, as being to perceive (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2619, 2862, 3509).  That perception from truths is signified is because “the men of the place said,” and that “the men of the place” are truths may be seen just above (n. 4889).

AC 4893. There was no harlot there.  That this signifies that it was not falsity, is evident from the signification of a “harlot,” as being falsity, as above (n. 4890).  What these things which have thus far been unfolded in respect to the signification of the words, involve in a series, may in some measure appear from what has been said above (n. 4865, 4868, 4874); and more over they are things which cannot be comprehended unless the nature of the conjunction between internal truth and the external truth of the Jewish Church is known, both on the part of the internal truth represented by Tamar, and on the part of the external represented by Judah.  As these are unknown they would fall into shade if further unfolded, thus into no idea of the understanding; for the understanding, which is the sight of the internal man, has its light and its shade, and those things fall into its shade which do not coincide with what it has had some notion of before.  Yet all these particulars in a series, together with innumerable things which cannot even be comprehended by man, enter clearly into the light of the understanding of the angels.  From this then it is evident how great and how excellent is angelic intelligence in comparison with that of man.

AC 4894. And he returned to Judah.  That this signifies reflection, is evident from the fact that by the “Adullamite the companion of Judah” is signified falsity (n. 4816, 4854, 4886); and when falsity is said to return and to relate what happened, as is here said of the companion of Judah, nothing else is signified than recalling to mind, and reflection how the case is.

AC 4895.And said, I hate not found her.  That this signifies that this cannot he disclosed by falsity, is evident from the signification of “not having found,” as being not to have disclosed; and because the Adullamite says this, by whom falsity is signified (n. 4894), it follows that by his saying “I have not found her” is signified that falsity could not disclose it, or that this cannot he disclosed by falsity.

AC 4896. And also the men of the place said, There was no harlot there.  That this signifies perception from truths that it was not falsity, is evident from what was said just above (n. 4892, 4893), where similar words occur.

AC 4897. And Judah said, Let her take it to her.  That this signifies that it was indifferent to it, is evident from the affection in these words, as being indignation and thence indifference.

AC 4898. Haply we be put to shame.  That this signifies although it was a disgrace, is evident from the signification of “being put to shame,” as being disgrace.

AC 4899. Behold I sent this kid.  That this signifies that it is enough that there is a pledge, is evident from the signification of a “kid of the goats,” as being a pledge of conjugial love, or of conjunction (n. 4871), here only a pledge, because the kid was not accepted, for the reason that there was nothing conjugial; and as this was the reason, therefore by thou hast not found her is signified if there is not anything conjugial; this also flows from indifference, of which above (n. 4897).  It is needless to explain these things any further, for the reason stated above (n. 4893), that they would fall into the shade of the understanding; and whatever falls into this shade, falls into unbelief, as for instance that there must be what is conjugial in order that there may be a church, namely, the conjugial between truth and good; and also that there must be an internal in the external; and that without the two there is nothing of a church.  In the present words the internal and external in the Jewish Church are described in the internal sense, and it is shown that as to that nation there was not any internal in the external; but that in respect to the statutes and laws abstracted from the nation, there was.

[2] Who at this day has any other belief than that there was a church with the Jewish nation, and that it was chosen and loved above all others, the reason for this belief being chiefly that miracles so many and so great were wrought among them, and that so many prophets were sent to them, and also that they had the Word.  And yet that nation in itself had nothing of the church, for it was not in any charity, did not know even what genuine charity is, and also had no faith in the Lord. They indeed knew that He was to come, but supposed that it was to exalt them above all in the whole world; and because this was not done they entirely rejected Him, being unwilling to know anything about His heavenly kingdom, These things, which are the internals of the church, that nation did not acknowledge even in doctrine and still less in life.  From all this alone it may be concluded that there was nothing of the church in that nation.

[3] It is one thing for the church to be with a people, and another for the church to be in a people - as for example, the Christian Church is with those who have the Word, and from doctrine preach the Lord; but still there is nothing of the church in them unless they are in the marriage of good and truth, that is, unless they are in charity toward the neighbor, and thence in faith; thus unless the internals of the church are in the externals.  The church is not in those who are solely in externals separate from intervals, neither is it in those who are in faith separate from charity, nor in those who acknowledge the Lord from doctrine and not life. Hence it as plain that it is one thing for the church to be with a nation, and quite another to be in the nation.

[4] In the internal sense of this chapter is described the church as it was with the Jewish nation, and as it was in that nation. The quality of the church with that nation is described by the conjunction of Tamar with Judah under the pretext of the duty of a husband‘s brother, and the quality of the church in that nation is described by the conjunction of Judah with Tamar as with a harlot.  But a more particular description of these things is omitted for the reason spoken of above, for as there stated they would fall into the shade of the understanding. That the shade of the understanding is in these things may be seen from the fact that at this day scarcely anyone knows what the internal of the church is.  And who knows that charity toward the neighbor consists in willing, and from willing in acting, and hence that faith consists in perceiving? When this is unknown, and especially when it is denied, as it is by those who make faith saving without the works of charity, into what shade must those things fall which are here said in the internal sense concerning the conjunction of what is internal with the external of the church with the Jewish nation and in that nation.  They who do not know that charity is the internal and thus the essential of the church, stand very remote from the first step toward the understanding of such things, and therefore very far from the innumerable and ineffable things that are in heaven, where the things relating to love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor are the all of life, and consequently the all of wisdom and of intelligence.

AC 4900. Verses 24-26. And it came to pass about three months after, and it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover behold she is with child to whoredoms.  And Judah said, Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.  She was brought forth, and she sent to her father-in-law, saying, By the man whose these are am I with child; and she said, Acknowledge I pray whose are these, the signet and the kerchief and the staff And Judah acknowledged them, and said, She is more just than I; forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son. And he added no further to know her. “And it came to pass about three months after,” signifies a new state; “and it was told Judah,” signifies communication; “saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot,” signifies perception then that it is false that anything conjugial exists between them; “and moreover behold she is with child to whoredoms,” signifies and that anything can be produced thence; “and Judah said,” signifies sentence from the religiosity in which the Jewish nation was; “Bring her forth, and let her be burnt,” signifies that it ought to be extirpated; “she was brought forth,” signifies that it was nearly effected; “and she sent to her father-in-law,” signifies insinuation; “saying, By the man whose these are, am I with child,” signifies that such a quality was in their religiosity; “and she said, Acknowledge I pray whose are these, the signet and the kerchief and the staff,” signifies that it might be known from the pledges; “and Judah acknowledged them,” signifies that being theirs they made affirmation; “and said, She is more just than I,” signifies that there was no conjunction of the external with the internal, but of the internal with the external; “forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son,” signifies because the external was of such a quality; “and he added no further to know her,” signifies that there was no further conjunction.

AC 4901. And it came to pass about three months after.  That this signifies a new state, is evident from the Signification of “three” as being what is complete, and hence the last and the first together, or the end and the beginning together (n. 1825, 2788, 4495); and from the signification of “month” as being state (n. 3814).  For in the internal sense all periods of time signify states, as hour, day, week, month, year, age; and also the lesser divisions of time, as noon, evening, night, and morning, which are times of the day; and as summer, autumn, winter, and spring, which are times of the year; and also the several periods of life, as infancy and childhood, youth, adult age, and old age; all of which times, with others, signify states. What states are may be seen above (n. 4850).

[2] That times signify states is because times do not exist in the other life. The progression of the life of spirits and angels indeed appears as in time; but they have no thought from times, as men in the world have; their thought is from states of the life, and this without notion of times.  The reason of this is that the progressions of their life are not distinguished into different ages, for there they do not grow old, and there are no days or years, because their sun, which is the Lord, is always rising and never sets.  Hence no notion of time enters their thoughts, but only a notion of state and its progressions - notions being taken from the things that are and exist before the senses.

[3] These things must needs seem paradoxical, but only for the reason that man in every idea of his thought has somewhat adjoined from time and space.  From this source are his memory and recollection, and also his lower thought, the ideas of which are called material.  But that memory out of which comes such ideas is quiescent in the other life.  They who are in that life are in interior memory, and in the ideas of its thought; and thought from this latter memory has not times and spaces adjoined to it, but states and their progressions instead. Hence also it is that they correspond, and in consequence of such correspondence times in the Word signify states. Man has an exterior memory which is proper to him in the body, and also an interior memory which is proper to his spirit, (n. 2469-2494).

[4] That by “about three months after” is signified a new state, is because by “months,” into which also times in the world are distinguished, is signified state, and by “three” is signified the last and the first together, or the end and the beginning together, as said above.  Because in the spiritual world there is a continual progression of states from one into another, and consequently in the last or end of every state there is a first or beginning, hence what is continuous, therefore by the words “about three months after” is signified a new state.  It is similar also in the church, which is the spiritual world or the Lord’s kingdom on earth, the last of the church with one nation being always the first of the church with another.  As the last is thus continued into the first, it is several times said of the Lord that He is the Last and the First (Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; Rev. 21:6; 22:13); and thereby in the relative sense is signified what is perpetual, and in the supreme sense what is eternal.

AC 4902. And it was told Judah.  That this signifies communication, is evident from the signification of “being told,” as being communication, of which above (n. 4856).

AC 4903. Saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot.  That this signifies perception then that it is false that anything conjugial exists between them, is evident from the signification of “saying” in the historic parts of the Word, as being perception, of which above (n. 4892); from the signification of “playing the harlot,” as being falsity (n. 2466, 2729, 3399, 4865); from the representation of Tamar, as being the internal of the representative church, of which also above (n. 4864); and from the signification of “daughter-in-law,” as being the truth of the church (n. 4843, 4869). Hence by the words “saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot” is signified perception then that it is false that anything conjugial exists between them. How these things stand in the series may be seen above (n. 4864-4866), namely, that the Jewish nation from their religiosity perceived the internal of the church simply as a harlot, and its preaching and consequent life simply as whoredom.  For they who are in the external alone without the internal do not otherwise regard the internal of the church, since they call that false which is true, and that true which is false.  The reason is that no one can see from the external alone whether a thing be false or true, but only from the internal.  There must be an internal sight which shall judge of those things which are of external sight, and in order to do this the internal sight must be wholly in the light of heaven; and it is not in the light of heaven unless it is in faith in the Lord, and from this faith reads the Word.

[2] That the Jewish  nation were in the external without the internal, and therefore believed truth to be falsity, and falsity truth, is evident from their teaching that it was allowable to hate an enemy; and also from their life in that they hated all who were not of their religiosity.  They even believed that they were pleasing and serving Jehovah when they treated the Gentiles with barbarity and cruelty, exposing their bodies after they had been slain to be devoured by birds and wild beasts, cutting them in two with saws while alive, lacerating them with harrows and axes of iron, and making them pass through the brick-kiln (2 Sam. 12:31). Moreover it was in accordance with their teachings to treat in almost the same way a companion who for any cause was declared an enemy. Thus it is plainly evident that there was nothing internal in their religiosity. If anyone had then said to them that such things are contrary to the internal of the church, they would have replied that this was false.  That they were merely in externals, were wholly ignorant of what the internal is, and led a life contrary to the internal, is plain also from what the Lord teaches in (Matthew 5:21-48).

AC 4904. And moreover behold she is with child to whoredoms. That this signifies, and that anything can be produced thence, is evident from the signification of “carrying in the womb” or “being with child,” as being to produce something, for by “seed” is signified the truth of faith, and by “conception” its reception, whence by “carrying in the womb” or “being with child” is signified producing; and from the signification of “whoredom,” as being falsity, namely, from their religiosity, as above (n. 4903).  From this it is evident that by these words, “saying, Tamar thy daughter-in-law hath played the harlot; and moreover, behold, she is with child to whoredoms” is signified a perception that it is false that anything conjugial exists between them, and that anything can be produced thence.  To be produced, when predicated of the church, denotes the good which is produced by means of truth; and it is produced when truth passes through the understanding into the will, and from the will into act.  For as before said the “seed” is the truth of faith, and “conception” is reception, and reception is effected when truth which is of the understanding passes into good which is of the will, or when truth which is of faith passes into good which is of charity; and when it is in the will, it is in its womb, and is then first produced; and when man is in good in act, that is, when he produces good from the will, thus from delight and freedom, it then goes forth from the womb or is born - which also is meant by being reborn or regenerated. From this it is evident what is signified in the spiritual sense by “being with child.” Here however the contrary is signified - that nothing of good could be produced; for that nation which is here described was not in any truth, because not in any internal of the church, but in falsity.

[2] That to be reborn or regenerated, that is, to be made an internal man, was a thing wholly unknown to that nation, and consequently that it seemed to them as a harlot, is evident from Nicodemus, who was a ruler of the Jews (John 3:1-13), for he said, “How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter a second time into his mother‘s womb?” (John 3:4).  It is known that the Lord opened the internal things of His kingdom and church, and yet these internal things were known to the ancients-as, that man should be reborn in order to enter into life; and that he should then put off the old man, that is, the loves of self and of the world with their evil desires, and should put on the new, that is, love toward the neighbor and to God; and also that heaven was in the regenerate man - besides other internal things. These things were known to those who belonged to the Ancient Church, but they were led to them by external things which were representative. But as such things were entirely lost with the Jewish nation, the Lord taught them, but abolished the representatives themselves, because most of these had respect to Himself; for the image must vanish when the form itself appears.

[3] He therefore set up a new church, which should not like the former be led by representatives to internal things, but should know them without representatives; and He enjoined instead only a few external observances, namely, Baptism and the Holy Supper- Baptism, that by it regeneration might be remembered; and the Holy Supper, that by it might be remembered the Lord, and His love toward the whole human race, and the reciprocal love of man to Him.  These things are said that it may be known that the internal things of the church, which the Lord taught, were known to the ancients, but were so entirely lost with the Jewish nation that they were regarded merely as falsities.

AC 4905. And Judah said.  That this signifies sentence from the religiosity in which the Jewish nation was, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being the religiosity of the Jewish nation (n. 4864).  That sentence from this is signified is plain from what now follow

AC 4906. Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.  That this signifies that it ought to be extirpated, namely, the internal of the church which is represented by Tamar, is evident from the signification of “bringing her forth and burning her,” as being to extirpate.  “Bringing forth” is predicated of the truth, and “burning” of the good, which has to be extirpated. That “burning” is predicated of the extirpation of good is evident from many passages in the Word; and the reason is that “fire” and “flame” in the spiritual sense denote good, and hence “heat” denotes the affection of good; but in the opposite sense “fire” and “flame” denote evil, and the “heat” thence the affection of evil (n. 1297, 1861, 2446).  Moreover good is actually spiritual fire, from which comes the spiritual heat which vivifies, and evil is the fire and the consequent heat which consumes.  That the good of love is spiritual fire, and that the affection of this good is spiritual heat, will be very evident to one who attends and reflects; for if he reflects whence man has vital fire and heat, he will find that it is from love; because as soon as love ceases, the man grows cold, while the more he is in love, the warmer he grows.  Unless man’s vitality were from this origin he could have no life at all. But this spiritual fire or heat which produces life becomes a burning and consuming fire with the evil, for with them it is turned into this kind of fire.  With animals devoid of reason spiritual heat likewise flows in and produces life, but a life according to the reception in their organic forms, for which reason their knowledges and affections are connate, as with bees and the rest.

AC 4907. She was brought forth. That this signifies that it was nearly effected, that is, its extirpation, is evident from the signification of “being brought forth and burnt,” as being to be extirpated, of which just above (n. 4906).  Here therefore by “being brought forth to be burnt” is meant that extirpation was nearly effected.

AC 4908. And she sent to her father-in-law. That this signifies insinuation, namely, that she was with child by him, is evident from the series, from which this meaning results.

AC 4909. Saying, By the man whose these are am I with child. That this signifies that such a quality was in their religiosity, is evident from the representation of Judah, who here is “the man,” as being the religiosity of the Jewish nation (n. 4864, 4905); and from the signification of “carrying in the womb” or “being with child,” as being to be produced (n. 4904); but here to be in, for that which has been produced (that is, that which is conceived) is in.  This product is the first effect, which because efficient is called a cause, from which is further effect, of which above (n. 4904).  What was in their religiosity may be seen from what was said above (n. 4899), and also from what follows.

AC 4910. And she said, Acknowledge I pray whose are these, the signet and the kerchief and the staff.  That this signifies that it might be known from the pledges, is evident from the signification of the “signet, kerchief, and staff,” as being pledges of the conjunction of the external or natural man (n. 4874, 4887).

AC 4911. And Judah acknowledged them.  That this signifies that being theirs they made affirmation, is evident from the signification of “acknowledging,” as being to affirm, and this because he acknowledged from the pledges that it was his.  In this passage the genius of that nation is described, which is such that though they reject the internal of the church as false, yet when it is insinuated into them that it is theirs, they accept and affirm it, They who are in the filth of loves, that is, in avarice, and at the same time in the love of self, as that nation is, cannot elevate the mind‘s view and see truth from any other source than self; and therefore when it is attributed to themselves, they affirm it. For example, if they are told that the Word in itself is Divine, and contains arcana of heaven, and also such arcana as can be comprehended only by angels, they affirm this to be true, for they regard the Word as their own, because it was for them, among them, and treats of them in the letter; but if the arcana or spiritual truths themselves are disclosed to them, they reject them.

[2] If they are told that the rituals of their church were all holy in themselves, they affirm this to be true, because they regard these rituals as their own; but if it is said that those holy things were in the rituals apart from them, this they deny.  Again, if they should be told that the Jewish Church was celestial and the Israelitish Church spiritual, and if it were explained to them what the celestial and spiritual are, they would affirm this also; but if it were said that these churches are called celestial and spiritual for the reason that every particular in them represented celestial and spiritual things, and that representatives have regard to the thing and not to the person, they would deny it.  Again, if they are told that in the staff of Moses there was power from Jehovah, and thus Divine power, they affirm it and call it true; but if they are told that this power was not in the staff, but only in the Divine command, this they deny and call it false.

[3] If they are told that the brazen serpent set up by Moses healed those who were bitten by serpents, and thus that it was miraculous, they affirm it; but if it is said that it was not healing and miraculous in itself, but from the Lord who was represented, they deny it and call it false. Compare what is related and said of the serpent in several passages, (Num.  21:7-9; 2 Kings 18:4; John 3:14, 15). So also in all other instances.  Such are the things which are signified by Judah’s acknowledging, and which on the part of the nation signified by him were conjoined with the internal of the church which is represented by Tamar; and because they were such, Judah did not come to her as a husband‘s brother to a wife, but as a whoremonger to a harlot.

AC 4912. And said, She is more just than I.  That this signifies that there was no conjunction of the external with the internal, but only of the internal with the external, is evident from what was said above (n. 4899) about the church with the Jewish nation, and in them, namely, that there was a church with that people, that is, the internal was conjoined with the external; but that there was no church in them, that is, the external was not conjoined with the internal; for that the church may be in a nation there must be reciprocity.

AC 4913. Forasmuch as I gave her not to Shelah my son.  That this signifies because the external was of such a quality, is evident from what has been explained above - that Tamar could not be given to Shelah, Judah’s son, because in this case there would be conjunction as of a wife with her husband in accordance with the law in regard to the duty of a husband‘s brother; whereas the religiosity of the Jewish nation, which was to be represented, was not such, but was such as is the conjunction of a father-in-law with a daughter-in-law as with a harlot.

AC 4914. And he added no further to know her.  That this signifies that there was no further conjunction, is evident from the signification of “knowing,” as being to be conjoined; and from the signification of “adding no further,” as being that it was no further, consequently that there was no further any conjunction with the internal of the church; for the internal of the church is represented by Tamar.  For this reason also Judah had no more sons.

AC 4915. Verses 27-30.  And it came to pass in the time of her travail, and behold twins were in her womb.  And it came to pass when she travailed, and one put out a hand; and the midwife took and bound double-dyed upon his hand, saying, This came out first.  And it came to pass as he drew back his hand, that behold his brother came out; and she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach? And he called his name Perez. And afterward came out his brother, that had the double-dyed upon his hand; and he called his name Zerah.  “And it came to pass in the time,” signifies a following state; “of her travail,” signifies acknowledgment on the part of internal truth; “and behold twins were in her womb,” signifies both things of the church; “and it came to pass when she travailed,” signifies production; “and one put out a hand,” signifies power; “and the midwife took,” signifies the natural; “and bound double-dyed upon his hand,” signifies that she put a mark upon it - “double-dyed” denotes good; “saying, This came out first,” signifies that it had the priority; “and it came to pass, as he drew back his hand,” signifies that it concealed its power; “that behold his brother came out,” signifies the truth of good; “and she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach?” signifies its apparent separation from good; “and he called his name Perez,” signifies the quality; “and afterward came out his brother,” signifies good actually prior; “that had the double-dyed upon his hand,” signifies acknowledgment that it was good; “and he called his name Zerah,” signifies the quality.

AC 4916. And it came to pass in the time.  That this signifies a following state, is evident from the signification of “time,” as being state (n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2788, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3827, 4882, 4901). That its “coming to pass in the time” signifies a following state is evident, because what came to pass now follows (n. 4814).

AC 4917. Of her travail.  That this signifies acknowledgment on the part of internal truth, is evident from the signification of “travailing,” as being to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and from the representation of Tamar, who is meant by “her,” as being the internal of the representative church, consequently internal truth.

AC 4918. And behold twins were in her womb.  That this signifies both things of the church, is evident from the signification of “twins,” as being both good and truth (n. 3299); and from the signification of the “womb,” as being where good and truth lie conceived; consequently where that is which is of the church. The“womb”in the genuine sense signifies the inmost of conjugial love in which is innocence, because in the Grand Man the womb corresponds to this love; and as conjugial love has its origin from the love of good and truth which belongs to the heavenly marriage, and as this marriage is heaven itself, or the Lord’s kingdom, and as the Lord‘s kingdom on earth is the church, therefore the church also is signified by the “womb;” for the church is where the marriage of good and truth is.  For this reason it is that “opening the womb” denotes the derivative doctrines of churches (n. 3856), and also the capacity to receive the truths and goods of the church (n. 3967); and that “coming forth from the womb” denotes to be reborn or regenerated (n. 4904), that is, to be made a church, for whoever is reborn or regenerated is made a church.

[2] As rebirth, and hence the church, are signified by “going forth from the womb,” therefore the Lord is called in the Word, “He that formeth from the womb,” “He that bringeth forth from the womb;” and they who are regenerated and made a church are said to be “carried from the womb,” as in Isaiah:--

Thus said Jehovah thy Maker, He that formeth thee from the womb, He helpeth thee (Isa. 44:2).

Again:--

Thus said Jehovah thy Redeemer, and He that formed thee from the womb (Isa. 44:24).

Again:

Said Jehovah that formed me from the womb to be His servant, to bring Jacob again to Him, and that Israel be gathered unto Him (Isa. 49:6).

In David:--

Jehovah who brought me forth from the womb (Ps. 22:9).

Again in Isaiah:--

Attend to Me, O house of Jacob, and all the remain of the house of Israel, carried from the womb and borne from the matrix (Isa. 46:3).

In David:--

The wicked are estranged from the womb they go astray from the belly, with words of a lie (Ps. 58:3);

where “being estranged from the womb” means from the good which is of the church, and “going astray from the belly” means going astray from truth.  In Hosea:--

The pangs of a travailing woman shall come upon him; he is an unwise son, for at the time he standeth not In the womb of sons (Hosea 13:13);

where “not standing in the womb of sons” means not being in the good of truth which is of the church.

[3] Again:--

Their glory shall By away like a bird from the birth, from the belly, and from conception (Hosea 9:11);

meaning that the truth of the church will entirely perish; “from the birth” meaning what is born; “from the belly,” what is in gestation; “from conception,” what is begun. In Isaiah:--

I knew that thou wouldest deal very treacherously, and wast called a transgressor from the womb (Isa. 48:8);

meaning that such was their quality from the beginning of the church.  In the Revelation:--

A great sign was seen in heaven, a woman encompassed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars; and she bearing in the belly, cried out, travailing in birth, and in pain to be delivered (Rev. 12:1, 2);

the “woman” is the church (n. 252, 253, 255); the “sun with which she was encompassed” is the good of love (n. 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2441, 2495, 4060, 4696); the “moon which was under her feet” is the truth of faith (n. 30-38, 1529, 1530, 2120, 2495, 4696); the “stars” are the knowledges of good and truth (n. 2495, 2849, 4697); that there were “twelve” stars is because “twelve” means all, and thus all things of faith (n. 577, 2089, 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913); “bearing in the belly” means the truth of the church conceived; “travailing in birth and in pain to be delivered” means that it was received with difficulty.

AC 4919. And it came to pass when she travailed.  That this signifies production, is evident from the signification of “travailing,” as being to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919); and as whatever is acknowledged in faith and act is produced, therefore by “travailing” is also signified production, namely of good and truth, which are of the church.

AC 4920. And one put out a hand.  That this signifies power, is evident from the signification of a “hand,” as being power (n. 878, 3387).

AC 4921. And the midwife took.  That this signifies the natural, is evident from the signification of a “midwife,” as being the natural (n. 4588). How the case herein is will appear from what follows.  That in the spiritual world a midwife has a signification other than in the natural world, is evident from the fact that none of the things relating to birth, and consequently to the office of a midwife, exist there; whence it is evident that when a man is reading these words, the angels with him perceive something else in place of a’ midwife, and indeed something spiritual. Consequently, as angels keep their ideas in those things which relate to spiritual birth, by a midwife they perceive that which assists and receives this birth; and that this is the natural may be seen above (n. 4588).

AC 4922. And bound double-dyed upon his hand.  That this signifies that she put a mark upon it, namely, upon the power, and that “double-dyed” is good, is evident from the signification of “binding upon the hand,” as being to put a mark upon power, for the “hand” is power (n. 4920); and from the signification of “double-dyed” as being good, and indeed spiritual good.  That “double-dyed” denotes spiritual good, is because it was of a scarlet color; and the color of scarlet when seen in the other life signifies spiritual good, that is, the good of charity toward the neighbor.  For all colors visible in the other life signify something of good and truth, because they come into existence from the light of heaven, which in itself is wisdom and intelligence from the Lord‘s Divine. The variations or modifications of that light are the consequent variations, and so to speak modifications, of wisdom and intelligence, consequently of good and truth.  That the light in heaven is from the Divine wisdom and intelligence of the Lord, who appears there as a sun, may be seen above (n. 1053, 1521-1533, 1619-1632, 2776, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3225, 3337, 3339, 3340, 3485, 3636, 3643, 3862, 3993, 4180, 4214, 4302, 4405, 4408, 4413, 4415, 4523-4533).  That colors are from this source, and that they are the variations and modifications of that light, and consequently of intelligence and wisdom, may be seen above (n. 1042, 1043, 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530, 4677, 4742).

[2] That “double-dyed” denotes spiritual good, is plain from the passages in the Word in which it is mentioned, as in Jeremiah:--

If then thou art laid waste what wilt thou do? If thou clothest thyself with double-dyed, and adornest thyself with an ornament of gold, in vain shalt thou make thyself beautiful; the lovers will abhor thee (Jer. 4:30)

where Judah is spoken of; “clothing thyself with double-dyed” denotes spiritual good, and “adorning thyself with an ornament of gold” denotes celestial good.  In the second book of Samuel:--

David lamented over Saul and over Jonathan, and wrote to teach the sons of Judah the bow. Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in double-dyed, with delights, and put an Ornament of gold upon your apparel (2 Samuel 1:17, 18, 24);

where “teaching the bow” is teaching the doctrine of love and charity, for a “bow” signifies this doctrine; “clothing in double-dyed” denotes spiritual good, as before; and “putting an ornament of gold upon the apparel” denotes celestial good.

[3] Because this was the signification of “double-dyed,” it was commanded that double-dyed scarlet should be used on the curtains of the tabernacle, on the veil, on the covering for the door of the tent, on the covering for the gate of the court, on the table of faces when they journeyed, and on Aaron’s garments of holiness, as on the ephod, the breastplate of judgment, and the fringe of the robe of the ephod - as is evident from the following passages:

[4]

Thou shalt make for the tabernacle ten curtains; of fine-twined linen, and blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed (Exod. 26:1).

Thou shalt make a veil of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen (Exod. 26:31).

Thou shalt make a covering for the door of the tent, of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen (Exod. 26:36).

For the gate of the court thou shalt make a covering of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen, the work of the embroiderer (Exod. 27:16).

When the camp setteth forward they shall spread upon the table of faces a cloth of scarlet double-dyed, and cover the same with a covering of badger‘s skin (Num. 4:5, 7, 8).

Thou shalt make the ephod of gold, of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed and fine-twined linen, the work of the artificer. Likewise on the belt (Exod. 28:6, 8).

Thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, the work of the artificer - like the work of the ephod, of gold, of blue, and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed, and fine-twined linen (Exod. 27:15).

Upon the fringe of the robe of the ephod [thou shalt make] pomegranates of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed (Exod. 28:33)

[5] As the tent of assembly with the ark represented heaven, therefore the above-mentioned colors were commanded to be used; and they signify in their order the celestial and spiritual things there, “blue and crimson” signifying celestial goods and truths, and “scarlet double-dyed and fine-twined linen,” spiritual goods and truths. Everyone who believes the Word to be holy can know that everything in it has some signification; and whoever believes that the Word is holy because it was sent down by the Lord through heaven, can know that the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom are signified.  In like manner it was commanded that cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop should be used in the cleansing from leprosy (Lev. 14:4, 6, 52); and that cedar wood, and hyssop, and double-dyed crimson should be cast upon the burning of a red heifer, from which was to be prepared the water of separation (Num. 19:6, 9).

[6] The profanation of good and truth is described by similar expressions in the Revelation

I saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns. And the woman was clothed in crimson and scarlet, and gilded with gold and precious stone and pearls, having in her hand a golden cup full of abominations and filthiness of her whoredoms (Rev. 17:3, 4).

And afterward:--

Woe, woe, the great city, she that was clothed in fine linen, and crimson, and scarlet, and gilded with gold, and precious stone and pearls (Rev. 18:16);

speaking of Babylon, by which is signified the profanation of good (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326), here the profanation of good and truth, which is Babylonish. In the prophets of the Old Testament “Babylon” is the profanation of good, and “Chaldea” the profanation of truth.

[7] “Scarlet,” in the opposite sense, signifies the evil which is opposite to spiritual good, as in Isaiah

Though your sins be as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow though they be red like crimson, they shall be as wool (Isa. 1:18).

That “scarlet” signifies this evil, is because “blood” - also from its redness signifies in the genuine sense spiritual good, or charity toward the neighbor, but in the opposite sense violence offered to charity.

AC 4923. Saying, this came out first.  That this signifies that it had the priority, is evident from the signification of “coming out first,” or being the firstborn, as being priority and superiority (n. 3325). The subject treated of here and through the remainder of this chapter is primogeniture.  One who has no knowledge of the internal sense of the Word may suppose that it is primogeniture only that is treated of, and consequently the prerogatives which the firstborn would have according to the laws; but one who knows anything of the internal sense can see plainly enough that something more exalted also lies concealed and stored up in these words, not only from the very fact that one of the children put out his hand and drew it back again, whereupon the other came out, but also from the fact that they were named from this, and that the midwife bound double-dyed upon the hand of the first; and further from the fact that very similar incidents were related of Esau and Jacob that they struggled together in the womb, and that when Esau came out first, Jacob took hold of his heel (Gen. 25:22, 26); and from the similarity of the case of the two sons of Joseph, on the younger of whom Jacob placed his right hand, and on the other his left hand, when he blessed them (Gen. 48:14, 17-19).

[2] The Jews and also some Christians believe indeed that in these, and also in the rest of the passages of the Word there is some meaning stored up, which they call mystical, the reason of this belief being that an idea of holiness in regard to the Word has been impressed upon them from early childhood; but when it is inquired what this mystical meaning is, they do not know.  If they are told that because the Word is Divine, this meaning must necessarily be such as is in heaven among the angels; and that no other mystical meaning can exist in the Word, or if so, that it would be either fabulous or magical or idolatrous; and furthermore that this mystical meaning which is in heaven among the angels is nothing else than what is called the spiritual and celestial, and treats solely of the Lord, of His kingdom, and of the church, consequently of good and truth; and that if they knew what good and truth, or what faith and love, are, they would be able to know this meaning when this is told them, scarcely anyone believes it; nay, in such ignorance at the present day are they who are of the church, that what is related concerning the celestial and spiritual, is scarcely comprehensible to them. Be  it so; nevertheless as it has been granted me of the Lord’s Divine mercy to be at the same time in heaven as a spirit and on earth as a man, and therefore to speak with angels, and this now continually for many years, I cannot do otherwise than open those things of the Word which are called mystical, that is, its interiors, which are the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord‘s kingdom. But what the incidents related of the two sons of Tamar involve in the internal sense, will be shown in the following pages.

AC 4924. And it came to pass as he drew back his hand.  That this signifies that it concealed its power, is evident from the signification of “hand,” as being power (n. 878, 3387, 4920); to conceal which is signified by “drawing back.”

AC 4925. That behold his brother came out.  That this signifies the truth of good, is evident from the signification of a “brother,” as being what is kindred from good (n. 3815, 4267), thus the truth of good; the truth of good is that truth which is from good, or that faith which is from charity. The subject treated of here in the internal sense is primogeniture in the case of those who are being reborn or regenerated by the Lord, consequently primogeniture in the church. It has been a matter of dispute from the most ancient times which is the firstborn, whether the good which is of charity, or the truth which is of faith; and as good does not appear while man is being reborn and made a church, but conceals itself in the interior man, and manifests itself only in a certain affection which does not fall clearly into the sensation of the external or natural man, until he has been reborn - whereas truth makes itself manifest, because it enters through the senses and stores itself in the memory of the external or natural man - therefore many persons have fallen into the error of thinking that truth is the firstborn, and at last even into that of thinking that truth is the essential of the church, and so essential that truth, which they call faith, has power to save without the good which is of charity.

[2] From this one error very many others have been derived, which have infected not only doctrine, but also life; as for instance that no matter how a man lives, provided he has faith he is saved; that even the most wicked are received into heaven if in the hour of death they make profession of such things as are of faith; and that everyone can be received into heaven merely from grace, whatever his life has been. In consequence of holding this doctrine they at last do not know what charity is, nor do they care for it; and finally they do not believe there is such a thing, nor consequently that there is a heaven or a hell.  The reason is that faith without charity, or truth without good, teaches nothing; and the more it recedes from good, the more foolish it renders a man.  For it is good into which and through which the Lord flows and gives intelligence and wisdom, thus a higher mental view, and also perception as to whether a thing be so or not so.

[3] All this shows how the case is in regard to primogeniture - it actually belongs to good, and to truth only apparently.  This then is what is described in the internal sense by the birth of Tamar’s two sons, for by the “double-dyed” which the midwife bound upon the hand is signified good (n. 4922); by “coming out first” is signified priority (n. 4923); by “drawing back his hand” is signified that good concealed its power, as was said just above; by his “brother coming out” is signified truth; by “thou hast broken upon thee a breach” is signified the apparent separation of truth from good; by his “brother coming out afterward” is signified that good is actually prior; and by “that had the double-dyed upon his hand” is signified acknowledgment that it is good; for good is not acknowledged to be prior until after the man has been reborn, for he then acts from good and from it regards truth and its quality.

[4] These are the things which are Contained in the internal sense, which teaches how the case is with good and truth in the man who is being born anew, namely, that good is actually in the first place, but truth apparently; and that good does not appear to be in the first place while the man is being regenerated, but becomes manifestly so when he has been regenerated But these things need not be further explained here, because they have been explained before (n. 3324, 3325, 3494, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4243, 4244, 4247, 4337).  That from ancient times it has been a matter of controversy whether primogeniture belongs to good or to truth, or whether to charity or to faith, has also been shown above (n. 2435).

[5] As the Lord in the supreme sense is the “Firstborn,” consequently love to Him and charity toward the neighbor, therefore it was ordained as a law in the representative church that the firstborn should be Jehovah‘s, as we read in Moses:--

Sanctify to Me all the firstborn, whatsoever openeth the womb among the sons of Israel, in man and in beast, let them be Mine (Exod. 13:2).

Thou shalt cause to pass to Jehovah everything that openeth the womb, and everything that openeth the offspring of a beast, as many as shall be males to thee, shall be Jehovah’s (Exod. 13:12).

Everything that openeth the womb is Mine therefore as to all thy cattle thou shalt give the male, that openeth of ox and small cattle (Exod. 34:19).

Everything that openeth the womb of all flesh, which they shall bring to Jehovah, of men and of beasts, shall be thine nevertheless every first born of man shalt thou surely redeem (Num. 18:15).

Behold I have taken the Levites from the midst of the sons of Israel, instead of every firstborn that openeth the womb of the sons of Israel; that the Levites may be Mine (Num. 3:12).

[6] As that which opens the womb is the firstborn, therefore where the word “firstborn” is mentioned, it is also said “that which openeth the womb;” in order that good may be signified. That this signifies good is evident from the particulars in the internal sense, especially from what is related of Tamar‘s sons that Zerah opened the womb with his hand, by whom good is represented, as is evident from the double-dyed upon his hand (n. 4922).  Moreover the “womb,” which is said to be “opened,” is where good and truth are, consequently the church (n. 4918); and to “open the womb” is to give power that truth may be born.

[7] As the Lord alone is the Firstborn - for He is good itself, and from His good is all truth - therefore in order that Jacob, who was not the firstborn, might represent Him, he was permitted to buy the primogeniture from Esau his brother; and because this was not sufficient, he was called Israel, in order that by this name he might represent the good of truth; for Israel in the representative sense is the good which comes by means of truth (n. 3654, 4286, 4598).

AC 4926. And she said, Wherefore hast thou broken upon thee a breach?  That this signifies its apparent separation from good, is evident from the signification of a “breach,” as being the infraction and perversion of truth by separation from good-of which presently.  That “to break a breach” here is to pull off the double-dyed from the hand, and thus to separate good, is evident, for by “double-dyed” is signified good (n. 4922); that this was apparently so follows from the fact that it so appeared to the midwife; for this was not the one who had the double-dyed, but his brother, by whom is represented truth. On this subject see what is shown just above (n. 4925), namely that good is actually the firstborn, but truth apparently. This may be further illustrated from the uses and members in the human body.  It appears as if the members and organs are prior, and that their uses follow; for the former are first presented to the eye, and are also known before the uses. Nevertheless the use is prior to the members and organs, these latter being from the uses, and therefore formed according to them; nay, the use itself forms them, and adapts them to itself.  Unless this were so, all and each of the things in man would by no means conspire so unanimously to a one.  It is similar with good and truth: it appears as if truth were prior, but it is good, for good forms truths and adapts them to itself; wherefore regarded in themselves truths are nothing else than goods formed, or forms of good.  Truths also in respect to good are like the viscera and fibers in the body in respect to uses; and regarded in itself good is nothing else than use.

[2] That a “breach” signifies infraction of truth and perversion of it by separation from good, is evident also from other passages in the Word, as in David:--

Our garners are full, affording from food to food; our flocks are thousands and ten thousands in our streets; our oxen are laden; there is no breach (Ps. 144:13, 14);

treating of the Ancient Church, such as it was in its youth; the “food with which the garners were full” denotes spiritual food, that is, truth and good; “flocks” and “oxen” denote internal and external goods; “there is no breach” denotes that truth is not infracted or broken through by separation from good.

[3] In Amos:--

I will raise up the tent of David that is fallen, and fence up the breaches thereof; and I will restore its ruins, and I will build it according to the days of eternity (Amos 9:11);

describing the church which is in good, the “tent of David that is fallen” being the good of love and charity from the Lord. “Tent” is this good, (n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 3312, 4128, 4391, 4599), and that “David” is the Lord, (n. 1888). To “fence up the breaches” means to amend the falsities which have entered by the separation of truth from good; “to build it according to the days of eternity” denotes according to the state of the church in ancient times; that state and those times are called in the Word the “days of eternity,” the “days of an age,” and also “of generation and generation” - as in Isaiah

[4]

Builds of thee the wastes of an age, the foundations of generation and generation and thou shall be called, The repairer of the breach, The restorer of paths to dwell in (Isa. 58:12);

describing the church in which charity and life is the essential. Here also “repairing the breach” denotes amending the falsities which have crept in by the separation of good from truth, every falsity being from this source; and “restoring paths to dwell in” denotes truths which are of good, for “paths” or “ways” are truths (n. 627, 2333), and “dwelling” is predicated of good (n. 2268, 2451, 2712, 3613).

[5] Again:--

Ye saw the breaches of the city of David, that they were many and ye gathered together the water“ of the lower pool (Isa. 22:9);

the ”breaches of the city of David“ denote falsities of doctrine, and the ”waters of the lower pool“ the traditions by which they made infractions of the truths that are in the Word (Matt. 15:1-6; Mark 7:1-14).  In Ezekiel:--

Ye have not gone up into the breaches, neither have ye built up the fence for the house of Israel, that ye might stand in the war in the days of Jehovah (Ezek. 13:5).

Again

I sought from them a man that buildeth the fence, and standeth in the breach before Me for the land, that I should not destroy it; but I found none (Ezekiel 22:30);

to ”stand’ in the breach“ denotes to defend and to take heed lest falsities break in.  In David:--

Jehovah said that He would destroy the people, unless Moses His chosen had stood before Him in the breach (Ps. 106:23);

where also ”to stand in the breach“ denotes to take heed lest falsities break in ”Moses“ is the Word (n. 2135a, 4859).

[6] In Amos:--

They shall draw out your posterity with fish-hooks. Ye shall go forth through the breaches, everyone straight before her; and ye shall throw down the palace (Amos 4:2, 3);

”to go forth through the breaches“ denotes through falsities from reasonings; the ”palace“ is the Word, consequently the truth of doctrine which is from good. And as by ”breaches“ is signified the falsity which comes into existence by the separation of good from truth, the same is also signified, in the representative sense, by ”strengthening and repairing the breaches of the house of Jehovah“ (2 Kings 12:6-8, 12; 22:5). In the second book of Samuel:--

It grieved David because Jehovah had broken a breach upon Uzzah; therefore he called that place Perez-Uzzah (2 Sam. 6:8);

speaking of Uzzah, who died because he touched the ark; by the ark was represented heaven, in the supreme sense the Lord, consequently Divine good; by Uzzah however was represented that which ministers, thus truth, for this ministers to good. The separation above described is signified by the ”breach upon Uzzah.“

AC 4927. And he called his name Perez.  That this signifies the quality, namely, of the apparent separation of truth from good, is evident from the signification of ”calling a name,“ as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421).  The quality itself is ”Perez;“ for in the original language ”Perez“ means a ”breach.“

AC 4928. And afterward came out his brother.  That this signifies good actually prior, is evident from the representation of Zerah, who here is the ”brother,“ as being good; for he it was who opened the womb, thus who was the firstborn, and upon whose hand was the double-dyed, which, as shown above (n. 4925), is good.  That by his brother‘s coming out afterward is signified that good is actually prior, is because during man’s regeneration good does not appear, because it conceals itself in the interior man, and only flows into truth through affection according to the degrees of conjunction of truth with it.  But when truth has been conjoined with good, as when man has been regenerated, good manifests itself; for man then acts from good and regards truths as from good, because he is then more studious of life than of doctrine.

AC 4929. That had the double-dyed upon his hand.  That this signifies acknowledgment that it is good, is evident from the fact that he was now acknowledged from the double-dyed upon his hand, thus it was acknowledged that it was good which opened the womb, or which was the firstborn.  By the midwife‘s binding double-dyed upon his hand is signified that she marked who was the firstborn, and hence acknowledgment is here signified.

AC 4930. And he called his name Zerah.  That this signifies the quality, is evident from the signification of ”calling a name,“ as being the quality (n. 4927). The quality which is signified by ”Zerah,“ is the quality of what has been hitherto the subject treated of in the internal sense, namely, that good is actually the firstborn and truth only apparently so.  The quality itself contains innumerable things within it which cannot be seen in the light of the world, but only in the light of heaven, thus before the angels.  If man should see the quality of a single thing as it appears before the angels, he would be amazed, and would confess that he would never have believed it, and that in comparison he had known scarcely anything. ”Zerah,“ in the original language, signifies a ”“ and is applied to the sun and to the first appearance of its light.  He was named Zerah from this because it is similar with good in the man who is being regenerated, for this first rises and gives light, from which light are enlightened the things in the natural man, so that they may be seen, and acknowledged, and finally believed.  Unless there were light from good inwardly in man, he would never be able to see truths so as to acknowledge and believe them, but would look upon them either as things to be called true on account of the common people, or else as falsities.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE WITH THE GRAND MAN, HERE CONCERNING THE CORRESPONDENCE OF THE HANDS, ARMS, FEET, AND LOINS THEREWITH

AC 4931. It has been already shown that the whole heaven has reference to one Man with his several organs, members, and viscera; and this because heaven has reference to the Lord, for the Lord is the all in all of heaven, insomuch that heaven is in the proper sense the Divine good and Divine truth which are from the Lord. For this reason heaven is distinguished into as many provinces, so to speak, as there are viscera, organs, and members in man, and with these also there is correspondence.  Unless there were such a correspondence of man with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, man would not subsist even a single moment. All these things are kept in connection by influx.

[2] But all these provinces have reference to two kingdoms - the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom.  The celestial kingdom is the kingdom of the heart in the Grand Man, and the spiritual kingdom is the kingdom of the lungs; in like manner as in man, in the whole and every part of whom reign the heart and the lungs.  These two kingdoms are wonderfully conjoined; and this conjunction is represented in the conjunction of the heart and lungs in man, and in the conjunction of their operations in the several members and viscera

[3] While man is an embryo, or while he is yet in the womb, he is in the kingdom of the heart; but when he has come forth from the womb, he comes into the kingdom of the lungs; and if through the truths of faith he suffers himself to be brought into the good of love, he then returns from the kingdom of the lungs into the kingdom of the heart in the Grand Man; for he thus comes a second time into the womb and is born again.  Then also these two kingdoms are conjoined in him, but in an inverted order; for previously the kingdom of the heart in him was under the rule of the lungs, that is, the truth of faith previously ruled in him; but afterward the good of charity rules.  That the heart corresponds to the good of love, and the lungs to the truth of faith, may be seen above (n. 3635, 3883-3896).

AC 4932. They in the Grand Man who correspond to the hands and arms, and also to the shoulders, are those who have power by the truth of faith from good. For those who are in the truth of faith from good are in the power of the Lord because they attribute all power to Him, and none to themselves; and the more they attribute none to themselves - not with the lips, but with the heart - the more they are in power.  From this the angels are called potencies and powers.

AC 4933. That in the Grand Man the hands, arms, and shoulders correspond to power, is because the forces and powers of the whole body and of all its viscera have reference to them; for the body exerts its forces and powers by the arms and hands. It is for this reason also that power is signified in the Word by the ”hands,“ ”arms,“ and ”shoulders.“ That this is signified by the ”hands,“ may be seen above (n. 878, 3387); and that it is signified by the ”arms“ also, is plain from many passages, as from the following:--

Be Thou their arm every morning (Isa. 33:2).

The Lord Jehovih cometh in strength, and His arm shall rule for Him (Isa. 40:10).

He worketh it with the arm of His strength (Isa. 44:12).

Mine arms shall judge the peoples (Isa. 51:5).

Put on strength, O arm of Jehovah (Isa. 51:9).

I looked, and there was no one helping, therefore Mine arm brought salvation unto Me (Isa. 63:5).

Cursed is he that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm (Jer. 17:5).

I have made the earth, the man, and the beast, by My great power and by My outstretched arm (Jer. 27:5; 32:17).

The horn of Moab is cut off, and His arm is broken (Jer. 48:25).

I break the arms of the king of Egypt, but I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon (Ezek. 30:22, 24, 25).

0 Jehovah, break Thou the arm of the wicked (Ps. 10:15).

According to the greatness of Thine arm reserve the sons of death (Ps. 79:11).

Brought out of Egypt with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm (Deut. 7:19; 11:2, 3; 26:8; Jer. 32:21; Ps. 136:12).

From these passages it is also evident that by ”right hand“ in the Word is signified superior power, and by ”sitting at the right hand of Jehovah,“ omnipotence (Matt. 26:63, 64; Luke 22:69; Mark 14:61, 62; 16:19).

AC 4934. I have seen a bare arm, bent forward, which was possessed of such force and such power to inflict terror that I was not only horrified, but felt as if I might be crushed to atoms, even as to my inmost things, for it was irresistible.  This arm has been seen by me twice; and from it I was given to know that the arms signify strength, and the hands power. A warmth was also felt exhaling from that arm.

AC 4935. This bare arm is presented to view in various positions, according to which it excites terror, and in the position described just above, incredible terror; for it appears able to crush the bones and marrows in an instant.  Even those who have not been timorous in the life of the body are thrown into extreme terror in the other life by this arm.

AC 4936. Several times spirits have been seen who had rods, and who were said to be magicians They are in front, far away to the right, deep in caverns; and those who have been more malign magicians are hidden away still deeper.  They seem to themselves to have rods, and they also by phantasies make many kinds of rods, and believe that they can perform miracles with them; for they suppose potency to be in the rods, and this because they are what support the right hand and arm, which by correspondence are strength and power.  From this it was plain to me why men of old attributed rods to magicians; for the ancient Gentiles had this from the ancient representative church, in which rods, like hands, signified power (n. 4876).  And because they signified power, Moses was commanded, when miracles were wrought, to stretch out his rod, or his hand (Exod. 4:17, 20; 8:1-11, 16-18; 9:23; 10:3-21; 14:21, 26, 27; 17:5, 6, 11, 12; Num. 20:7-11).

AC 4937. Infernal spirits also sometimes by phantasy exhibit a shoulder, by which they cause force to be repelled; and it cannot go beyond this; but this is only for those who are in such phantasy, for they know that in the spiritual world the shoulder corresponds to all power.  By the ”shoulder,“ in the Word also is signified all power, as is evident in the following passages:--

Thou hast broken the yoke of his burden, and the staff of his shoulder (Isa. 9:4).

Ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and push with your horns (Ezek. 34:21).

Thou cleavest for them every shoulder (Ezek. 29:7)

That they may serve Jehovah with one shoulder (Zeph. 3:9).

Unto us a Child is born, and the government shall be upon His shoulder (Isa. 9:6).

The key of the house of David will I put upon his shoulder (Isa. 22:22).

AC 4938. They in the Grand Man who correspond to the feet, the soles of the feet, and the heels, are they who are natural; wherefore by ”feet“ in the Word are signified natural things (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280), by ”soles of the feet“ lower natural things, and by ”heels“ the lowest natural things.  For in the Grand Man celestial things constitute the head, spiritual the body, and natural the feet; and they follow in this order.  Celestial things also, which are highest, terminate in spiritual, which are middle; and spiritual in natural, which are last.

AC 4939. Once when I was elevated into heaven, it appeared to me as if I were there with my head, and below with my body, but with my feet still lower.  And from this it was perceived how the higher and lower things in man correspond to those which are in the Grand Man, and how the one flows into the other, namely, that the celestial, which is the good of love and the first in order, flows into the spiritual, which is the truth thence derived and the second in order, and finally into the natural, which is the third in order.  From this it is evident that natural things are like the feet, on which the higher things rest. Nature also is that in which the spiritual world and heaven terminate.  Thence it is that universal nature is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom, and that everything in it is representative (n. 2758, 3483); and that nature subsists from influx according to this order, and that without such influx it could not subsist even for a moment.

AC 4940. At another time when, encompassed with an angelic column, I was let down into the places of lower things, it was given me sensibly to perceive that they who were in the earth of lower things correspond to the feet, and to the soles of the feet.  Moreover these places are under the feet and the soles of the feet.  I also conversed with the spirits there. They are such as have been in natural, and not in spiritual delight. Concerning the lower earth, (n. 4728).

AC 4941. In these places also are they who have ascribed all things to nature, and but little to the Divine.  I conversed with them there, and when the conversation turned on the Divine providence, they attributed everything to nature. Nevertheless when those who have led a good moral life have been detained there for a time, they successively put off such principles, and put on principles of truth.

AC 4942. While I was there, I heard in one of the rooms a noise as if there were some persons on the other side of the wall trying to break in.  Those in the room were terrified at the sound, believing that it was thieves; and I was told that they who are there are kept in such fear in order that they may be deterred from evils, because fear is to some a means of amendment.

AC 4943. In the lower earth, under the feet and the soles of the feet, are also those who have placed merit in good deeds and in works.  Some of them appear to themselves to cut wood. The place where they are is rather cold, and they seem to themselves to acquire warmth by their labor. With these also I conversed, and it was given me to ask them whether they wished to come out of that place.  They replied that they had not yet merited it by their labor.  But when this state has been passed through, they are taken out thence.  These also are natural, because the desire to merit salvation is not spiritual; and moreover they regard themselves as superior to others, and some of them even despise others.  If such persons do not receive more joy than others in the other life, they are indignant against the Lord; and therefore when they cut wood there sometimes appears as it were somewhat of the Lord under the wood, and this from their indignation.  But as they have led a pious life, and have acted in this way from ignorance, in which there was something of innocence, therefore angels are occasionally sent to them who console them.  And sometimes there appears to them from above on the left as it were a sheep, at the sight of which they also receive consolation.

AC 4944. They who come out of the world from Christendom, and who have led a good moral life, and have had something of charity toward the neighbor, but have had little concern about spiritual things, are for the most part sent into the places under the feet and the soles of the feet; and are kept there until they put off the natural things in which they have been, and become imbued with spiritual and heavenly things in so far as they can be in accordance with their life; and when they have become imbued with these, they are elevated thence to heavenly societies.  I have at times seen them emerging, and beheld their gladness at coming into heavenly light.

AC 4945. In what situation the places under the feet are, it has not yet been given me to know.  There are very many of them, and all most distinct from one another.  In general they are called the earth of lower things.

AC 4946.  There are some who in the life of the body have become imbued with the idea that man ought not to be concerned about those things which are of the internal man, thus about spiritual things, but only about those which are of the external man, or that are natural, for the reason that interior things disturb the delights of their life, and produce discomfort.  They acted upon the left knee, and a little above the knee in front, and also upon the sole of the right foot.  I conversed with them in their place of abode; and they said that they had been of opinion in the life of the body that only external things are living, and that they did not understand what internal things are, consequently that they knew what is natural, but not what the spiritual is.  But it was given me to tell them that by this means they had shut out from themselves innumerable things which might have flowed in from the spiritual world if they had acknowledged interior things, and thus had admitted them into the ideas of their thought. And it was also given to tell them that in every idea of thought there are innumerable things which to man, especially the natural man, appear merely as a single uncompounded thing; when yet there are indefinite things in it which flow in from the spiritual world, and in a spiritual man produce superior insight, by which he can see and also perceive whether anything is true or not.  And because they were in doubt in regard to this, it was shown them by living experience.  There was represented to them a single idea, which they saw as one simple idea, and thus as an obscure point (by a mode of representation very easy in the light of heaven); but when that idea was unfolded, and at the same time their interior sight opened, there was then manifested as it were a universe leading to the Lord; and it was said that so it is with every idea of good and truth, namely, that it is an image of the whole heaven, because it is from the Lord, who is the all of heaven, or that itself which is called heaven.

AC 4947. Under the soles of the feet are they also who in the life of the body have lived for the world and their own pleasure, being delighted with such things as are of the world, and have loved to live in splendor, but only from external cupidity or that of the body, not from internal desire or that of the mind; for they have not been proud in spirit - setting themselves before others though in stations of honor; thus in so living they have acted from the body, and therefore have not rejected the teachings of the church, still less confirmed themselves against them, but at heart have said of them that it is so, because those who study the Word know it.  In some who are of this character, the interiors are open toward heaven, and into them are successively inseminated heavenly things, such as justice, uprightness, piety, charity, and mercy; and they are afterward taken up into heaven.

AC 4948. Those however who in the life of the body have from within thought and taken interest in nothing else than what relates to self and the world, have closed to themselves every way or every influx from heaven; because the love of self and the world is opposite to heavenly love.  Those of them who have lived at the same time in pleasures, or in a luxurious life conjoined with interior cunning, are under the sole of the right foot, but at a great depth there, thus beneath the earth of lower things, where is the hell of such spirits.  In their dwellings is nothing but filth; they also seem to themselves to carry filth, for it corresponds to such a life.  The stench of different kinds of filth is smelled there according to the genera and species of their life.  Many have their abode there who have been among the more celebrated in the world.

AC 4949. There are some who have abodes under the soles of the feet, with whom I have occasionally conversed. I have seen some of them endeavoring to ascend, and it was also granted me to feel their endeavor, and this even to the knees but they fell back again.  In this manner is it represented to the sense when any are desirous of ascending from their own abodes to higher ones, as these were of ascending to the abodes of those who are in the province of the knees and thighs.  I was told that such are they who have despised others in comparison with themselves; for which reason also they wish to emerge, and not only through the foot into the thigh, but also if possible above the head; yet still they fall back again.  They are in a kind of stupidity; for such arrogance extinguishes and suffocates the light of heaven, and consequently intelligence.  Wherefore the sphere which surrounds them appears like thick dregs.

AC 4950. Under the left foot, a little to the left, are such as have attributed all things to nature, but yet have made a confession of an Ens of the universe from which come all the things of nature.  Exploration was made as to whether they had believed in any Ens of the universe, or Supreme Deity, that had created all things; but it was perceived from their thought communicated to me, that what they had believed in was like something inanimate, in which there was nothing of life; and from this it was evident that they had not acknowledged a Creator of the universe, but nature.  They also said that they could have no idea of a living Deity.

AC 4951. Under the heel, somewhat farther back, is a hell at a great depth, the intermediate space appearing empty.  In this hell are the most malicious, who secretly explore minds for the purpose of doing harm, and secretly lay snares in order to destroy, this having been the delight of their life.  I have frequently observed them; they pour out the poison of their malice to those who are in the world of spirits, and stir them up by various wiles.  They are interiorly malicious.  They appear as it were in cloaks, and sometimes otherwise.  They are often punished, and are then let down to a greater depth, and veiled as it were with a cloud, which is the sphere of malice exhaling from them.  Out of that depth at times a tumult is heard as of a slaughter.  They can move others to tears, and can also strike terror.  This habit they have acquired in the life of the body, by having been with the sick and simple for the purpose of  obtaining wealth, whom they constrained to weep and so moved to pity; and if they did not obtain their ends in this way, they inflicted terror.  They are for the most part such as in this manner plundered many houses for the benefit of monasteries. Some were also observed at a middle distance, but appearing to themselves to be sitting in a room and consulting together. These also are malicious, but not in the same degree.

AC 4952. Some of those who are natural have said that they know not what to believe, because a lot awaits everyone according to his life, and also according to his thoughts from confirmed principles; but it was answered them that it would have sufficed if they had believed that it is God who governs all things, and that there is a life after death; and especially if they had lived not as a wild beast, but as a man, that is, in love to God and in charity toward the neighbor; and thus in truth and in good, but not contrary to them.  But they said that they had so lived; but again it was answered that in externals they had appeared to do so, when nevertheless had not the laws  opposed, they would have invaded everyone‘s life and property with more fury than wild beasts.  They again said that they did not know what charity toward the neighbor is, nor what the internal is; but it was answered them that they could not know these things because the love of self and of the world, and external things, had engrossed the whole of their thought and will.

AC 4953. A continuation will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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