HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC GENESIS Chapter49

GENESIS 49:1-33

1. And Jacob called his sons, and said, Gather ye yourselves together, and I will tell you what shall befall you in the end of the days.

2. Assemble yourselves and hear, ye sons of Jacob, and hear unto Israel your father.

3. Reuben, my firstborn, thou art my strength, and the beginning of my forces, excellent in eminence, and excellent in power.

4. Light as water thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up on thy father’s bed, then profanedst thou it; he went up on my couch.

5. Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of violence are their swords.

6. Into their secret let not my soul come; in their assembly let not my glory be united; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their good pleasure they unstrung an ox.

7. Cursed be their anger for it was vehement, and their wrath for it was hard.  I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.

8. Judah, thy brethren shall celebrate thee, thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies, thy father‘s sons shall how down to thee.

9. Judah is a lion’s whelp; from the prey my son thou art gone up; he bowed, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?

10. The scepter shall not be removed from Judah, and a lawgiver from between his feet, even until Shiloh come; and to him is the obedience of the peoples.

11. He binds his young ass unto the vine, and his ass‘s colt unto the choice vine; he washes his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes

12. His eyes are red with wine, and his teeth are white with milk.

13. Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the seas, and he shall be at a haven of ships, and his side shall be toward Zidon.

14. Issachar is a bony ass, lying down between the burdens.

15. And he shall see rest that it is good, and the land that it is pleasant; and he shall bow his shoulder to bear, and shall be a servant to tribute.

16. Dan shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel.

17. Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse’s heels, and his rider shall fall backward.

18. I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah.

19. Gad, a troop shall ravage him, and he shall ravage the heel.

20. From Asher, his bread is fat, and he shall yield the delights of a king.

21. Naphtali is a hind let loose, giving discourses of elegance.

22. Joseph is the son of a fruitful one, the son of a fruitful one over a fountain, of a daughter, she marches upon the wall.

23. And imbitter him, and shoot at him, and hate him, the archers.

24. And he shall sit in the strength of his bow, and the arms of his hands are made strong by the hands of the mighty Jacob; from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel.

25. By the God of thy father, and He shall help thee, and with Shaddai, and He shall bless thee, with the blessings of heaven above, with blessings of the deed, that lieth beneath, with blessings of the breasts and of the womb.

26. The blessings of thy father shall prevail above the blessings of my progenitors, even to the desire of the hills of an age: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of the Nazirite of his brethren.

27. Benjamin is a wolf; he shall seize in the morning, he shall devour the spoil, and at even he shall divide the prey.

28. All these are the twelve tribes of Israel; and this is what their father spake to them and blessed them; everyone according to his blessing he blessed them.

29. And he commanded them, and said unto them, I am being gathered unto my people; bury me unto my fathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite;

30. In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is upon the faces of Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a sepulchre.

31. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah:

32. The purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the sons of Heth.

33. And Jacob finished commanding his sons, and he gathered up his feet unto the bed, and expired, and was gathered unto his peoples.

THE CONTENTS

AC 6328. In this chapter the subject treated of in the internal sense is not the descendants of Jacob, and what would befall them; but the truths of faith and the goods of love which the twelve tribes named from the sons of Jacob represent and signify.

AC 6329. It first treats of faith separated from charity, which is utterly rejected.  This faith is “Reuben,” “ Simeon,” and “Levi.”

AC 6330. It then treats of the celestial church, which is the “tribe of Judah,‘ and in the supreme sense there, of the Divine Human of the Lord.

AC 6331. Then of the rest of the tribes according to the states of good and truth which they represent.

AC 6332. Lastly of the celestial spiritual church   which is ”Joseph;“ and here also in the supreme sense of the Divine Human of the Lord.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 6333. From the things said by Jacob in this chapter it may be clearly seen that there is another sense in the Word than that which appears in the letter; for Jacob, who was then Israel, says that he will tell what shall befall his sons in the end of the days (verse 1), and yet the things he tells and that he predicts did not at all befall them; such as that the descendants of Reuben, Simeon, and Levi should be cursed more than the rest; and that Simeon and Levi should be divided in Jacob, and be scattered in Israel (verses 3-7); but the contrary befell Levi, namely, that he was blessed, for the priesthood was allotted to him.

[2] Neither did that befall Judah which is said of him, except that the representative of the church remained longer with him than with the rest of the tribes; and moreover such things are said of him as no one can know the meaning of, except from another sense which is hidden within, as that he should bow himself and couch as a lion; should bind his young ass unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; that he should wash his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes; that his eyes should be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk (verses 9, 11, 12).  All these things are of such a nature as to cause everyone to see that there is something within them that is known in heaven, and that cannot be made known to man, except from thence.

[3] It is the same with what Israel said of the rest of his sons; as of Zebulun, that he should dwell at the haven of the seas and of ships, and that his side should be toward Zidon; of Issachar, that he should be a bony ass lying down between the burdens, stooping his shoulder to bear a burden; of Dan, that he should be a serpent in the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse‘s heels, and that his rider will fall backward; and so on with the rest.  From all this it is very evident that as already said the Word has an internal sense.  The Word is given in order to unite heaven and earth, or angels with men; and therefore it has been so written that it may be spiritually apprehended by the angels, when naturally apprehended by man, and that in this way what is holy may flow in through the angels, by which means union is effected.  Such is the Word in both the historical and the prophetical parts; but the internal sense is less apparent in the historical than in the prophetical parts, because the historical parts have been written in a different style, yet still by means of significatives.

[4] The historical parts have been given in order that infants and children may thereby be initiated into the reading of the Word; for the historical parts are delightful, and rest in their minds, whereby communication is given them with the heavens; and this communication is grateful, because they are in a state of innocence and mutual charity.  This is the reason why there is an historical Word.  There is a prophetical Word, because when it is read, it is not understood by man except obscurely, and when it is understood obscurely by such men as there are now, it is perceived clearly by the angels, as it has been given me to know from much experience, of which by the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere.

AC 6334. Verses 1, 2.  And Jacob called his sons, and said, Gather ye yourselves together, and I will tell you what shall befall you in the end of the days. Assemble yourselves and hear ye sons of Jacob, and hear unto Israel your father.  ”And Jacob called his sons,“ signifies the setting in order of the truths of faith and goods of love in the natural; ”and said, father ye yourselves together,“ signifies all of them in general together; ”and I will tell you what shall befall you in the end of the days,“ signifies the quality of the state of the church in the order in which they then were ”assemble yourselves,“ signifies that they should set themselves in order; ”and hear, ye sons of Jacob,“ signifies the truths and goods in the natural; ”and hear unto Israel your father,“ signifies a prediction about them by spiritual good; in the supreme sense, the Lord‘s foresight.

AC 6335. And Jacob called his sons.  That this signifies the setting in order of the truths of faith and goods of love in the natural, is evident from the signification of ”calling,“ as being to set in order, for the reason of calling them together was that the truths of faith and goods of charity might be presented in this orderly arrangement; and from the representation of Jacob and his sons, as being the truths of faith and goods of love in the natural. Jacob represents these in general, (n. 3509, 3525, 3546, 3659, 3669, 3677, 3775, 3829, 4234, 4273, 4337, 5506, 5533, 5535, 6001, 6236); and also his sons, or the tribes named from them, the same in particular, (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060). As regards the setting in order of the truths of faith and of the goods of love, which is here signified, and is presented in the internal sense in this chapter, be it known that tile twelve tribes of Israel represented in general all truths and goods in one complex, thus all the truths and goods which proceed from the Lord, and consequently these which are in heaven, and of which heaven consists. And because they are all represented in general, they are also represented severally in particular; for generals contain in them particulars, as wholes contain parts.

[2] The lights in heaven are varied in accordance with the goods and the derivative truths, and the states of intelligence and wisdom, in accordance with the lights and it was from this that the light sparkled and quivered through the Urim and Thummim, and this with variety in accordance with the state of the matter about which the interrogation was made.  This took place because the twelve tribes, by which were signified all truths and goods in general, were marked on that breastplate, that is, on the Urim and Thummim, for there was a single precious stone for each tribe.  The reason why they were precious stones was that they signified spiritual and celestial truths (n. 114, 3720); and the gold in which they were set signified good (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658).  This is the secret that was signified by the Urim and Thummim.

[3] That the twelve tribes had such a signification, is plain from the passages in the Word where they are mentioned; especially from the inheritance of the tribes in the land of Canaan described in Joshua and from their inheritance in the Lord’s kingdom, described in the last chapters of Ezekiel, where we read of the new earth, the new Jerusalem, and the new temple; and in John and (Revelation 7:4-8); also from the order in which they encamped in the wilderness, which was of such a nature that they thereby represented truths and goods in their genuine order.  Hence the prophetic utterance of Balaam:  When Balaam lifted up his eyes, and saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, the spirit of God came upon him.  And he gave forth an enunciation, and said, How good are thy tabernacles O Jacob! thy habitations O Israel! As the valleys are they planted, as gardens beside the river, as sandalwood trees which Jehovah hath planted, as cedars beside the waters” (Num. 24:2-6). See also the things shown about the tribes and their ordering in (n. 2129, 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060, 4603).

AC 6336. And said, Gather ye yourselves together.  That this signifies all in general together, is evident from the signification of “gathering,‘ as being that they should be together, here all the truths of faith and the goods of love which are signified by the twelve sons of Jacob (n. 6335).

AC 6337. And I will tell you what shall befall you in the end of the days.  That this signifies the quality of the state of the church in the order in which they then were, is evident from the signification of ”telling what shall befall,“ as being to communicate and to foretell; and from the signification of the ”end of the days,“ as being the last of the state in which they are together.  For ”days“ are states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850); and the ”end“ is the last; thus the ”end of the days“ is the last of the state, namely, that in which truths and goods in general, when in their order, are together.  The reason why it is the state of the church which is signified, is that the truths and goods which are represented by Jacob and his sons are what constitute the church; therefore by Jacob is represented the church (n. 4286, 4439, 4514, 4520, 4680, 4772, 5536, 5540); and so also by his sons (n. 5403, 5419, 5427, 5458, 5512).  That the quality of the state is meant, is because the representation of the truths and goods of the church is according to the order in which the soils of Jacob or the tribes are mentioned in the Word (n. 3862, 3926, 3939). One quality is signified when Reuben is mentioned first, for when Reuben is mentioned first the quality begins from faith; but when Judah is mentioned first, then the quality begins from love; and it is different still when some other one is mentioned first.  The quality is also varied according to the order in which the rest of the tribes are mentioned after these. Hence come forth innumerable, nay, infinite, variations, and more so when the truths and goods in general which are signified by the twelve tribes also take on specific variations, each truth and good innumerable ones, which causes each of them to receive in general another face; and still more so when these specific truths and goods take on innumerable singular variations; and so on. That infinite variations thus arise may be illustrated by many things in nature. Hence then it is that the twelve tribes have a different signification when mentioned in one order in the Word, from what they have when mentioned in another; thus they have a different signification in this chapter from what they have elsewhere.

AC 6338. Assemble yourselves.  That this signifies that they should set themselves in order, is evident from the signification of ”assembling,“ as being to be set in order, for in the spiritual sense ”to be assembled“ has no other meaning, because truths and goods cannot be assembled unless they are also set in order.  For the universal influx which proceeds from the Lord effects this, because it contains within it all the singulars down to the veriest ones; and it is all these taken together which are the universal influx that reduces into order all things in the heavens.  When the universal influx is doing this, it appears as if the very goods and truths set themselves in order, and as if they flow into order of their own accord. This is the case with the universal heaven, which is in order, and is continually kept in order by the universal influx from the Lord.  It is also the case with the societies in heaven in general, and likewise with the societies in particular; for as soon as angels or spirits assemble, they are forthwith disposed into order as of themselves, and thus constitute a heavenly society, which is an image of heaven.  This would never take place unless the universal influx which proceeds from the Lord contained within it the veriest singulars of all, and unless all these were in the most perfect order.  If there were any universal influx from God without singulars, as many suppose, and a man, spirit, or angel were to direct himself in singulars, instead of order there would be confusion of all things; neither would there be a heaven, a hell, the human race, or even nature. This may be illustrated by many things with man, as that unless his thoughts were ordered universally and at the same time singularly by the affections of love, it would be impossible for them to flow rationally and analytically. So likewise with the actions: unless the soul in universal and in singular flowed into the viscera of the body, nothing could take place in the body with order and regularity; but when the soul flows in singularly and thus universally, then all things are set in order as of themselves.  These things have been said to the intent that it may be known what is meant by truths and goods setting themselves in order.

AC 6339. And hear, ye sons of Jacob.  That this signifies the truths and goods in the natural, is evident from the representation of the sons of Jacob, as being the truths and goods of the church in the natural (n. 6335).

AC 6340. And hear unto Israel your father.  That this signifies a prediction about them by spiritual good, in the supreme sense the Lord’s foresight, is evident from the signification of ”hearing,“ namely, what shall happen in the end of the days, as being prediction; and from the representation of Israel, as being spiritual good (n. 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833); and because prediction is signified in the internal sense by ”hearing what shall befall in the end of the days,“ the foresight of the Lord is signified in the supreme sense, for all prediction is from the Lord‘s foresight. Its being said that the ”sons of Jacob should hear to Israel,“ signifies that they who are of the church should hear the Lord, that is, should hear Him in the Word, and what He there teaches with respect to the truths of faith and the goods of love, and what He predicts with respect to those who are in such truth and good as are signified by one or another son of Jacob; as what He teaches and predicts about those in faith separate from charity, here signified by ”Reuben,“ ”Simeon,“ and ”Levi;“ or about those in celestial good, signified by ”Judah;“ also about those in spiritual good, signified by ”Joseph;“ thus also about those who are in such things as are signified by the rest of the sons.

AC 6341. Verses 3, 4.  Reuben, my firstborn, thou art my strength, and the beginning of my forces, excellent in eminence, and excellent in power (valore).  Light as water, thou shalt not excel, because thou wentest up on thy fathers bed, then profanedst thou it; he went up on my couch.  ”Reuben, my firstborn,“ signifies faith which is apparently in the prior place; ”thou art my strength,“ signifies power in good by means of faith; ”and the beginning of my forces,“ signifies that through it is the first power in truth; ”excellent in eminence, and excellent in power,“ signifies the glory and sovereignty thence derived; ”light as water,“ signifies that faith alone has not such things; ”thou shalt not excel,“ signifies that it has no glory or sovereignty; ”because thou wentest up on thy father’s bed,“ signifies because when separated from the good of charity it has a foul conjunction ”then profanedst thou it,“ signifies that if conjoined with evil it is profane; ”he went up on my couch,“ signifies because it has contaminated spiritual good in the natural.

AC 6342. Reuben, my firstborn.  That this signifies faith which is apparently in the prior place, is evident from the representation of Reuben, as being faith in the understanding (n. 3861, 3866), and confession of the faith of the church in general (n. 4731, 4734, 4761); and from the signification of ”firstborn,“ as being to be in the prior place (n. 3325); but that faith is in the prior place only apparently, may be seen above, (n. 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930, 4977, 6256, 6269, 6272, 6273).

AC 6343. Thou art my strength.  That this signifies power in good by means of faith, is evident from the representation of Reuben, who here is ”thou,“ as being faith in the understanding (n. 6342); and from the signification of ”strength,“ as being the power that is in good.  As regards power, namely, the power of thinking and willing, of perceiving, of doing what is good, of believing, and of dissipating falsities and evils, it is all from good through truth; good is the principal, and truth is only the instrumental (n. 3563, 4931, 5623).  That there is signified the power that is in good, is because ”strength“ signifies this power, whereas ”forces“ signify the power of truth; hence it is that by ”the beginning of my forces,“ as presently follows, is signified the first power in truth; for the word by which ”forces“ are expressed in the original, is in the Word predicated of truth; but the word by which ”strength“ is expressed, is predicated of good.

[2] That the Word is holy, and in its interiors most holy, is very evident from the fact that in every detail of the Word there is the heavenly marriage, that is, the marriage of good and truth, thus heaven; and that in every detail of the inmost sense there is the marriage of the Lord‘s Divine Human with His kingdom and church; nay, in the supreme sense there is the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human in the Lord. These most holy things are in every detail of the Word - a manifest proof that the Word has descended from the Divine.  That this is so may be seen from the fact that where mention is made of good, mention is made of truth also; and where the internal is spoken of, the external also is spoken of. There are also words which constantly signify good, and words which constantly signify truth, and words which signify both good and truth; and if they do not signify them, still they are predicated of them, or involve them.  From the predication and signification of these words it is plain that, as before said, in every detail there is the marriage of good and truth, that is, the heavenly marriage, and in the inmost and supreme sense the Divine marriage which is in the Lord, thus the Lord Himself.

[3] This appears everywhere, but not evidently except in passages where there are repetitions of the same thing, with only a change of words, as in this chapter, where it is said of Reuben, ”Thou art my strength, and the beginning of my forces;“ also, ”excellent in eminence, and excellent in power.“ Here ”strength“ relates to good, and ”forces“ to truth; and ”excellent in eminence“ to truth, and ”excellent in power“ to good.  So in the following verse, of Reuben: ”Thou wentest up on thy father’s bed; then thou profanedst it; he went up on my couch.“ So in what follows with respect to Simeon and Levi: ”Cursed be their anger, for it was vehement, and their wrath, for it was hard; I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel“ (verse 7); where ”anger“ signifies a turning away from good, and ”wrath“ a turning away from truth; and Jacob” is the external of the church, and “Israel” is its internal. Also with respect to Judah “Thy brethren shall celebrate thee; thy father‘s sons shall bow down to thee” (verse 8).  Again: “He binds his young ass unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; he washes his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes” (verse 11). With respect to Zebulun: “He shall dwell at the haven of the seas, and he shall be at the haven of ships” (verse 13).  With respect to Dan: “He shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path” (verse 17).

[4] Like things frequently occur in the Psalms and in the prophets, as in Isaiah: “Babel shall not be inhabited to eternity, neither shall it be inhabited even to generation and generation.  Her time is near, and it shall come, and her days shall not be prolonged” (Isa 13:20, 22). Again:

“Seek ye from above in the book of Jehovah, and read ye; no one of these shall be missing, the one shall not long for the other; for with the mouth He hath commanded, and His spirit it hath gathered them.  And the Same hath cast the lot for them, and the hand hath distributed to them by rule. They shall possess it even eternally, to generation and generation shall they dwell therein” (Isa. 34:16, 17);

and so in a thousand other passages.  He who does not know that the expressions in the Word are significative of spiritual and celestial things, and that some are said of good, and some of truth, cannot but believe that such expressions are mere repetitions, said merely to fill up, and therefore in themselves useless; and from this it is that they who think wrongly about the Word, regard such expressions as ground for contempt; when yet the veriest Divine things are stored therein, namely, the heavenly marriage, which is heaven itself; and the Divine marriage, which is the Lord Himself.  This sense is the “glory” in which the Lord is, and the literal sense is the “cloud” in which is this glory (Matt. 24:30; Luke 21:27) and (n. 2135a, 5922).

AC 6344. And the beginning of my forces.  That this signifies that through it is the first power in truth, is evident from the signification of the “beginning of forces,” as being the first power; and as “forces” are predicated of truth, it is the first power in truth that is signified, in like manner as in Isaiah:--

Jehovah giveth strength to the wearied one, and to him that hath no forces He multiplieth power (Isa. 40:29);

where “strength” is predicated of good, and “forces” of truth, and “power” of both.  How it is to be understood that through faith there is power in good, and the first power in truth, which is signified by “Reuben, my firstborn, thou art my strength, and the beginning of my forces,” shall be briefly told. All the power in the spiritual world is from good through truth.  Without good, truth has no power whatever, for truth is like a body, and good is like the soul of this body, and in order that the soul may do anything, it must be by means of the body.  Hence it is plain that truth without good has no power whatever, just as the body without the soul has no power; for the body is then a carcass, and so also is truth without good.

[2] then the faith of truth through good is first born, the power appears to be in truth.  This power is what is called the “first power in truth through faith,” and is signified by the “beginning of forces,” as also elsewhere in the Word where “birthright” is treated of; as in David:--

He smote all the firstborn in Egypt, the beginning of forces in the tents of Ham (Ps. 78:51).

And in another place:--

He smote all the firstborn in their land, the beginning of all their forces (Ps. 105:36).

Also in Deuteronomy:--

He shall acknowledge the firstborn son of the hated one, to give him two parts of all that shall be found for him; in that he is the beginning of his forces, the right of the birthright is his (Deut. 21:17).

[3] As by the “firstborn” is signified in the genuine sense the good that is of charity, but in the sense according to the appearance the truth that is of faith (n. 3325, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930), and as these two are the foundations of the church, therefore by the ancients the firstborn was called the “strength of the father, and the beginning of his forces.” That such was the signification is plainly evident from the fact that every firstborn belonged to Jehovah or the Lord, and that in the stead of all the firstborn the tribe of Levi was accepted and the priesthood given to it.

[4] Scarcely anyone in this world can know what is the nature of the power that is in truth from good; but it is known to those who are in the other life; thus by revelation thence.  They who are in truth from good, that is, in faith from charity, are in power through truth from good. In this power are all the angels, and from this the angels are called in the Word “powers;” for they are in the power of restraining evil spirits, one angel being able to restrain a thousand all at once.  They exercise their power chiefly when with man, in defending him at times against many hells, and this in a thousand and a thousand ways.

[5] They have this power by means of the truth that is of faith from the good that is of charity; but as they have their faith from the Lord, it is the Lord alone who is the power in them.  This power which is through faith from the Lord is meant by the Lord‘s words to Peter:--

Upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound in the heavens, and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth shall be loosed in the heavens (Matt. 16:18, 19)

this was said to Peter, because by him was represented faith (n. 2760, 3750, 4738, 6000, 6073); and by “Peter,” wherever in the Word he is called “Peter,” as here, is signified in the internal sense, faith, and in the supreme sense the Lord as to faith.

AC 6345. Excellent in eminence, and excellent in power (valore). That this signifies that glory and sovereignty are thence derived, is evident from the signification of “excelling in eminence,” is being glory, for he who is in eminence is in glory; and from the signification of “excelling in power,” as being sovereignty, for he who is in power is in sovereignty.  “Glory” in this passage has reference to the truth that is of faith (n. 5922), and “sovereignty” to the good that is of charity therefore it is said that hence  is glory and sovereignty, namely, from the truth of faith and the good of charity.

AC 6346. Light as water.  That this signifies that faith alone has not such things, namely, glory and sovereignty, is evident from the signification of “being light as water,” as being to be of no weight or power.  That faith alone is meant, that is, faith separated from charity, is plain from what follows about Reuben and Simeon and Levi; here also under these names faith separated or alone is treated of.

AC 6347. Thou shalt not excel.  That this signifies that it has no glory or sovereignty, is evident from the signification of “not excelling,” namely, in eminence and power, in that such faith has neither glory nor sovereignty.

AC 6348. Because thou wentest up on thy father’s bed.  That this signifies, because when separated from the good of charity it has a foul conjunction, is evident from the signification of “going up on a father‘s bed,” as being to have a foul conjunction, namely, that faith separated from the good of charity has this.  For if faith in doctrine or in the understanding, here represented by Reuben, is not initiated into good and conjoined therewith, it is either dissipated and made null, or is initiated into and conjoined with what is evil and false, which is the foul conjunction that is signified, for it then becomes profane. That this is so may be seen from the fact that faith can have a dwelling-place nowhere else than in good, and if it has no dwelling-place there, it must either become null, or be conjoined with evil. This is very evident from those in the other life who have been in faith alone and in no charity, in that their faith is there dissipated; but if it has been conjoined with evil, their lot is with the profane.

[2] In the Word, “adulteries” in the internal sense signify adulterations of good, and “whoredoms” signify falsifications of truth (n. 2466, 3399); but the foul conjunctions called the forbidden degrees (Lev. 18:6-24), signify various kinds of profanation.  That here also profanation is signified, is plain, for it is said “thou wentest up on thy father’s bed, then profanedst thou it; he went upon my couch.” That this means the profanation of good by faith separated, may be seen above (n. 4601), where this wicked deed of Reuben is treated of.

[3] With faith alone, or separated from charity, the case is this. If it is conjoined with evil (which takes place when anyone first believes the truth that is of faith, and especially when he first lives according to it, and afterward denies it and lives contrary to it), it then becomes profane; for thus the truth that is of faith and the good that is of charity are first inrooted in the interiors by means of doctrine and life, and afterward are called forth thence and conjoined with evil.  In the other life the worst lot of all awaits the man with whom this takes place; for with such a man good cannot be separated from evil, and yet in the other life they are kept separate; neither has such a man any remains of good stored up in his interiors, because they have utterly perished in evil.  The hell of such is to the left in front at a great distance, and those who are there appear to the angelic sight like skeletons, with scarcely any life.  In order therefore to prevent the profanation of good and truth, a man who is such that he does not suffer himself to be regenerated (which is foreseen by the Lord) is withheld from faith and charity, and is permitted to be in evil and from this in falsity, for then he cannot profane.  See what has been said and shown before about profanation, (n. 301-303, 571, 582, 593, 1001, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 2426, 3398, 3399, 3402, 3489, 3898, 4289, 4601).

AC 6349. Then profanedst thou it.  That this signifies that if conjoined with evil faith is profane, is evident from what has been said just above (n. 6348).

AC 6350. He went no on my couch.  That this signifies that it contaminated spiritual good in the natural, is evident from the signification of “going up on a couch,” as being to contaminate by profaning (n. 6348); and from the representation of Israel, on whose couch he went up, as being spiritual good in the natural (n. 6340).

AC 6351. Verses 5-7.  Simeon and Levi are brethren; instruments of violence are their swords.  Into their secret let not my soul come; in their assembly let not my glory be united; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their good pleasure they unstrung an ox.  Cursed be their anger for it was vehement, and their wrath for it was hard.  I will divide them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel.  “Simeon and Levi are brethren,” signifies faith in the will, and charity, here the reverse, because they signify faith separate from charity; “instruments of violence are their swords,” signifies that doctrinal things serve to destroy the works of charity, thus charity itself; “into their secret let not my soul come,” signifies that spiritual good does not desire to know the evils which are of their will; “in their assembly let not my glory be united,” signifies that neither does the truth of spiritual good desire to know the falsities of their thought thence derived; “for in their anger they slew a man,” signifies that they utterly averted themselves, and in their turning away extinguished faith; “and in their good pleasure they unstrung an ox,” signifies that from a depraved will they utterly weakened the external good of charity; “cursed be their anger for it was vehement,” signifies a grievous turning away from good, and the consequent condemnation; “and their wrath, for it was hard,” signifies a turning away from the derivative truth, that it was confirmed; “I will divide them in Jacob,” signifies that they must be banished from the natural man; “and scatter them in Israel,” signifies from the spiritual man also.

AC 6352. Simeon and Levi are brethren.  That this signifies faith in the will, and charity, here the reverse, because they signify faith separated from charity, is evident from the representation of Simeon, as being faith in the will (n. 3869-3872, 4497, 4502, 4503, 5482, 5626, 5630); and from the representation of Levi, as being charity (n. 3875, 3877), but here the reverse, because they signify faith separate from charity. For when this faith is represented by Reuben, as is plain from the explication of (verse 4), it follows that no faith in the will, and thus no charity, are what are represented by Simeon and Levi, for these things follow in a series from their beginning. Therefore by Simeon is represented falsity in the will, and by Levi evil in act, for these are opposite to faith in the will and to charity.  That these are signified is plain from Simeon and Levi being cursed.

AC 6353. Instruments of violence are their swords.  That this signifies that doctrinal things serve to destroy the works of charity, thus charity itself, is evident from the signification of “instruments of violence,” as being what serves to destroy charity (that “instruments” denote things that are of service is evident, and that “violence” denotes the destruction of charity, will be seen presently); and from the signification of “swords,” as being doctrinal things. For “swords (gladii)” denote the truths of faith, by means of which combat is waged against falsities and evils (n. 2799), thus “swords (machaerae)” are doctrinal things, here the doctrinal things by means of which combat is waged against truth and good, and by means of which these are extinguished, because this is done by those who are in faith alone, or in faith separate from charity, with whom the reverse prevails.

[2] The doctrinal things of those who are in faith alone, whereby they destroy the works of charity, are chiefly those which teach that man is saved by faith alone without the works of charity, and that these are not necessary, and that man is saved by faith alone even in the last hour, no matter how he had lived through the whole course of his life, thus those who have practiced nothing but cruelties, those who have practiced nothing but adulteries, those who have practiced nothing but profane things; and hence that salvation is merely admission into heaven, none being admitted but they who have received this grace at the end of their life; and thus that some have been elected out of mercy, and some damned out of unmercifulness; when yet heaven is denied by the Lord to no one, but the life and the communication of life (which are there perceived as an odor is perceived by those exposed to it on earth) render it impossible for the wicked to dwell there, because they are tormented by the evil of their life there more than in the deepest hell.

[3] That a “sword” signifies falsity combating and slaying, is evident in John:--

There went forth another horse that was red, and to him that sat thereon it was given to take peace from the earth, that they should kill one another, whence there was given unto him a great sword (Rev. 6:4).

Again:--

If anyone shall kill with the sword, with the sword must he be killed (Rev. 13:10, 14).

[4] That “violence” is violence inflicted on charity, is clear from many passages in the Word, as in Isaiah:--

The violent one shall cease, and the scorner shall be consumed, all who ripen iniquity shall be cut off, who make a man sin in a word, and ensnare him who reproveth in the gate, and turn aside the just into emptiness (Isa. 29:20, 21);

in this passage the “violent one” is expressed by another word in the original, but of similar signification; that the “violent one” is one who inflicts violence on charity, is signified by “making a man sin in a word,” and “turning aside the just.”

[5] In the same:--

Their works are works of iniquity, and the deed of violence is in their hands. Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood (Isa. 59:6, 7);

where “violence” is violence inflicted on charity, which is also signified by “shedding blood” (n. 374, 1005).  Again:--

Violence shall no more be in thy land, wasting and a breach in thy borders (Isa. 60:18);

where “violence” denotes the destruction of charity, for hence comes “wasting and breach in the land,” that is, in the church.

[6] In Jeremiah:--

I proclaim violence and vastation; because the word of Jehovah is made a reproach unto me, and a shame all the day (Jer. 20:8);

where “violence” also denotes violence in spiritual things, thus the destruction of charity and also of faith.  In Ezekiel:--

The land is full of judgment of bloods, and the city is full of violence (Ezek. 7:23);

where “judgment of bloods” denotes the destruction of faith; and “violence,” the destruction of charity.

[7] Again:--

If he beget a son that is violent, a shedder of blood, that doeth anyone of these things: if he hath eaten upon the mountains, and defiled his companion‘s wife, hath oppressed the poor and needy, hath seized spoil, hath not restored the pledge, and hath lifted up his eyes to idols, hath committed abomination, hath given upon interest, and hath received usury; shall he live?  he shall not live, dying he shall die (Ezek. 18:10-13);

here a “son that is violent and a shedder of blood” is described, and all the works of charity which it destroys are recounted; thus a “son that is violent and a shedder of blood” is a destroyer of charity and faith.

[8] In David:--

Deliver me O Jehovah from the evil man, preserve me from the man of violences, who think evils in their heart, the whole day they gather themselves together for war; they sharpen their tongue like a serpent, the poison of the asp is under their lips.  Keep me O Jehovah from the hands of the wicked; preserve me from the man of violences. let not the man of tongue subsist in the earth; let evil hunt the man of violence to overthrow him (Ps. 140:1-4, 11);

a “man of violences” denotes those who destroy the truths of faith and the goods of charity; their fighting against these truths and goods is signified by their “gathering themselves together the whole day for war, sharpening the tongue as a serpent, the poison of the asp under their lips, and evil hunting him to overthrow him.” And so in other passages, as (Ezek. 12:19; Joel 3:19; Mal. 2:16, 17; Zeph. 3:4; Ps.  18:48; 55:9-11; 58:3-6; Deut. 19:16).

AC 6354. Into their secret let not my soul come.  That this signifies that spiritual good does not desire to know the evils that are of their will, is evident from the representation of Israel, who says this of himself, as being spiritual good (n. 6340); and from the signification of “not coming into a secret,” as being not to desire to know, namely, the evils of the will that are signified by “Simeon and Levi” (n. 6352) it is said “my soul” because by “soul” is here signified the life of good belonging to spiritual good; the life of its truth is signified by “glory,” of which in what follows.

AC 6355. In their assembly let not my glory be united.  That this signifies that neither does the truth of spiritual good desire to know the falsities of their thought thence derived, is evident from the representation of Israel, as being spiritual good (n. 6340); and from the signification of “such being united in their assembly,” as being not to desire to be conjoined with the falsities of their thought, thus also not to desire to know them (falsities of thought being signified by “assembly,” which like “multitude,” is predicated of truths, and in the opposite sense of falsities); and from the signification of “glory,” which is predicated of truth (n. 4809, 5922), for truth is glory to those who are in spiritual good.

AC 6356. For in their anger they slew a man.  That this signifies that they utterly averted themselves, and in their turning away extinguished faith, is evident from the signification of “anger,” as being a receding from charity, and a turning away (n. 357, 5034, 5798); from the signification of “” as being to extinguish; and from the signification of “man (vir),” as being the truth of faith (n. 3134, 3309, 3459, 4823).

AC 6357. And in their good pleasure they unstrung an ox.  That this signifies that from a depraved will they utterly weakened the external good of charity, is evident from the signification of “good pleasure,” as being the will, here a depraved will; from the signification of “unstringing,” as being to weaken; and from the signification of an “ox,” as being the natural or external good of charity (n. 2180, 2566, 2781). The reason why an “ox” is here spoken of, and just before a “man,” is that by a “man” is signified the truth of faith, and by an “ox” the good of charity; and in order that when good is treated of, truth may also be treated of, because of the heavenly marriage in everything of the Word (n. 6343).

AC 6358. Cursed be their anger for it was vehement.  That this signifies a grievous turning away from good and the consequent condemnation, is evident from the signification of “being cursed,” as being condemnation, for he who has been cursed has been condemned; and from the signification of “anger,” as being a turning away from good (n. 357, 5034, 5798, 6356); thus “vehement anger” denotes a grievous turning away.

AC 6359. And their wrath for it was hard.  That this signifies a turning away from the derivative truth, that it was confirmed, is evident from the signification of “wrath,” as being a turning away from truth. “Wrath” is predicated of truth, and “anger” of good, (n. 3614); and from the signification of “hard,” as being what is confirmed, for the falsity which has been confirmed even to persuasion, is hard. That it is hard has been given to know from experience, for among spirits and among the angels truth from good appears and is presented to view as soft, but falsity from evil as hard, and this in proportion as the falsity from evil is more confirmed.  When persuasion has been brought about by means of confirmation from many things, this hardness appears there like the hardness of bone. Such hardness is also like the hardness in this world, in that it reflects the rays of light.  Thus when the light of heaven from the Lord falls upon the hardness produced by falsity from evil, it is reflected; but on the other hand, when the light of heaven from the Lord falls upon the softness produced by truth from good, it is received.

AC 6360. I will divide them in Jacob.  That this signifies that they must be banished from the natural man, is evident from the signification of “dividing,” as being separation and removal from truth and good (n. 4424), thus banishment; and from the representation of Jacob, as being the natural or external man (n. 3305, 3576, 4286, 4292, 4570, 6236).

AC 6361. And scatter them in Israel.  That this signifies from the spiritual man also, is evident from the signification of “scattering,” as being banishment; but “scattering” is distinguished from “dividing” in that the latter is predicated of the external man and of truth, but “scattering” of the internal man and of good. Jacob represents the natural or external man, and Israel the spiritual or internal, (n. 4286, 4292, 4570). That these things which were said by Israel of Simeon and Levi, and also those which were said of Reuben, do not signify what would befall their descendants in the end of the days, as is said in the first verse, may be seen from the fact that the descendants of Simeon and Levi were not cursed, and divided in Jacob and scattered in Israel; for the tribe of Simeon was among the rest of the tribes as one of them; and the tribe of Levi was made the priesthood, thus was rather blessed than cursed; and so with the tribe of Reuben, which also was not more vile than the other tribes.  Hence it is very manifest that what is said in this chapter of the sons of Jacob, as to what should befall them in the end of the days, is not what should befall themselves, but what should befall those who are meant by them in the internal sense; and here those who are in faith separated from charity, for these are here meant in the internal sense by “Reuben,” “Simeon,” and “Levi.” From this it is very evident that there is an internal sense of the Word which does not appear in the letter, nor to anyone unless he knows the correspondences of natural things with spiritual, and not at all to him who does not know what the spiritual and what the celestial are.

AC 6362. Verses 8-12. Thou Judah, thy brethren shall celebrate thee, thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies, thy father’s sons shall bow down to thee. Judah is a lion‘s whelp; from the prey my son thou art gone up; he bowed, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?  The scepter shall not be removed from Judah, and a lawgiver from between his feet, even until Shiloh come; and to him is the obedience of the peoples. He binds his young ass unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine; he washes his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes; his eyes are red with wine, and his teeth are white with milk.  “Thou Judah,” signifies the celestial church, in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine celestial; “thy brethren shall celebrate thee,” signifies that this church is eminent above the rest; “thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies,” signifies that the infernal and diabolical crew will flee at his presence; “thy father‘s sons shall bow down to thee,” signifies that truths will submit themselves of their own accord; “Judah is a lion’s whelp,” signifies innocence with innate forces; “from the prey my son thou art gone up,” signifies that from the Lord through the celestial there is deliverance of many from hell; “he bowed, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion,” signifies the good of love and the derivative truth in their power; “who shall rouse him up?” signifies that he is safe among all in the hells; “the scepter shall not be removed from Judah,” signifies that sovereignty shall not depart from celestial good; “and a lawgiver from between his feet,” signifies truths from this good in lower things; “until Shiloh come,” signifies the coming of the Lord, and the tranquillity of peace then; “and to him is the obedience of the peoples,” signifies that from His Divine Human shall proceed truths; “he binds his young ass unto the vine,” signifies truth in the natural for the external church; “and his ass‘s colt unto the choice vine,” signifies truth from the rational for the internal church; “he washes his clothing in wine,” signifies that His natural is Divine truth from His Divine good; “and his covering in the blood of grapes,” signifies that His intellectual is Divine good from His Divine love; “his eyes are red with wine,” signifies that the intellectual, or internal Human, is nothing but good; “and his teeth are white with milk,” signifies that the Divine natural is nothing but the good of truth.

AC 6363. Thou Judah.  That this signifies the celestial church, in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine celestial, is evident from the representation of Judah, as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine of love, or as to the Divine celestial; but in the relative sense the Lord’s celestial kingdom, thus the celestial church (n. 3881). What the celestial kingdom, the celestial church, and the celestial are, see (n. 640, 641, 765, 895, 2048, 2088, 2669, 2708, 2715, 2718, 2896, 3235, 3246, 3374, 3886, 3887, 4448, 4493, 5113, 5922, 6295).

AC 6364. Thy brethren shall celebrate thee.  That this signifies that this church is eminent above the rest, is evident from the signification of “being celebrated,” as being to be eminent; from the representation of Judah, here meant by “thee,” as being the celestial church (n. 6363); and from the signification of “brethren,” as being the truths of this church, thus also the churches which are in these truths, and which are represented by the brethren of Judah, for truths and goods constitute the church. The truths of the celestial church are signified by “thy brethren,” that is, the brethren of Judah but the truths of the spiritual church by the “sons of his father” (n. 6366).

AC 6365. Thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies.  That this signifies that the infernal and diabolical crew will flee at his presence, is evident from the signification of “enemies,” as being the infernal and diabolical crew, for these are enemies in the spiritual sense; and from the signification of the “hand in their neck,” as being to pursue those who are in flight; for when an enemy flees, the hand of the conqueror is in his neck.  It is said that they shall flee at his presence, because when anyone of the infernal crew approaches any angel of the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, he flees at his presence, being unable to endure it, because he cannot endure the sphere of celestial love, which is that of love to the Lord; this sphere being to him like burning and tormenting fire. Moreover a celestial angel never fights, still less is his hand in the neck of his enemies, nor indeed does he regard anyone as an enemy in so far as he is concerned; yet it is so expressed on account of the conditions in this world; but the real meaning is that the infernals, regarding themselves as his enemies, flee from his presence.

AC 6366. Thy father’s sons shall bow down to thee.  That this signifies that truths will submit themselves of their own accord, is evident from the signification of “bowing down,” as being to submit themselves and from the signification of the “father‘s sons,” as being the truths that are from spiritual good, for the “sons of Israel” denote spiritual truths (n. 5414, 5879, 5951), and “Israel” is spiritual good (n. 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833).  That these truths will submit themselves of their own accord, is because when celestial love, which is represented by Judah, flows into the spiritual truths which are represented by the sons of Israel, it disposes them into order, and thus submits them to the Lord; for the celestial has this efficacy through influx into spiritual things, that is, good through influx into truth.  For this reason also the Lord’s celestial kingdom is the inmost or third heaven, thus is nearest the Lord; and His spiritual kingdom is the middle or second heaven, thus is further away from the Lord. It is from this order that the Lord flows into the spiritual kingdom, both mediately through the celestial kingdom, and also immediately.  The influx is of such a nature that the spiritual kingdom is kept in order by means of the celestial kingdom, and in this way is submitted to the Lord.  The influx from the celestial kingdom is effected by means of love toward the neighbor, for this is the external of the celestial kingdom and the internal of the spiritual kingdom; hence the conjunction of both (n. 5922).

AC 6367. Judah is a lion‘s whelp.  That this signifies innocence with innate forces, is evident from the signification of a “lion,” as being the good of love and the truth thence derived in their power thus a “lion’s whelp” denotes innocence with forces.  The reason why it is said “with innate forces” is that “Judah” here is the celestial of love, and the celestial of love is in the will part (n. 895, 927, 4493, 5113), thus it has innate forces; for man is born into the things of the will part; hence they of the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial, were born into the good of love in so far as they had good in their will.  From this then it is that the forces are said to be “innate.” The reason why a “lion‘s whelp” denotes innocence, is that a “lion” denotes the good of celestial love, and a “whelp” is as it were its infant, thus is innocence.

[2] That a “lion” denotes the good of celestial love and the derivative truth, in its power, and also that in the opposite sense it denotes the evil of the love of self in its power, is evident from passages in the Word where a “lion” is mentioned.  That it denotes the good of celestial love is evident in John:--

Behold the lion that is of the tribe of Judah, the root of David, hath conquered to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof (Rev. 5:5);

here the Lord is called a “lion” from the omnipotence belonging to His Divine love and the Divine truth thence derived. In other passages in the Word, Jehovah or the Lord is compared to a “lion,” as in Hosea:--

They shall go after Jehovah; He shall roar like a lion; for Be shall roar, and the sons shall come with honor from the sea (Hosea 11:10).

[3] In Isaiah:--

Thus said Jehovah unto me, Like as when the lion roareth, and the young lion over his prey, if a fulness of shepherds come running upon him, he is not dismayed at their voice, and is not afflicted by their tumult; so shall Jehovah Zebaoth come down to fight upon Mount Zion and upon the hill thereof (Isa. 31:4);

here the omnipotence of Divine good is compared to a “lion,” and the omnipotence of the Divine truth thence derived is compared to a “young lion,” for it is said that “Jehovah Zebaoth shall come down to fight upon Mount Zion and upon the hill thereof;” for “Mount Zion” signifies the good of Divine love, and the “hill thereof,” the Divine truth thence derived (n. 795, 796, 1430, 4210).

[4] For the same reason the four animals in Ezekiel and in John, by which are meant cherubs, had the faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle. In Ezekiel:--

The likeness of the faces of the four animals: the face of a man and the face of a lion on the right side had they four; and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; and they four had the face of an eagle (Ezek. 1:10; 10:14).

And in John:--

Before the throne were four animals full of eyes before and behind. And the first animal was like a lion, and the second animal like a calf the third animal had a face as a man, the fourth animal was like a flying eagle (Rev. 4:6, 7).

That these animals were cherubs is said in Ezekiel 10, and is also plain from the description of them in John, namely, that they had eyes before and behind; for by “cherubs” are signified the Lord’s foresight and providence (n. 308): that they had the face of a lion was from the omnipotence of Divine truth from Divine good, which is of providence. It was similar with the cherubs about the new temple, in (Ezekiel 41:19).

[5] That the celestial, who are in power from good and the derivative truth, which are from the Lord, are meant by “lions,” is evident in David:--

There is no want to them that fear Jehovah. The young lions do lack, and suffer hunger; but they that seek Jehovah shall not want any good (Ps. 34:9, 10).

Again:--

The lions roar after their prey, and to seek their food from God. The sun ariseth, they are gathered together, and lay them down in their habitations (Ps. 104:21, 22).

And in the prophecy of Balaam:--

At that time it shall be said to Jacob and Israel, What hath God wrought! Behold the people shall rise up as an old lion, and as a young lion shall he lift himself up; he shall not rest until he eat the prey (Num. 13:23, 24).

[6] And again:--

When Balaam saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes, he said, He boweth down, he coucheth as a lion, and as an old lion, who shall rouse him up? (Num. 24:2, 9).

It is the celestial that is here described, because it was the celestial order that the tribes represented by their encampment which Balaam saw in spirit when he saw Israel dwelling according to their tribes (n. 6335).  This order is from the Divine good through the Divine truth from the Lord, and in this order is all power, here denoted by the “lion which boweth down and coucheth.”

[7] In Micah:--

The remains of Jacob shall be among the nations, in the midst of many peoples, as a lion among the beasts of the forest, as a young lion among the flocks of sheep; who if he go down, treadeth down and scattereth, and there is none rescuing.  Let thy hand be exalted over thine enemies, and let all thy foes be cut off (Micah 5:8, 9);

where the “lion” and “young lion” denote celestial good and celestial truth, which are the “remains of Jacob.” The meaning is similar in (Isaiah 21:8; Jer. 25:38; Ezek. 32:2; Zech. 11:3). The like was represented by the lions at the ivory throne of Solomon, two at the sides of the throne, and twelve upon the six steps (1 Kings 10:18-20); also by the lions upon the borders of the ten bases of brass (1 Kings 7:29, 36).

[8] That in the opposite sense a “lion” signifies the evil of the love of self in its power, is plain from the following passages:--

No lion shall be there, and no ravenous beast shall go up thereon, It shall not be found there; but they shall go free; thus the redeemed of Jehovah shall return and shall come to Zion with singing (Isa. 35:9, 10).

In Jeremiah:--

Why is Israel become a prey? The young lions rear against him, they utter their voice, they reduce his land to a waste (Jer. 2:14, 15).

Again:--

The lion cometh up from his bramble, and the destroyer of the nations hath journeyed, he went forth from his place to reduce the land into a waste (Jer. 4:7).

Again:--

They have not known the way of Jehovah, the judgment of their God.  Wherefore a lion out of the forest hath smitten them, and a wolf of the plains will lay them waste (Jer. 5:4, 6).

And in Nahum:--

Where is the habitation of the lions, and the pasture of the young lions; where the lion stalked, the old lion, the lion‘s whelp, and none made afraid?  The lion seizeth enough for his whelps, and strangleth for his old lionesses, and filleth his caves with prey, and his habitations with ravin. Behold I am against thee, saith Jehovah Zebaoth, and I will burn her chariot in the smoke, and the sword shall devour thy young lions; and I will cut off thy prey from the earth (Nahum 2:11-13);

speaking of Nineveh.  In the above passages a “lion” denotes the power possessed by the evil of the love of self when it destroys and lays waste; and so in (Jer. 12:8; 49:19; 50:17, 44; 51:38; Ezek. 19:2-11; 33:2; Joel 1:6; Zeph.  3:3; Ps. 57:5; 58:6; 91:13; Rev. 13:2).

AC 6368. From the prey my son thou art gone up.  That this signifies that from the Lord through what is celestial there is deliverance of many from hell, is evident from the signification of “going up from the prey,” as being deliverance from hell; and from the representation of Judah, who is here “my son,” as being the Divine celestial (n. 6363). That “to go up from the prey” denotes deliverance from hell is because man of himself is in hell, for his will and thought from his own is nothing but evil and its falsity, by which he has been so bound to hell that he cannot be torn away without violence This tearing away and deliverance is what is called the “prey;” and because this is done from the Lord’s Divine good, it is said that from the Lord through what is celestial is the deliverance of many from hell.

[2] But be it known that no one can be torn away and delivered from hell unless in the life of the body he has been in spiritual good, that is, in charity through faith; for unless he has been in this good through faith, there is nothing to receive the good which flows in from the Lord; but it flows through, except that which can be fixed somewhere; and therefore these persons cannot be torn away or delivered from hell.  For all the states that a man has acquired in the life of the body are retained in the other life, and are filled; with the good the states of good are retained and filled with good, and by means of these states they are elevated into heaven; and with the evil the states of evil are retained and filled with evil, and by means of these states they sink down into hell.  This is the meaning of the saying that as a man dies, so he remains.  This shows who they are that can be delivered by the Lord from hell by means of the Divine celestial.

AC 6369. He bowed, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion. That this signifies the good of love and the derivative truth in their power, is evident from the signification of “bowing,” as being to put forth his power, for when a lion crouches (as when it sees its prey) it hardens its sinews and gathers strength; from the signification of “couching,” as being to lie in safety and without dread; and from the signification of a “lion” and an “old lion,” as being the good of love and the derivative truth in their power (n. 6367). A “young lion” denotes one who is in power through truth from good, and an “old lion” one who is in power through good.  For they who are in celestial good never fight, but are safe through good; because where they come, the evil flee away, for the evil cannot endure their presence (n. 6365); it is these who are signified by an “old lion.”

AC 6370. Who shall rouse him up?  That this signifies that he is safe among all in the hells, is evident from the signification of “who shall rouse him up,” as being to be safe.  That it denotes among all in the hells is because he is safe among all evils, even in the midst of the hells; for love to the Lord and toward the neighbor has this effect, because they who are in this love are most closely conjoined with the Lord, and are in the Lord, because they are in the Divine which proceeds from Him; hence nothing of evil can reach them. Be it known that there are innumerable hells, distinct according to the genera of evils and the derivative falsities, and according to the species of these, and the details of the species; and that in each hell there is order; and that this order is preserved by the Lord, both immediately, and mediately through the celestial angels; at times also angels are sent thither to bring into order what is disorderly there; and when they are there, they are in safety.  This is what is meant by the safety among all in the hells of him who is in what is celestial.

AC 6371. The scepter shall not be removed from Judah.  That this signifies that sovereignty shall not depart from the celestial kingdom, is evident from the signification of “being removed,” as being to depart; from the signification of “scepter,” as being sovereignty, and indeed the sovereignty of truth from good (n. 4876), for a scepter is a badge of royal power, and by royalty is signified truth (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 6148); and from the representation of Judah, as being the celestial kingdom (n. 6363).  Hence it is plain that by the “scepter not being removed from Judah” is signified that the sovereignty shall not depart from the celestial kingdom.

[2] From the sense of the letter it appears that by what is contained in this verse is meant that the kingdom should not be removed from the Jewish people until the Lord came.  This also is true, yet in this historic truth, as in everything else, there is an internal sense; for that the kingdom should not be removed from the Jewish people, is a worldly matter; but the Spiritual truth of the internal sense appears when by “scepter” is understood sovereignty, and by “Judah” the celestial kingdom.  But that sovereignty should depart from the celestial kingdom when the Lord came, is a secret that no one can know except from revelation.  The case is this. Before the coming of the Lord into the world, there was influx of life with men and with spirits from Jehovah or the Lord through the celestial kingdom, that is, through the angels who were in that kingdom, and hence they then had the sovereignty. But when the Lord came into the world, and thereby made the Human in Himself Divine, He put on just that which was with the angels of the celestial kingdom, thus He put on this sovereignty. For previously the Divine transflux through that heaven had been the Divine Human; it was also the Divine Man which was presented to view when Jehovah so appeared; but this Divine Human ceased when the Lord Himself made the Human in Himself Divine. This shows how the case is with this secret. The angels of that kingdom have indeed great sovereignty now, but only in so far as they are in the Lord‘s Divine Human through love to Him. (n. 1990, 2803, 3061, 4180, 4687, 5110, 6280).

AC 6372. And a lawgiver from between his feet.  That this signifies truths from this good in lower things, is evident from the signification of a “lawgiver,” as being truths; and from the signification of “feet,” as being natural things (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952, 5327, 5328), thus lower things, for natural things are beneath, and celestial things are above.  It is said a “lawgiver from between his feet” in’ order that the spiritual of the celestial may be signified, or the truth which is from good, for at that time the spiritual kingdom was not such as it was after the Lord‘s coming - distinct from the celestial kingdom - but was one with the celestial kingdom, being merely its external; therefore also it is said “from between his feet,” in order that truth which is from good may be signified; for this is signified by this inner side of the feet, from its communication with the loins. Of this truth it is also said that it should be “removed when Shiloh came,” that is, its sovereignty should be removed, just as was the sovereignty of the celestial (n. 6371); for the celestial kingdom at that time exercised its sovereignty by means of this truth; and because this was so, this truth is called a “lawgiver.” This truth is also meant in the internal sense by a “lawgiver” in Isaiah:--

Jehovah is our judge, Jehovah is our lawgiver, Jehovah is our king (Isa. 33:22);

where “judge” denotes that He acts from good; “lawgiver,” that He acts from truth from this good; “king,” that He acts from truth thus they follow in order And in David:--

Gilead is Mine, and Manasseh is Mine, and Ephraim is the strength of My head, Judah is My lawgiver (Ps. 60:7; 108:8);

where “Judah a lawgiver” is celestial good and its celestial truth.  In Moses:--

The fountain, the princes digged it, the nobles of the people digged it out, by the lawgiver, with their staves (Num.  21:18).

And again:--

Gad saw the first fruits for himself, for there was the portion of the hidden lawgiver; whence came the heads of the people; he wrought the righteousness of Jehovah, and His judgments with Israel (Deut. 33:21);

where also “lawgiver” denotes truth from good.

AC 6373. Until Shiloh come.  That this signifies the coming of the Lord, and the tranquility of peace then, is evident from the signification of “Shiloh,” as being the Lord, who is called “Shiloh” from the fact that He pacified and made all things tranquil; for in the original, “Shiloh” is derived from a word which means tranquillity.  The reason why the Lord is here called “Shiloh” is plain from what was said above (n. 6371, 6372) about the celestial kingdom and its sovereignty; for when the Divine was presented to view through that kingdom there was in tranquillity, because the things in heaven, and the things in hell, could not thereby be reduced into order, for the Divine which flowed through that kingdom could not be pure, because heaven is not pure; thus neither was that kingdom so strong that all things could by means of it be kept in order; and therefore also the infernal and diabolical spirits were then raising themselves up from the hells and were ruling over the souls who were arriving from the world.  The result was that none could be saved but the celestial; and at last scarcely they, unless the Lord had taken on the Human and had made this in Himself Divine; whereby the Lord reduced all things into order, first those in heaven, and afterward those in the hells; thus producing the tranquillity of peace.  That the spiritual, that is, they who were of the spiritual church, were saved by the Lord’s coming, may be seen above, (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834); and that the Lord, when in the world, reduced all things into order, (n. 1820, 4286, 4287): that the Divine truth from Jehovah or the Lord flowed in through heaven into the human race, but because this did not suffice when man removed himself from good, the Lord came into the world and made the Human in Himself Divine, in order that from the very Divine Human of the Lord the Divine truth might proceed, and thus might save man, who should receive good through truth, may also be seen above, (n. 4180, 6280).

AC 6374. And to him is the obedience of the peoples. That this signifies that from His Divine Human should proceed truths which could be received, is evident from the signification of “obedience,” as being the reception of truths which proceed from the Lord; and from the signification of “peoples,” as being those who are in truths, thus also truths (n. 1259, 1260, 3581), and hence those who are of the spiritual church (n. 2928).

AC 6375. He binds his young ass unto the vine. That this signifies conjunction through truth in the natural for the external church, is evident from the signification of “binding,” as being to be conjoined; from the signification of a “vine,” as being the spiritual church (n. 1069, 5113), here the external spiritual church, because by a “choice vine,” presently mentioned, is signified the internal church; and from the signification of an “ass,” as being truth in the natural (n. 2781). Hence it is plain that by “he binds to the vine his young ass” is signified conjunction through truth in the natural with the external church.

AC 6376. And his ass‘s colt unto the choice vine. That this signifies (through) truth from the rational for the internal church, is evident from the signification of a “vine,” as being the spiritual church (n. 1069, 5113), thus a “choice vine” is the internal church, for the internal of the church is more excellent than its external; and from the signification of an “ass’s colt,” as being rational truth (n. 2781). The external of the church is distinguished from its internal in that the former is in the natural, thus in the external man; but the latter is in the rational, thus in the internal man. They who are in the external of the church are in truth, but they who are in its internal, are in good; the former are not so much affected with the good of charity as with the truth of faith; but the latter are affected with the good of charity and thence with the truth of faith. The latter are they who are signified by the “choice vine,” but the former by the “vine.”

AC 6377. He washes his clothing in wine. That this signifies that His natural is Divine truth from His Divine good, is evident from the signification of “washing,” as being to purify (n. 3147); from the signification of “wine,” as being the good of love toward the neighbor, and the good of faith, and in the supreme sense Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord; and from the signification of “clothing,” as being what is exterior, which covers what is interior (n. 5248); thus the natural, for this is exterior, and covers the rational which is interior; hence also “clothing” denotes truth, because truth is exterior, and covers good which is interior (n. 2576, 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954).

[2] That “wine” denotes love toward the neighbor and the good of faith, may be seen from what has been shown in respect to the bread and wine in the Holy Supper (n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 4581, 5915), namely, that the “bread” is the good of celestial love, and that the “wine” is the good of spiritual love. This may be seen also from the meat-offering and the drink-offering in the sacrifices, in which the “meat-offering” signified the good of love, and the  “drink-offering” the good of faith, the meat-offering consisting of such things as signified the good of love, and the drink-offering of wine which signified the good of faith; moreover the very sacrifices were called “bread” (n. 2165). That a drink-offering of wine was employed in the sacrifices may be seen in (Exod. 29:40; Lev. 23:12, 13, 18, 19; Num. 15:2-15; 28:6, 7, 18; 29:1-7).

[3] That “wine” signifies love toward the neighbor and the good of faith, is plain also from Isaiah:--

Everyone that thirsteth, come ye to the waters, and he that hath no silver; come ye, buy and eat; yea come, buy wine and milk without silver and without price (Isa. 55:1);

everyone must know that they were not to buy wine and milk, but that which is signified by wine and milk, that is, love toward the neighbor and faith; these are given by the Lord without silver and without price.

[4] And in Hosea:--

The threshing-floor and the winepress shall not feed them, and the new wine shall deceive them. Ephraim shall return into Egypt, and they shall eat what is unclean in Assyria. They shall not pour out wine to Jehovah; and their sacrifices shall not be pleasing unto Him (Hosea 9:2-4);

here also in the internal sense are meant the good of love and the good of faith, that they ceased; the good of love is the “threshing-floor,” from the grain there and the bread that comes from it; and the good of faith is the “winepress,” the “new wine,” and the “libation of wine:” that “Ephraim shall return into Egypt” denotes that the intellectual should consult memory-knowledges with respect to the secrets of faith; “they shall eat what is unclean in Assyria” denotes that which results from the consequent reasoning. “Ephraim” is the intellectual of the church, (n. 5354, 6222, 6238, 6267); also “Egypt” is memory-knowledge, (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 5702); and “Assyria” reasoning, (n. 1186). Moreover the very connection shows that there is more in the words than appears in the letter; for in the internal sense there is coherence, but not in the external; as when it is said that “the threshing-floor and the winepress shall not feed them,” and that “the new wine shall deceive them,” and presently that “Ephraim shall return into Egypt, and they shall eat what is unclean in Assyria;” and moreover without the internal sense what could be meant by “Ephraim returning into Egypt,” and by their “eating what is unclean in Assyria?”

[5] The cessation of mutual love and of the good of faith is also described by a “winepress” and “wine” in Jeremiah:--

Upon thy vintage hath the waster fallen; whence gladness was gathered, and joy from Carmel, and from the land of Moab, for I have caused wine to cease from the winepresses; he will not tread hedad  (Jer. 48:32, 33).

[6] That “wine” signifies the good of mutual love and of faith, is plain also in John:--

I heard a voice out of the midst of the four animals saying, Hurt not the oil and the wine (Rev. 6:6);

where “oil” is the good of celestial love; and “wine,” the good of spiritual love.

[7] The like is meant by “oil and wine” in the Lord‘s parable about the Samaritan, in Luke:--

A certain Samaritan as he journeyed, and seeing him who had been wounded by thieves, was moved with compassion, wherefore coming to him he bound up his wounds, pouring in oil and wine (Luke 10:33, 34);

where “pouring in oil and wine” signifies that he performed the works of love and of charity. “Oil” denotes the good of love, (n. 886, 3728). The like was meant by the ancients pouring oil and wine upon a pillar when they sanctified it (Gen. 35:14); (n. 4581, 4582).

[8] That “wine” denotes the good of love and of faith, is plain from the Lord’s words which He said of wine when He instituted the Holy Supper:--

I say to you that I will not drink henceforth of this product of the vine until that day when I shall drink it new with you in My Father‘s kingdom (Matt. 26:29; Luke 22:17, 18);

everyone can see that He would not drink wine there, but that there is signified the good of love and of faith, which He would give to those who are of His kingdom. The like is signified by “wine” in (Isa. 24:9, 11; Lam. 2:11, 12; Hos. 14:7; Amos 9:13, 14; Zech. 9:15, 17; Luke 5:37-39).

[9] As “wine” signifies the good of love and of faith, therefore in the supreme sense it signifies the Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord, for from this by influx the man who receives it has the good of love and of faith.

[10] As most expressions in the Word have also a contrary sense, so also has “wine,” In which sense “wine” signifies falsity from evil, as in Isaiah:--

Woe unto them that rise up in the morning under the dawn, and follow strong drink; that tarry into the twilight, that wine may inflame them! Woe to the heroes to drink wine, and to men of strength to mingle strong drink (Isa. 5:11, 22).

Again:

These also err through wine, and through strong drink go astray; the priest and the prophet err through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they go astray through strong drink; they err among the seer, they stumble in judgment (Isa. 28:7).

Again:--

The shepherds know not to understand, they all look back to their own way. Come ye, I will take wine, and we will be drunken with strong drink; and let there be, on the morrow, as on this day, a great abundance (Isa. 56:11, 12).

And further in (Jer. 13:12; Hos. 4:11; 7:5; Amos 2:8; Micah 2:11; Ps. 75:8; Deut. 32:33). Falsity from evil is also signified by the “cup of the wine of anger” (Jer. 25:15, 16; Rev. 14:8, 10; 16:19); and by the “winepress of the wine of the fury of the anger of God” (Rev. 19:15); and by the “wine of whoredom” (Rev. 17:2; 18:3).

AC 6378. And his covering in the blood of grapes.  That this signifies that His intellectual is Divine good from His Divine love, is evident from the signification of the “blood of grapes,” as being the good of love, and in the supreme sense the Lord’s Divine good from His Divine love; and from the signification of a “covering,” as being the intellectual, for the intellectual is a recipient, and that which receives, being a vessel, is like a covering. That by a “covering” is signified the intellectual, and by “clothing” the natural (n. 6377), is because there the subject treated of is what is external, but here what is internal; for in the Word, on account of the heavenly marriage, where it treats of what is external it treats also of what is internal; and where it treats of truth it treats also of good (n. 6343). This sometimes appears like a repetition of the same thing, as here: “He washes his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes,” where “wine” and the “blood of grapes” appear to be the same, and also “clothing” and “covering;” but they are not the same, because what is external and what is internal are thus expressed.

[2] That the “blood of grapes” denotes the Divine good from the Divine love of the Lord, is plain from the signification of “blood,” as being the Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord (n. 4735); and by “grapes” in the supreme sense is signified the Lord‘s Divine good which those have who are in His spiritual kingdom; and hence by “grapes” in the relative sense is signified the good of charity (n. 5117). By the “blood of the grape” the like is also signified in the song of Moses:--

Butter of the herd and milk of the flock, with fat of lambs and of rams the sons of Bashan, and of he-goats, with the fat of kidneys of wheat; and thou shalt drink the blood of the grape unmixed (Deut. 32:14).

AC 6379. His eyes are red with wine. That this signifies that the intellectual or internal Human is nothing but good, is evident from the signification of “red,” as being the good of love, and this from fire and from blood, which are red (n. 3300), hence “red with wine” denotes that it is nothing but good; and from the signification of “eyes,” as being the intellectual (n. 2701, 3820, 4403-4421, 4523-4534); and because the Lord is here treated of, it is His internal human which is meant by “the intellectual,” for the external human is signified by “his teeth are white with milk,” as now follows.

AC 6380. And his teeth are white with milk. That this signifies that the Divine natural is nothing but the good of truth, is evident from the signification of “white,” which is predicated of truth (n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319); from the signification of “teeth,” as being in the genuine sense what is natural; for the things in man which are hard, as his teeth, bones, cartilages, correspond to the truths and goods which are of the lowest natural; and from the signification of “milk,” as being the celestial spiritual, or what is the same, the good of truth (n. 2184). That the Lord’s Divine natural is the good of truth is said relatively to men who are in faith and in love to the Lord; for they who are oœ the external church are not able to elevate the thought higher than to the Lord‘s Divine natural; whereas they who are of the internal church elevate the thought above the natural to what is internal. For everyone who is in faith in the Lord has an idea of Him according to his capacity of elevating his thoughts; for they who know the nature of what is internal can have an idea of what is internal; but they who do not know the nature of what is internal have an idea of what is external.  Hence it is that the Lord’s Divine natural is called the “good of truth,” when yet His whole Human is the Divine good of the Divine love.

AC 6381. From what has now been said of Judah, it is very evident that there is an internal sense of the Word, and that unless what this sense involves is known, that which is signified by the things written of Judah cannot be known; as that he is a “lion‘s whelp,” that he is “gone up from the prey,” that he “bowed and couched as a lion,” and “as an old lion;” and what is signified by a “lawgiver from between his feet,” by “Shiloh,” by “binding his young ass unto the vine, and his ass’s colt unto the choice vine,” by “washing his clothing in wine, and his covering in the blood of grapes,” by “his eyes being red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.” The meaning of all these things would lie completely hidden, unless they were uncovered by means of a sense that lies deeper.

AC 6382. Verse 13. Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the seas, and he shall be at a haven of ships, and his side shall be toward Zidon.  “Zebulun” signifies the cohabitation of good and truth; “shall dwell at the haven of the seas,” signifies life where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges; “and he shall be at a haven of ships,” signifies where are doctrinal things from the Word; “and his side shall be toward Zidon,” signifies extension on one side to the knowledges of good and truth.

AC 6383. Zebulun. That this signifies the cohabitation of good and truth, is evident from the representation of Zebulun, as being the heavenly marriage (n. 3960, 3961), thus the conjunction of good and truth, for this conjunction is the heavenly marriage.  It is said “the cohabitation of good and truth” because in the original language “ Zebulon” means “cohabitation.” Here under the name of “Zebulon” are treated of those in‘ the church who form conclusions about spiritual truths from memory-knowledges, and thus fortify them with themselves.  But be it known that by “Zebulun” are not meant those who do not believe unless memory-knowledges and sensuous things declare for it, and who are until then in what is negative.  Such never believe, for the reason that what is negative reigns universally, and when this is the case there flow in and are gathered together memory-knowledges which deny, but not those which confirm; the latter being cast to the sides, or explained to favor the negative memory-knowledges, whereby what is negative is fortified. But by “Zebulun” are here meant those who believe doctrinal things from the Word, thus with whom something affirmative reigns universally; and yet their faith has not its life in truths, but in memory-knowledges, for they apply these to doctrinal things, and thus fortify their affirmative. They who are “Zebulun,” therefore, do not elevate themselves from memory-knowledges; but when they hear or think of any truth of faith they at once fall back into memory-knowledge.  There are many such in the world, and the Lord provides that memory-knowledges and sensuous things may serve them for this use.

AC 6384. Shall dwell at the haven of the seas. That this signifies life where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges, is evident from the signification of “haven,” as being the residence where memory-knowledges terminate and begin; here, the residence where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges, for under the name of “Zebulun” those are here treated of with whom the truths of faith are in this residence; from the signification of “seas,” as being memory-knowledges in the complex (n. 28); and from the signification of “dwelling,” as being life (n. 1293, 3384, 3613, 4451, 6051). From this it is plain that by “dwelling at the haven of the seas” is signified life where there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges.  As regards this life see what has been said above (n. 6383). Be it known further that this life is in the external or natural man, and with some in the lowest natural, or in the sensuous, for they have the truths of faith so bound to memory-knowledges that they cannot be elevated. Hence also they are in obscurity more than all others in the spiritual church; for they have but little light from the intellectual, because this has been immersed in memory-knowledges and sensuous things. The case is different with those who have been in what is affirmative, and have fortified the truths of faith by means of memory-knowledges; but yet so that they can be elevated from these knowledges, that is, from the natural where these are.  The intellectual of these men has been enlightened, and from this is in a certain perception of spiritual truth, to which the memory-knowledges that are beneath serve as a mirror wherein the truths of faith and of charity appear and are acknowledged, as affections are in the face.

AC 6385. And he shall be at a haven of ships.  That this signifies where are doctrinal things from the Word, is evident from the signification of “haven,” as being a residence (n. 6384), thus where they are; and from the signification “ships,” as being doctrinal things from the Word. That of “ships” have this signification is because they pass through seas and rivers, and carry things useful for life; for by “seas” and “rivers” are signified knowledges and memory-knowledges; the useful things of life which they carry, are the doctrinal things and also the very truths from the Word which are signified by “ships,” as is plain from the following passages:--

The isles shall trust in Me, and the ships of Tarshish in the beginning, to bring thy sons from far, their silver and their gold with them (Isa. 60:9);

“ships of Tarshish” denote doctrinal things and truths from the Word, wherefore it is said that they should “bring their sons, their silver and gold;” for by “sons” are signified those who are in truths; by “silver,” the truth itself; and by “gold,” good.  Everyone can see that ships of Tarshish are not here meant, nor sons, silver, and gold.

[2] In Ezekiel:--

Thy borders are in the heart of the sea, thy architects have perfected thy beauty. They have built all thy planks of fir-trees from Senir; they have taken the cedar from Lebanon to make a mast for thee. Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars; they have made thy beam of ivory; the daughter of a step from the Isles of Kittim. Of fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thy sail, that it might be to thee for an ensign; blue and crimson from the isles of Elishah was thy covering. The inhabitants of Zidon and Arvad were thy rowers: thy wise men, O Tyre, who were in thee, were thy pilots. The elders of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy calkers; all the ships of the sea and their sailors were in thee, to trade thy trading (Ezek. 27:4-9);

this is said of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201), which are described by what belongs to a ship, as “planks,” “mast,” “oars,” “beam,” “sail,” a “covering,” “rowers,” “pilots,” and “sailors.” That all these are not to be understood according to the letter must be plain to everyone; but when the knowledges of truth and good, which are “Tyre,” together with doctrinal things from the Word, are understood by “ships,” then all things fit together beautifully.

[3] In David:--

O Jehovah, how manifold are Thy works! in wisdom hast Thou made them all. This sea great and wide in spaces; there go the ships; the whale which Thou hast formed to play therein (Ps. 104:24-26).

Again:--

Let them sacrifice the sacrifices of confession; and declare the works of Jehovah with rejoicing. They that go down to the sea in ships, that do work in many waters, these see the works of Jehovah and His wonders in the deep (Ps. 107:22-24);

here also “ships” denote knowledges and doctrinal things; the “whale” denotes the generals of memory-knowledges (n. 42); and as “ships” are knowledges and doctrinal things, therefore it is said, “they that go down to the sea in ships see the works of Jehovah and His wonders in the deep;” for those see these things who are in the knowledges and doctrinal things from the Word.

[4] In John:--

The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea, and the third part of the sea became blood, whence the third part of the creatures that were in the sea, and had souls, died; and the third part of the ships was destroyed (Rev. 8:8, 9);

the “great mountain burning with fire” denotes the love of self (n. 1691); the “sea,” the natural where memory-knowledges are (n. 28); “blood,” violence done to charity (n. 374, 1005); “creatures in the sea having souls,” truths of memory-knowledge with goods; a “third part,” something not yet complete (n. 2788); their “dying,” that they had no spiritual life (n. 6119); hence “the third part of the ships being destroyed” denotes that the truths and goods of doctrinal things from the Word were falsified. From all this may be known what is signified by this prophecy.

[5] But in the opposite sense “ships” signify the knowledges and doctrinal things of what is false and evil, as in Daniel:--

At the time of the end shall the king of the south strive with him; therefore the king of the north shall rush upon him like a whirlwind, with chariot and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall come into the lads, and shall overflow and penetrate (Daniel 11:40);

the “king of the south” denotes truth from good; the “king of the north,” falsities from evil; “chariots with horsemen and with ships,” doctrinal things of falsity; the “lands,” churches, of which it is predicted that falsities from evils in the time of the end should overflow and penetrate them.

[6] In John:--

Every pilot, and everyone employed upon ships, and sailors, and all they who trade upon the sea, stood afar off, and cried when they saw the smoke of the burning of Babylon, saying, What city is like the great city? Woe, woe, the great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! (Rev. 18:17-19);

it is evident that “ships” here denote the knowledges and doctrinal things of falsity and evil, because “Babylon” denotes war ship which outwardly appears holy, and inwardly is profane.  Moreover no one can fail to see that by “ships” something else than ships is here meant. In Isaiah:--

Thus saith Jehovah your Redeemer, the Holy one of Israel, For your sake I have sent to Babylon, that I may throw down all her bars, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships (Isa. 43:14);

where the meaning is similar. Moreover falsities from evil are signified by “ships” in (Isa. 2:11, 16; 23:1, 14; Ps.  48:7).

AC 6386. And his side shall be toward Zidon. That this signifies extension on one side to the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the signification of “side,” as being extension on one side; and from the signification of“ Zidon,” as being exterior knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201). Here, where Zebulun is treated of, mention is made of knowledges, of doctrinal things, and of memory-knowledges, and it is said that there is extension on one side to the knowledges of good and truth, and also that there is conclusion of truth from memory-knowledges where there are doctrinal things from the Word; therefore it is necessary to say what is the distinction between these terms. Doctrinal things are those which are from the Word; knowledges are those which are from doctrinal things on the one side and from memory-knowledges on the other; and memory-knowledges are those which belong to experience, either one’s own or that of others.

AC 6387. Verses 14, 15. Issachar is a bony ass, lying down between the burdens.  And he shall see rest that it is good, and the land that it is pleasant; and he shall bow his shoulder to bear, and shall be a servant to tribute.  “Issachar,” signifies reward from works; “is a bony ass,” signifies the lowest service; “lying down between the burdens,” signifies life among works; “and he shall see rest that it is good,” signifies works of good without reward, that they are full of happiness; “and the land that it is pleasant,” signifies that in this happiness are they who are in the Lord‘s kingdom; “and he shall bow his shoulder to bear,” signifies that nevertheless he labors with all exertion; “and he shall be a servant to tribute,” signifies the he may have merit.

AC 6388. Issachar. That this signifies reward from works, is evident from the representation of Issachar, as being the mutual love which is “hire,” or reward (n. 3956, 3957), here reward from works, as is plain from the details in the internal sense in this prophecy about Issachar.  Moreover in the original tongue “Issachar” means “hire.” That Issachar“ here signifies reward from works, and previously mutual love, is because by ”Issachar“ are here meant those who are in a certain kind and appearance of mutual love, that is, of charity toward the neighbor, and who desire to be rewarded for the goods which they do.  Thus they not only defile, but also pervert genuine mutual love, or charity; for they who are in genuine mutual love are in their delight and bliss when they are benefiting the neighbor, for they desire nothing more. This delight and bliss are what is meant by ”hire“ in the Word; for the delight and bliss is itself the reward; and in the other life this becomes the joy and happiness which are in heaven, thus it becomes heaven to them. For when they who are in this love perform uses, and do good to others, they are in such joy and happiness that then for the first time they seem to themselves to be in heaven; this is given them by the Lord, to everyone according to the uses he performs.  But the happiness vanishes as soon as they think of reward, for being in the reward itself, thought about reward renders that love impure, and perverts it; the reason of which is that they are then thinking about themselves, and not about the neighbor, that is, about making themselves happy, and not others, except in so far as it affects themselves. Thus they convert love toward the neighbor into love toward themselves, and so far as they do this, so far the joy and happiness from heaven cannot be communicated to them, for they concentrate upon themselves the influx of happiness from heaven, and do not transmit it to others; and they are like objects which do not transmit the rays of light, but absorb them.  Objects which transmit the rays of light appear in light, and sparkle, but those which absorb them appear opaque, and sparkle not at all; and therefore they who are of this nature are separated from angelic society, like those who have nothing in common with heaven. These are they who are here described under the name of ”Issachar.“

AC 6389. A bony ass. That this signifies the lowest service, is evident from the signification of an ”ass,“ as being service (n. 5958, 5959); and from the signification of ”bone,“ as being that which has little spiritual life (n. 5560, 5561). Thus a ”bony ass“ is the lowest service; for they who do what is good for the sake of reward, do indeed perform uses, and are of service; but yet are among those in the Lord’s kingdom who are in the lowest place, for they do not dispense the good which is communicated to them, except to those who can recompense them; and they pass by the rest who need aid the most, or if they do good to these, it is from the end of being rewarded by the Lord.  Hence what they do they regard as merit, and thus consider the Lord‘s mercy as due them.  In this way they recede from humiliation, and in the same proportion from a state of receiving what is blessed and happy through heaven from the Lord. From all this it is evident that in the other life such are indeed employed in uses, but as lowest services.

AC 6390. Lying down between the burdens. That this signifies a life among works, is evident from the signification of ”lying down,“ as being life, but obscure life; and from the signification of” burdens,“ as being works. That” burdens“ denote such works is because those here treated of do not do goods from the affection of love toward the neighbor, but from the affection of love toward self. The works which flow from the affection of this love are like the burdens carried by the meaner asses, for they belong to the lowest services.  For all servitude is from the affection of the love of self and of the world, and all freedom is from the affection of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor. The reason is that the affection of the former love flows in from hell, which commands with violence; whereas the affection of the latter love flows in from the Lord, who does not command, but leads. Hence again it is plain that they who do what is good for the sake of reward are lowest services, and their works are ”burdens.“ The like is signified by ”burdens“ in the book of Judges:--

The princes in Issachar were with Deborah; and Issachar so with Barak; in the valley he shall be put under his feet, in the classes of Reuben great as to the resolves of heart. Why satest thou between the burdens, to hear the hissings of the flocks? (Judges 5:15, 16);

here also ”Issachar“ denotes those who desire to be rewarded for works; ”to be put in the valley under the feet“ is to serve in lowest things; the ”classes of Reuben“ denote those who are in the knowledges of the truth of faith, among whom are those here signified by ”Issachar,“ but in a place beneath them; ”to hear the hissings of the flocks“ denotes contempt from those who are in the good of charity, who are the ”flocks;“ to ”sit between burdens“ denotes among self-meritorious works.

AC 6391. And he shall see rest that it is good.  That this signifies the works of good without reward, that they are full of happiness, is evident from the signification of ”rest,“ as being the things that belong to heaven, and thus that are in the good of charity, or in works of good, without reward; from the signification of ”that it is good,“ as being that they are full of happiness.  The reason why ”rest“ denotes works of good without reward, is that in the highest sense ”rest“ or ”peace“ signifies the Lord; in the relative sense, heaven; thus the good which is from the Lord (n. 3780, 4681, 5662); and as no others are in the things signified by ”rest“ or ”peace“ than those who are in good of charity, thus in works of good without reward, these are signified by ”rest;“ for this follows from the connection of things in the internal sense.

[2] With regard to the subject itself, they who do goods with the sole end of reward cannot possibly know that in doing goods without any reward there is happiness so great as to be heavenly happiness itself.  The reason of their ignorance is that they perceive happiness in the delight of the love of self, and in so far as a man perceives delight in this love, so far he does not perceive delight in heavenly love, for they are opposites.  The delight which flows from the love of self completely extinguishes the delight which is from heavenly love, insomuch that it is absolutely unknown what heavenly delight is; and if its nature is told it is not believed, nay, it is denied.

[3] This it has been given me to know from evil spirits in the other life who, while they lived, did nothing of what is good to others or to their country except for the sake of themselves; such do not believe that any delight is possible in doing goods without the end of reward; for they suppose that if there is no end of reward all delight ceases.  And if they are told further that when that delight ceases heavenly delight begins, they are amazed at the hearing; and they are still more amazed when they hear that this heavenly delight flows in through the inmost of man, and affects his interiors with inexpressible happiness; and they say that they cannot comprehend it, nay, that they do not desire to do so; for they believe that if they were to lose the delight of the love of self, they would be very miserable, because they would then be deprived of all the joy of life; and they also call those simple who are in a different state. Not unlike these persons are those who do works with an end of reward; for they do good works for themselves, and not for others, because they regard themselves therein, and not the neighbor, nor their country, nor heaven, nor the Lord, except as those who are thus placed under an obligation to do them a service.  Such are the things described in the internal sense of this verse about Issachar.

AC 6392. And the land that it is pleasant. That this signifies that in this happiness are they who are in the Lord’s kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”land,“ as being the church, thus also the Lord‘s kingdom (n. 662, 1066, 1067, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 4447), that the ”land“ has this signification is because the land of canaan, which is meant by the ”land“ in the Word, represented the Lord’s kingdom, and this because the church had been there from the most ancient time (n. 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136); and from the signification of ”that it was pleasant,“ which signifies the happiness that is in works of good without reward. It is said that ”he shall see rest that it is good, and the land that it is pleasant,“ and by both expressions is signified the happiness which is in the Lord‘s kingdom, because ”to see rest that it is good,“ refers to what is celestial or to good, and ”to see the land that it is pleasant,“ refers to what is spiritual or to truth, and this on account of the marriage of good and truth (n. 6343). As to what further concerns happiness in works of good without reward, be it known that very few at this day know that in doing goods without the end of reward is heavenly happiness; for they do not know that there is any other happiness than in being advanced to honors, in being served by others in abounding in riches, and in living in pleasures. That above these things there is a happiness which affects the interiors of man, thus that there is a heavenly happiness, and that this happiness is the happiness of genuine charity, they are deeply ignorant.  Inquire of the wise of this day whether they know that this is heavenly happiness. From this also it is that many reject good works, believing that no one can do them without regard to self-merit; for they do not know that they who are led by the Lord desire nothing more than to do good works, and that they think of nothing less than of meriting by them.  This is in the new will, which is given by the Lord to those who are being regenerated, for this will is the will of the Lord in the man.

AC 6393. And he shall bow his shoulder to bear. That this signifies that nevertheless he labors with all exertion, is evident from the signification of ”shoulder,“ as being all power, or all exertion (n. 1085, 4931-4937); and from the signification of ”bearing a burden,“ as being to do works for the sake of merit; hence by ”bowing the shoulder to bear“ is signified to labor with all exertion to do works for the sake of merit. The reason why this is called ”bearing,“ is that they do not do what is good from the affection of good, thus not from freedom, but from the affection of self, which is servitude (n. 6390).

[2] As further regards those who desire a reward for the works which they perform, be it known that they are never contented; but are indignant if they have not a greater reward than others; and if they see others more blessed than themselves, they are sad and find fault. Neither do they make bliss consist in inward bliss, but in outward, namely, in being eminent, in having dominion, and being served by angels, thus in being above the angels, consequently in being princes and great men in heaven; when yet heavenly bliss consists, not in wishing to rule, nor in being served by others, but in wishing to serve others, and in being the least; as the Lord teaches:--

James and John the sons of Zebedee came, saying, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on Thy right hand, and the other on Thy left hand, in Thy glory. But Jesus said to them, Ye know not what ye ask. To sit on My right hand and on My left hand is not Mine to give, except to whom it has been prepared. Ye know that they who are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones have authority upon them. But it shall not be so among you; but whosoever will be great among you shall be your minister, and whosoever of you will be first shall be servant of all; for the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister (Mark 10:35-45).

[3] And that they have heaven who do what is good without the end of reward, the Lord teaches in Luke:--

Everyone that exalteth himself shall be humbled, but he that humbleth himself shall be exalted. When thou makest a dinner or a supper, call not thy friend, nor thy brethren, nor thy kinsmen, nor thy rich neighbors, lest haply they also call thee in turn, and a recompense be made thee. But when thou makest a feast, call the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind; then thou shalt be blessed; because they have not wherewith to recompense thee; for thou shalt be recompensed in the resurrection of the just (Luke 14:11-14);

the ”recompense in the resurrection of the just“ is internal happiness from doing well without reward, which they receive from the Lord when they perform uses; and they who love to serve without recompense, the more they love it, the more noble are the uses to which they are appointed, and they are in fact greater and more powerful than others.

[4] They who do good works for the sake of recompense, say the same, because they know from the Word that they should desire to be the least in heaven; but at the time they are thinking that by so saying they will become great, thus there is the same end in view; but they who do what is good without recompense, really think nothing about being eminent, but only about being of service.

[5] See what was said and shown above about merit from works, and about the quality of those who are in it in the other life: that they appear to cut wood and to mow grass (n. 1110, 1111, 4943) how they are represented (n. 1774, 2027): that they who have done what is good for the sake of self and the love of the world receive no recompense for this good in the other life (n. 1835): that they who place merit in works interpret the Word according to the letter in their favor, and that they derive its interior contents (n. 1774, 1877) that true charity is wholly void of self-merit (n. 2371, 2373, 2380, 3816): that they who separate faith from charity make the works which they have done self-meritorious (n. 2373): that they who enter into heaven put off from themselves what is their own and self-merit (n. 4007): that to believe that they do good from themselves, and that by this good they have merit, is the case with most persons in the beginning of reformation, but that they put this off as they are being regenerated (n. 4174).

AC 6394. And he shall be a servant to tribute. That this signifies that he may have merit, is evident from the signification of ”being a servant to tribute,“ as being to be subject and to serve; and as it is said of those who desire to have merit through works that they are ”bony asses, lying down between burdens,“ and that ”he bows the shoulder to bear,“ by ”being a servant to tribute“ are also signified those who desire to have merit through works; for that they are lowest services was shown above (n. 6389).  That ”serving to tribute“ denotes to be subject and to serve, is evident in Moses:--

When thou drawest nigh unto a city to fight against it, thou shalt invite them unto peace; and it shall be, if it answer thee for peace, and open to thee, it shall be that all the people that is found therein shall become for tribute to thee, and shall serve thee (Deut. 20:10, 11).

In Jeremiah:--

How hath the city dwelt solitary that was great in people!  She is become as a widow. She that was great among the nations, who ruled in the provinces, she is become tributary (Lam. 1:1);

where it is plain that by ”becoming for tribute,“ and by ”tributary,“ is signified serving. In Matthew:--

Jesus said, How seemeth it to thee, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth receive tribute or tax? of their own sons, or of strangers? Peter saith to Him, of strangers. Jesus saith to him, Therefore the sons are free. But lest we should be a stumbling block to them, go thou to the sea, and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou hast opened its mouth thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give it for Me and thee (Matthew 17:25-27);

here also by ”giving tribute,“ or ”tax,“ are meant those who serve, and therefore it is said that ”strangers should give and sons should be free,“ for strangers were servants (n. 1097). That Peter should take up a fish out of the sea and should find in its month a piece of money which he was to give, represented that the lowest natural, which serves, should do this; for ”fishes“ signify this natural.

AC 6395. Verses 1-18. Dan shall judge his people as one of the tribe of Israel.  Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse’s heels, and his rider shall fall backward I wait for thy salvation, O Jehovah. ”Dan,“ signifies those who are in truth and not as yet in good; ”shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel,“ signifies that he is one of the truths in general which the tribes of Israel represent; ”Dan shall be a serpent upon the way,“ signifies their reasoning about truth, because good does not as yet lead; ”an arrow-snake upon the path,“ signifies from truth about good; ”biting the horse‘s heels,“ signifies fallacies from lowest nature; ”and his rider shall fall backward,“ signifies that hence comes a receding; ”I wait for Thy salvation O Jehovah,“ signifies unless the Lord brings aid.

AC 6396.  That Dan signifies those who are in truth and not as yet in good, is evident from the representation of Dan, as being the good of life (n. 3921, 3923); but here those who are in some good of life from truth, but not as yet from good. For with the man who is being regenerated by the Lord the case is this. He is first in truth and not in any good of life from truth; next he is in the good of life from truth, but not yet from good; afterward, when he has been regenerated, he is in the good of life from good, and he then perceives truth from good, and multiplies it in himself: these are the degrees of regeneration.  By ”Dan“ are meant those who are in the good of life from truth, but not yet from good; the good with them as yet lies deeply hidden in truth, and gives them the affection of truth, and impels them to live according to truth. They who are such are in the Lord’s kingdom; but as they do not do good from good, but from truth, that is, not from a new will, but from the intellectual, and thus not from love, but from obedience because it is so commanded, they are therefore among those in the Lord‘s kingdom who are in the first or ultimate heaven.

[2] These are they who are represented by Dan, for in this prophetic utterance of Israel, in the internal sense, by his twelve sons are described in general all who are in the Lord’s kingdom in respect to their quality.  That they who are signified by ”Dan“ are in the ultimate heaven, or in the ultimate part of the Lord‘s kingdom, because in truth and not yet in good, was represented by the lot of Dan falling last, when the land of Canaan was distributed for an inheritance among the tribes (Josh. 19:40-48); and by their inheritance lying in the extremity of that land (Judges 18); for the lot was cast before Jehovah (Josh.  18:6), and therefore fell to each one according to his representation. That the land of Canaan represented the Lord’s kingdom (n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705, 4447, 4454), and hence all the borders were representative (n. 1607, 1866, 4116) thus the ultimates of that land represented the ultimates in the Lord‘s kingdom (n. 4240); and therefore Dan represented those who are in the ultimates there; for before truth has been conjoined with good, it is in the ultimate; but if truth is completely separated from good, it is not then in any border of the Lord’s kingdom, but is outside of it.

[3] That the inheritance of Dan was the ultimate of the land of Canaan is evident from the fact that when the whole extent of that land was described, it was said, ”from Beersheba even to Dan“ (2 Sam. 3:10; 17:11; 24:15; 1 Kings 4:25). By ”Beersheba“ in these passages is signified the inmost of the land, because Abraham and Isaac dwelt there before Jerusalem and Zion became the inmost of the land.

[4] The quality of those who are in truth and Such yet in good, was also represented by the Danites who sought out land where they might dwell (Judges 18), in their leading away a Levite out of the house of Micah, and taking away his ephod, teraphim, and graven image; whereby is signified the worship of those who are in truth and not yet in good; for they adore external things and disregard internal. No one perceives what is internal but he who is in good. That this was represented by the Danites is evident from the fact that all the historicals of the Word, both those in the books of Moses, and those in the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, are representative of the celestial and spiritual things of the Lord‘s kingdom; and so also is this story in the book of Judges about the Danites. As to what further concerns those who are in truth and not yet in good, their quality is described in the internal sense in what now follows about Dan.

AC 6397. Shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel.  That this signifies that he is one of the truths in general which the tribes of Israel represent, is evident from the signification of ”judging,“ as being truth in its office; from the signification of ”people,“ as being those who are in truth (n. 1259, 1260, 2928, 3295, 3581, 4619), here those who are in truth and not yet in good, for these are ”Dan“ or the ”people“ of Dan (n. 6396); and from the representation of the ”tribes of Israel,“ as being all the truths and goods of faith in general (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335).  Hence by ”he shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel“ is signified that this truth, represented by Dan, is also among the general truths which the tribes of Israel represent. That ”judging his people“ denotes truth in its office, is because by the tribes of Israel are represented all truths in general, as may be seen from the passages above cited, and truths are what judge; thus by ”judging his people“ is signified truth in its office.

[2] We read in the Word that four and twenty elders are to sit upon thrones and judge nations and peoples; and that the twelve apostles are in like manner to sit upon thrones and judge the twelve tribes of Israel. He who does not know the internal sense of the Word may believe that so it will be. But how this is to be understood may be seen from the internal sense when it is known what is signified by the ”four and twenty elders,“ and by the ”twelve apostles,“ and by the ”thrones,“ namely, all truths in their complex, according to what is judgment. The like is here meant by ”judging the people as one of the tribes of Israel,“ not that they, or any elders of them, are to judge; but the truths themselves which are signified by them; consequently the Lord alone, for from Him all truth proceeds.  Of the four and twenty elders, that they are to sit upon thrones and to judge, it is thus written in John:--

Around the throne were four and twenty thrones, and upon the thrones I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white garments, who had upon their heads crowns of gold (Rev. 4:4; 11:16).

And again:--

I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them (Rev. 20:4).

Of the twelve apostles it is thus written in Matthew:--

Jesus said, Ye who have followed Me in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Matthew 19:28).

And in Luke:--

I appoint unto you, as the Father has appointed unto Me a kingdom, that ye may eat and drink upon My table in My kingdom, and sit upon thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel (Luke 17:29, 30).

[3] That in these passages neither four and twenty elders nor twelve apostles are meant, but all truths and goods in general, is evident from the fact that no man, nor even an angel, can judge anyone; for no one but the Lord alone can know the interiors, what they are and what they will be, and this to eternity. By the ”twelve apostles“ the same is signified as by the ”twelve tribes,“ namely, all truths and goods in the complex, (n. 2129, 2553, 3488, 3858). From all this it is now plain that by ”Dan shall judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel“ is signified that the truth which is represented by Dan is one among the general truths through which is judgment.

AC 6398. Dan shall be a serpent upon the way. That this signifies their reasoning about truth because good does not as yet lead, is evident from the representation of Dan, as being those who are in truth and not yet in good (n. 6396); from the signification of a ”serpent,“ as being reasoning from what is sensuous; and from the signification of ”way,“ as being truth (n. 627, 2333). Thus by ”Dan being a serpent upon the way“ is signified their reasoning about truth, because good does not yet lead. The quality of this reasoning and of the consequent truth, will be told in what follows.

[2] That a ”serpent“ denotes reasoning from what is sensuous, is because the interiors of man are represented in heaven by animals of various kinds, and hence in the Word the like are signified by the same animals. The sensuous things of man were represented by serpents because sensuous things are the lowest things in man, and are relatively earthly, and as it were creeping as may also be seen from the forms through which sensuous things flow, concerning which, of the Lord’s Divine mercy elsewhere. Hence these sensuous things were represented by serpents, and even the Lord‘s Divine sensuous was represented by the brazen serpent in the wilderness (n. 4211); and prudence and circumspection, in externals, is signified by ”serpents“ in Matthew

Be ye wise as serpents, and harmless as doves (Matthew 10:16).

But when a man is in what is sensuous, remote from what is internal, as are those who are in truth and not yet in good, and speaks from what is sensuous, then by the ”serpent“ is signified reasoning; here therefore, where Dan is treated of, is signified reasoning about truth, because good does not yet lead. In other cases malice, cunning, and deceit, are signified by ”serpents,“ but by poisonous serpents, as by ”vipers“ and the like, the reasoning of which is poison. The ”serpent“ denotes reasoning from what is sensuous, (n. 195-197); also the ”serpent“ denotes all evil in general; and evils are distinguished by different kinds of serpents (n. 251, 254, 257).

AC 6399. An arrow-snake upon the path.  That this signifies reasoning from truth about good, is evident from the signification of an ”arrow-snake,“ as being reasoning about good; and from the signification of ”path,“ as being truth (n. 627, 2333, 3477).  That an ”arrow-snake upon the path“ denotes reasoning from truth about good, is because by a ”serpent“ is signified reasoning, thus by an ”arrow-snake“ is signified the reasoning which projects itself, namely, from truth toward good; for with those who are represented by Dan truth is beneath, and good is above.

AC 6400. Biting the horse’s heels. That this signifies fallacies from lowest nature, is evident from the signification of ”biting,“ as being to adhere, and thereby do harm to; and from the signification of a ” horse‘s heel,“ as being fallacies from lowest nature for the ”heel“ denotes the lowest natural and corporeal (n. 259, 4938-4952), and a ”horse,“ the intellectual (n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 6125); here a ”horse“ denotes fallacies, because it denotes the intellectual of the lowest natural or sensuous. That they who are in truth and not yet in good are in fallacies from lowest nature, may be seen from the fact that truth is not in any light unless good is with it, and in it; for good is like a flame which emits light from itself; and when good meets with any truth, it not only illuminates it, but also brings it to itself into its own light.  They therefore who are in truth and not yet in good, are in shade and darkness; because truth has no light from itself, and the light which they have from good is faint, like a light which is going out; and therefore when these persons think and reason about truth, and from truth about good, they are like those who see phantasms in the dark, and believe them to be real bodies; or who see marks on a wall in a shady place, and in fancy make of them the image of some man or animal; and yet when the light comes, they are seen to be mere marks without any form; and it is the same with truths with those here treated of, for they see as truths those things which are not truths, and which are rather to be likened to phantasms, and to marks on a wall. Moreover all the heresies in the church have arisen from those who have been in some truth from the Word, but not in good; to them heresy has appeared exactly like truth; and in like manner the falsities in the church. That they who have promulgated these have not been in good, may be seen from the fact that they have rejected the good of charity far behind the truth of faith, and have in part devised such things as do not at all agree with the good of charity.

[2] It is said that they who are in truth and not yet in good reason about good and truth from fallacies from lowest nature, and therefore it is necessary to say what fallacies are.  Take for example the life after death. They who are in fallacies from lowest nature, as are those who are in truth and not yet in good, do not believe that there is anything alive in man except his body, nor that when man dies he can rise again unless he again receives his body.  If they are told that there is an interior man who lives in the body, and who is raised up by the Lord when the body dies, and that the man when raised has a body such as spirits or angels have, and that he sees, hears, speaks, is in company with others, and appears to himself exactly like a man, just as does a man in this world, they cannot apprehend it.  Fallacies from lowest nature make them believe such things to be impossible, chiefly because they do not see them with the eyes of their body.

[3] Moreover when such persons think about the spirit or soul, they have no idea whatever about it except such as they have of the invisible things in nature, whence they make it either a mere breath, or aerial, or ethereal, or like a flame; some a mere thinking power which has scarcely any vitality until it is again joined to the body. The reason why they think in this way is that to them all interior things are in shade and darkness, and only outward things are in light, which shows how easily they may fall into error; for if they think only of how the body is to be put together again; of the destruction of the world, and that this has been vainly awaited for so many ages; of brute animals having a life not unlike the life of man; and that none of the dead appear and make known the state of their life - when they think these and other such things, they easily recede from belief in the resurrection; and so in many other cases. The reason is that they are not in good, and through good in light.  Such being their state, it is also said, ”and his rider shall fall backward; I wait for Thy salvation, O Jehovah.“ By this is signified that hence comes a receding unless the Lord brings aid.

AC 6401. And his rider shall fall backward.  That this signifies that hence comes a receding, is evident from the signification of ”falling backward,“ as being to recede, namely, from truth; and from the signification of ”rider,“ as being one who is in fallacies from lowest nature. These fallacies are signified by ”horse“, (n. 6400); and therefore by ”rider“ are signified they who are in fallacies. How the case herein is, has just been shown. As by ”Dan“ are signified those within the church who are such as were described above (n. 6400), and who thus are among the last in the Lord’s kingdom, therefore by ”Dan“ are also signified those who from fallacies hatch falsities and spread them about.  Their falsities are also called ”horses,“ and their reasonings about truth and good, ”serpents,“ in Jeremiah:--

The snorting of his horses was heard from Dan; at the voice of the neighing of his strong ones the whole land trembled; and they are come and have devoured the land and the fullness thereof, the city and those that dwell therein. For behold I send among you serpents, vipers, which will not be charmed; and they shall bite you (Jer. 8:16-17).

AC 6402. I wait for Thy salvation O Jehovah.  That this signifies unless the Lord brings aid, is evident from the signification of ”waiting for salvation,“ as here being to bring aid. ”Jehovah“ is the Lord, (n. 1343, 1736, 2156, 2329, 2447, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6303). In regard to the aid which the Lord brings when they recede who are in truth and not yet led by good, which is signified by ”the rider shall fall backward, I wait for Thy salvation O Jehovah,“ be it known that they look downward or outward, for they are not yet in good; whereas they who are in good, as are the regenerate, look upward or inward; for when man is being regenerated, the order is changed in this way. As they who are in truth and not yet in good look downward or outward, therefore also they are among those who belong to the province of the outer skin in the Grand Man; for the outer skin is turned outward from the interiors of the body, and gets its sense of touch from what is without, but not sensibly from what is within. Hence it is plain that these persons are in the Lord‘s kingdom, because in the Grand Man, but in its ultimates. As to those who constitute the skin, see (n. 5552-5559).

AC 6403. Verse 19. Gad, a troop shall ravage him, and he shall ravage the heel.  ”Gad,“ signifies works from truth and not yet from good; ”a troop shall ravage him,“ signifies works without judgment, that they will drive away from truth; ”and he shall ravage the heel,“ signifies disorder thence in the natural.

AC 6404. That Gad signifies works from truth and not yet from good, is evident from the representation of Gad, as being works (n. 3934, 3935), here works from truth and not yet from good, as is evident from the description in the internal sense. This also follows in order, for by Dan just above are represented those who are in truth and not yet in good (n. 6396); here now by Gad are represented those who are in works from truths and not yet from good. The quality of these works will now be shown.

AC 6405. A troop shall ravage him.  That this signifies works without judgment, that they will drive away from truth, is evident from the signification of a ”troop,“ as being works (n. 3934), here works without judgment; for they who do works from truth and not yet from good have obscure understanding, whereas they who do works from good have the understanding enlightened, because good enlightens; for the light of truth from the Lord flows into the intellectual through good, and thus into truth, but not into truth immediately. The case herein is like that of the sun’s light, which inflows through heat into the subjects of the vegetable kingdom, trees, plants, and flowers, and causes them to grow and blossom, but not immediately; for when the light flows in without heat, as in winter, nothing grows and blossoms.  Moreover ”to ravage him“ denotes to drive away from truth.

[2] But who they are that are here signified by ”Gad,“ shall be told.  They are such as fall into illusion with respect to truth, and yet do works from this; thus works not of truth, still less of good. By such works they are driven away from truth, for as soon as a man who is in truth and not yet in good brings anything into act from his religiosity, he afterward defends it as if it were the veriest truth, and abides in it, nor does he admit any amendment of it, except in so far as he comes into good; for by so acting he imbues himself with it and loves it. Thus works drive him away from truth. Besides, he believes those things to be truths which are not truths, for these persons also, like those signified by ”Dan,“ judge from what is sensuous, thus without judgment. Let this be illustrated by examples. When one who counts everyone equally his neighbor, and thus benefits the evil equally with the good, and by thus conferring benefits on the evil does harm to others, has committed such acts repeatedly, he afterward defends them, saying that everyone is his neighbor, and that it is not his concern what his quality is, but only to confer benefits on him; thus he does works without judgment, and also contrary to the truth itself; for the truth itself is that all are the neighbor, but in a different degree, and that they are the neighbor more than others who are in good (n. 2417, 3419, 3820, 5025).

[3] By ”Gad“ are also signified those who make all salvation consist in works alone, like the Pharisee of whom the Lord says in the parable:--

The Pharisee standing by himself prayed thus, God, I thank Thee that I am not as other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even as this publican. I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess (Luke 18:11, 12);

thus holding external things as the veriest truths. They who are such are also in the Lord‘s kingdom, but on the threshold, and therefore the Lord says,

”I say unto you, the publican went down to his house justified more than the Pharisee (Luke 18:14),

thus that the Pharisee also went down justified, because he had done works from obedience to command.  In a word, by Gad are represented those who call that truth which is not truth, and from this non-truth do works; hence their works are like the truths, for works are nothing but the will and understanding in act.  That which saves these men is the intention to do what is good, and something of innocence in their ignorance.

[4] They who are in external works from that which is not truth, but which they believe to be truth, are signified by “Gad” also in Isaiah

Ye that forsake Jehovah, that forget the mountain of My holiness, that set out a table for Gad, and that till a drink-offering unto Meni (Isa. 14:11);

“to set out a table for Gad” denotes to be in works alone. And in Jeremiah:--

Against the sons of Ammon, thus saith Jehovah: (Are there no sons) to Israel? hath he no heir? wherefore doth his king inherit Gad, and his people dwell in the cities thereof? (Jer. 49:1);

“to inherit Gad” denotes to live in works from that which is not truth; the “sons of Ammon” are they who falsify truths, and live according to them when falsified (n. 2468), to whom these things about Gad are applied by the prophet.

AC 6406. He shall ravage the heel.  That this signifies a want of order thence in the natural, is evident from the signification of “ravaging,” as being to drive away from truth (n. 6405), thus to disturb the order, or cause a want of order; and from the signification of “heel,” as being the lowest natural (n. 259, 4938-4952). Hence it is plain that by “he shall ravage the heel” is signified a want of order in the natural. They who do works from truth and not yet from good, must needs cause in their natural a want of order, for works affect the natural; and consequently they must needs to this extent close their interiors; for the plane in which the interiors terminate is the natural, and if this is devoid of order, all that which flows in from the interiors also becomes devoid of order; and all that which is devoid of order is dark and opaque, so that they cannot see what is truth, but in this opacity and darkness they seize for truth what is not truth, and from this non-truth do their works. Moreover works are most necessary, for they are charity and faith in effect and in life, and who cannot see that without them there is no charity? Works are nothing but good and truth themselves in outward form; for good which is of the will, and truth which is of the understanding, when put forth into act, are called “works;” hence it is evident that such as are the good and truth, such are the word.

AC 6407. Verse 20. From Asher his bread is fat, and he shall yield the delights of a king. “From Asher,’ signifies the blessedness of the affections; ”his bread is fat,“ signifies delight from good; ”and he shall yield the delights of a king,“ signifies pleasantness from truth.

AC 6408. From Asher. That this signifies the blessedness of the affections, namely, of the celestial affections which are of love to the Lord and of charity toward the neighbor, is evident from the representation of Asher, as being the happiness of eternal life, and the blessedness of the affections (n. 3938, 3939). Moreover Asher was so called from ”blessedness.“ This blessedness cannot be easily described, because it is internal, and seldom shows itself with anyone in the very body, thus seldom to the sense. For during his life in the body, man has a distinct sensation of what takes place in his body, but a very obscure one of what takes place in his spirit, because while man is in the body worldly cares act as a hindrance, and where these cares exist the blessedness of the affections cannot flow so far as into the bodily sense unless natural and sensuous things have been reduced to agreement with inward ones, and even then only obscurely, as a tranquillity from contentment of mind; but after departure from this life it manifests itself, and is perceived as something blessed and happy, and then it affects both the interiors and the exteriors. In a word, the blessedness of the celestial affections is that of the soul or spirit itself, flowing in by an internal way, and penetrating toward the body, where it is received so far as the delights of natural and sensuous loves do not stand‘ in the way.

[2] Not a whit of this blessedness is possible with those who are in the delight of the love of self and of the world, for these loves are totally opposite; and therefore they who are in these loves cannot at all comprehend that there is any blessedness except that of being exalted to dignities, being worshiped as deities, abounding in riches, and possessing greater wealth than others. If they are told that the delight from these loves is external, and perishes with the body, and that what remains in the mind is turned after death into sadness and gloom, such as prevail in the hells; and that there is an internal delight which is the satisfaction and happiness enjoyed by those who are in heaven; these things they do not at all comprehend, because the external reigns with them and the internal is closed. From all this it may be known what is meant by the blessedness of the affections which is signified by ”Asher.“

AC 6409. His bread is fat.  That this signifies delight from good, is evident from the signification of ”fat,“ as being delight; for by ”fatness“ is signified what is celestial, or the good of love (n. 353, 5943); but when the word ”fat“ is used, and is joined to ”bread,“ which signifies the good of love, then by ”fat“ is signified the delight of this love.  That ”bread“ signifies the good of love may be seen above, (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 5915).

AC 6410. And he shall yield the delights of a king. That this signifies pleasantness from truth, is evident from the signification of ”delights,“ as being what is pleasant; and from the signification of a ”king,“ as being truth (n. 1672, 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148); thus ”to yield the delights of a king“ denotes what is pleasant from truth.  Mention is made of both ”delight from good“ and ”pleasantness from truth“ on account of the heavenly marriage in everything of the Word (n. 6343). The delight from good and the pleasantness from truth which cause blessedness in heaven, do not consist in idleness, but in activity; for in idleness delight and pleasantness become undelight and unpleasantness; but in activity delight and pleasantness are permanent and constantly uplift, and cause blessedness. With those who are in heaven, activity consists in the performance of uses (which to them is delight from good), and in relishing truths with the end of uses (which to them is pleasantness from truth).

AC 6411. Verse 21. Naphtali is a hind let loose, giving discourses of elegance. ”Naphtali,“ signifies the state after temptations; ”is a hind let loose,“ signifies the freedom of natural affection; ”giving discourses of elegance,“ signifies gladness of mind.

AC 6412. That Naphtali signifies the state after temptations is evident from the representation of Naphtali as being temptation, and also the state after temptations (n. 3927, 3928). Moreover Naphtali is so named from ”wrestlings,“ which in the spiritual sense are temptations.

AC 6413. Is a hind let loose. That this signifies the freedom of natural affection, is evident from the signification of a ”hind,“ as being natural affection; and from the signification of ”let loose,“ as being freedom, for when a captured hind is let loose it has freedom. Deliverance from a state of temptations is compared to a ”hind let loose,“ because the hind is an animal of the forest, loving freedom more than other animals, in which the natural also resembles it; for this loves to be in the delight of its affections, consequently in freedom, for freedom is that which belongs to affection.  The reason why a ”hind“ signifies natural affection, is that it is one of the beasts which are significative of (good) affections, as are all those which are for food and use, such as lambs, sheep, goats, and kids, and also oxen, bullocks, and cows; but these beasts are also significative of spiritual affections, because burnt-offerings and sacrifices were made of them, whereas hinds, not being employed for such a use, were significative of natural affections.  That ”beasts“ signify affections may be seen above, (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 719, 776, 1823, 2179, 2180, 3519, 5198); also that their signifying affections is from the representatives in the world of spirits, (n. 3218, 5198).

[2] Natural affections are also signified by ”hinds“ in David:--

Jehovah maketh my feet like those of binds, and stationeth me upon my high places (Ps. 18:33).

And in Habakkuk:--

Jehovah the Lord is my strength, who setteth my feet like those of binds, and maketh me to march upon my high places (Habakkuk 3:19).

”To make the feet like those of hinds“ denotes the natural in the freedom of the affections. ”Feet“ are the natural, (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952, 5327, 5328). That ”to set the feet as those of hinds“ has this signification, may be seen from the fact that to make the feet nimble and active to run like those of hinds is not anything spiritual; and get that something spiritual is involved, is plain from what immediately follows, that ”Jehovah will set him and cause him to march upon his high places,“ whereby is signified spiritual affection, which is above natural affection.  So with this passage in Isaiah:--

The lame shall leap as a hart (Isa. 35:6);

for by the ”lame“ is signified one who is in good, but not as yet genuine (n. 4302).

[3] In David:--

As the hart crieth after the water brooks, so crieth my soul after Thee (Ps. 42:1);

the ”hart“ here is the affection of truth; ”to cry after the water brooks“ denotes to long for truths. ”Waters“ are truths, (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668).

[4] In Jeremiah:--

Out of the daughter of Zion hath gone forth all her honor; her princes are become like harts, they have found no pasture (Lam. 1:6);

where the ”daughter of Zion“ denotes the affection of good, which affection is of the celestial church (n. 2362); ”princes“ denote the primary truths of that church (n. 1482, 2089, 5044), which are compared to ”harts,“ whereby are signified the affections of natural truth; and by the ”harts not finding pasture,“ are signified natural affections without truths and their goods. That a ”pasture“ denotes truth and the good of truth, which sustain the spiritual life of man, see above, (n. 6078, 6277).

[5] So by ”hinds“ in Jeremiah:--

The earth has been broken in pieces, in that there hath not been rain in the land, the husbandmen have been ashamed, they have covered over their heads, because even the hind hath brought forth in the field, but forsook it, because there was no grass (Jer. 14:4, 5);

the ”hind“ denotes the affection of natural good; ”bath brought forth in the field“ denotes to conjoin the natural affections with the spiritual things of the church; but because these affections were devoid of truths and goods, it is said that she ”forsook, because there was no grass.“ Everyone can see that there is an internal sense in what is here said about the hind; for without an internal sense what could be here meant by the ”hind bringing forth in the field, but forsaking, because there was no grass?“

[6] In like manner in David:--

The voice of Jehovah hath made the hinds to calve, and strippeth bare the forests; but in His temple everyone saith, Glory (Ps. 29:9);

that there is an internal sense which is spiritual in the words ”the voice of Jehovah hath made the hinds to calve“ is very evident from the fact that immediately afterward it is said, ”but in His temple everyone saith, Glory,“ which words without the spiritual sense do not cohere with what is said before about hinds and forests.

AC 6414. Giving discourses of elegance. That this signifies gladness of mind, is evident from the signification of ”discourses of elegance,“ as being gladness of mind; for all discourse proceeds from the mind, and when the mind is glad and cheerful, it speaks with elegance. After temptations come gladness and delight, (n. 1992, 3696, 4572, 5628).

AC 6415. From what was said by Israel in this prophetic utterance about Dan, Gad, Asher, and Naphtali, it is very plain that there is an internal sense and that without this sense scarcely anything can be understood and known; such as that ”Dan shall be a serpent upon the way, an arrow-snake upon the path, biting the horse’s heels, and that his rider shall fall backward;“ that ”a troop shall ravage Gad, and he shall ravage the heel;“ that ”Asher‘s bread shall be fat, and he shall give the delights of a king;“ and that ”Naphtali is a hind let loose, giving discourses of elegance.“ Who without the key from the internal sense can know what these things mean?  That they were not said of the sons of Jacob, nor of the tribes, may be seen from the fact that nothing of the kind here described befell them in the ”end of days,“ when yet Israel says that he would tell them what should then befall them (verse 1); and as they were not said of them, it follows that they were said of such things as are represented by them, the nature of which has been unfolded above.

AC 6416. Verses 22-26. Joseph is the son of a fruitful one, the son of a fruitful one over a fountain, of a daughter, she marcheth upon the wall. And imbitter him, and shoot at him, and hate him, the archers.  And he shall sit in the strength of his bow, and the arms of his hands are made strong by the hands of the mighty Jacob; from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel.  By the God of thy father, and He shall help thee, and with Shaddai, and He shall bless thee, with blessings of heaven above, with blessings of the deep that lieth beneath, with blessings of the breasts and of the womb. The blessings of thy father shall prevail above the blessings of my progenitors, even to the desire of the everlasting hills: they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of the Nazirite of his brethren. ”Joseph is the son of a fruitful one,“ signifies the spiritual church, in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine spiritual; ”the son of a fruitful one over a fountain,“ signifies fruitfulness from truth from the Word; ”of a daughter, she marcheth upon the wall,“ signifies for fighting against falsities; ”and imbitter him,“ signifies resistance by falsities; ”and shoot at him,“ signifies that they fight from these falsities; ”and hate him, the archers,“ signifies with all hostility; ”and he shall sit in the strength of his bow,“ signifies that he is safe by means of the fighting truth of doctrine; ”and the arms of his hands are made strong,“ signifies the power of the forces for fighting; ”by the hands of the mighty Jacob,“ signifies by the omnipotence of the Lord’s Divine Human; ”from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel,“ signifies that from this is all the good and truth in the spiritual kingdom; ”by the God of thy father, and He shall help thee,“ signifies the God of the Ancient Church; ”and with Shaddai,“ signifies the Lord the benefactor after temptations; ”and He shall bless thee with the blessings of heaven above,“ signifies with good and truth from within; ”with blessings of the deep that lieth beneath,“ signifies with the memory-knowledges that are in the natural; ”with blessings of the breasts,“ signifies with the affections of good and truth; ” and of the womb,“ signifies their conjunction; ”the blessings of thy father shall prevail above the blessings of my progenitors,“ signifies that this church has spiritual good from the natural, not from the rational; ”even to the desire of the everlasting hills,“ signifies to celestial mutual love; ”they shall be on the head of Joseph,“ signifies these things as to the interiors; ”and on the crown of the head of the Nazirite of his brethren,“ signifies as to the exteriors.

AC 6417. Joseph is the son of a fruitful one. That this signifies the spiritual church, in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, in the internal sense the spiritual kingdom and the good of faith, and in the external sense fruitfulness and multiplication (n. 3969, 3971); and because ”Joseph“ denotes the fruitfulness of good and the multiplication of truth, he is called the ”son of a fruitful one.“ By ”Joseph“ is here described the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, and above by ”Judah“ His celestial kingdom; for there are two kingdoms which constitute heaven, the celestial and the spiritual. The celestial kingdom constitutes the inmost or third heaven; the spiritual kingdom, the middle or second heaven. To the spiritual kingdom the Lord appears as a moon; but to the celestial kingdom as a sun (n. 1053, 1521, 1529-1531, 4060). It is said that by Joseph in the supreme sense is represented the Lord as to the Divine spiritual, but the case is this. The Lord is nothing else than Divine good; that which proceeds from His Divine good and flows into heaven, in His celestial kingdom is called the ”Divine celestial,“ and in His spiritual kingdom the ”Divine spiritual;“ thus the Divine celestial and the Divine spiritual are so called relatively to the receptions.

AC 6418. The son of a fruitful one over a fountain. That this signifies fruitfulness from truth from the Word, is evident from the signification of a ”son,“ as being truth (n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704); and from the signification of a ”fruitful one,“ as being fruitfulness from truth, for in the spiritual sense fruitfulness, like birth and nativity, is that of truth and good (n. 1145, 1255, 3860, 3868, 4070, 4668, 5598); and from the signification of a ”fountain,“ as being the Word (n. 2702, 3424, 4861).  Hence it is evident that by the ”son of a fruitful one over a fountain,“ is signified fruitfulness from truth from the Word. They who are of the Lord’s spiritual church, which church is here represented by Joseph, from truth from the Word learn to know what is good, and thus through truth are initiated into good; hence they have the fruitfulness which is signified by a ”fruitful one.“

AC 6419. Of a daughter, she marcheth upon the wall. That this signifies for fighting against falsity, is evident from the signification of a ”daughter,“ as being the church (n. 2362, 3963); here the spiritual church, because this is the subject here treated of; and from the signification of ”marching upon the wall,“ as being for fighting against falsity, as is plain from what follows: ”the archers imbitter him, and shoot at him, and hate him, and he shall sit in the strength of his bow,“ whereby is signified the fighting of falsity against truth.

[2] ”To march upon the wall“ is said because in the internal sense the subject treated of is assault on truth by falsities, and defense of truth against falsity; for the spiritual church, which is represented by Joseph, is continually being assaulted, but the Lord continually defends it. Hence in the Word what belongs to this church is compared to a city, which has a wall, outworks, gates, and bars; and by the assaults on that city are described the assaults on truth by falsities; hence also a ”city“ signifies doctrinal things (n. 402, 2268, 2449, 2712, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493), and its ”wall“ the truths of faith which defend it, and in the opposite sense the falsities which are being destroyed.  That a ”wall“ signifies the truths of faith which defend, is plain in Isaiah:--

We have a strong city; salvation will He appoint for walls and bulwark. Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation which keepeth faithfulnesses may enter in (Isa 26:1).

Again:--

Thou shalt call thy walls Salvation, and thy gates Praise (Isa. 60:18).

Again:--

Behold I have graven thee upon the hands, thy walls are continually before Me (Isa. 49:16);

”walls“ denote the truths of faith. Again:--

I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem; they shall not be silent all the day and the night, keeping Jehovah in mind (Isa. 62:6);

where the sense is the same.  In Jeremiah:--

Thus said Jehovah Zebaoth, I will turn back the weapons of war wherewith ye fight with the king of Babylon, besieging you without the wall. I myself will fight against you with an outstretched hand (Jer. 21:4, 6).

Again:--

Jehovah hath purposed to destroy the wall of the daughter of Zion; He hath made the rampart and wall to lament; they languish together. Her gates have sunk into the earth; He hath destroyed and broken her bare (Lam. 2:8, 9).

In Ezekiel:--

The sons of Arvad and thine army were upon thy walls round about; and the Gammadim were in thy towers; they hanged their shields upon thy walls round about, they have perfected thy beauty (Ezek. 27:11);

speaking of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth.

[3] That such things are signified by a ”city“ and ”walls,“ is very evident from the description of the holy Jerusalem coming down out of heaven, which was seen by John. That a new church is signified thereby is plain from all the details; and by the ”wall“ thereof, the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord.  It is written of this in John:--

The holy Jerusalem coming down from heaven, having a wall great and high; having twelve gates. The wall of the city had twelve foundations, and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb. He that spake with me measured the city and its gates, and the wall thereof. The wall thereof was a hundred forty and four cubits, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel. The building of the wall was jasper; and the city was pure gold, like unto pure glass. The foundations of the wall of the city were adorned with every precious stone (Rev. 21:10-19);

[4] that the ”wall“ is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and hence the truth of faith from the good of charity, is plain from everything said about the wall, that it ” had twelve foundations and in them the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb,“ for by ”twelve“ are signified all (n. 3272, 3858, 3913); by the ”wall“ and its ”foundations,“ the truths of faith, in like manner as by the ”twelve apostles“ (n. 3488, 3858, 6397); also that the ”wall was one hundred and forty-four cubits,“ for by this number the like is signified as by ”twelve,“ namely all, for it is twelve multiplied into twelve, and because this number when applied to a wall signifies all the truths and goods of faith, it is added that it is the ”measure of a man, that is, of an angel;“ and also that the ”building of the wall was jasper, and its foundations were adorned with every precious stone,“ for by ”jasper“ and ”precious stones“ are sign, fled the truths of faith (n. 114).

[5] That in the opposite sense a ”wall“ signifies falsities which are being destroyed, is plain from the following:--

A day of tumult in the valley of vision; the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth destroyeth the wall, and there is a shout toward the mountain; for Elam hath borne the quiver, with chariot of man, with horsemen, the horsemen placing have placed themselves even at the gate (Isa. 22:5-7).

Again:--

The fortress of the refuge of thy walls shall He depress, cast down, throw to the earth, even to the dust (Isa. 25:12).

In Jeremiah:--

Go ye up on her walls, and cast down (Jer. 5:10).

Again:--

I will kindle a fire in the wall of Damascus which shall devour the palaces of Benhadad (Jer. 49:27).

Again:--

Lift up a standard against the walls of Babylon, keep the watch, set the watchmen (Jer. 51:12).

In Ezekiel:--

They shall overthrow the walls of Tyre, and destroy her towers; and I will scrape her dust from her, and make her the dryness of a rock (Ezek. 26:4).

AC 6420. And imbitter him.  That this signifies resistance by falsities, is evident from the signification of ”to imbitter,“ as being resistance, for in proportion as the resistance is great, so is the imbittering during the fight now treated of.  That the resistance is by falsities, is plain from what follows.

AC 6421. And shoot at him.  That this signifies that from these falsities they fight, is evident from the signification of ”shooting at,“ as being to fight from falsities; for a ”bow“ signifies doctrine, and ”arrows“ or ”darts“ those things which are of doctrine; thus the truths of doctrine with those who are in truths, and the falsities of doctrine with those who are in falsities (n. 2656, 2709).  That ”to shoot“ here denotes to fight from falsities, is because the subject here treated of is those who are in falsities.

AC 6422. And hate him, the archers. That this signifies with all hostility, is evident from the signification of ”hatred,“ as being all hostility, for he who holds anyone in hatred persecutes him with all hostility so far as he is able; and from the signification of ”archers,“ as here being they who are opposed to the men of the spiritual church; for a ”shooter with a bow,“ or ”archer,“ denotes the spiritual man, because a ”how“ signifies the doctrinal things of the spiritual church (n. 2686, 2709).  Hence in the opposite sense a ”shooter with a bow,“ or ”archer,“ denotes one who as an enemy fights with the spiritual man. A ”shooter with a bow,“ or ”archer,“ denotes the spiritual man, (n. 2686, 2709). Hence it is plain that by the ”archers hating him“ is signified that they who are in falsities persecute the man of the spiritual church with all hostility.

AC 6423. And he shall sit in the strength of his bow.  That this signifies that he is safe by means of the fighting truth of doctrine, is evident from the signification of ”sitting,“ as being to be safe, for he who sits in the strength of his bow is safe; and from the signification of a ”bow,“ as being doctrine (n. 2686, 2709). The strength of doctrine is truth, for doctrine in which there is no truth is of no avail. To truth belong power and strength, (n. 878, 3091, 4931, 4934, 4937, 6344). The reason why truth is strong, is that good acts through truth; for good is of such a nature that nothing of evil or of falsity can approach it, thus none of the infernal crew, who flee far away when good approaches, or an angel who is in good.  But in order that good may fight with that crew which is with man from hell, and protect him in every way, and also protect the spirits who arrive from the world, and likewise those who are in the lower earth, it acts through truth, for in this way it can approach them.

[2] How much power there is in truth has been made evident to me by what it has been given me to see in the other life.  A certain spirit who was in natural truth, because during his life in this world he had been a just man, passed through a number of hells, and spoke with me from thence, and described them; he was in power and strength so great that the infernal spirits could not at all infest him, so that he passed safely from one hell into another, which is quite impossible for those who are not in truth. From all this it is evident that by ”sitting in the strength of a bow“ is signified to be safe by means of the truth of doctrine: that it is by truth fighting, follows from what goes before, where it is said that ”the archers shoot at him and hate him.“

AC 6424. And the arms of his hands are made strong.  That this signifies the power of the forces for fighting, is evident from the signification of ”arms“ and ”hands,“ as being powers, (n. 878, 3091, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 5544); that it is the power of the forces for fighting is clear, because fighting is what is being treated of.

AC 6425. By the hands of the mighty Jacob.  That this signifies by the omnipotence of the Lord‘s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of ”hands,“ as being power (n. 6424), and in the supreme sense, in which the Lord is treated of, omnipotence (n. 878, 3387, 4592, 4933); and from the signification of the ”mighty Jacob,“ as being the Lord’s Divine natural, thus His Divine Human (n. 1893, 3305, 3576, 3599, 4286, 4538, 6098, 6185, 6276).  That it is the Lord who is meant by the ”mighty Jacob,“ is evident also in David:--

Who sware to Jehovah, he vowed unto the mighty Jacob, Surely I will not come into the tent of my house until I find out a place for Jehovah, the habitations of the mighty Jacob (Ps. 132:2, 3, 5).

And in Isaiah:--

That all flesh may know that I Jehovah am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty Jacob (Isa. 49:26).

Again:--

Hear O Jacob My servant, and Israel whom I have chosen, I will pour My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thy sons; this one shall say, I am Jehovah‘s, and that one will call Himself by the name of Jacob, and another will write with his hand Jehovah’s, and will surname himself with the name of Israel (Isa. 44:1, 3, 5).

That ”Israel“ also in the supreme sense denotes the Lord, is evident in Hosea:--

When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called My son out of Egypt (Hosea 11:1);

that it is the Lord who is here meant by ”Israel“ is evident in Matthew:--

Joseph went with the boy into Egypt, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, Out of Egypt have I called My Son (Matthew 2:14, 15).

AC 6426. From thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel. That this signifies that from this is all good and truth in the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of a ”shepherd,“ as being one who leads to the good of charity by means of the truth of faith (n. 344, 3795, 6044); here in the supreme sense, because the Lord is treated of, it signifies good and truth itself; from the signification of ”stone,“ as being truth (n. 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798); and from the representation of Israel, as being the spiritual church (n. 3305, 4286); for ”Israel“ is spiritual good, or the good of truth (n. 4286, 4598, 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833); and as the good of truth is the very essential of the spiritual church, therefore by ”Israel“ the spiritual church is signified, and in a higher sense the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom.

[2] From all this it is evident that by ”from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel“ is signified that from this is all the good and truth of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom.  That in the highest sense the ”stone of Israel“ denotes the Lord in respect to the truth that is in His spiritual kingdom, is because by ”stone“ in general is signified the temple, and specifically its foundation, and by the ”temple“ is signified the Lord‘s Divine Human (John 2:19, 21), and also by its foundation (Matt. 21:42, 44; Isa. 28:16). That in the highest sense a ”stone“ denotes the Lord as to the Divine truth that is of His spiritual kingdom, is evident in David:--

The stone which the architects rejected, is become the head of the corner. This was done from Jehovah: it is marvelous in our eyes (Ps. 118:22, 23).

That the ”stone“ here is the Lord, is evident in Luke:--

It is written, The stone which the architects rejected, the same is become the head of the comer; whosoever shall fall upon  this stone shall be broken; but upon whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder (Luke 20:17, 18);

these words the Lord speaks concerning Himself.  And in Isaiah:--

Let Him be your fear, and let Him be your dread; for He shall be for a sanctuary, although a stone of stumbling, and a rock of offence, to the two houses of Israel; many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken (Isa. 8:13-15);

where the subject treated of is the Lord.  Again:--

Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Behold I will lay for a foundation in Zion a stone, a tried stone, of a precious corner, of a sure foundation; he that believeth shall not hurry (Isa. 28:16).

In Zechariah:--

Jehovah Zebaoth shall visit His flock, the house of Judah, and shall make them as a horse of glory in war; from Him is the corner stone, from Him the nail, from Him the war bow (Zech. 10:3, 4).

[3] In Daniel:--

Thou sawest even until a stone was cut out which was not done with hands, and it smote the image upon its feet, that were iron and clay, and brake them in pieces. The stone that smote the image became a great rock, and filled the whole earth. The God of the heavens shall make a kingdom rise up that shall not be destroyed forever, nor shall His kingdom be left to another people; it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, but itself shall stand forever. Forasmuch as thou sawest that a stone was cut out of the rock, which was not done with hands, and that it brake in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold (Daniel 2:34, 35, 44, 45);

here by a ”stone“ in the highest sense is meant the Lord, and in the relative sense His spiritual kingdom; that the stone was ”cut out of a rock“ signifies that it was from the truth of faith, for this is signified in the Word by a ”rock;“ and as the truth of faith is signified by ”stone“ and ”rock,“ it is the Lord’s spiritual kingdom that is also signified, for this is in the truth of faith, and from this in good.

[4] By the ”stone“ also upon which Jacob slept, and which he afterward set for a pillar, the like is signified, of which it is written:--

Jacob awoke out of his sleep, and he said, Surely Jehovah is in this place, and I knew it not; and he feared, and said, How terrible is this place! this is nothing but the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had set for his pillows, and set it for a pillar, and poured oil upon the head of it; and he said, This stone which I have set for a pillar shall be God‘s house (Gen. 28:16-18, 22).

That in the highest sense the ancients understood the Lord by a ”stone,“ and in the representative sense His spiritual kingdom, is also clear in Joshua:--

Joshua set up a stone under the oak that was in the sanctuary of Jehovah. And Joshua said unto the universal people, Behold, this stone shall be to us for a witness; for it hath heard all the discourses of Jehovah, which He spake to us and it shall be for a witness against you, lest ye deny your God (Joshua 24:26, 27).

AC 6427. The contents of these two verses in the internal sense is plain from the things unfolded, but still these things must needs be obscure unless the nature of the spiritual kingdom is known.  This kingdom consists of those who are in the truth of faith, but who make this the truth of life, and thus good; for when the truth of faith is lived, it becomes good, and is called the ”good of truth,“ but in its essence it is truth in act. In the Lord’s spiritual church the truth of faith is various, for that is said to be truth in one church which in another is said not to be truth, and this according to the doctrine of each; thus it is doctrinal things that are called truths.  These truths are what are conjoined with good, and make the good of the spiritual church; and thus its good becomes such as is its truth, for good has its quality from truths.

[2] Hence it is evident that the good of the spiritual church is impure; and because it is impure, the spiritual cannot be admitted into heaven except by Divine means.  The veriest Divine means was that the Lord came into the world and made the Human in Himself Divine; by this the spiritual were saved.  But because the good with them is impure, they must needs be infested by evils and falsities, and thus be in combats; but the Lord provides that by means of these combats the impurity in them may gradually be purified, for the Lord fights for them.  This is what is signified by ”the daughter marched upon the wall,“ and by ”the archers embittered him, and shot at him, and hated him, and he shall sit in the strength of his bow, and the arms of his hands are made strong by the hands of the mighty Jacob, from whence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel.“

[3] See what has already been said about those who are of the spiritual church, namely, that they are in obscurity as to truth and the derivative good (n. 2708, 2715, 2718, 2831, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 3833, 6289); that this obscurity is illumined by the Lord‘s Divine Human (n. 2716); that before the Lord’s coming there was not such a spiritual kingdom as after His coming (n. 6372); that the Lord came into the world in order to save the spiritual; and that they are saved by means of the Lord‘s Divine Human (n. 2661, 2716, 2833, 2834, 3969).  Hence also it is plain that by ”the arms of his hands were made strong by the hands of the mighty Jacob, from whence is the shepherd the stone of Israel,“ is signified the power of fighting derived from the omnipotence of the Lord’s Divine Human, whence is all the good and truth in the spiritual kingdom (n. 6424-6426).

AC 6428. By the God of thy father, and He shall help thee. That this signifies that He is the God of the Ancient Church, is evident from the representation of Jacob, who here is the ”father,“ as being the Ancient Church (n. 4439, 4514, 4680, 4772). This church was a spiritual church, and in it the Lord was worshiped, who is here meant by the ”God of the Ancient Church,“ from whom is help in the combats spoken of above.

AC 6429. And with Shaddai.  That this signifies the Lord the Benefactor after temptations, is evident from the signification of ”Shaddai,“ the Lord being so called relatively to temptations, and to benefactions after temptations (n. 1992, 3667, 4572, 5628).

AC 6430. And He shall bless thee with the blessings of heaven above.  That this signifies with good and truth from within, is evident from the signification of ”blessings,“ as being the multiplication of truth and the fruitfulness of good; ”blessing“ in the spiritual sense being nothing else; and from the signification of ”heaven above,“ as being from within, for the heaven of man is in his interiors, because the man who is in the good of life is as to his interiors in society with angels, thus in heaven, and as to his exteriors is in society with men, thus in the world.  Therefore when man receives the good and truth which flow in from the Lord through heaven from within, he is ”blessed with the blessings of heaven above.“

AC 6431. With the blessings of the deep that lieth beneath. That this signifies with the memory-knowledges that are in the natural, is evident from the signification of ”being blessed with blessings,“ as being to be endowed with such things as are from the spiritual world; and from the signification of the ”deep that lieth beneath,“ as being the memory-knowledges in the natural.  It is relatively to the interiors (which are ”heaven“) that the natural is called ”the deep that lieth beneath“ (n. 6430); and as the natural is signified by ”the deep that lieth beneath,“ memory-knowledges are also signified, for these together with their delights are in the natural, and make its life, especially with the spiritual man, because by means of memory-knowledges he is introduced into truths, and by means of truths into good; from which it is evident that by ”being blessed with the blessings of the deep that lieth beneath“ is signified to be endowed with memory-knowledges, thus with truths, in the natural.  By the ”deep“ are also signified the truths of memory-knowledge in the natural in the blessing of Joseph in Moses:--

Blessed of Jehovah be his land; for the precious things of heaven, for the dew, for the deep also that lieth beneath (Deut. 33:13).

AC 6432. With blessings of the breasts.  That this signifies with the affections of good and truth, is evident from the signification of the ”breasts,“ as being the affections of good and truth.  That the ”breasts“ denote the affections of good and truth, is because they communicate with the organs of generation, and thereby also belong to the province of conjugial love (n. 5050-5062); and conjugial love corresponds to the heavenly marriage, which is the marriage of good and truth; for conjugial love descends from this marriage (n. 2618, 2728, 2729, 2803, 3132, 4434, 4835, 6179); hence by the ”breasts“ are signified the affections of good and truth.  The same is also evident from the fact that infants are nourished by means of the breasts, and through this affection the ”breasts“ signify the conjunction of conjugial love with love toward offspring.

[2] These affections are also signified by the ”breasts“ in Isaiah:--

Thou shalt suck the milk of the nations, and shalt suck the breasts of kings. For brass I will bring gold, and for iron silver (Isa. 60:16, 17);

”to suck the breasts of kings“ denotes good from truth, for by ”kings“ are signified truths (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).  That by the ”milk of the nations,“ and by the ”breasts of kings,“ there is signified something hidden which is spiritual, is manifest, for otherwise they would be words without meaning; that good and truth are signified is plain from what follows: ”for brass I will bring gold, and for iron silver;“ ”brass“ being natural good (n. 425, 1551), ”gold“ celestial good (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658), ”iron“ natural truth (n. 425, 426), and ”silver“ spiritual truth (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112).

[3] And in Ezekiel:--

As to the increase I made thee as the bud of the field, whence thou didst increase and grow up, and thou attainedst to ornament of ornament; thy breasts were made firm, and thy hair grew (Ezek. 16:7);

this is said of Jerusalem, by which is here signified the Ancient Spiritual Church; the ”breasts“ being ”made firm“ denotes interior affections of good and truth; ”thy hair grew“ denotes exterior affections which are of the natural. ”Hair“ is the natural as to truth, (n. 3301, 5247, 5569-5573).  That in these words there is a spiritual sense which does not appear in the letter, is plain; for without that sense what could be meant by saying of Jerusalem that ”her breasts were made firm, and her hair grew?“

[4] In the same:--

There were two women the daughters of one mother who committed whoredoms in Egypt; they committed whoredoms in their youth, there were their breasts pressed, and there they touched the teats of their virginity (Ezek. 23:2, 3);

that the ”two women“ are Jerusalem and Samaria, is there said, by whom in the internal sense are signified churches; by their ”committing whoredoms in their youth with Egypt,“ is signified that they falsified the truths of the church by means of memory-knowledges. ”To commit whoredom“ is to falsify truths, (n. 2466, 4865); and ”Egypt“ is memory-knowledge, (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 5700, 5702); hence ”their breasts were pressed“ denotes that the affections of good and truth were perverted by means of falsifications.  That such things are signified by the ”whoredom of the women,“ and by the ”pressing of their breasts,“ is evident to those who look into the meaning of the description of these women.

[5] In Hosea:--

Plead ye with your mother, let her put away her whoredoms from her faces, and her adulteries from between her breasts, lest I strip her naked, and make her as a wilderness, and set her as a land of drought, and slay her with thirst (Hosea 2:2, 3);

”mother“ denotes the church (n. 289, 2691, 2717, 3703, 4257, 5581); ”whoredoms“ denote falsifications of truth (n. 2466, 4865); ”adulteries,“ adulterations of good (n. 2466, 2729, 3399); hence ”adulteries from between the breasts“ denote the affections of good and truth adulterated; ”to strip naked“ denotes to deprive of all truth (n. 1073, 4958, 5433); ”to make her as a wilderness, to set her as a land of drought, and to slay her with thirst“ denotes to extinguish all truth.

[6] Again:--

Give them a miscarrying womb and dry breasts (Hosea 9:14);

where ”dry breasts“ denote affections not of truth and good.  And in Isaiah:--

Stand still ye women that are secure, hear my voice; ye daughters that are confident, with your ears perceive my discourse; strip and make thyself bare, and gird upon the loins; they smite themselves upon the breasts for the fields of pure wine and the fruitful vine (Isa. 32:9, 11, 12);

where ”daughters“ denote affections (n. 2362, 3024, 3963); ”to be made bare“ denotes to be deprived of truth (n. 1073, 4958, 5433); ”to gird themselves upon the loins“ denotes to be in grief on account of lost good; ”to smite upon the breasts,“ denotes to be in grief on account of lost good of truth; and because these things are signified, it is said ”for the fields of pure wine and the fruitful vine;“ for a ”field“ denotes the church as to good, thus the good of the church (n. 2971, 3196, 3310, 3766), and a ”vine“ denotes the spiritual church, consequently the good of truth (n. 5113, 6375, 6376).

[7] In the Revelation:--

I saw seven golden lampstands, and in the midst of the seven lampstands one like the Son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girded about at the breasts with a golden girdle (Rev. 1:12, 13);

the ”golden lampstands“ denote the truths of good; the ”Son of man“ denotes the Divine truth; ”girded about at the breasts with a golden girdle“ denotes the good of love.  That these things seen by John involve such things as are of the Lord‘s kingdom and His church, everyone may conclude from the sanctity of the Word; for what sanctity would there be in making predictions about the kingdoms of this world? Hence it may be seen that heavenly things are signified by the ”lamp stands,“ and by the ”Son of man being clad with a garment down to the feet, and being girded about at the breasts with a golden girdle.“

[8] In Luke:--

A certain woman from the people lifted up her voice and said concerning Jesus, Blessed is the womb that bare Thee, and the breasts which Thou hast sucked. But Jesus said, Yea rather, blessed are they that hear the Word of God and keep it (Luke 11:27, 28);

from the Lord’s answer it is plain what is signified by a ”blessed womb,“ and what by ”breasts,“ namely, those who hear the Word of God and keep it; thus the affections of truth which those have who hear the Word of God; and the affections of good which those have who keep or do it.

AC 6433. And of the womb.  That this signifies their conjunction, namely, the conjunction of good and truth, is evident from the signification of ”the womb,“ as being the inmost of conjugial love; and as conjugial love comes forth from the heavenly marriage, which is the conjunction of good and truth, therefore this conjunction is signified by the ”womb.“ The inmost of conjugial love is signified by the ”womb“ (n. 4918); and conjugial love comes forth from the heavenly marriage, or from the conjunction of good and truth in heaven, (n. 2618, 2728, 2729, 2803, 3132, 4434, 4835, 6179).

AC 6434. The blessings of thy father shall prevail above the blessings of my progenitors.  That this signifies that this church has spiritual good from the natural, is evident from the representation of Joseph, as being the spiritual church (n. 6417); from the representation of Israel, here the ”father,“ as being spiritual good from the natural (n. 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833); and from the representation of Isaac and Abraham, here the ”progenitors,“ as being in the supreme sense the Lord‘s internal Divine--”Isaac,“ the internal Divine Human, or the Lord’s Divine Rational (n. 1893, 2066, 2072, 2083, 3012, 3194, 3210); and ”Abraham“ the Lord‘s Divine Itself (n. 2011, 3251, 3439, 4615); but in the relative sense ”Abraham and Isaac“ denote the internal of the Lord’s kingdom and church (n. 6098, 6185, 6276).  From all this it may in some measure be seen what is signified by ”the blessings of thy father shall prevail over the blessings of my progenitors,“ namely, that the spiritual church should have good from the natural or external man, but not from the rational or internal man; for the good of the man of the spiritual church is in the natural, nor does it go further; but the good of the celestial church is in the rational. That this is the meaning cannot possibly be known unless it is known what Israel and Abraham and Isaac represent, and also where and whence is the good of the spiritual church.

AC 6435. Even to the desire of the hills of an age.  That this signifies to celestial mutual love, is evident from the signification of the ”hills of an age,“ as being the things of mutual love.  That the spiritual church may come to this love, is signified by ”even to the desire of the hills of an age.“ Before it is shown from other passages of the Word that by the ”hills of an age“ is signified mutual love, it must first be told what is meant by the mutual love to which the man of the spiritual church, represented by Joseph, busies himself in arriving. From what has frequently been said and shown above, it is evident that there are two kingdoms which constitute heaven, namely, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom. The difference between these two kingdoms is that the internal good of the celestial kingdom is the good of love to the Lord, and its external is the good of mutual love; they who are of this kingdom are in the good of love, but not in the truth which is called the truth of faith, for this is in the good of this kingdom, insomuch that it cannot be seen separately from good, and therefore they who belong to this kingdom cannot even mention faith (n. 202, 203, 4448), because with them instead of the truth of faith there is the good of mutual love.  But as regards the spiritual kingdom, its internal is the good of charity toward the neighbor, while its external is the truth of faith.

[2] From all this it is evident what is the difference between these two kingdoms, and also that they agree in the fact that the external of the celestial kingdom coincides with the internal of the spiritual kingdom, through the intermediate which is called the ”celestial of the spiritual.“ For as before said the external of the celestial kingdom is the good of mutual love, and the internal of the spiritual kingdom is the good of charity toward the neighbor; but the good of mutual love is more interior than the good of charity toward the neighbor, because the former is from the rational, but the latter is from the natural.  But although the good of mutual love (which is the external of the celestial church) is more interior, and the good of charity toward the neighbor is more exterior, nevertheless, as just said, the Lord conjoins these goods by an intermediate, and thus conjoins these two kingdoms.

[3] In order to make a distinction between the external good of the celestial church and the internal good of the spiritual church, in the following pages we may call the former good the good of mutual love, and the latter the good of charity toward the neighbor, which difference has not been heretofore observed. These things being first known, it may be said what is signified by ”even to the desire of the hills of an age,“ which is among the blessings of Israel concerning this spiritual church, namely, that the spiritual kingdom may rise above the good of charity even to the good of mutual love, which is of the celestial kingdom; and that in this way these two kingdoms may be intimately conjoined: this is what is signified by these words.

[4] In very many passages of the prophetic Word mention is made of ”mountains and hills,“ and by them in the internal sense are signified the goods of love--by ”mountains“ the good of love to the Lord, which is the internal of the celestial kingdom; and by ”hills“ the good of mutual love, which is the external of the same kingdom; but where the spiritual kingdom is treated of, then by ”mountains“ is signified the good of charity toward the neighbor, which is the internal of this kingdom, and by ”hills“ the truth of faith, which is its external.  Be it known that every church of the Lord is internal and external, and so is each of His kingdoms.

[5] That such is the signification of ”hills,“ is evident from the following passages:--

In the latter days the mountain of Jehovah shall be for the head of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills (Isa. 2:2; Micah 4:1);

the ”mountain of Jehovah,“ which is Zion, denotes the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, thus the good of this kingdom, which is of love to the Lord; thus in the supreme sense it is the Lord Himself, for all the love and all the good in the celestial kingdom belong to the Lord.

[6] The like is signified by the ”mountain of Zion“ elsewhere in the Word, and by the ”hill thereof“ the good of mutual love, as in Isaiah:--

Jehovah Zebaoth shall come down to fight upon the mountain of Zion, and upon the hill thereof (Isa. 31:4);

where ”hill“ denotes the good of mutual love; and as by a ”hill“ is signified the good of mutual love, and by a ”mountain“ the good of celestial love, which is the good of love to the Lord, it is said that ”Jehovah would descend to fight upon that mountain.“  Jehovah does not fight upon the mountain of Zion and the hill thereof; but where the good of love is, it is for this, that is, for those who are in it, that the Lord (in this passage ”Jehovah“) fights. If He fought for Zion and for Jerusalem, it is because they represented the celestial church. Therefore also the mountain of Zion was called holy, and Jerusalem also was said to be holy, when yet in itself it was filthy, as is plain from the prophets, where its abominations are treated of.

[7] In David:--

The mountains shall bring peace, and the hills in righteousness (Ps. 72:3).

In the same:--

Praise Jehovah ye mountains, and all hills (Ps. 148:9).

In the same:--

The mountains skipped like rams, the hills like the sons of the flock (Ps. 114:4, 6).

Again:--

A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; a mountain of hills is the mountain of Bashan. Why leap ye, ye mountains, ye hills of mountains? God desires to dwell in it, Jehovah also shall dwell forever (Ps. 68:15, 16).

In these passages ”mountains“ denote celestial love, and ”hills“ spiritual love; that mountains are not here meant, nor hills, nor they who were upon mountains and hills, is very manifest.

[8] In Isaiah:--

There shall be upon every high mountain, and upon every lifted up hill, streams, channels of waters (Isa. 30:25);

”channels of waters“ denote the knowledges of good and of truth, which are said to be ”upon every high mountain and lifted up hill“ because these knowledges flow from the goods of celestial and spiritual love.

[9] In Habakkuk:--

Jehovah stood and measured the earth; He saw and dispersed the nations, because the mountains of eternity were scattered, and the hills of an age humbled themselves (Habakkuk 3:6);

the ”mountains of eternity“ denote the good of love of the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial; the ”hills of an age,“ the good of mutual love that belonged to that church; the former being its internal, the latter its external.  When that church is meant in the Word, seeing that it was the most ancient one, ”eternity“ is sometimes added, as here the ”mountains of eternity,“ and elsewhere the ”days of eternity“ (n. 6239); and an ”age“ also is added, as here the ”hills of an age,“ and also in the prophetic utterance of Israel: ”to the desire of the hills of an age.“ Hence it is evident that by the ”hills of an age“ are signified the goods of mutual love, which are of the celestial church, or of the Lord’s celestial kingdom.

[10] So in Moses, in his prophetic utterance about Joseph:--

Of the first-fruits of the mountains of the east, and of the precious things of the hills of eternity, let them come on the head of Joseph (Deut. 33:15, 16).

In Isaiah:--

The mountains and the hills shall resound with singing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their hands (Isa. 55:12).

In Joel:--

In that day the mountains shall drop down new wine, and the hills shall flow with milk, and all the brooks of Judah shall flow with waters (Joel 3:18; Amos. 9:13).

In Ezekiel:--

My sheep wander in all the mountains, and upon every high hill, and upon all the faces of the earth are they scattered. I will make them, the compass of My hill, a blessing; and I will send down the rain in its season (Ezek. 34:6, 26).

In Jeremiah:--

Wasters are come upon all the hills in the wilderness; for the sword of Jehovah devoureth (Jer. 12:12).

In these passages the goods of celestial love are signified by ”mountains;“ and likewise by ”hills,“ but in a lower degree.

[11] Because ”mountains“ and ”hills“ signified such things, in the Ancient Church their Divine worship also was upon mountains and upon hills; and afterward the Hebrew nation set altars upon mountains and hills, and there sacrificed and burnt incense; and where there were no hills, they constructed high places.  But because this worship became idolatrous, through holding the mountains and hills themselves holy, and thinking nothing at all about the holy things which they signified, this worship was therefore forbidden the Israelitish and Jewish people, because that people was more prone to idolatry than any other.  In order however that this representative which had been in ancient times might be retained, the mountain of Zion was chosen, and by it in the supreme sense was represented the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love, and in the relative sense the Divine celestial and the Divine spiritual in His kingdom.

[12] As such things were signified, Abraham was commanded to sacrifice his son upon one of the mountains in the land of Moriah; and the Lord was also seen upon a mountain by Moses, and the Law was promulgated from the elevation of a mountain, for He was seen by Moses upon Mount Horeb, and the Law was promulgated upon Mount Sinai; and the temple of Jerusalem was also built upon a mountain.

[13] That from an ancient rite holy worship was held upon mountains and hills, and afterward the Gentiles and also the idolatrous Israelites and Jews sacrificed and burnt incense thereon, is plain in Jeremiah:--

Thine adulteries, and thy neighings, the wickedness of thy whoredom, upon the hills in the field, I have seen thine abominations (Jer. 13:27);

speaking of Jerusalem.  In Ezekiel:--

When their pierced ones shall be in the midst of their idols, round about their altars, upon every high hill, in all the heads of the mountains, and under every green tree, and under every tangled oak (Ezek. 6:13).

In Jeremiah:--

Upon every high hill, and under every green tree, thou transgressing harlot (Jer. 2:20; 3:6; 1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 16:4; 17:10).

[14] Because idolatrous worship took place upon mountains and hills, by them are signified in the opposite sense the evils that belong to the love of self; as in Jeremiah:--

The mountains, and lo they are shaken, and all the hills are overturned. I beheld and lo there was no man, and all the birds of heaven had flown away (Jer. 4:24, 25).

In Isaiah:--

Every valley shall be lifted up, and every mountain and hill shall be humbled (Isa. 40:4).

In the same:--

Behold I have put thee for a thresher of a new thresher, set with spikes; thou shalt thresh the mountains, and shalt make the hills as chaff (Isa. 41:15).

Again:--

I will lay waste mountains and hills, and dry up all their herbage (Isa. 42:15).

And in Micah:--

Hear ye I pray what Jehovah speaketh: Arise, contend thou with the mountains, and let the hills hear thy voice (Micah 6:1).

In Jeremiah:--

My people have been lost sheep, their shepherds have misled them, refractory mountains, they have gone from a mountain upon a hill, they have forgotten their fold (Jer. 50:6; Jer. 16:6; Nahum 1:5, 6).

[15] The reason why ”mountains“ and ”hills“ signified the goods of celestial and spiritual love, was that they were prominent above the earth, and by things prominent and high were signified those which were of heaven, and in the supreme sense which were of the Lord.  For the ”land of Canaan“ signified the Lord’s heavenly kingdom (n. 1607, 3038, 3481, 3705, 4240, 4447); hence all things in that land were significative, the ”mountains“ and ”hills“ being significative of such things as are high; for when the most ancient people who were of the celestial church ascended a mountain they thought of height, and from height, of what is holy, because Jehovah or the Lord was said to dwell ”in the highest,“ and because in the spiritual sense ”height“ denoted the good of love (n. 650).

AC 6436. They shall be on the head of Joseph.  That this signifies these things as to the interiors, is evident from the signification of ”head,“ as being the interiors, because all things of man are there in their first principles, and it is also from correspondence that the interior things are signified by the head.  Hence the ”neck“ signifies what is intermediate; the ”body,“ exterior things; and the ”feet“ with the ”soles,“ outermost ones.  This correspondence is from the fact that heaven bears relation to a Great Man; the inmost heaven, where is the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, relates to the head of that man; the middle or second heaven, where is the spiritual kingdom, to the body; and the ultimate or first heaven, to the feet (n. 4938, 4939, 5328, 6292).

AC 6437. And on the crown of the head of the Nazirite of his brethren.  That this signifies as to the exteriors, is evident from the signification of the ”crown of the head of a Nazirite,“ as being exterior things; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who here are ”his brethren,“ as being spiritual truths in the natural (n. 5414, 5879, 5951), which also are relatively exterior, for the man of the spiritual church is in the good of truth, and this good is interior, because in the interior natural.  That a ”Nazirite“ signifies exterior things is because the Nazirites represented the Lord as to the Divine natural, which is the external Divine Human. That this was what they represented is evident from the fact that the Naziriteship is the hair, and that its sanctity consisted in the hair, which was for the sake of the representation that has been mentioned; for the hair corresponds to and hence signifies what is natural (n. 3301, 5247, 5569-5573). This is also plain from those who made a vow of Naziriteship, who were then forbidden to shave their hair (Num. 6:5); and afterward, when they had completed the days of the Naziriteship, they were to shave the head at the door of the tent, and to put the hair into the fire under the sacrifice of the peace-offering (Num. 6:13, 18).  This is further evident from Samson, who was a Nazirite, in that his strength consisted in his hair (Judges 13:3, 5; xvi); (n. 3301). Hence it is written in Jeremiah:--

Cut off the hair of thy Naziriteship, and cast it away, and take up a lamentation on the hills (Jer. 7:29).

From these passages it is evident that by the ”crown of the head of a Nazirite“ are signified exterior things, for the crown of the head of a Nazirite is where his hair is.  This is the secret signified by the Nazirites in the Word.

AC 6438. From all that Israel foretold about Joseph, it is also evident that in each detail there is an internal sense, and that without this sense scarcely anything is understood.  He who looks only at the sense of the letter may believe that these things that were said about Joseph would happen to his descendants through Manasseh and Ephraim (Gen. 48:1). But in their history in the books of Moses, Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, nothing of the kind is found; for they were not blessed above the rest of the tribes, and they like the rest were led into captivity and dispersed among the Gentiles; from which it is evident that what is stated in the sense of the letter is not signified, but something else that is in the internal sense.  Also that without the internal sense it is impossible to know what all these things about Joseph involve--as that Joseph is ”the son of a fruitful one, a fruitful one over a fountain, of a daughter, she marcheth upon the wall; the archers imbitter him, and shoot at him, and hate him; and he shall sit in the strength of his bow, and the arms of his hands are made strong by the hands of the mighty Jacob, from thence is the shepherd, the stone of Israel;“ that ”the blessings of his father shall prevail above the blessings of his progenitors, even to the desire of the hills of an age;“ and that ”they shall be on the head of Joseph, and on the crown of the head of the Nazirite of his brethren;“ all and each of which things are such that no one can know what they mean except from the internal sense.

AC 6439. Verse 27. Benjamin is a wolf; he shall seize in the morning, he shall devour the spoil, and at even he shall divide the prey.  ”Benjamin,“ signifies the truth of the good of the spiritual church, which is ”Joseph;“ ”is a wolf,“ signifies the avidity of rescuing and delivering the good; ”he shall seize in the morning, he shall devour the spoil,“ signifies that when the Lord is present it shall be done; ”and at even he shall divide the prey,“ signifies their possession in the Lord’s kingdom, when as yet they are in obscurity.

AC 6440. Benjamin.  That he signifies the truth of the good of the spiritual church, which is ”Joseph,“ is evident from the representation of Benjamin, as being the spiritual of the celestial (n. 4592).  The spiritual of the celestial is the truth of good, here the truth of that good which is of the spiritual church, which is represented by Joseph in this prophetic utterance of Israel; for as by Joseph is represented the spiritual church (n. 6417), by him is also represented the good of that church, because the church is the church from good; the truth of this good is ”Benjamin.“

AC 6441. Is a wolf.  That this signifies the avidity of rescuing and delivering the good, is evident from the signification of a ”wolf,“ as being one who seizes and scatters; and as in the Word ”beasts“ signify cupidities, a” wolf“ signifies the avidity of seizing, as is also evident from the passages in the Word where a ”wolf“ is mentioned; as in Matthew:--

Beware ye of false prophets, who come unto you in sheep‘s clothing, but inwardly they are ravening wolves (Matthew 7:15).

And in John:--

He that is a hireling, and not the shepherd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the sheep, and fleeth, and the wolf seizeth them, and scattereth the sheep (John 10:12).

Likewise in other places (Luke 10:3; Jer. 5:6; Ezek. 22:27; Zeph. 3:3). Hence it is plain that by a ”wolf“ are signified those who seize, but here one who rescues from hell those who have been seized.  The signification of a ”wolf“ is in a similar category to that of a ”lion,“ also a rapacious animal, concerning which also it is said that it ”seizeth the rapine,“ ”gathereth spoil,“ and ”preyeth upon prey,“ as is here said of a wolf; and yet in a good sense a ”lion“ signifies truth in power from good (n. 6367).  It is similar with other rapacious beasts, as leopards, eagles, etc.

AC 6442. He shall seize in the morning, he shall devour the spoil.  That this signifies that when the Lord is present it shall be done, is evident from the signification of ”morning,“ as being in the supreme sense the Lord (n. 2405, 2780), hence that ”he shall seize in the morning“ denotes that when the Lord is present, then shall be rescuing and deliverance of the good; and from the signification of ”devouring the spoil,“ as being to appropriate to Himself those whom He has rescued and delivered.  ”Devouring“ denotes to appropriate and conjoin with one’s self, (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 5643); that the ”spoil“ denotes those who have been rescued and delivered, is manifest). That ”seizing,“ ”rapine,“ ”spoil,“ and ”prey“ are also spoken of the Lord in the Word because of His rescuing and delivering the good, is evident from what was said above (verse 9) about Judah: ”Judah is a lion‘s whelp; from the prey, my son, thou art gone up,“ by which is signified that from the Lord through what is celestial is deliverance from hell (n. 6368). Also from other passages in the Word, as in Isaiah:--

The roaring of Jehovah is like that of a lion, He roareth like young lions, and growleth, and layeth hold of the prey, so that there is none rescuing (Isa. 5:29).

Again:--

As a lion roareth, and the young lion over his rapine, so shall Jehovah come down to fight upon the mountain of Zion (Isa. 31:4).

In Jeremiah:--

I will rescue thee in that day, rescuing I will rescue thee; but thy seed is to thee for a spoil, because thou hast trusted in Me (Jer. 39:17, 18).

In Zephaniah:--

Wait ye for Me, saith Jehovah, even unto the day that I rise up unto the prey (Zephaniah 3:8).

And in Isaiah:--

I will divide to Him among many, that He may divide the spoil with the strong ones (Isa. 53:12);

where the Lord is spoken of in the whole chapter.

[2] That ”to devour the rapine or spoil“ is to appropriate goods which have been seized by evils, is evident from the prophetic utterance of Balaam, in Moses:--

Behold, the people shall rise up as an old lion, and as a young lion shall he lift himself up; he shall not rest until he eat of the spoil (Num. 23:24).

From all this it is evident that ”rapine,“ ”spoil,“ and ”prey,“ denote the rescuing and deliverance of the good by the Lord. This is predicated of the truth represented by Benjamin, because to truth is attributed power (n. 3091, 4931), but that which it has from good (n. 6344, 6423).

AC 6443. And at even he shall divide the prey.  That this signifies their possession in the Lord’s kingdom when as yet they are in obscurity, is evident from the signification of ”evening,“ as being what is obscure (n. 3056, 3833); and from the signification of ”dividing the prey,“ as being to give a possession in the heavenly kingdom; for by ”prey“ are signified those who have been rescued and delivered by the Lord; hence by ”dividing the prey“ is signified distribution, namely, among those who are in heaven, which is the same as their having a possession in the Lord‘s kingdom.  This is said to be done ”in the evening,“ because they who are being elevated into heaven are at first in obscurity for they cannot come to clearness until they have been in heaven, and have been instructed with respect to truths by the Lord through the angels, into whose society they are sent; for there is need of time in order that the obscurity induced by falsities may be dissipated.

AC 6444. Thee are the things signified by ”Benjamin;“ but without the internal sense, who can say what the things which are said of him involve, as that he is a ”wolf,“ that he ”shall seize in the morning,“ that he ”shall devour the spoil, and at evening shall divide the prey?“ These things would be altogether hidden unless revealed by the internal sense.  Of this kind are very many things in the prophets, of which if viewed from the letter few are understood; but if viewed from the internal sense all are understood.  From all this it may now be seen that by the ”sons of Jacob,“ and by the ”tribes“ named from them, are signified such things as are of the Lord’s church and kingdom.

AC 6445. Verse 28. All these are the twelve tribes of Israel; and this is what their father spake to them, and blessed them; everyone according to his blessing he blessed them.  ”All these are the twelve tribes of Israel,“ signifies all truths and goods in the complex; ”and this is what their father spake to them,“ signifies communication through influx from spiritual good; ”and blessed them, everyone according to his blessing he blessed them,“ signifies predictions as to the spiritual life, of what would happen to each one in such a state.

AC 6446. All these are the twelve tribes of Israel.  That this signifies all truths and goods in the complex, is evident from the signification of the ”twelve tribes of Israel,“ as being all truths and goods in the complex (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335, 6397). That these are signified by the” tribes,“ is plain not only from what has been said about the tribes in the places cited, but also from what has been said about them in this chapter.

AC 6447. And this is what their father spake to them.  That this signifies communication through influx from spiritual good, is evident from the signification of ”speaking,“ as being to inflow (n. 2951, 5481, 5743, 5797), here communication through influx; and from the representation of Israel, who is here their ”father,“ as being spiritual good (n. 4598, 5801, 5803, 5806, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833).

AC 6448. And blessed them; everyone according to his blessing he blessed them.  That this signifies predictions as to the spiritual life, of what would happen to each one in such a state, is evident from the signification of ”blessing,“ as being prediction (n. 6230, 6254); and from the signification of ”everyone according to his blessing he blessed them,“ as being what would happen to each one.  That it is as to the spiritual life of each one in such a state, is plain from all that has been said in this chapter of the sons of Israel or the tribes named from them; for by them are described all states of the church as to goods and truths, thus as to the spiritual life of everyone within the church.

AC 6449. Verses 29-33. And he commanded them, and said unto them, I am being gathered unto my people; bury me unto my fathers unto the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite; in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is upon the faces of Mamre, in the land of Canaan, which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite for a possession of a sepulchre.  There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah: the purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein, was from the sons of Heth. And Jacob finished commanding his sons, and he gathered up his feet unto the bed, and expired, and was gathered unto his peoples.  ”And he commanded them, and said unto them,“ signifies insinuation; ”I am being gathered unto my people,“ signifies that he would be in the goods and truths of the natural which are from him; ”bury me unto my fathers,“ signifies that therein also are interior things and what is inmost; ”unto the cave,“ signifies where is obscurity; ”that is in the field of Ephron the Hittite,“ signifies which nevertheless can become clear; ”in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah,“ signifies in this obscurity; ”which is upon the faces of Mamre,“ signifies the quantity and quality thereof; ”in the land of Canaan,“ signifies where the church is; ”which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite,“ signifies redemption; ”for a possession of a sepulchre,“ signifies regeneration; there they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife, there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife, and there I buried Leah,” signifies that all the interior things are in order in the good and truth in the natural; “the purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the sons of Heth,” signifies the redemption of those who receive truth, and through truth good;“ and Jacob finished commanding his sons,” signifies the effect of the insinuation; “and he gathered up his feet unto the bed,” signifies as to his lower things in which were things interior, unto the good and truth of the lower natural; “and expired,” signifies new life there; “and was gathered unto his peoples,” signifies that he was in the goods and truths of the natural which are from him.

AC 6450. And he commanded them, and said unto them.  That this signifies insinuation, is evident from what follows, when Israel speaks to his sons about burying him in the cave of the field of Machpelah, where Abraham and Isaac were buried, whereby is signified life in the truths and goods of the natural, in which are interior things and what is inmost; and because these are treated of in what now follows, therefore by “commanding his sons and saying unto them” is signified insinuation into these things.  “To command” signifies influx, (n. 5486, 5732), thus it signifies insinuation.

AC 6451. I am being gathered unto my people.  That this signifies that he would be in the goods and truths of the nature which are from him, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel and of the tribes named from them, which are here “his people,” as being goods and truths in the natural (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 5414, 5879, 5951, 6335, 6337), and that these are from him is evident; and from the signification of “being gathered to that people,” as being to be in these things. As the subject treated of here and in what follows is the gathering or coming forth of spiritual good, which is “Israel,” in the goods and truths of the natural, which are his “sons” or the tribes named after them, it must be told how this is to be understood.

[2] In man there is what is inmost, there are interior things under the inmost, and there are exterior things. All these are most exactly distinct; they succeed in order, thus from the inmost down to the outermost; according to the order in which they succeed, they also flow in; hence it is that life flows through the inmost into the interiors, and through the interiors into the exteriors, thus according to the order in which they succeed; and it does not rest except in the ultimate of order, where it stops.  And as the interior things flow in according to order down to the ultimate, and there stop, it is evident that the interior things are together in the ultimate, but in this order: the inmost, which has flowed in, holds the center, the interior things which are under the inmost encompass the center; and the exterior things make the circumference; and this not only in general, but also in every detail. The former order is called “successive order,” and the latter “simultaneous order;” and this latter order originates from the former; for in every case the simultaneous has its origin in the successive, and when it has thus originated it exists so.

[3] As all the interiors are together in the ultimate, therefore the appearance is as if life were in the ultimate, that is, in the body; when yet it is in the interiors, nor yet there, but in the highest, that is, in the Lord, from whom is the all of life. Hence also it is that life in the exteriors is obscure compared with life in the interiors; for in the exteriors the life is general, coming forth from the influx of many, nay, of innumerable things from the interiors, which appear together and in general. Thus now it is in some measure plain how it is to be understood that spiritual good which is “Israel” must be in the goods and truths of the natural, which are his sons or tribes; for spiritual good which is “Israel” is in the interior of the natural, and the goods and truths which are his sons are in its exterior.  That spiritual good must be in these is signified by “I am being gathered unto my people.”

AC 6452. Bury me unto my fathers.  That this signifies that therein also are interior things and what is inmost, is evident from the representation of Abraham and Isaac, who here are his “fathers,” as being interior things and what is inmost, Abraham being what is inmost, and Isaac the interior which is under the inmost (n. 3245, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6434). Moreover the inmost and the interiors are together in the exterior, thus in goods and truths in the natural, which are the sons and tribes of Israel, (n. 6451).

AC 6453. Unto the cave. That this signifies where is obscurity, is evident from the signification of a “cave,” as being what is obscure (n. 2935).  Moreover that there is obscurity in the exterior natural where the truths and goods are which are represented by the sons and tribes of Israel, because therein is what is general, may be seen above (n. 6451).

AC 6454. That is in the field of Ephron the Hittite.  That this signifies which nevertheless can become clear, is evident from the signification of a “field,” as being the church (n. 2971, 3766); and from the representation of Ephron the Hittite, as being those with whom truth and good can be received (n. 2933, 2940, 2969), thus those with whom the obscurity of faith can become clear. The case herein is this. Whatever is in the natural, and especially what is in the exterior natural, is obscure in comparison with what is in the interior natural, and still more so in comparison with what is in the rational (n. 6451, 6453). But this obscurity becomes clear in two ways; first, if the exteriors are brought into compliance with the interiors, and thus into correspondence; secondly, if the man can be elevated from the exterior to the interior things, and thus to see the exterior things from what is interior.  This latter way is possible with those who are in the internal of the church, and the former with those who are in its external; but neither the one nor the other is obtained except through regeneration from the Lord. From this it is plain what is meant by the obscurity being capable of becoming clear.

AC 6455. In the cave that is in the field of Machpelah.  That this signifies in this obscurity, is evident from the signification of a “cave,” and also of “Machpelah,” as being what is obscure. A “cave” denotes what is obscure, (n. 2935, 6453); and also “Machpelah,” (n. 2935); but “Machpelah” signifies the quality of the obscurity.

AC 6456. Which is upon the faces of Mamre.  That this signifies the quantity and quality thereof, is evident from the signification of “Mamre,” as being the quantity and quality of that to which it is adjoined (n. 2970, 4613).

AC 6457. In the land of Canaan.  That this signifies where the church is, is evident from the signification of the “land of Canaan,” as being the church (n. 3686, 3705, 4447, 5136).

AC 6458. Which Abraham bought with the field from Ephron the Hittite.  That this signifies redemption, is evident from the signification of “buying,” as being to make one‘s own (n. 5374, 5397, 5410, 5426); thus also to redeem, for that which is redeemed is made one’s own; from the representation of Abraham, as being in the supreme sense the Lord (n. 1965, 1989, 2011, 3245, 3251, 3305, 3703, 4615, 6098, 6185, 6276); from the signification of a “field,” as being the church (n. 2971, 3766); and from the representation of Ephron the Hittite, as being those with whom good and truth can be received (n. 2933, 2940, 2969). Hence is evident what the sense of these words is, namely, that there is redemption by the Lord of those in the church with whom good and truth can be received.

AC 6459. For a possession of a sepulchre.  That this signifies regeneration, is evident from the signification of a “sepulchre,” as being regeneration (n. 2916, 2917, 5551).

AC 6460. There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah. That this signifies that all the interior things are in order in the good and truth in the natural, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 6451, 6452).

AC 6461. The purchase of the field and of the cave that is therein was from the sons of Heth.  That this signifies the redemption of those who receive truth, and through truth good, is evident from the signification of a “purchase,” as being redemption (n. 6458); from the signification of a “field,” as being the church (n. 2971, 3766), thus the man of the church, for he is a church; from the signification of a “cave,” as being what is obscure (n. 2935, 6453); and from the representation of the sons of Heth, as being the spiritual church which was from the Ancient Church (n. 2913, 2986); and because the “sons of Heth” denote the spiritual church from the Ancient Church, they denote those who receive truth and through truth good, for from this is the spiritual church.  From all this it is evident that by the “purchase of the field and of the cave which is in it was from the sons of Heth,” is signified the redemption of those who being in the church and as yet in obscurity, receive truth and through truth good.

AC 6462. And Jacob finished commanding his sons.  That this signifies the effect of the insinuation, is evident from the signification of “commanding sons and saying unto them,” as being insinuation (n. 6450); thus “to finish commanding them” denotes the effect of the insinuation.

AC 6463. And he gathered up his feet unto the bed.  That this signifies as to his lower things in which were things interior, unto the good and truth of the lower natural, is evident from the signification of “gathering up the feet,” as being to betake themselves to lower things. “To gather” is to betake themselves, when the “feet” denote lower things; and the “feet” denote the things of the natural, (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952), thus things that are lower, (n. 6436). That lower things in which are interior ones are meant, is evident from (n. 6451); and from the signification of a “bed,” as being the natural (n. 6188, 6226), thus the good and truth of the natural, for these make the natural with man.  That it is the good and truth of the lower natural, is because this natural is that to which interior things betake themselves (n. 6451, 6452); that the natural is lower and higher, or interior and exterior, (n. 3293, 3294, 5118, 5126, 5497, 5649). As by Israel is represented spiritual good from the natural, and by Jacob spiritual truth in the natural, and by his sons goods and truths in the natural distinguished into genera, therefore mention is made of a “bed,” because by it is signified the natural (n. 6188, 6226), as here, when he had finished speaking to his sons, that “he gathered up his feet unto the bed;” and also when Joseph came to him, it is said that “Israel strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed” (n. 6226); and likewise after he had spoken with Joseph about burying him in the sepulchre of his fathers, it is said that “Israel bowed himself upon the bed‘s head” (n. 6188).  And in this connection it is a remarkable fact that when Jacob is thought of, there appears in the world of spirits a bed with a man lying in it; this appears at a distance above the head, toward the front to the right.  This appearance originates in the fact that in heaven the idea of thought about Jacob is turned into the idea of thought about the natural; for in heaven there is not perceived what Jacob is, but what is represented by him, namely, the natural, which also is signified by a bed.

AC 6464. And expired.  That this signifies new life there, namely, in the goods and truths of the lower natural, which are represented by his sons and the tribes, is evident from the signification of “expiring,” or “dying,” as being new life (n. 3498, 3505, 4618, 4621, 6036).

AC 6465. And was gathered unto his peoples.  That this signifies that he was in the goods and truths of the natural which are from him, is evident from what was said above (n. 6451), where are like words (see what was there adduced concerning the coming forth and life of spiritual good, which is “Israel,” in the goods and truths of the lower natural, which are his sons and the twelve tribes). With respect to the coming forth of interior things in exterior, be it further known that all things, not only with man, but also in universal nature, come forth by successive formations, thus posterior things by formations from prior ones. Hence it is that each formation comes forth separate from the others, but still the posterior depends upon the prior, insomuch that it cannot subsist without it; for the posterior is kept in its connection and form by the prior.  From this it is also plain that in the posterior are all the prior things in their order; and the case is similar with the modes and forces which proceed from the prior things as from substances. This is the case with the interior and exterior things pertaining to man, and also with those which are of his life.

[2] He who does not conceive the interior and exterior things in man according to such formations, cannot possibly have any idea of the external and the internal man, and of the influx of the one into the other; still less of the coming forth and life of the interior man or spirit, and of its quality when the external, which is bodily, is separated by death. He who conceives of exterior and interior things as being continually more and more pure, and thus cohering by continuity, thus without distinction by formations of posterior things from prior ones, cannot apprehend otherwise than that when the external dies, the internal dies also; for he thinks that they cohere, and by reason of their coherence and continuity, when the one dies the other dies, because the one draws the other with it.  These things have been said in order that it may be known that the internal and the external are distinct from each other; and that interior and exterior things succeed in order; and also that all interior things are together in exterior things, or what is the same, all prior things in posterior ones, which subject has been treated of in these verses in the internal sense.

CONTINUATION ABOUT INFLUX, AND ABOUT THE INTERCOURSE OF THE SOUL AND THE BODY

AC 6466. At the end of the preceeding chapters it was shown that each life with man, namely, the life of his thought and the life of his will, flows in from heaven, and this through the angels and spirits who are with him; but by flowing in from heaven is meant that it flows in through heaven from the Lord, for the all of life with the angels is from the Lord, which they themselves unanimously confess, being also in the perception that it is so.  And as the all of life with the angels is from the Lord, the all of life with man is also from the Lord, for man is directed by means of angels and spirits in particular, and by means of heaven in general by the Lord.

AC 6467. From this it is evident that no man has life from himself, and therefore neither can he think and will from himself, for the life of man consists in thinking and willing.  For there is one only life, namely, that of the Lord, which flows into all, but is variously received, and this according to the quality which a man has induced on his soul by his life in the world.  Hence with the evil, goods and truths are turned into evils and falsities; but with the good, goods are received as goods, and truths as truths.  This may be compared to the light which flows into objects from the sun, which is diversely modified and variegated in the objects in accordance with the form of their parts, and hence is turned into colors either sorrowful or gladsome, thus in accordance with the quality. In like manner while a man lives in this world he induces on the purest substances that belong to his interior a quality, according to which the Lord’s life is received.  Be it known that the life from the Lord is the life of love toward the universal human race.

AC 6468. Spirits fresh from the world, before they have been instructed by angels, believe no otherwise than that the all of life is in the man himself, and that nothing flows in; because they know nothing in particular about heaven, thus neither about influx thence. Neither are spirits who are not good willing to be instructed in these things, for they desire to live from themselves; and they have said that I had no life, because they had heard me say that I do not live from myself, and that I know this by continual experience; but to this they were unwilling to attend.  It was further given to say, that everyone has life in accordance with the form of the interiors which he has acquired by willing and acting, thinking and speaking.

[2] I afterward spoke with good spirits about the influx of life from the Lord, that it flows into all, and that this is evident from heaven, in that heaven resembles a man, and is therefore called the Grand Man (of which, and of the correspondence therewith of all things in man, I have already treated at the end of a number of chapters), and that this could not possibly be unless life from the Lord flowed into heaven in general, and into each one there in particular.

[3] It was further said that this is evident from the fact that the universal heaven has reference to the Lord, and that the Lord is there the center of all the looks, they who are in heaven looking upward to Him, and they who are in hell looking downward from Him.  For the Lord appears to those who are in the heavens as a sun above them. It was further said that it is evident that the all of life is from the Lord from this fact also, that the soul of man can in the womb so wonderfully form a body, and its manifold members and organs in such a connection, and its interiors according to the image of heaven: this could not possibly be done unless all life were from the Lord, and unless heaven were such as has been described.

AC 6469. It has also been given me to perceive by influx the sweetness which the Angels perceive from the fact that they do not think and will from themselves, but from the Lord; hence they have tranquillity, peace, and happiness. And when angels have inflowed so that I perceived it, the presence of the Lord has been plainly observed, a sign that they are in the Lord‘s life; this it has been given to know from much experience. Once also when I was thinking of the influx of life from the Lord, and was revolving some doubts, it flowed in from heaven that no attention should be paid to thousands of objections and reasonings from fallacies.

AC 6470. That all life is from the Lord, it has also been given to know from the fact that no spirit thinks and speaks from himself, but from others, and these others from get others, and so on.  This has been frequently shown to those who believed that life was in them and did not flow in; and from this it has been given to conclude that because no one thinks and speaks from himself, but from others, therefore in the last resort all think and speak from One, thus from the Lord; and that unless all did so from One, it would be impossible for any order of lives to come forth in heaven, in which nevertheless the order is such that heaven is most distinctly arranged into societies according to the quality of the good.  It would be altogether otherwise if everyone acted from his own life.

AC 6471. A certain spirit (not of the evil, but from those who supposed that they possessed the knowledges of faith more than others, and who had instructed some others even in the fact that all good and truth are from the Lord, and that man cannot think or will what is good from himself, was brought into such a state that he did not think and will from himself; for in the other life it is possible to be brought into such states. When he was in this state he said that he could not live in such a way; but that life was grievous to him.  He was then told that he did not love to live in the truth which he had taught, and that the angels are in that state, and are in happiness when they perceive that they do not live from themselves; but this was of no avail.  Hence it was evident how difficult it is to live a life of faith unless the man lives in the good of charity.

AC 6472. How the case is with the influx of each life, namely, of the life of the thought and the life of the will from the Lord, has been given to know by revelation; namely, that the Lord inflows in two ways: through heaven mediately, and from Himself immediately; and that from Himself He flows both into man’s rational things, which are his interior things, and into his natural things, which are his exterior ones.  That which flows in from the Lord is the good of love and the truth of faith, for that which proceeds from the Lord is the Divine truth in which is the Divine good; but these are variously received with man, namely, in accordance with his quality.

[2] The Lord does not compel man to receive what flows in from Himself; but leads in freedom, and so far as man allows, through freedom leads to good.  Thus the Lord leads man according to his delights, and also according to fallacies and the principles received therefrom; but gradually He leads him out from these; and this appears to the man as if it were from himself. Thus the Lord does not break these things, for this would be to do violence to freedom, which however must needs exist, in order that the man may be reformed (n. 1937, 1947, 2875, 2876, 2881, 3145, 3146, 3158, 4031). That the Lord flows in with man in this manner, namely, not only mediately through heaven, but also immediately from Himself, both into the interior and the exterior things in the man, is a secret hitherto unknown.

AC 6473. That the Lord rules the last things of man equally as his first, can be seen from the fact that the order from the Lord is successive from first things to last, and in the order itself there is nothing but what is Divine; and this being so, the presence of the Lord must needs be in the last things equally as in the first, for the one follows from the other according to the tenor of order.

AC 6474. It was shown me by experience during the space of an hour, how all the thoughts are ruled by the Lord. There was an influx like a most gentle and almost imperceptible stream, the current of which does not appear, but still leads and draws. This, which flowed in from the Lord, led in this manner all the series of my thoughts into the consequent things, and although gently, powerfully, so that I could not possibly wander into  other thoughts, which also I was allowed to attempt, but in vain.

AC 6475. I have heard it said to certain evil spirits, who were in the world of spirits and who were continually thinking against the Lord--in regard to the spirits who are from hell, when in the world of spirits, see (n. 5852)--, that they should produce some one who said with truth about any angel of heaven (or, if they could, should show one single person in heaven) who does not acknowledge the Lord, and that He is the life of all, and that all have what they have from Him; but they were silent, because they could not do it.  Some of the evil spirits, who believed that there are heavens where the Lord is not acknowledged, wandered about and made inquiry, but after trying in vain, they returned.  It was said to them further that all in hell think against the Lord, nor do they attribute anything to Him which is above what is human; and yet most say that they acknowledge a Supreme Being, by which they mean the Father, and nevertheless live in hatred and revenge, and continually desire to be exalted over others, and to be worshiped as gods, and in this way they make hell for themselves.  It is very different with those who acknowledge the Lord, and believe in Him from the heart.  From this also it is evident that the Lord flows into all, both generally through heaven, and singularly and also universally from Himself; and that where the good of charity is, there He is; and also where the contrary is, there also He is, but in no other way than to give them life, and to withdraw them from evil in so far as this can be done.

AC 6476. Whenever I have been reading the Lord‘s prayer, I have plainly perceived an elevation toward the Lord which was like an attraction, and at the same time my ideas were open, and from this there was effected a communication with some societies in heaven; and I noticed that there was an influx from the Lord into every detail of the prayer, thus into every idea of my thought that was from the meaning of the things in the prayer.  The influx was effected with inexpressible variety, that is, not the same at one time as another; hence also it was made evident how infinite are the things contained in the prayer, and that the Lord is present in everyone of them.

AC 6477. For many years I have observed the general sphere of the influxes around me.  It consisted on the one hand of a perpetual endeavor by the hells to do evil, and on the other of a continual endeavor by the Lord to do good; by these endeavors opposite to each other I have been constantly kept in equilibrium.  Such endeavors and consequent equilibrium are with everyone; from this all have freedom to turn whithersoever they please; but the equilibrium varies in accordance with the good or evil that reigns with the man. From this also it could be seen that the Lord flows in universally, and therefore also singularly.  And I have been informed that the opposite endeavor, which is from hell, is nothing but the perversion into evil of the good that proceeds from the Lord.

AC 6478. When an angel does good to anyone, he also communicates to him his own good, good fortune, and bliss, and this with the desire to give the other everything, and to retain nothing.  When he is in such communication, then good flows in unto him together with good fortune and bliss much more than be gives, and this with continual increase. But as soon as the thought occurs that he desires to communicate what he has for the sake of obtaining in himself this influx of good fortune and bliss, the influx is dissipated; and still more so if any thought comes in of recompense from him to whom he communicates his good.  This it has been given me to know from much experience; and from this also it may be seen that the Lord is in every single thing, for the Lord is such that He wills to give Himself to all, and hence good fortune and bliss are increased with those who are images and likenesses of Him.

AC 6479. Spirits not so well disposed, who were for some time with me, continually injected doubts from the fallacies of the senses against the possibility of all things flowing from one fountain, and thus from the Lord. But they were told that so many doubts cannot be removed within a short time, on account of the fallacies of the senses, which must first be dispelled, and on account of the numberless unknown things which must first be known; nay, that with those who are in what is negative, that is, those with whom what is negative universally reigns, doubts cannot possibly be removed; for with them one scruple has more weight than a thousand confirmations.  For one scruple is like a grain of sand placed close before the pupil of the eye, which, although single and small, yet takes away all the sight. But they who are in what is affirmative, that is, those with whom what is affirmative universally reigns, reject the scruples from fallacies which are contrary to truths, and if there are any things which they do not apprehend, these they cast to the sides, and say that they do not as yet understand them, and nevertheless they remain in the belief of the truth.  But the above-mentioned spirits attended little to these things, because they were in what is negative.

AC 6480. As the subject here treated of is the Lord’s influx mediately through heaven and immediately from Himself, and this is more fitly called Providence (for the Lord flows not only into the will and thought of man, but also at the same time into many things that befall him), therefore in what now follows it will be called Providence.

AC 6481. Spirits coming into the other life bring with them the opinion that the Divine Providence is universal, but not in the singulars.  The cause of this opinion had been that they had seen the evil exalted to honors, and become rich, and crowned with success, which such persons ascribe to their own sagacity; not knowing that the Divine Providence has for its end the eternal salvation of man, thus not his good fortune in this world, namely, his opulence and eminence, wherein most persons during the life of the body make happiness itself consist; when yet the fact is not so, for eminence usually begets the love of self, and opulence the love of the world, thus what is contrary to love to God and to charity toward the neighbor. Therefore such things are given to the evil, and also to the good if they are not unsuitable and do not withdraw them from heaven. Moreover the Lord provides for His ends through the evil equally as through the good; for the Lord moves the evil through their very loves to do what is good to the neighbor, to their country, and the church; for the evil desire to be in eminence, they desire their own advantage, and for the sake of these things they desire to seem upright and zealous, and from this desire, as from a fire, they are more strongly moved to do such things than are the well-disposed.  It is also permitted the evil to believe that all things are of their own sagacity, and that there is no Divine Providence, or only one that is universal. As they are not willing to perceive otherwise, and in order that they may perform such things as are conducive to the public good, successes are also given them in accordance with their projects, which successes are greater incitements to them from the fact that they ascribe them to themselves.

AC 6482. I have spoken with spirits about the universal government of the Lord--that what is universal is impossible without its singulars, and that without these what is universal is nothing; for it is called universal because its singulars taken together are so called, just as particulars when taken together are called a general; and therefore to say that there is Providence in the universal and not in the singulars, is to say nothing.  If anyone by Providence in the universal understands the preservation of the whole according to an order impressed on universal nature at its first creation, he does not consider that nothing can subsist unless it perpetually comes into existence; for, as is known in the learned world, subsistence is a perpetual coming into existence, thus preservation is perpetual creation; consequently providence is constantly in the details. Some confirm themselves in the persuasion that what is universal may exist without what is particular, from the case of a king, who rules only universally, and not in every detail; but they do not consider that the royalty is not only with the king himself, but also with his ministers, who are his vice-regents in things where he himself is not able to act; it is in this way that the universal which is of the king is in all the details. But with the Lord there is no need of this; for whatever is in Him is infinite, because Divine. The reason why the angels are His ministers is in order that they may be in active life, and thence in happiness; nevertheless the ministries which they discharge are not from them, but from influx from the Lord, as also the angels unanimously confess.

AC 6483. From what has now been said it may also be seen that a universal is precisely in accordance with its singulars; if these are less singular the universal also is less elevated, but if they are more singular, the universal is thereby more elevated; for the singulars cause the universal to be and to be called universal.  From this may be known the nature of the Divine universal, that it is in the veriest singulars of all things; for it is the most elevated above all, because it is Divine and infinite.

AC 6484. There was a certain one who had confirmed himself in the notion that nothing is of the Divine Providence, but that each and all things are of sagacity, and are also from fortune and chance.  He granted that there is fortune, but knew not what it is.  He was one of the subtle evil spirits, because he had been more given to thought than to speech and conversation.  When he came into the other life he continued there his former life, as all do; he sought out and learned all things--even magical arts-- that he supposed might be of service to him, and by means of which he might take such care of himself as to be fortunate from himself. I conversed with him, and he said that he was in his heaven when this was the case, and that there could not possibly be any other heaven than that which he made for himself.  But it was given to answer that his heaven is turned into hell as soon as the real heaven flows into it.  He was then in the world of spirits, and when spirits are there they are in the delights of the loves in which they had been in the world (n. 5852). But it then came to pass that heaven flowed into his delight, and he then suddenly felt hell, and said with horror that he had never believed this. I was told by good spirits that he was worse than the others because there was a more subtle influx from him than from the others.  Afterward the same spirit was reduced into the state of his infancy, and the Lord showed the angels what his quality had been at that time, and also what was the then foreseen quality of his future life, and that every detail of his life had been led by the Lord, and that he would have plunged into the most atrocious hell if there had been even the least cessation of the continual providence of the Lord.  This can be presented to view before the angels.  He was also asked whether be had ever thought about eternal life.  He said that he had not believed in it, and that he had rejected everything of the kind, because he saw so much confusion, the righteous suffering, and the wicked glorying, with other such things; also because he saw that brute animals have similar senses and life, also discernment and sagacity; thus he had believed that he should die as they do.  He said that he had been in the utmost amazement when he perceived that he lived after death.

AC 6485. I have conversed with good spirits about the Divine Providence and about man‘s own sagacity, and by means of a representation familiar among them they showed me about this matter, namely, by dust scattered and rare in the atmosphere.  They said that relatively to the Divine Providence man’s own sagacity is like that speck of dust in comparison with the universal atmosphere, and which is relatively nothing and falls to the ground.  They added that those who attribute all things to their own sagacity are like those who wander in dark forests, not knowing the way out, and if they find it they attribute it either to their own sagacity or to fortune.  The angels said further that all accidents are of Providence, and that for many reasons Providence acts silently and secretly; and that if it acted openly, man could not possibly be reformed.

AC 6486. I have heard angels talking together about the Lord‘s Providence; but of what they said, though I understood it, little can be described, because their speech was continually joined to heavenly representatives, but little of which can be expressed.  They spoke wisely, saying that the Lord’s Providence is in the veriest singulars of all things, but not according to such an order as man proposes to himself, because things to come are both foreseen and provided; and that the case is like that of a person building a palace, who first collects materials of every kind, and lays them together in heaps, where they lie without order, while the kind of palace to be former from them exists solely in the understanding of the architect.

AC 6487. When I was talking with the angels about the Divine Providence of the Lord, there were spirits also present, who had impressed on themselves some notion about fate or absolute necessity.  They supposed the Lord to act from this necessity, because He cannot proceed otherwise than according to the most essential things, thus according to the things that belong to the most perfect order.  But they were shown that man has freedom, and that if he acts from freedom, it is not from necessity. This was illustrated by the case of houses which are to be built, in that the bricks, mortar, sand, stones serving for foundations and columns, also timbers and beams, and the like, are brought together not in that order in which the house is to be constructed, but at pleasure; and that the Lord alone knows what kind of a house may be built with these materials.  All the things which are from the Lord are most essential; but they do not follow in order from necessity, but in a manner that is applicable to the freedom of man.

AC 6488. There was discourse about predestination, and many of the spirits, from principles adopted in the world, were of the opinion that some have been predestined to heaven, and some to hell; but I heard an answer from heaven, that no one has ever been predestined to hell, but that all have been predestined to eternal life.

AC 6489. The Providence of the Lord has been conjoined with foresight, and the one is impossible without the other; for evils are foreseen, and goods are provided. And the evils which are foreseen, are by the provident disposition of the Lord continually bent to good, for the Divine end of good reigns universally. Hence nothing is permitted except for the end that some good may come out of it; but as man has freedom, in order that he may be reformed, he is bent from evil to good so far as he suffers himself to be bent in freedom, and (if he cannot be led to heaven) continually from the most atrocious hell, into which he makes every effort to plunge, into a milder one.

AC 6490. Unless the Lord‘s Providence was in the veriest singulars, it would be impossible for man to be saved, or indeed to live, for life is from the Lord, and all the moments of life have a series of consequences to eternity. I was once given plainly to perceive the sphere of ends which is of Providence from the Lord.

AC 6491. That the Lord’s Providence is infinite, and regards what is eternal, may be seen from the formation of embryos in the womb, where lineaments are continually projected toward those which are to come, so that one lineament is always a plane for another, and this without any error, until the embryo is formed; and after it has been born, one thing is prepared successively toward another and for another, in order that a perfect man may come forth, and at last such a man as to be capable of receiving heaven.  If all the details are thus provided during man‘s conception, birth, and growth, how much more must this be the case with regard to the spiritual life.

AC 6492. In a dream my father appeared to me, and I spoke with him, saying that after a son becomes his own master he ought not to acknowledge his father as father, as before; for the reason why the father is to be acknowledged during the bringing up of the son, is that the father is then in the Lord’s stead, nor does a son know at that time what he ought to do except by the direction of his father.  But when a son becomes his own master, and competent to think for himself, and seems to himself to be able to direct himself from himself, then the Lord must be his Father, whose vice-regent his natural father had been.  These things I spoke in my dream.  When I awoke, there seemed to descend from heaven a long roll fastened to rods, and tied by most beautiful woven knots of an azure color; the beauty of this object was indescribable.  It was said that the angels make such presents to one another.

AC 6493. I have often spoken with spirits about fortune, which in the world appears like chance, because men know not whence it is; and because they do not know this, some deny that there is such a thing. When something happened to me which seemed to be by chance, I was told by the angels that it had happened because spirits of that kind were present; and that when it was a mischance, the sphere of spirits of a corresponding kind had prevailed.  Moreover evil spirits have found out how to produce by their arts a sphere giving rise to misfortunes, which appeared exactly as if of chance. And it was further said that all things, nay, the leasts of all things, down to the leasts of the leasts, are directed by the Providence of the Lord, even as to the very steps; and when such a sphere prevails as is contrary thereto, misfortunes happen.  They also confirmed the fact that there is no such thing as chance, and that apparent accident, or fortune, is Providence in the ultimate of order, in which all things are comparatively inconstant.

AC 6494. For a number of years I have carefully observed whether fortune is anything, and I have found that it is, and that sagacity then availed nothing.  Moreover all who have long reflected on this subject, know and confess this, but they do not know whence it is: scarcely anyone knows that it is from the spiritual world, when yet this is the source of it.  I once played in company a common game of chance with dice, and the spirits who were with me spoke to me about fortune in games, and said that what is fortunate was represented to them by a bright cloud, and what is unfortunate by a dusky cloud; and that when a dusky cloud appeared with me, it was impossible for me to win; moreover by this sign they predicted to me the turns of fortune in that game.  From this it was given me to know that what is attributed to fortune, even in games, is from the spiritual world; much more that which befalls man in relation to the vicissitudes in the course of his life; and that what is called fortune is from the influx of Providence in the ultimates of order, where it so comes forth; thus that Providence is in the veriest singulars of all things, according to the Lord‘s words, that not even a hair falls from the head without the will of God.

AC 6495. From all that has been adduced it may be seen that the influx from the Lord is immediate, and also mediate through heaven; but the influx which is from the Lord is the good of heavenly love, thus of love toward the neighbor.  In this love the Lord is present, for He loves the universal human race, and desires to eternally save every member of it; and as the good of this love is from Himself, He Himself is in it; thus He is present with the man who is in the good of this love.  But when a man suffers himself to come into such a state as to receive influx from hell, he then feels the life of the love of self and of the world to be delightful, and the life of the love of the neighbor (unless it is in favor of himself) to be undelightful.  And because a man who is in this state desires nothing but evils, and thinks nothing but falsities about the spiritual life, therefore to prevent his acting as he desires, and speaking as he thinks, he is kept in bonds by his loves themselves, whose loss he fears, thus by the fear of the loss of honor, gain, reputation, and life.  Into these bonds which constitute the lowest plane, the Lord then flows, and through them rules the man; and hence he appears moral and civil in act, sometimes like an angel, and does no harm to society and his neighbor; and if he does harm, there are civil laws to punish him. But in the other life this plane is nonexistent; there man is in the spiritual world, consequently in the sphere of his interiors; thus such as he had been inwardly, such he is there, and not such as he had appeared in externals; for externals are taken away from him, and when these are taken away, his quality in the world, whether that of a devil or that of an angel, is manifest.

AC 6496. A continuation will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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