HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 14

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

AC 8120. It is believed that charity toward the neighbor consists in giving to the poor, in helping the needy, and in doing good to everyone without exception.  Nevertheless genuine charity consists in acting prudently, and to the end that good may come thereby.  He who helps any poor or needy rogue, does evil to his neighbor through him, for by the help which he affords he confirms him in evil, and supplies him with the means of doing evil to others.  It is otherwise with him who gives assistance to the good.

AC 8121. But charity toward the neighbor extends much more widely than to the poor and needy. Charity toward the neighbor consists in doing right in every work, and one‘s duty in every office.  If a judge does what is just for the sake of justice, be exercises charity toward the neighbor; if he punishes the guilty and acquits the guiltless, he exercises charity toward the neighbor, for he thus consults the welfare of his fellow-citizen, of his country, and also of the Lord’s kingdom. By doing what is just for the sake of justice he consults the welfare of the Lord‘s kingdom; by acquitting the guiltless, he consults that of his fellow-citizen; and by punishing the guilty, that of his country.  The priest who teaches truth, and leads to good, for the sake of truth and good, exercises charity; but he who does such things for the sake of himself and the world does not exercise charity, because he does not love his neighbor, but himself.

AC 8122. The case is the same in all other instances, whether men be in any employment or not; as with children toward their parents, and with parents toward their children; with servants toward their masters, and with masters toward their servants; with subjects toward their king, and with the king toward his subjects. In these cases he who does his duty from a sense of duty, and what is just from a sense of justice, exercises charity.

AC 8123. That such things belong to charity toward the neighbor, is because every man is the neighbor, but in various ways (n. 6818); a society smaller or larger is more the neighbor (n. 6819, 6820); our country is yet more the neighbor (n. 6819, 6821); the church still more (n. 6819, 6822); the Lord’s kingdom still more (n. 6819, 6823); and the Lord above all (n. 6819, 6824).  In the universal sense the good which proceeds from the Lord is the neighbor (n. 6706, 6711), consequently so also are justice and right.  And therefore he who does any good whatsoever for the sake of good, and anything just for the sake of justice, loves the neighbor and exercises charity, for he acts from the love of what is good, and the love of what is just, and thus from the love of those in whom these are.  But he who does what is unjust for the sake of any self-advantage whatever, hates his neighbor.

AC 8124. He who is in charity toward the neighbor from internal affection is a charity toward the neighbor in everything which he thinks and speaks, and which he wills and does.  It can be said that as to his interiors a man or an angel is a charity when good is to him the neighbor.  So widely does charity toward the neighbor extend.

EXODUS 14:1-31

1. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,

2. Speak unto the sons of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal-zephon: over against it shall ye encamp by the sea.

3. And Pharaoh will say of the sons of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut upon them.

4. And I will harden Pharaoh‘s heart, and he shall follow after them; and I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army; and the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah. And they did so.

5. And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled; and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us?

6. And he harnessed his chariot, and took his people with him:

7. And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and tertian captains upon all of them.

8. And Jehovah hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the sons of Israel; and the sons of Israel went out with a lofty hand.

9. And the Egyptians pursued after them, and overtook them encamping by the sea, all the horses of the chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, beside Pi-hahiroth before Baal-zephon.

10. And Pharaoh drew nigh, and the sons of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold the Egyptian marching after them, and they were sore afraid; and the sons of Israel cried unto Jehovah.

11. And they said unto Moses, are there no graves in Egypt, that thou hast taken us to die in the wilderness? Why hast thou done this to us, to lead us forth out of Egypt?

12. Is not this the word that we spake unto thee in Egypt, saying, Cease from us, and let us serve the Egyptians? because it is good for us to serve the Egyptians, rather than that we should die in the wilderness.

13. And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of Jehovah, which He will do for you to-day; for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more forever.

14. Jehovah shall wage war for you, and ye shall keep silence.

15. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Why criest thou unto Me?  speak unto the sons of Israel, that they set forward.

16. And thou, lift up thy rod, and stretch out thy hand over the sea, and cleave it asunder; and the sons of Israel shall come into the midst of the sea on the dry.

17. And I, behold I will harden the heart of the Egyptians, and they shall come after them; and I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army, in his chariots, and in his horsemen.

18. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah, when I am glorified in Pharaoh, in his chariots, and in his horsemen.

19. And the angel of God set out, marching before the camp of Israel, and he went behind them; and the pillar of cloud set out from before them and stood behind them:

20. And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness, and it lighted up the night; and the one came not near the other all the night.

21. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and Jehovah made the sea go away by a strong east wind all the night, and made the sea dry, and the waters were cleft asunder.

22. And the sons of Israel came into the midst of the sea in the dry; and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.

23. And the Egyptians pursued, and came after them, all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen, into the midst of the sea.

24. And it was in the morning watch, and Jehovah looked forth to the camp of the Egyptians in the pillar of fire and of cloud, and troubled the camp of the Egyptians.

25. And He took off the wheel of his chariots, and he drew it in heaviness; and the Egyptian said, I will flee before Israel; because Jehovah wageth war for them against the Egyptians.

26. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand over the sea, and let the waters return upon the Egyptians, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen.

27. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned at the turn of the morning to the strength of its flow; and the Egyptians fled to meet it; and Jehovah shook out the Egyptians into the midst of the sea.

28. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the army of Pharaoh that came after them into the sea; there was not left of them even one.

29. And the sons of Israel went on the dry into the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.

30. And Jehovah saved Israel on this day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the seashore.

31. And Israel saw the great hand which Jehovah wrought on the Egyptians, and the people feared Jehovah; and they believed in Jehovah, and in His servant Moses.

THE CONTENTS

AC 8125. In this chapter, in the internal sense, the subject treated of is the first temptation of those who are of the spiritual church, and the conducting of them through the midst of hell, and their protection then by the Lord; and also the immersion of those who were in faith separate from charity in hell, where are falsities from evils.  They who are of the spiritual church are represented by the sons of Israel; they who are in faith separate from charity by the Egyptians. The first temptation is described by the murmuring of the sons of Israel when they saw the army of Pharaoh.  Hell is signified by the ”sea Suph“ through which the sons of Israel were conducted in safety, and in which the Egyptians were immersed. Falsities from evils are signified by the waters which covered the latter.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 8126. Verses 1-4.  And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, Speak unto the sons of Israel, that they turn back and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal-zephon; over against it shall ye encamp by the sea.  And Pharaoh will say of the sons of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut upon them.  And I will harden Pharaoh‘s heart, and he shall follow after them; and I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army; and the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah.  And they did so.  ”And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,“ signifies instruction by the Divine by means of Divine truth; ”Speak unto the sons of Israel,“ signifies the influx of truth Divine with those who are of the spiritual church; ”that they turn back,“ signifies that they were not yet prepared; ”and encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal-zephon,“ signifies the beginning of a state for undergoing temptations; ”over against it shall ye encamp by the sea,“ signifies that the influx of temptation is thence; ”and Pharaoh will say of the sons of Israel,“ signifies the thought of those who are in damnation concerning the state of those who are of the spiritual church; ”They are entangled in the land,“ signifies that they are in confusion in respect to the things of the church; ”the wilderness hath shut upon them,“ signifies that obscurity has taken possession of them; ”and I will harden Pharaoh’s heart,“ signifies that they who were in falsities from evil would still be determined; ”and he shall follow after them,“ signifies that they would still endeavor to subjugate them; ”and I will be glorified,“ signifies that they should see a Divine effect from the Divine Human of the Lord in the dissipation of falsity; ”in Pharaoh, and in all his army,“ signifies the immersion in hell of those who were in falsities from evil, and an environment there by falsities as by waters; ”and the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah,“ signifies that from this it will be known that the Lord is the only God; ”and they did so,“ signifies obedience.

AC 8127. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying.  That this signifies instruction by the Divine by means of Divine truth, is evident from the signification of ”Jehovah spake and said,“ when concerning those things which shall be done and come to pass, as being instruction by the Divine (n. 7186, 7241, 7267, 7304, 7380, 7517); and from the representation of Moses, as being the Lord as to Divine truth (n. 6723, 6752, 6771, 6827, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382).  It is said by means of Divine truth, because Moses, by whom Divine truth is represented, was to speak unto the people. The Divine Itself does not instruct and speak with men, nor indeed with angels, immediately; but mediately by means of Divine truth (n. 7009).  This is meant by the Lord‘s words in John:--

No one hath ever seen God; the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18; 5:37).

By ”the only-begotten Son“ is meant the Lord as to Divine truth; from this also the Lord calls Himself ”the Son of man“ (n. 2628, 2803, 2813, 3704).  The Lord also, when in the world, was Divine truth; but afterward, when He was glorified, He became also as to the Human, Divine good; and then from this proceeded Divine truth, which is the ”Spirit of truth“ or ”Holy Spirit.“

AC 8128. Speak unto the sons of Israel.  That this signifies the influx of truth Divine with those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of ”speaking,“ as being influx (n. 2951, 5481, 5797, 7270), and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223).  ”To speak“ denotes influx, because in the internal representative sense Moses is Divine truth, and Divine truth comes into perception and thought by influx. Thought from perception is internal speech, to which external speech corresponds; and therefore in the internal sense the former is meant by the latter.

AC 8129. That they turn back.  That this signifies that they were not yet prepared, is evident from the signification of ”turning back,“ namely, from the way of the land of the Philistines to the way of the wilderness at the sea Suph, as being that they were not yet prepared, namely for introduction into heaven, which is signified by their entrance into the land of Canaan.  How the case herein is, and that ”turning back“ denotes that they were not prepared, can be seen from what was unfolded and shown at (verse 18) of the preceding chapter (n. 8098, 8099); namely, that they could not be introduced into heaven until they had undergone temptations, and the Lord had thereby confirmed truths and goods and had conjoined them.  This is here meant by ”being prepared.“

AC 8130. And encamp before Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal-zephon.  That this signifies the beginning of a state for undergoing temptations, is evident from the signification of ”encamping,“ as being the setting in order of truth and good (n. 4236, 8103), here for undergoing temptations.  This state is what is signified by the places at which they were to encamp. That this state is signified is plain from what follows, in that Pharaoh with his army afterward pitched his camp there, and that at the sight of them the sons of Israel came into grievous anxiety, by which the first state of temptations is signified (verses 9 to 12).

AC 8131. Over against it shall ye encamp by the sea.  That this signifies that the influx of temptation is thence, is evident from the signification of ”over against it,“ as being near, so as to be in sight, and in the internal sense so that there was influx thence; and from the signification of ”encamping,“ as being the setting in order of truth and good for the undergoing of temptations (n. 8130); and from the signification of ”the sea Suph,“ as being the hell where are falsities from evils (n. 8099).  How it is to be understood that the influx of temptation was from there shall be briefly told.  Temptations with man are spiritual combats between evil and good spirits, which combats are from those things and concerning those things which the man has done and thought, and which are in his memory. The evil spirits accuse and attack; but the good excuse and defend.  These combats appear as if in the man, for the things which flow in from the spiritual world with a man are not presented as being from that world, but in himself (n. 741, 751, 761, 1820, 3927, 4249, 4307, 4572, 5036, 6657, 6666). It is the same with spirits when they undergo temptations.  Therefore when people are about to undergo temptations, the interior things in them, that is, the truths and goods, are arranged by the Lord into such a state that by immediate influx from Himself and mediate influx through heaven, the falsities and evils which are from the hells may be resisted, and thereby he who is in temptation may be protected. When a man is being tempted he is also near hell, especially near that hell which is signified by ”the sea Suph,“ for in this hell are they who have been in the memory-knowledge of truth but in a life of evil, and thereby in falsities derived from evil.  From the hells, through spirits, those things flow in which bring anxiety upon man in temptations.  From all this it can be seen what is meant by the influx of temptation from hell, which is signified by their ”encamping over against it by the sea Suph.“

AC 8132. And Pharaoh will say of the sons of Israel.  That this signifies the thought of those who are in damnation concerning the state of those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ as being thought (n. 7094, 7107, 7244, 7937); from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest by means of falsities (n. 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7317), here those who are in damnation, that is, in mere falsities from evil, for they who are merely in these, are in damnation. This state is signified by Pharaoh and the Egyptians after the firstborn were slain in Egypt, for by the slaying of the firstborn is signified damnation, (n. 7766, 7778); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8128).

AC 8133. They are entangled in the land.  That this signifies that they are in confusion in respect to the things of the church, is evident from the signification of ”being entangled,“ as being to be perplexed, thus to be in confusion (n. 2831); and from the signification of ”land,“ as being those things which are of the church. ”Land“ denotes the church, (n. 8011).

AC 8134. The wilderness hath shut upon them.  That this signifies that obscurity has taken possession of them, is evident from the signification of ”shutting upon them,“ when said of the obscurity which is signified by ”the wilderness,“ as being to take complete possession of them; and from the signification of ”wilderness,“ as being the obscurity of faith (n. 7313).

AC 8135. And I will harden Pharaoh’s heart.  That this signifies that they who were in falsities from evil would still he determined, is evident from the signification of ”hardening the heart,“ as being to be determined (n. 7272, 7300, 7305); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities from evil, or what is the same thing, who are in damnation (n. 8132).  It is said ”Pharaoh‘s heart,“ because by ”heart“ in the genuine sense is signified the good of celestial love (n. 3313, 3635, 3883-3896, 7542), consequently in the opposite sense is signified evil; here the evil of those who have been in the memory-knowledge of faith and in a life of evil.

AC 8136. And he shall follow after them.  That this signifies that they would still endeavor to subjugate them, is evident from the signification of ”following after them,“ as being to endeavor to subjugate; for the intention of their pursuit was to reduce them into a state of servitude, and by ”making to serve,“ when said of the Egyptians, is signified the intention to subjugate (n. 6666, 6670, 6671).

AC 8137. And I will be glorified.  That this signifies that they should see a Divine effect from the Divine Human of the Lord in the dissipation of falsity, is evident from the signification of ”to be glorified,“ when said of Jehovah or the Lord, as being a Divine effect, here from His Divine Human, because by coming into the world and assuming the Human and making it Divine, the Lord cast into the hells all evils and falsities, and reduced the heavens into order, and also liberated from damnation those who were of the spiritual church (n. 6854, 6914, 7091, 7828, 7932, 8018).  These things are in general signified by ”being glorified,“ but here there is signified that they who had infested the well-disposed should be cast into hell, and there encompassed about with falsities as with waters of a sea, and this as a Divine effect from the mere presence of the Lord.

[2] To show how the case herein is, it shall be further unfolded.  There are as many hells as there are genera and species of evils, each hell being separated from others as it were by rain-storms, clouds, or waters.  In the other life evils and falsities appear before the eyes of spirits as rain-storms and clouds, and also as waters; the falsities from evils of those who have been of the spiritual church and have lived evilly, appear as waters; but the falsities from evils of those who have been of the celestial church, appear as rain-storms.  They who are in the hells appear to be thus encompassed, with a difference everywhere in respect to amount and kind, density and rarity, thick darkness and dimness, according to the genus and species of the falsity from evil.  The hell where they are who have lived in faith separate from charity and in a life of evil, is encompassed as by the waters of a sea; the falsities of evil do not indeed appear as waters to those who are there, but to those who look from without. Above that sea, where these are, are the hells of adulterers; these are above, because in the internal sense adulteries denote adulterations of good and the consequent perversions of truth, thus they denote evils from which come falsities contrary to the truths and goods of faith (n. 2466, 2729, 3399), being such falsities as are with those who are in the hell beneath, and who have lived contrary to the truth of the church, and have made its good of no account, and therefore have also adulterated and perverted everything that is said in the Word about good, that is, about charity toward the neighbor and about love to God.

[3] As regards the ”glorification in Pharaoh and in his army,“ this here denotes immersion in this hell and being encompassed by waters as of a sea at the mere presence of the Lord, as was said above. For the evil flee from the presence of the Lord, that is, the presence of the good and truth that are from Him, feeling horror and torment at their mere approach; and also by reason of this presence they become encompassed about with their own evils and falsities, for these then burst forth from them; and indeed these evils and falsities encompass and are interposed in order to prevent the Divine from flowing in and tormenting them. This is the Divine effect which is here signified by the ”glorification in Pharaoh and in his army.“ That this effect is from the Divine Human of the Lord, is because, as before said, by the Lord’s coming into the world and assuming the Human and making it Divine, He cast all falsities and evils into hell, and reduced truths and goods in the heavens into order, and liberated from damnation those who were of the spiritual church.

AC 8138. In Pharaoh and in all his army.  That this signifies the immersion in hell of those who were in falsities from evil, and an environment there by falsities as by waters, is evident from what has just been mentioned (n. 8137), namely, that by ”Pharaoh“ and also by ”his army,“ are signified those who were cast into hell; by ”Pharaoh,“ those who are in falsities from evil, and by ”his army,“ the falsities themselves. ”Armies“ denote truths from good, (n. 3448, 7236, 7988), and therefore in the opposite sense they signify falsities from evil (n. 3448). It is said ”an environment by falsities as by waters,“ because falsities from evil, such as belong to those of the church who have been in faith separate and in a life of evil, appear there like waters (n. 8137) and it is from this that inundations of waters signify vastations of truth, and the waters of them, falsities (n. 705, 739, 756, 6346, 6853, 7307).

AC 8139. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah.  This signifies that from this it will be known that the Lord is the only God, (n. 7401, 7444, 7544, 7598, 7636), where like words occur.

AC 8140. And they did so.  That this signifies obedience, is evident without explication.

AC 8141. Verses 5-9.  And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled; and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us? And he harnessed his chariot, and took his people with him; and he took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, and tertian captains upon all of them.  And Jehovah hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after the sons of Israel; and the sons of Israel went out with a lofty hand. And the Egyptians pursued after them, and overtook them encamping by the sea, all the horses of the chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army, beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon. ”And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled,“ signifies the thought of those who were in mere falsities from evil, that they were completely separated; ”and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people,“ signifies a change of state into evil in the case of those who were in falsities from evil; ”and they said, What is this we have done?“ signifies chiding; ”that we have let Israel go from serving us,“ signifies that they have left and have not subjugated them; ”and he harnessed his chariot,“ signifies the doctrine of falsity, which is that of faith separate in general; ”and took his people with him,“ signifies with all falsities both in general and in particular; ”and he took six hundred chosen chariots,“ signifies all and each of the doctrinal things of falsity which are of faith separate in their order; ”and all the chariots of Egypt,“ signifies also the doctrinal things of falsity that are of service to them; ”and tertian captains upon all of them,“ signifies reduced into order under generals; ”and Jehovah hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt,“ signifies obstinacy from the falsity which is from evil; ”and he pursued after the sons of Israel,“ signifies an attempt to subjugate those who were in faith conjoined with charity; ”and the sons of Israel went out with a lofty hand,“ signifies when nevertheless they had been released by the Divine power from the endeavor to subjugate them; ”and the Egyptians pursued after them,“ signifies the effect from the endeavor to subjugate on the part of those who were in falsities from evil; ”and overtook them encamping by the sea,“ signifies communication around the region of hell where are falsities from evil; ”all the horses of the chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army,“ signifies all things which are of falsity from a perverted understanding; ”beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon,“ signifies whence there was communication, and therefore the beginning of the state of undergoing temptations.

AC 8142. And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled.  That this signifies the thought of those who were in mere falsities from evil, that they were completely separated, is evident from the signification of anyone‘s being told, as being to think and reflect (n. 2862, 5508); from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities from evil (n. 8132, 8135), and who when he is called ”king of Egypt“ denotes those who are in mere falsities (n. 7220, 7228), for by ”king“ are signified truths (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148), consequently in the opposite sense falsities; and from the signification of ”fleeing,“ as being to be separated.

AC 8143. And the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people.  That this signifies a change of state into evil in the case of those who were in falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of ”the heart being turned,“ as being a change of state into evil. ”To be turned,“ denotes to be changed, here as to the mind, thus as to the state, and ”heart“ denotes evil (n. 8135); from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities from evil (n. 8132); from the signification of ”servants,“ as being those who are of lower condition, and who minister, consequently all and each who are in falsities from evil (n. 7396) and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church.  Hence it is evident that by ”the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants being turned against the people,“ is signified a change of state into evil in the case of all those who are in falsities from evil, against those who are of the spiritual church.

AC 8144. And they said, What is this we have done?  That this signifies a chiding, namely, of themselves, is evident without explication.

AC 8145. That we have let Israel go from serving us.  That this signifies that they have left and have not subjugated them, is evident from the signification of ”letting go,“ as being to leave; and from the signification of ”from serving us,“ when said by the Egyptians concerning the sons of Israel, as being from assaulting by means of falsities and infesting (n. 7120, 7129), and from subjugating thereby (n. 6666, 6670, 6671).

AC 8146. And he harnessed his chariot.  That this signifies the doctrine of falsity, which is that of faith separate in general, is evident from the signification of a ”chariot,“ as being doctrine (n. 2760, 5321, 5945), here the doctrine of falsity which is of faith separate, because it is the chariot of Pharaoh, and by Pharaoh are represented the falsities which are of faith separate; for they who are in faith separate from charity and at the same time in a life of evil must needs be in falsities (n. 8094).

[2] In what now follows, the subject treated of is the gathering together of all the falsities derived from evil with those who have been in faith separate from charity and in a life of evil.  In what precedes, the vastation of the truths of faith with them was described, and their final reduction to the state of being in mere falsities from evil, thus in damnation. In this chapter their being cast down into hell is now treated of, for this follows damnation.  With this state of being cast down into hell, the case is this.  When this is to be done, all the falsities that appertain to them are gathered together into one, which is effected by the opening of all the hells with which they have had communication, and their being poured in upon them.  Thence come the condensations around them of falsities from evil which appear as waters to those who look at them from without (n. 8137, 8138), for they are exhalations from their life; and when they are encompassed about with these, they are in hell.  That the falsities from evil are gathered together into one and are poured in upon them, is done in order that they may be surrounded by such things as have been of their life, and may be afterward kept in them.  Their kind of evil and its derivative falsity then distinguish them and their hell from other hells.

[3] As the subject treated of is the gathering together of all the falsities from evil which appertain to them, therefore such frequent mention is made in this chapter of the chariots of Pharaoh, his horses, horsemen, army, and people, for by these are signified all things of falsity which appertain to them, as in this verse, ”He harnessed his chariot, and took his people with him;“ in the seventh verse, ”He took six hundred chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt;“ in the ninth verse, ”And the Egyptians pursued after them, all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army;“ in verse seventeen, ”I will be glorified in Pharaoh, in all his army, in his chariots, and in his horsemen;“ in like manner in verse eighteen; again in verse twenty-three, ”And the Egyptians pursued, and came after them, all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen;“ in verse twenty-five, ”Jehovah removed the wheel of their chariots;“ in verse twenty-six, ”That the waters may return upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen;“ in verse twenty-eight, ”The waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even to all the army of Pharaoh.“ These things are repeated so many times because the subject treated of is falsities from evil, in that these were gathered together and poured in upon them; for by the things mentioned above are signified all things of falsity from evil; by ”Pharaoh and the Egyptians,“ the men themselves who are in falsities from evil; by ”chariots,“ the doctrinal things of falsity; by ”horses,“ false memory-knowledges from a perverted understanding; by ” horse men,“ the derivative reasonings; by ”army,“ and ”people,“ the falsities themselves.

AC 8147. And took his people with him.  That this signifies with all falsities both in general and in particular, is evident from the signification of ”people,“ as being truths, and in the opposite sense falsities (n. 1259, 1260, 3295, 3581), here falsities derived from evil, which are represented by Pharaoh and the Egyptians when it is said ”Pharaoh and his servants,“ or ”Pharaoh and his people,“ there are signified all, both in general and in particular, who are in these falsities, also all the falsities both in general and in particular (n. 7396).

AC 8148. And he took six hundred chosen chariots.  That this signifies all and each of the doctrinal things of falsity which are of faith separate, in their order, is evident from the signification of the number ”six hundred,“ as being each and all things of the truth and good of faith in one complex, thus in the opposite sense each and all things of the falsity and evil of faith separate from charity, that these are signified by ”six hundred“ can be seen from what has been shown concerning the number ”six hundred thousand,“ (n. 7973):--and from the signification of ”chariots,“ as being doctrinal things of faith, here of faith separate (n. 8146).  By ”chosen chariots“ are signified the chief doctrinal things of this faith, on which the rest depend; those which depend on them, or serve them, being signified by ”the chariots of Egypt“ (of which presently).

[2] Be it known that these falsities, which are here signified by ”Pharaoh, his army, and his people,“ also by his ”chariots, horses, and horsemen,“ are especially the falsities of those who are in persuasive faith, that is, who persuade themselves that the doctrinal things of the church in which they are, are true, and yet are in a life of evil.  Persuasive faith exists together with evil of life, but not saving faith; for persuasive faith is a persuasion that all things that belong to the doctrine of the church are true, not for the sake of truth, nor for the sake of life, nor even for the sake of salvation, for in this they scarcely believe; but for the sake of self-advantage, that is, for the sake of getting honors and wealth, and for the sake of reputation with a view to these.  They learn doctrinal things in order to acquire such things, thus not to the end that they may be of service to the church and the salvation of souls, but to serve themselves and those who belong to them; and therefore it is all the same to them whether these doctrinal things are true, or false; this they care nothing about, still less inquire into, for they are in no affection of truth for the sake of truth.  No matter what kind of doctrinal things they may be, they confirm them; and when they have confirmed them, they persuade themselves that they are true, not considering that falsities can be confirmed equally as well as truths (n. 4741, 5033, 6865, 7012, 7680, 7950).

[3] This is the source of persuasive faith, which, because it has not for its end, and does not regard, the neighbor and his good, thus not the Lord, but self and the world, that is, honors and self-advantage, is conjoined with evil of life, but not with good of life; for assuredly the faith that is conjoined with this is saving faith.  This faith is given by the Lord, but the other is from the man himself.  The one remains to eternity; the other is dissipated in the other life, and is also dissipated in the world if nothing is gained by it.  But so long as men profit by it, they fight for it as for heaven itself, although it is not for that faith, but for themselves; for the things of faith, that is, of doctrine, are to them as means to an end; that is, to eminence and opulence. They who are in this faith in the world can with difficulty he distinguished from those who are in saving faith, for they speak and preach from an ardor as of zeal for the doctrine; but it is an ardor from the fire of the love of self and of the world.

[4] These are they who are especially signified by ”Pharaoh and the Egyptians,“ and in the other life they are vastated in respect to this faith; and this being vastated, they are in mere falsities from evil, for falsities then burst forth from the evil.  Every evil is attended with its falsity, for they are joined together; and the falsities appear when they are left to the evil of their life.  The evil is then like a fire, and the falsities are like the light from it.  This kind of evil and the consequent falsity is quite different from other kinds of evils and the consequent falsities, being more detestable than all others, because it is contrary to the goods and truths of faith, and therefore there is profanation in this evil. Profanation is the acknowledgment of truth and good and yet a life contrary thereto, (n. 593, 1008, 1010, 1059, 2051, 3398, 3898, 4289, 4601, 6959, 6963, 6971).

AC 8149. And all the chariots of Egypt.  That this signifies also the doctrinal things of falsity that are of service to them, is evident from the signification of ”the chariots of Pharaoh,“ as being the chief doctrinal things of falsity on which the others depend; consequently by ”the chariots of Egypt“ are signified the doctrinal things of falsity which are of service to them (n. 8148); for by a king and his chariots are signified principal things, but by the people, that is, ”the Egyptians,“ and their ”chariots,“ are signified secondary things.  The doctrinal things of the church with those who are in evil of life are called doctrinal things of falsity, although it is possible that as to some part, greater or less, they are true.  The reason is that with those who are in evil of life, truths, in so far as such people are concerned, are not truths, because by application to the evil which is of the life they put off the essence of truth, and put on the nature of falsity, for they look to evil, with which they conjoin themselves.  Truths cannot be conjoined with evil unless they are falsified, which is done by means of wrong interpretations, and thus perversions.  Hence it is that with such the doctrinal things of the church are called doctrinal things of falsity, even although they had been truths; for it is a canon that with those who are in evil of life truths are falsified, and with those who are in good of life falsities are made true. The reason why with these falsities are made true, is that they are applied so as to agree with good, and in this way the crudities of the falsity are wiped away (n. 8051).

AC 8150. And tertian captains  upon all of them.  That this signifies reduced into order under generals, is evident from the signification of ”tertian captains,“ as being generals under which are particulars.  ”Tertian captains“ have this signification because ”three,“ from which they are called ”tertian,“ signifies what is complete and perfect (n. 2788, 4495, 7715), and ”captains“ signify chief things; and these together with what is complete and perfect are generals, for each and all things that must be in a series are set in order under generals; the setting in order under the generals causes the several things to act as a one, and to be in a form, and to have a quality together. Concerning generals, that under them are particulars, and under these singulars, (n. 920, 2384, 3739, 4325, 4329, 4345, 4383, 5208, 5339, 6115, 6146).

AC 8151. And Jehovah hardened the heart of Pharaoh.  That this signifies obstinacy from the falsity which is from evil, is evident from the signification of ”hardening the heart,“ as being to be determined (n. 7272, 7300, 7305, 7616).  Its being said that ”Jehovah hardened Pharaoh‘s heart“ signifies, in the internal sense, that they who are in evil and falsity hardened themselves, thus that the evils and falsities themselves did this (n. 2447, 6071, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7643, 7877, 7926).

AC 8152. And he pursued after the sons of Israel.  That this signifies an attempt to subjugate those who were in faith conjoined with charity, is evident from the signification of ”pursuing,“ as being an attempt to subjugate (n. 8136); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church, thus who are in faith conjoined with charity, for they who are of this church are in this faith both as to doctrine and as to life. The good of faith, or charity, is the essential, thus is in the first place, with those who are of the genuine spiritual church; whereas with those with whom faith is separate from its good, both as to doctrine and as to life, the truth of faith, or faith itself, is the essential, or in the first place. These do not belong to this church, for the life makes the church; but not doctrine, except in so far as it becomes of the life.  For this reason it is plain that the church of the Lord is not here, nor there, but that it is everywhere, both within those kingdoms where the church is, and out of them, where men live according to the precepts of charity.  Hence it is that the church of the Lord is scattered through the whole world, and yet that it is a one; for when the life makes the church, and not doctrine separate from life, then the church is a one; but when doctrine makes the church, then there are many.

AC 8153. And the sons of Israel went out with a lofty hand. That this signifies when nevertheless they had been released by the Divine power from the endeavor to subjugate them, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church, or in faith conjoined with charity (n. 8152); from the signification of ”to go out,“ as being to be liberated, that is, to be released from the endeavor to subjugate them, which endeavor is signified by ”to pursue“ (n. 8152); and from the signification of ”a lofty hand,“ as being the Divine power, for by ”hand“ is signified power (n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 5544, 6292, 6947, 7011, 7188, 7189, 7518, 7673, 8050, 8069); and by ”lofty“ is signified what is Divine.  ”Lofty“ denotes what is Divine, because by it is meant heaven where the Divine is. Therefore in the Word it is said of Jehovah or the Lord that He ”dwells on high,“ and He Himself is called ”the Most High,“ as in these passages:--

Jehovah is exalted; for He dwelleth on high (Isa. 33:5).

Thus saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, and whose name is Holy: I dwell in the holy and high place (Isa. 57:15).

Jehovah sent from on high, and He rescued me (Ps. 18:16).

Therefore Jehovah is called ”the Most High“ (Deut. 32:8; Dan. 4:17, 32, 34; 7:18, 22, 25; Ps. 7:17; 9:2; 18:13; 46:4; 50:14; 57:2; 82:6). Because ”high“ signified heaven and the Divine therein, Divine worship was instituted on mountains and on high places by those who were of the representative church; and for this reason also it was performed in lofty places which they built for themselves, as frequently mentioned in the historical and prophetical portions of the Word, as in Ezekiel:--

Thou hast built unto thee a lofty place, and hast made thee a high place in every street. Thou hast built thy lofty place on every head of the way (Ezek. 16:24, 25, 31).

That the Divine was signified by what is high, is because by the starry heaven was signified the angelic heaven, and it was also believed that it was there; although the wiser among them knew that heaven is not on high, but is where the good of love is, and this within man, wherever he may be. High things denote interior things, or the goods which are there, (n. 450, 1735, 2148, 4210, 4599).

AC 8154. And the Egyptians pursued after them.  That this signifies the effect from the endeavor to subjugate on the part of those who were in falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of ”pursuing,“ as being an endeavor to subjugate (n. 8152), here the effect resulting from this endeavor, because it is said twice; and from the signification of ”the Egyptians,“ as being those who are in falsities from evil.

AC 8155. And they overtook them encamping by the sea.  That this signifies communication around the region of hell where are falsities from evils, is evident from the signification of ”overtaking,“ as being communication, for in the spiritual sense ”to overtake“ or come in contact with denotes influx, by which there is communication, here of the falsities from evil of those who are signified by ”the Egyptians“ with those who are signified by ”Israel“ that there was communication there is evident from the temptation which they first underwent there, of which in what follows, for all temptation arises through influx from the hells, thus by communication (n. 8131):--from the signification of ”encamping,“ as being the setting in order of truth and good by the Lord for the undergoing of temptations (n. 8103, 8130, 8131) and from the signification of ”the sea,“ here the sea Suph, as being the hell where are the falsities from evil of those who are in faith separate from charity and in a life of evil (n. 8099, 8137, 8148).

AC 8156. All the horses of the chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army.  That this signifies all things which are of falsity from a perverted understanding, is evident from the signification of ”horses,“ as being the understanding (n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 7024, 8029), here a perverted understanding, such as is that of those who are in evil and in the derivative falsity; from the signification of ”chariots,“ as being doctrinal things (n. 2761, 5321, 5945, 8146); from the signification of ”horsemen,“ as being those things which are of the understanding (n. 6534), here false reasonings from a perverted understanding; and from the signification of ”army,“ as being falsities (n. 8138). From all this it is evident that by ”the horses of the chariots of Pharaoh, and his horsemen, and his army,“ are signified memory-knowledges, reasonings, and falsities, from a perverted understanding, thus all things which are of falsity.

AC 8157. Beside Pi-hahiroth, before Baal-zephon.  That this signifies whence there was communication and therefore the beginning of the state of undergoing temptations, is evident from what was said above (n. 8130).

AC 8158. Verses 10-14. And Pharaoh drew nigh, and the sons of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold the Egyptian marching after them, and they were sore afraid; and the sons of Israel cried unto Jehovah. And they said unto Moses, Were there no graves in Egypt, that thou hast taken us to die in the wilderness? Why hast thou done this to its, to lead us forth out of Egypt? Is not this the word that we spake unto thee in Egypt, saying, Cease from us, and let us serve the Egyptians? because it is good for us to serve the Egyptians, rather than that we should die in the wilderness. And Moses said unto the people, Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation of Jehovah, which He will do for you today; for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more forever. Jehovah shall wage war for you, and ye shall keep silence.  ”And Pharaoh drew nigh,“ signifies the influx of falsity from evil being thence grievous; ”and the sons of Israel lifted up their eyes,“ signifies the mind’s intellectual part and its thought; ”and behold the Egyptian marching after them,“ signifies the grievousness of falsity continually increasing; ”and they were sore afraid,“ signifies a horrible dread; ”and the sons of Israel cried unto Jehovah,“ signifies supplication for aid; ”and they said unto Moses,“ signifies the height of temptation when there is despair; ”Were there no graves in Egypt, that thou hast taken us to die in the wilderness?“ signifies that if there is damnation it would be all the same whether it came through the falsities of the infested, or through a state of temptations in which they would yield; ”Why hast thou done this to us, to lead us forth out of Egypt?“ signifies that it was in vain that they had been liberated from infestations by falsities; ”is not this the word that we spake unto thee in Egypt, saying,“ signifies that some such thing was thought of when they were infested by falsities; ”Cease from us, and let us serve the Egyptians,“ signifies that they would not be withheld from surrendering; ”because it is good for us to serve the Egyptians, rather than that we should die in the wilderness,“ signifies that damnation by the violence of falsity in a state of infestations was to be preferred to the damnation which comes by yielding in a state of temptations ”and Moses said unto the people,“ signifies elevation from a state of despair by means of truth Divine; ”Fear ye not,“ signifies that they must not despair; ”stand still and see the salvation of Jehovah,“ signifies salvation from the Lord alone and not at all from them; ”which He will do for you today,“ signifies which is to eternity; ”for the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more forever,“ signifies that the falsities which are once removed will be removed to eternity; ”Jehovah shall wage war for you,“ signifies that the Lord alone sustains the combats of temptations ”and ye shall keep silence,“ signifies that from their own strength they will effect nothing at all.

AC 8159. And Pharaoh drew nigh.  That this signifies the influx of falsity from evil being thence grievous, is evident from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities from evil (n. 8132, 8135, 8146, 8148); and from the signification of ”drawing nigh,“ as being influx.  In the internal sense, the subject treated of is the first temptation of those who had been liberated.  All temptation is effected by means of an influx from the hells, for the spirits who are thence excite and draw forth all things in a man that have been evilly done and evilly thought, and thereby accuse and condemn him.  Thereupon the conscience is troubled, and the mind comes into anxiety.  This is done by influx from the hells, especially from this hell which is represented by the sea Suph.  From all this it can be seen that by ”drawing nigh,“ in the spiritual sense, in which temptations are treated of, is signified influx.

[2] As in the verses that now follow, the subject treated of is the first temptation of those who had been of the spiritual church, be it known that they could not undergo temptations until after the Lord had glorified His Human, that is, made it Divine, and in this was present with them.  If they had been tempted before, they would have yielded, for they who were of the spiritual church were saved solely through the Divine Human of the Lord.  The temptations of those who were of the spiritual church, which they were to undergo after the Lord came into the world, and could then from the Divine Human fight for them against the hells, are meant by these words in Malachi:--

The Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the angel of the covenant whom ye desire, behold He cometh, saith Jehovah Zebaoth: who may abide the day of His coming? and who shall stand when He appeareth? for He is like a refiner‘s fire, and like fullers’ soap; and He shall sit as a refiner and purifier of silver, and He shall purify the sons of Levi, and refine them as gold and as silver; and they shall bring unto Jehovah a meat-offering in righteousness. Then shall the meat-offering of Judah and Jerusalem be sweet to Jehovah, according to the days of eternity, and according to the former years (Mal. 3:1-4);

clearly speaking of the Lord‘s coming; ”the sons of Levi“ here denote those who are of the spiritual church, for by ”Levi“ is signified charity or spiritual good (n. 3875, 4497, 4502, 4503); ”the refiner’s fire“ is temptation, whereby is effected purification, which is here meant by ”purifying and refining them as gold and silver;“ ”the meat-offering which they shall bring to Jehovah“ is faith and charity ”the days of eternity“ and ”the former years“ denote the ancient churches, and the states of worship of the Lord at that time.

[3] As regards temptations, the case with them is as was said above (n. 8131), that the hells fight against man, and the Lord for man; to every falsity the hells inject, there is an answer from the Divine. The falsities which are from the hells are injected and flow into the external or natural man; but the answer from the Divine flows into the internal or spiritual man. This latter influx, which is from the Divine, does not come to the man‘s perception so much as do the falsities; neither does it move the singulars of his thought, but its generals, and in such a manner that it scarcely comes to the perception otherwise than as hope and the consequent consolation, in which there are nevertheless innumerable things of which the man is ignorant, being such things as are in agreement with his affection or love, especially his affection or love of truth and good, from which he has conscience.

[4] These things have been said in order that it may be known that by the life of the sons of Israel in the wilderness are described in their series the temptations which those underwent who had been of the Lord’s spiritual church and had been liberated.  They underwent temptations in order that they might be further prepared for heaven; for by means of temptations, and by these as the only means, goods and truths are confirmed and are conjoined; and by means of temptations charity becomes the charity of faith, and faith becomes the faith of charity. That they who are of the church must undergo temptations, is meant by what the Lord has said in these passages:--

He that does not take up his cross, and follow after Me, is not worthy of Me (Matt. 10:38, 39; Mark 8:31-38).

Jesus said to His disciples, If anyone wishes to come after Me, let him deny himself, take up his cross, and follow Me (Matt. 16:24, 25; Luke 9:23, 24).

Whosoever does not bear his cross, and come after Me, cannot be My disciple (Luke 14:27).

Jesus said to the rich man, Come, follow Me, taking up the cross (Mark 10:21).

Think not that I am come to send peace on the earth; I came not to send peace, but a sword (Matt. 10:34).

[5] But be it known that in temptations the man does not fight; but the Lord alone fights for the man, although it appears as if it were done by the man; and when the Lord fights for a man the man conquers in all things.  At this day few are admitted into temptations, for the reason that they are not in the life of faith, and therefore not in the conscience of truth; and he who is not in the conscience of truth from the good of life, yields; whereby his subsequent state becomes worse than the former.

AC 8160. The sons of Israel lifted up their eyes.  That this signifies the mind‘s intellectual part and its thought, is evident from the signification of ”eyes,“ as being the intellectual part of the mind (n. 2701, 3820, 4403-4421, 4523-4534); therefore ”to lift up the eyes“ denotes mental view, perception, and thought (n. 2789, 2829, 3198, 3202, 4083, 4086, 4339).

AC 8161. And behold the Egyptian marching after them.  That this signifies the grievousness of falsity continually increasing, is evident from the signification of ”the Egyptian,“ as being those who are in falsities from evil, thus also the falsity itself from evil (n. 8132, 8135, 8146, 8148); and from the signification of ”marching after them,“ as being a nearer influx and communication.  By ”Pharaoh drew nigh“ was signified the influx of falsity from evil (n. 8159), therefore by ”marching after them“ is signified influx still nearer, thus more grievous; hence it is that there is signified the grievousness of falsity continually increasing.  In what presently follows is described temptation, and as this arises through an influx of falsity from evil from the hells, its approach is now described, that is, its increasing grievousness.

AC 8162. And they were sore afraid.  That this signifies a horrible dread, is evident from the signification of ”being afraid,“ when predicated of temptation, as being horror, or horrible dread.  That ”fear“ denotes a horrible dread, is because when temptation assails, the conscience--thus the internal man, for conscience is of the internal man’s disheartened by reason of falsities and evils; whence comes horror, which is aversion conjoined with the fear of spiritual death.  Horror arises from the mere influx of falsity and evil with those who have conscience, for conscience is from the truth and good of faith, thus from those things which make the spiritual life.  Falsities and evils are destructive of that life, and thus endeavor to inflict death, that is, damnation; and from this comes the horrible dread.

AC 8163. And the sons of Israel cried unto Jehovah.  That this signifies supplication for aid, is evident without explication.

AC 8164. And they said unto Moses.  That this signifies the height of temptation when there is despair, is evident from the words that follow, for they are involved in ”they said;“ that the following words are words of temptation, when this comes to its height, and when there is despair, is evident.  It is said ”despair,“ because for the most part this is the end, or is at the end, of spiritual temptations (n. 1787, 2694, 5279, 5280, 7147, 7155, 7166).  Inasmuch as at this day few undergo spiritual temptations, and consequently it is not known how the case is with temptations, I may say something further on the subject.  There are spiritual temptations, and there are natural temptations. Spiritual temptations belong to the internal man, but natural ones to the external man.  Spiritual temptations sometimes arise without natural temptations, sometimes with them.  Natural temptations exist when a man suffers as to the body, as to honors, as to wealth, in a word, as to the natural life, as is the case in diseases, misfortunes, persecutions, punishments, and the like.  The anxieties which then arise, are what are meant by ”natural temptations.“ But these temptations effect nothing whatever toward man‘s spiritual life, neither can they be called temptations, but griefs; for they arise from the wounding of the natural life, which is that of the love of self and of the world.  The wicked are sometimes in these griefs, and they grieve and are tormented in proportion to the extent of their love of self and of the world, and the life they have from this source.

[2] But spiritual temptations belong to the internal man, and assault his spiritual life. In this case the anxieties are not on account of any loss of natural life, but on account of the loss of faith and charity, and consequently of salvation.  These temptations are frequently induced by means of natural temptations, for if when a man is in these--that is, in disease, grief, the loss of wealth or honor, and the like--he begins to think about the Lord’s aid, His providence, the state of the evil in that they glory and exult when the good suffer and undergo various griefs and various losses, then spiritual temptation is conjoined with natural temptation. Such was the last temptation of the Lord in Gethsemane, and when He suffered the cross, which was the most frightful of all.  From all this it is evident what natural temptation is, and what spiritual.  There is also a third kind, namely, melancholy anxiety, the cause of which is for the most part to be found in an infirm state of the body or of the lower mind.  In this anxiety there may be something of spiritual temptation, or there may be nothing of it.

AC 8165. Were there no graves in Egypt, that thou hast taken us to die in the wilderness?  That this signifies that if there is damnation it would be all the same whether it came through the falsities of the infesters, or through a state of temptations in which they would yield, is evident from the signification of ”graves,“ as being damnation (n. 2916, 4564); from the signification of ”Egypt,“ as being infestations (n. 7278), for by the Egyptians and Pharaoh are represented those who in the other life infest by means of falsities (n. 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7317); from the signification of ”dying,“ as also being damnation (n. 5407, 6119, 7494); and from the signification of ”the wilderness,“ as being a state of undergoing temptations (n. 8098); whence ”to die in the wilderness“ denotes to yield in temptation, and consequently to be damned. From all this it is evident that by ”Were there no graves in Egypt, that thou hast taken us to die in the wilderness?“ is signified that if there is damnation it would be all the same whether it came through the falsities of the infesters, thus in the state in which they were before, or through temptations in which they would yield, thus in the state into which they come afterward.

[2] That these words are words of despair is evident.  Moreover those who are in despair, which is the last of temptation, think such things, and then they are as it were on the slope, or are as it were sinking down toward hell. But at this time such thought does no harm whatever, nor do the angels pay any attention to it, for every man‘s power is limited, and when the temptation arrives at the furthest limit of his power, the man cannot sustain anything more, but sinks down.  But then, when he is on the downhill course, he is raised by the Lord and thus liberated from despair; and is then for the most part brought into a clear state of hope and of the consequent consolation, and also into good fortune.  It is said ”damnation through a state of temptations in which they would yield,“ because they who yield in temptations come into a state of damnation; for temptations are to the end that truths and goods may be confirmed, and may be conjoined together, in order that faith and charity may ensue; but this end is attained only when the man conquers in temptations; whereas when he yields, in this case truths and goods are rejected, and falsities and evils are confirmed, whereby such come into a state of damnation.

AC 8166. Why hast thou done this to us, in leading us forth out of Egypt?  That this signifies that it was in vain that they had been liberated from infestations by falsities, is evident from the signification of ”why hast thou done this to us?“ as being that it was all in vain; from the signification of ”to be led forth,“ as being to be liberated and from the signification of ”Egypt,“ as being infestations (n. 8165).

AC 8167. Is not this the word that we spake unto thee in Egypt, saying?  That this signifies that some such thing was thought of when they were infested by falsities, is evident from the signification of ”is not this the word that we spake?“ as being that such a thing was thought of, for by ”this word“ is signified this thing, thus some such thing, and by ”speaking“ is signified thinking. ”To speak“ denotes influx and the consequent reception, (n. 5797, 7270, 8128); therefore also thought, (n. 2271, 2287, 2619); and from the signification of ”Egypt,“ as being infestation by falsities (n. 8165).

AC 8168. Cease from us, and let us serve the Egyptians.  That this signifies that they would not be withheld from surrendering, is evident from the signification of ”to cease from us,“ when said of infestations, as being not to hinder, and not to withhold; and from the signification of ”serving the Egyptians,“ as being to surrender to those who infest by means of falsities.  That ”to cease from us,“ when said in a state of infestations, and also in a state of temptations, of the influx of truth Divine represented by Moses, denotes not to hinder, and not to withhold, is because in these states two forces or powers are acting, one of which is from the falsities that are injected from the hells into the external man, and the other of which is from truths that are insinuated by the Lord into the internal man (n. 8164). These two forces act reciprocally against each other. The falsities injected from the hells have their force and power from the love of self and of the world, which are in the man; but the truths insinuated by the Lord have their force and power from love toward the neighbor and love to the Lord.  When the man conquers, the internal force or power always prevails, because this is Divine; and it does not admit the force or power from falsities to be increased further than it can he repelled.  Therefore when these two forces act, the internal force which is from the Lord continually as it were withholds the man and hinders him, lest the falsities drag him down, thus causing him to yield; for it is a general rule that when two forces act in opposition to each other, one draws and the other draws back.  In the spiritual world, forces are the affections which are of the loves; and the instrumentalities by which they act are truths, and in the opposite sense, falsities.

AC 8169 Because it is good for us to serve the Egyptians, rather than that we should die in the wilderness.  That this signifies that damnation by the violence of falsity in a state of infestations was to be preferred to the damnation which comes by yielding in a state of temptations, is evident from the signification of ”to be good rather than that,“ as being that it was to be preferred; from the signification of ”serving the Egyptians,“ as being a yielding to the falsities of the infesters; for ”to serve“ signifies subjugation (n. 6666, 6670, 6671), thus a yielding, here to the falsities of the infesters; from the signification of ”dying,“ as being damnation (n. 8165); and from the signification of ”the wilderness,“ as being a state of undergoing temptations (n. 8098).  From all this it is evident that by ”it is good for us to serve the Egyptians, rather than that we should die in the wilderness,“ is signified that to yield to falsities when they were infested would be preferable to yielding in temptations.  Moreover it is true that to yield in the former state is preferable to yielding in the latter; for to yield in temptations is to be confirmed in falsities and evils against the truths and goods of faith; whereas to yield in a state of infestations is to be confirmed in falsities and evils, yet not manifestly against the truths and goods of faith.  Hence it is evident that in yielding in temptations there is a blaspheming of truth and good, and sometimes profanation; and the greatest and most direful damnation of all is that which comes from profanation.

AC 8170. And Moses said unto the people.  That this signifies elevation from a state of despair by means of truth Divine, is evident from what now follows, which Moses ”said,“ and which involves elevation from a state of despair. It is said ”by truth Divine,“ because all elevation in a state of temptations is effected by means of truth Divine. In the internal representative sense truth Divine is meant by ”Moses,“ (n. 6752, 7010, 7014, 7089).

AC 8171. Fear ye not.  That this signifies that they must not despair, is evident from the signification of ”fearing,“ as being to feel horror (n. 8162), here to despair; for spiritual fear in temptations is first a horrible dread, and finally is despair.  Spiritual fear is fear on account of damnation.

AC 8172. Stand still, and see the salvation of Jehovah.  That this signifies salvation from the Lord alone, and not at all from them, is evident from the signification of ”standing still and seeing,“ as being to have faith. ”To see“ denotes to understand, acknowledge, and have faith, (n. 897, 2150, 2325, 2807, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 5400); and from the signification of ”the salvation of Jehovah,“ as being salvation from the Lord.  Here, where the subject treated of is liberation from temptations, the meaning is salvation from the Lord alone, and not at all from them. That ”Jehovah“ in the Word denotes the Lord, see above, (n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6905, 6945, 6957). It is here said that they must have faith that salvation is from the Lord alone, and not at all from them, because this is the main thing of faith in temptations. He who when he is tempted believes that he can resist from his own strength, yields; the reason is that he is in what is false, and that he therefore attributes merit to himself, and thus demands to be saved of himself, and thus shuts out the influx from the Divine.  But he who believes that the Lord alone resists in temptations, conquers for he is in the truth, and attributes the merit to the Lord, and perceives that he is saved by the Lord alone. He who is in the faith of charity ascribes everything of salvation to the Lord, and nothing to himself.

AC 8173. Which He will do for you today.  That this signifies which is to eternity, is evident from the signification of ”today,“ as being what is eternal (n. 2838, 3998, 4304, 6165, 6984).

AC 8174. For the Egyptians whom ye have seen today, ye shall see them again no more forever.  That this signifies that the falsities which are once removed will be removed to eternity, is evident from the signification of ”the Egyptians,“ as being those who are in falsities from evil (n. 8132, 8135, 8146, 8148), thus also the falsities themselves from evil; and from the signification of ”seeing no more,“ when said of falsities, as being to be removed, for the falsities in man are not cast out, but are removed, man being withheld from evils and the falsities therefrom, and being held in good, by the Lord (n. 1581, 2256, 2269, 2406, 4564); and from the signification of ”forever,“ as being to eternity.

AC 8175. Jehovah shall wage war for you.  That this signifies that the Lord alone sustains the combats of temptations, is evident from the signification of ”to wage war for you,“ when said about Jehovah in temptations, as being that He sustains alone the combats of temptations. ”Jehovah“ denotes the Lord, (n. 8172). That the Lord alone sustains the combats of temptations, and conquers, is because the Divine alone can conquer the hells.  Unless the Divine acted against them, they would rush in like a vast ocean, one hell after another, for the resisting of which man is of not the slightest avail; and the less so because in respect to what is his own, man is nothing but evil, thus is hell, from which the Lord then withdraws him, and afterward withholds him (n. 1581, 1661, 1692, 6574).

AC 8176. And ye shall keep silence.  That this signifies that from their own strength they will effect nothing at all, is evident from the signification of ”to be silent,“ as being to acquiesce, and as temptations are treated of, as being not to think or believe that they effect anything by their own strength. (n. 8172, 8175). Nevertheless they ought not to slack their hands, and await immediate influx; but ought to fight as from themselves, and yet acknowledge and believe that it is from the Lord, (n. 1712, 1937, 1947, 2882, 2883, 2891).

AC 8177. Verses 15-18. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Why criest thou unto Me? speak unto the sons of Israel, that they set forward. And thou, lift up thy rod, and stretch out thy hand over the sea, and cleave it asunder; and the sons of Israel shall come into the midst of the sea on the dry. And I, behold I harden the heart of the Egyptians, and they shall come after them; and I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army, in his chariots, and in his horsemen. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah, when I am glorified in Pharaoh, in his chariots, and in his horsemen.  ”And Jehovah said unto Moses,“ signifies exhortation; ”Why criest thou unto Me?“ signifies that there is no need of intercession; ”speak unto the sons of Israel,“ signifies influx and perception ”that they set forward,“ signifies what follows on continuously until they are prepared; ”And thou, lift up thy rod,“ signifies the power of Divine truth; ”and stretch out thy hand over the sea,“ signifies the rule of power where the hell of falsity from evil is; ”and cleave it asunder,“ signifies the consequent dissipation of falsity; ”and the sons of Israel shall come into the midst of the sea on the dry,“ signifies that they who are of the spiritual church may pass safely and without the influx of falsity; ”and I, behold I harden the heart of the Egyptians,“ signifies the obstinacy of falsity from evil; ”and they shall come after them,“ signifies an endeavor to offer violence by means of the influx of falsity from evil; ”and I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army, in his chariots, and in his horsemen,“ signifies that they will see the effect of the dissipation of falsity and of reasonings by virtue of the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine Human; ”and the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah,“ signifies that it may be known that the Lord is the only God, and besides Him there is none else; ”when I am glorified in Pharaoh, in his chariots, and in his horsemen,“ signifies, as above, from their seeing the effect of the dissipation of falsity and of its teachings and reasonings, by the Lord alone.

AC 8178. And Jehovah said unto Moses.  That this signifies exhortation, is evident from the signification of ”Jehovah said,“ when the subject treated of is elevation and liberation from temptation, as being exhortation (n. 7033, 7090).

AC 8179. Why criest thou unto Me?  That this signifies that there was no need of intercession, is evident from the signification of ”crying unto Jehovah,“ as being to intercede, namely, for liberation from temptation. Hence ”Why criest thou unto Me?“ denotes why dost thou intercede when there is no need of intercession? and therefore it follows, ”speak unto the sons of Israel, that they go forward,“ by which is signified that they shall have aid, but that still the temptation will be continued, even until they are prepared.

[2] As to there being no need of intercession, the case is this. They who are in temptations are wont to slack their hands and betake themselves solely to prayers, which they then ardently pour forth, not knowing that prayers will not avail, but that they must fight against the falsities and evils which are being injected by the hells. This fight is performed by means of the truths of faith, which help because they confirm goods and truths against falsities and evils. Moreover in the combats of temptations, the man ought to fight as of himself, but yet acknowledge and believe that it is of the Lord (n. 8176). If man does not fight as of himself, the good and truth which flow in through heaven from the Lord are not appropriated to him; but when he fights as of himself, and still believes that it is of the Lord, then they are appropriated to him. From this he has an own (proprium) that is new, which is called the heavenly own, and which is a new will.

[3] Moreover they who are in temptations, and not in some other active life than that of prayers, do not know that if the temptations were intermitted before they had been fully carried through, they would not be prepared for heaven, and thus could not be saved.  For this reason, moreover, the prayers of those who are in temptations are but little heard; for the Lord wills the end, which is the salvation of the man, which end He knows, but not the man; and the Lord does not heed prayers that are contrary to the end, which is salvation.  He who conquers in temptations is also confirmed in the truth stated above; whereas he who does not conquer entertains a doubt with respect to the Divine aid and power, because he is not heard; and then sometimes, because he slacks his hand, he partly yields. From all this it can be seen what is meant by there being no need of intercession, namely, that prayer is not to be relied upon.  For in prayer from the Divine it is always thought and believed that the Lord alone knows whether it is profitable or not; and therefore the suppliant submits the hearing to the Lord, and immediately after prays that the will of the Lord, and not his own, may be done, according to the Lord‘s words in His own most grievous temptation at Gethsemane (Matt. 26:39, 42, 44).

AC 8180. Speak unto the sons of Israel.  That this signifies influx and perception, is evident from the signification of ”speaking,“ when said of truth Divine, which is represented by Moses, to those who are of the spiritual church, who are ”the sons of Israel,“ as being influx and the consequent perception (n. 2951, 5481, 5797, 7270, 8128).

AC 8181. That they set forward.  That this signifies what follows on continuously even until they are prepared, is evident from the signification of ”setting forward,“ as being what is successive and continuous (n. 4375, 4554, 4585, 5996); for thereby is signified that they were not to cry out, that is, to supplicate, but that the journey was to be continued to the sea Suph, and afterward through it to the wilderness, thus through hell, which they should pass through safely, to temptations in successive continuation, even until they should be prepared.  By the ”sea Suph“ is signified hell, (n. 8099, 8137, 8148), and by the ”wilderness“ a state of undergoing temptations, (n. 8098).

AC 8182. And thou, lift up thy rod.  That this signifies the power of Divine truth, is evident from the signification of ”rod,“ as being power (n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 6947, 7011, 7026); and from the representation of Moses, to whom it is said that he should ”lift up his rod,“ as being Divine truth.

AC 8183. And stretch out thy hand over the sea.  That this signifies the rule of power where the hell of falsity from evil is, is evident from the signification of ”stretching out the hand,“ as being the rule of power (n. 7673); and from the signification of ”the sea,“ here the sea Suph, as being the hell in which are the falsities from evil of those who have been of the church (n. 8099, 8137, 8148).  Concerning this bell, of the Lord’s Divine mercy something further shall be said at the end of the last chapters of Exodus, where the hells will be told about from experience.

AC 8184. And cleave it asunder.  That this signifies the consequent dissipation of falsity, is evident from the signification of ”cleaving this sea asunder,“ as being to dissipate the falsities from evil which are in that hell; for the falsities there appear like waters, according to what was shown above (n. 8099, 8137, 8148).  For when the angelic pillar in which the Lord is present passes through that sea, then the falsities recede, consequently the waters there--which are falsities--disappear; from which it is evident that ”to cleave the sea asunder“ signifies the dissipation of the falsities that belong to the hell which is represented by the ”sea Suph.“

AC 8185. And the sons of Israel shall come into the midst of the sea on the dry.  That this signifies that they who are of the spiritual church may pass safely and without the influx of falsity, is evident from the signification of ”coming“ or entering ”into the midst,“ as being to pass through; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church and from the signification of ”on the dry,“ as being safely, and without the influx of falsity; for by the waters of this sea are signified falsities derived from evil (n. 8137, 8138); consequently by ”the dry“ is signified without falsity.  The like is signified by ”dry,“ and ”making dry,“ in David:--

Thou hast broken the heads of leviathan in pieces. Thou didst cleave the fountain and the river; Thou hast made dry the rivers of strength (Ps. 74:14, 15);

”to make dry the rivers of strength“ denotes to dissipate the more powerful falsities.

[2] In Zechariah:--

I will gather them, because I will redeem them; I will bring them back out of the land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assyria; and I will bring them unto the land of Gilead and to Lebanon. He shall pass through the sea of distress; but he will smite the waves in the sea, and will make dry all the depths of the stream; and the pride of Assyria shall be cast down, and the staff of Egypt shall depart. And I will render them mighty in Jehovah (Zech. 10:8-12);

this passage treats of those who trust in themselves and in their own wisdom in spiritual things, and also of the dissipation of falsities by means of temptations: ”the land of Egypt“ denotes memory-knowledges; ”Assyria,“ the reasonings therefrom; ”to pass through the sea of distress,“ denotes temptations; ”to smite the waves in the sea and dry up the depths of the stream,“ denotes to dissipate the falsities thence derived; ”the pride of Assyria shall be cast down, and the staff of Egypt shall depart,“ denotes that they shall not trust any longer in their own wisdom, but in wisdom from the Lord, which is signified by ”I will render them mighty in Jehovah.“

[3] In like manner in Isaiah:--

That saith to Jerusalem, Thou shalt be inhabited; and to the cities of Judah, Ye shall be built, and I will raise up the waste places thereof; that saith to the abyss, Be dry, and I will dry up thy rivers (Isa. 44:26, 27);

”to say to the abyss, be dry,“ and ”to dry up the rivers thereof,“ denotes to dissipate evils and falsities. But where ”waters“ signify truths, there ”to make dry“ signifies a state of no truth, or one without truth, as in Isaiah:--

I will pour waters upon him that is thirsty, and streams upon the dry (Isa. 44:3);

”waters“ and ”streams“ denote truths; ”the dry“ denotes where there is no truth.

[4] In Jeremiah:--

O sword against the Chaldeans, and against the inhabitants of Babel, O sword against the horses thereof, and against the chariots thereof; a drought upon the waters, that they may be dried up (Jer. 50:35-38);

”the Chaldeans“ denote those who profane truths; and ”the inhabitants of Babel,“ denote those who profane goods (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326); a ”sword“ denotes truth fighting against falsity, and falsity fighting against truth, consequently vastation (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102); ”horses“ denote the intellectual faculty (n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 6125, 6534); ”chariots,“ doctrinal things (n. 5321, 8148); ”a drought upon the waters that they may be dried up,“ denotes that by reason of falsification there is no life in the truths.  But where ”dry,“ or ”making dry,“ in the Word, is said of other things, as of trees, of herbs, of harvest, of bones, the contrary to the above is signified.  The earth itself is also called ”the dry“ relatively to the sea, and then ”dry“ is predicated of good, and ”the sea“ of truth.

AC 8186. And I, behold, I harden the heart of the Egyptians. That this signifies the obstinacy of falsity from evil, is evident from the signification of ”hardening the heart,“ as being obstinacy (n. 7272, 7300, 7305, 7616); and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in falsities from evil (n. 8132, 8135, 8148). When it is said in the Word that ”Jehovah hardens the heart“ and also ”leads into evil,“ in the internal sense, where the truth itself is in its nakedness, it is meant that they who are in falsity and in evil harden their own heart and lead themselves into evil (n. 2447, 6071, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7877, 7926).

AC 8187. And they shall come after them.  That this signifies an endeavor to offer violence by means of the influx of falsity from evil, is evident from the signification of ”coming after them,“ as being the influx of falsity from evil, and also an endeavor to subjugate, thus to offer violence; for by ”drawing nigh“ is signified influx (n. 8159); by ”marching after them,“ a closer influx and communication (n. 8161); and by ”pursuing after them,“ an endeavor to subjugate (n. 8136, 8152, 8154); consequently by ”coming after them“ is signified an endeavor to offer violence by means of the influx of falsity from evil.

AC 8188. And I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army, in his chariots, and in his horsemen.  That this signifies that they will see the effect of the dissipation of falsity and of reasonings by virtue of the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine Human, is evident from the signification of ”being glorified in Pharaoh and his army,“ as being the immersion in hell of those who are in falsity from evil, and the encompassing of them there by falsities as by waters, by reason of the mere presence of the Divine Human of the Lord (n. 8137); from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who are in falsities from evil; from the signification of ”army,“ as being falsities from the signification of ”his chariots,“ as being doctrinal things of falsity; and from the signification of ”his horsemen,“ as being false reasonings (n. 8146, 8156).

AC 8189. And the Egyptians shall know that I am Jehovah.  That this signifies that it may be known that the Lord is the only God, and besides Him there is none else, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 7401, 7444, 7544, 7598, 7636), where like words occur.

AC 8190. When I am glorified in Pharaoh, in his chariots, and in his horsemen, signifies that they will see the effect of the dissipation of falsity, and of the doctrinal things and reasonings of falsity, by the Lord alone (n. 8188).

AC 8191. Verses 19-22.  And the angel of God set out, marching before the camp of Israel, and he went behind them; and the pillar of cloud set out from before them and stood behind them; and it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel; and it was a cloud and darkness, and it lighted up the night; and the one came not near the other all the night. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea; and Jehovah made the sea go away by a strong east wind all night, and made the sea dry, and the waters were cleft asunder.  And the sons of Israel came into the midst of the sea in the dry; and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.  ”And the angel of God set out,“ signifies a setting in order by Divine truth; ”marching before the camp of Israel,“ signifies that was around the truths and goods of the church; ”and he went behind them,“ signifies protection lest the falsity of evil should flow into the will; ”and the pillar of cloud set out from before them and stood behind them,“ signifies the presence of the Lord protecting the things of the will, as it had previously protected those of the understanding; ”and it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel,“ signifies between the falsities of evil on the one side, and the truths of good on the other; ”and it was a cloud and darkness,“ signifies the condensation of falsity from evil on the one side; ”and it lighted up the night,“ signifies the enlightenment of truth from good on the other; ”and the one came not near the other,“ signifies consequently no communication; ”all the night,“ signifies in the obscure state; ”and Moses stretched out his hand over the sea,“ signifies the rule of the power of truth Divine over hell; ”and Jehovah made the sea go away by a strong east wind,“ signifies the means of the dissipation of falsity; ”all the night,“ signifies in the obscure state; ”and made the sea dry,“ signifies the dissipation of falsity ”and the waters were cleft asunder,“ signifies separation from truths, and removal; ”and the sons of Israel came into the midst of the sea in the dry,“ signifies the entrance and passage of those who were of the spiritual church through hell in safety, and without any influx of falsity; ”and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left,“ signifies that they were withheld from falsities on every side.

AC 8192. And the angel of God set out.  That this signifies a setting in order by Divine truth, is evident from the signification of ”setting out,“ as being a setting in order.  That ”to set out“ denotes a setting in order is because the pillar of cloud--which was an angelic choir--that had previously advanced before the sons of Israel, now betook itself between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel, and thus brought darkness upon the Egyptians, and gave light to the sons of Israel; and because these things were thus set in order by the Lord, by means of the setting out of the angel of God, or the pillar, and by means of its interposition, therefore by ”to set out“ is here signified a setting in order.  From the signification of ”the angel of God,“ as being Divine truth, in like manner ”God;“ for in the Word, where truth is treated of, the term ”God“ is used, but where good is treated of, the term ”Jehovah“ (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402, 7010, 7268, 7873).

[2] As regards the angels, be it known that by ”angels“ in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 1925, 3039, 4085); and therefore the Lord Himself is called an ”angel“ (n. 6280, 6831). Hence ”angels“ signify Divine truth, for the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord makes heaven, consequently also the angels who constitute heaven; for in so far as they receive the Divine truth which is from the Lord, so far they are angels. This can also be seen from the fact that the angels are quite unwilling, and are even averse, to have anything of truth and good attributed to them, because it is of the Lord with them. Hence also it is said that the Lord is the all in all of heaven, and that they who are in heaven are in the Lord; and moreover by virtue of the Divine truth which they receive from the Lord, the angels are called in the Word ”gods“ (n. 4295, 7268), and therefore ”God“ in the original tongue is in the plural number.

[3] Be it known further, that in the Word ”an angel“ is spoken of, when yet many are meant; as in the present case, where it is said ”the angel of God,“ and there is meant the pillar which advanced before the sons of Israel, and which was constituted of many angels.  Moreover in the Word angels are mentioned by name, as ”Michael,“ ”Raphael,“ and others.  They who do not know the internal sense of the Word believe that ”Michael“ or ”Raphael“ is some one angel who is supreme among his associates; but by these names in the Word is not signified some one angel, but the angelic function itself, thus also the Divine of the Lord in respect to that which belongs to the function.

AC 8193. Marching before the camp of Israel.  That this signifies that was around the truths and goods of the church, is evident from the signification of ”the camp,“ as being truths and goods; for by ”the camp“ is signified the whole assemblage of Israel, and by the ”assemblage of Israel“ are signified all goods and truths in the complex (n. 7830, 7843); hence also ”encampment“ denotes a setting in order according to truths and goods (n. 8103, 8130, 8131, 8155). That ”Israel“ denotes the spiritual church has been frequently shown.

AC 8194. And he went behind them.  That this signifies protection lest the falsity of evil should flow into the will, is evident from the signification of ”going behind“ the sons of Israel, as being protection lest the Egyptians should attack; in the internal sense, lest the falsities from evil which are signified by ”the Egyptians“ should flow in (n. 8132, 8135, 8148). That it denotes lest they should flow into the will, is because in the Grand Man, or in the spiritual world, the things of the will are presented at the back, or behind, and those of the understanding in front, or before. As regards influx into the will and into the understanding of man, be it known that the Lord takes the utmost care lest the infernals flow into a man’s will; for if they were to flow into his will after he had been regenerated or made a church, it would be all over with him, because his will is nothing but evil.  Hence it is that the man of the spiritual church is regenerated by the Lord in respect to the intellectual part, and that a new will is formed in this part, which is completely separated from the will that the man has by heredity (n. 863, 875, 927, 1023, 1043, 1044, 2256, 4328, 4493, 5113).  From all this it can now been seen whence it is that by ”he went behind them“ is signified protection lest the falsity of evil should flow into the will.

AC 8195. And the pillar of cloud set out from before them, and stood behind them. That this signifies the presence of the Lord protecting the things of the will, as it had previously protected those of the understanding, is evident from the signification of ”the pillar of cloud,“ as being the presence of the Lord (n. 8110), it being an angelic choir in which the Lord was; and from the signification of ”from before them,“ as being the an understanding, and of ”behind them,“ as being the will (n. 8194); that protection is meant is evident.

AC 8196. And it came between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel.  That this signifies between the falsities of evil on the one side and the truths of good on the other, is evident from the signification of ”camp,“ as being goods and truths in the complex (n. 8193); thus, in the opposite sense, evils and falsities also in the complex.  consequently ”the camp of the Egyptians“ denotes falsities of evil, because by ”the Egyptians“ are signified falsities from evil (n. 8139, 8135, 8148); and ”the camp of Israel“ denotes the goods of truth, because by ”Israel“ are signified the truths which are from good (n. 7957). That ”to come between them“ denotes to prevent the falsities from evil from flowing in, is evident.

AC 8197. And it was a cloud and darkness. That this signifies the condensation of falsity from evil on the one side, and that it lighted up the night, signifies the enlightenment of truth from good on the other, is evident from the signification of a ”cloud and darkness,“ as being the condensation of falsity from evil. A ”cloud“ denotes falsity, (n. 1043, 1047, 8137, 8138); also ”darkness,“ (n. 1839, 1860, 4418, 4531, 7688, 7711); and from the signification of ”to light up the night,“ as being the enlightenment of truth by good. The ”pillar of fire by night“ denotes a state of obscurity tempered by enlightenment by good, (n. 8108).

[2] In regard to this circumstance, that the pillar brought darkness upon the Egyptians, and gave light to the sons of Israel, the case is as follows. The presence of the Lord, here signified by ”the pillar,“ is heavenly light itself, from which heaven has its light, and this light is a thousand times brighter than the noonday light of the world. But the same light becomes thick darkness with the evil: even if they are in the light itself, and it becomes thicker darkness in proportion as the falsity from evil is denser with them. The reason is that the truth Divine proceeding from the Lord appears before the eyes of the angels as light, but to those who are in falsities from  evil it cannot appear as light, but as thick darkness, for falsity is opposite to truth and extinguishes truth. Hence it is that the pillar, which was the presence of the Lord, brought cloud and darkness on the Egyptians, because by ”the Egyptians“ are signified those who are in falsities from evil, and that it lighted up the night with the sons of Israel, because by ”the sons of Israel“ are signified those who are in truth from good.  The Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, (n. 1861, 6832).

AC 8198. And the one came not near the other. That this signifies consequently no communication, is evident from the signification of ”coming near,“ as being influx and communication (n. 8159).

AC 8199. All the night.  That this signifies in the obscure state, is evident from the signification of ”the night,“ as being a state of obscurity in respect to the truth and good of faith (n. 1712, 6000).  By ”the night“ is here meant that obscurity which follows immediately after temptations; for they who are liberated from temptations first come into obscurity before they come into clearness, because the falsities and evils that are injected by the hells adhere to them awhile, and are not dissipated except successively.

AC 8200. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea. That this signifies the rule of the power of truth Divine over hell, is evident from the signification of ”stretching out the hand,“ as being the rule of power (n. 7673, 8183); from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine; and from the signification of ”the sea,“ here the sea Suph, as being hell (n. 8099, 8137, 8138).  It is said ”the rule of the power of truth Divine,“ because all Divine power is through the truth which proceeds from the Lord. This created all things, according to this in John:--

All things were made by means of the Word, and without Him was not anything made that was made (John 1:3);

”the Word“ denotes the Lord as to Divine truth; by means of this truth all things in heaven and in hell are set in order; from this also is all order on the earth; all the miracles were brought by means of it; in short, Divine truth has in it all power, insomuch that it is power itself. There are some in the other life who are in truth in advance of others, and they are in such power therefrom that they can pass through the hells without any danger.  They who are in the hells flee in every direction at their presence.  There are some also who by means of truth from the Divine exercise power magically.  Of the Lord‘s Divine mercy more shall be aid of both of these at the end of the chapters, when the hells will be spoken of.  They who pay attention to the causes of things from things external and earthly, cannot perceive otherwise than that truth from the Divine is a mere affair of thought, of no real essence; but on the contrary it is the veriest essentiality from which are all the essences of things in both worlds, the spiritual and the natural.

AC 8201. And Jehovah made the sea to go away by a strong east wind.  That this signifies the means of the dissipation of falsity, is evident from the signification of ”making to go away,“ as being to dissipate; from the signification of ”the sea,“ as being falsity, for by ”the sea“ are here signified its waters, which denote falsities (n. 8137, 8138); and from the signification of ”an east wind,“ as being a means of destruction (n. 7679), here of the destruction of falsity, thus of its dissipation.

AC 8202. All the night, signifies in an obscure state (n. 8199).

AC 8203. And made the sea dry.  That this signifies the dissipation of falsity, is evident from the signification of ”the sea,“ as being falsity (n. 8201); and from the signification of ”making it dry,“ as being its dissipation.  ”To pass over on the dry“ or arid, when said in respect to the waters of that sea when removed, denotes in safety, and without any influx of falsity, (n. 8185).

AC 8204. And the waters were cleft asunder.  That this signifies separation from truths, and removal, is evident from the signification of ”the waters were cleft asunder,“ as being the dissipation and separation of falsity (n. 8184), thus separation from truths, and removal.

AC 8205. And the sons of Israel came into the midst of the sea in the dry. That this signifies the entrance and passage of those who were of the spiritual church, through hell in safety, and without any influx of falsity, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8185), where like words occur.

AC 8206. And the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left.  That this signifies that they were withheld from falsities on every side, is evident from the signification of ”the waters“ of that sea, as being falsities from evil (n. 8137, 8138); from the signification of ”were a wall to them,“ as being to be withheld from them; and from the signification of ”on their right hand and on their left,“ as being on every side. That ”to be a wall to them,“ when said of waters by which are signified falsities, denotes to be withheld from falsities, is because the case with man is this. When a man is kept by the Lord in good and truth, then falsities and evils are removed, and being removed they stand round like a wall, for they cannot enter into the sphere where good and truth are. The reason is, that in good and truth the Lord is present, and the presence of the Lord puts away evil and falsity on every side; for good and truth are absolutely opposite to evil and falsity, and therefore they cannot be together without one destroying the other. But indeed good with truth destroys, that is, removes, evil with falsity, because the former is Divine and consequently has all power, whereas the latter is infernal and consequently has no power. The former acts from things internal, but the latter from things external. When evils with falsities are removed in a man, they as before said stand round like a wall, and are in the perpetual endeavor to rush in; but this they cannot do, because the presence of the Lord, which is in good and truth, wards them off.  This is what is signified by the waters being a wall unto them on their left hand and on their right.  That man is withheld from evil and falsity by being kept in good and truth by the Lord, see (n. 1581, 2406, 4564).  But no one can be withheld from evil and kept in good, unless he has received this capacity by means of the exercise of charity in the world. This is effected by means of a life of good, or a life according to the truths of faith, consequently by means of the affection or love of good. He who by reason of his life has the love and affection of good, can be in the sphere of good and truth; but not he who by his life has put on a nature of evil.

AC 8207. Verses 2-25.  And the Egyptians pursued, and came after them, all Pharaoh’s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen, into the midst of the sea.  And it was in the morning watch, and Jehovah looked forth to the camp of the Egyptians in the pillar of fire and of cloud, and troubled the camp of the Egyptians. And He took off the wheel of his chariots, and he drew it in heaviness; and the Egyptian said, I will flee before Israel, because Jehovah wageth war for them against the Egyptians. ”And the Egyptians pursued,“ signifies an endeavor of falsity from evil to inflict violence; ”and came after them,“ signifies the endeavor of the influx; ”all Pharaoh‘s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen, into the midst of the sea,“ signifies memory-knowledges from a perverted understanding, doctrinal things of falsity, and reasonings, that they filled hell; ”and it was in the morning watch,“ signifies the state of thick darkness and destruction of those who are in falsity from evil, and the state of enlightenment and salvation of those who are in truth and good; ”and Jehovah looked forth to the camp of the Egyptians,“ signifies the extension thence of Divine influx toward those who were endeavoring to inflict violence by means of falsities; ”in the pillar of fire and of cloud,“ signifies the presence in this manner of Divine good and truth there; ”and troubled the camp of the Egyptians,“ signifies that the consequent extensions of falsity and evil returned upon them; ”and He took off the wheel of his chariots,“ signifies the power of inflicting falsities taken away; ”and he drew it in heaviness,“ signifies resistance and importance; ”and the Egyptian said,“ signifies the thought under these circumstances; ”I will flee before Israel,“ signifies separation from those who are in the good of truth and the truth of good; ”because Jehovah wageth war for them against the Egyptians,“ signifies that the Lord alone sustains the fight against falsities and evils.

AC 8208. And the Egyptians pursued. That this signifies the endeavor of falsity from evil to inflict violence, is evident from the signification of ”pursuing,“ when done by the Egyptians, as being an endeavor to subjugate (n. 8136, 8152, 8154), thus to inflict violence; and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in falsities from evil (n. 8132, 8135, 8136, 8146, 8148), thus also the falsities from evil.

AC 8209. And came after them.  That this signifies the endeavor of the influx, is evident from the signification of ”to come after“ anyone, when said of those who are in falsities from evil, as being an endeavor to inflict violence by means of an influx of falsity from evil (n. 8187). It denotes an endeavor, because infernal genii and spirits cannot inflict evil on the good, but nevertheless constantly endeavor to do so. There is a sphere exhaling from the hells which may be called a sphere of endeavors, and which is a sphere of doing evil.  I have several times been allowed to perceive this sphere. The endeavor in it is constant, and as soon as any opportunity offers, the effect breaks forth from it.  But this sphere is restrained by the sphere of the endeavors of heaven which is from the Lord, and is a sphere of imparting benefits, in which is all power, because it is from the Divine.  Nevertheless equilibrium is maintained between these diametrically opposite endeavors, to the intent that man may be in freedom, and thus in choice, and that he can be reformed; for all reformation is in freedom, and without freedom there is no reformation. Spiritual endeavor is the same as will.  During man’s reformation he is kept in equilibrium (that is, in freedom) between willing good and willing evil; and in so far as he then accedes to willing what is good, so far he accedes to heaven and recedes from hell; and so far the new will which he then receives from the Lord prevails against his own will which he received by inheritance from his parents and afterward by actual life. When therefore a man has been so far reformed that he wills good and is affected with it, then good removes evil, because the Lord is present in good; for good is from the Lord, thus it is His, nay, it is Himself. From all this it can be seen how the case is with the endeavor of the influxes with man.

AC 8210. All Pharaoh‘s horses, his chariots, and his horsemen, into the midst of the sea.  That this signifies memory-knowledges from a perverted understanding, doctrinal things of falsity, and reasonings, that they filled hell, is evident from the signification of the ”horses of Pharaoh,“ as being memory-knowledges from a perverted understanding; from the signification of the ”chariots of Pharaoh,“ as being doctrinal things of falsity; from the signification of the ”horsemen of Pharaoh,“ as being reasonings therefrom (n. 8146, 8148); and from the signification of ”into the midst of the sea,“ as being to fill hell.

[2] That these three things of Pharaoh’s army, namely, horses, chariots, and horsemen, are here mentioned again, is because the last state of the devastation of those of the church who had been in faith separate from charity and in a life of evil is now at hand, which state is the state of being cast into hell; and to be cast into hell is to be crowded by falsities from evil. For when the evil have been devastated as to all truth and good and have been left to the evil of their life and to the falsity thence derived, then the hells with which they had communicated by the evils of their life are opened, and then all those evils which they have appropriated to themselves rush into them, and the falsities which pour forth from the evils then constitute a sphere around them, which sphere appears like a dense cloud, or like water. When this takes place, they are then in hell; for they are then shut off from all communication with heaven, and are also separated from other hells.  This is called” casting into hell.“

[3] This is the reason why now, when they entered into the midst of the sea, mention is made of ”horses, chariots, and horsemen;“ for as already said, the ”sea Suph“ signifies hell; and ”horses, chariots, and horsemen“ signify all the falsities and all things of falsity from evil, which are now let into them in order that in this manner they may be separated from the other hells by the whole nature of falsity from evil.  These are the subjects specifically treated of in (verses 24 to 28).

AC 8211. And it was in the morning watch. That this signifies a state of thick darkness and of the destruction of those who are in falsity from evil, and a state of the enlightenment and salvation of those who are in truth from good, is evident from the signification of ”the morning watch,“ as being a state of enlightenment and salvation, and in the opposite sense, a state of thick darkness and destruction. The reason why ”the morning watch“ has this signification, is that in the other life states of faith and love are like the times of the day in the world, namely, like morning, noon, evening, and night; and therefore these times also correspond to those states (n. 2788, 5672, 5962, 6110).  Moreover states vary in much the same manner.  The end and the beginning of these variations is ”morning,“ and specifically, ”daybreak,“ for then the night is ended, and the day begins. In the state to which morning corresponds, the good begin to be enlightened in respect to the things which are of faith, and to grow warm in respect to the things which are of charity and conversely, the evil then begin to be darkened by falsities, and to be chilled by evils; consequently to them morning is a state of thick darkness and destruction, while to the good it is a state of enlightenment and salvation.

[2] From these states in heaven arise the states of light and heat, and also the states of thick darkness and cold on earth, which states succeed each other every year and every day; for whatever exists in the natural world has its origin and cause from things which exist in the spiritual world, because universal nature is nothing else than a theater representative of the Lord‘s kingdom (n. 3483, 4939, 5173, 5962); whence come the correspondences.  The variations of light and shade and also of heat and cold on earth are indeed from the sun, that is, from the difference of its altitudes, every year and every day, in the several regions of the earth; but these causes, which are proximate, and in the natural world, were created according to the things in the spiritual world, as by their prior and efficient causes, which are the causes of the posterior causes that exist in the natural world. For nothing which is in order ever exists in the natural world that does not derive its cause and origin from the spiritual world, that is, through the spiritual world from the Divine.

[3] As, relatively to the good, ” morning“ signifies the beginning of enlightenment and salvation, and relatively to the evil, the beginning of thick darkness and destruction, therefore it is here said that in the morning watch Jehovah looked forth to the camp of the Egyptians and troubled it, and then that He took off the wheel of the chariots, and shook out the Egyptians into the midst of the sea; and on the other hand that He saved the sons of Israel. From all this it can now be seen what is signified in the spiritual sense by the following passages in the Word:--

In the day thou shalt make thy plant to grow, and in the morning thy seed to blossom (Isa. 17:11).

About the time of evening behold terror; before the morning he is not (Isa. 17:14).

O Jehovah be Thou their arm every morning, our salvation also in the time of distress (Isa. 33:2).

Thus saith the Lord Jehovih, An evil, an only evil; behold it cometh. An end is come, the end is come. The morning is come upon thee, O inhabitant of the land; the day of tumult is near (Ezek. 7:5-7).

So did Bethel to you because of the wickedness of your wickedness; in the morning shall the king of Israel be utterly cut off (Hos. 10:15).

Make me hear Thy mercy under the morning; deliver me from mine enemies, O Jehovah (Ps. 143:8, 9).

Also that when the dawn arose the Lord saved Lot, and made it rain sulphur and fire upon Sodom and Gomorrah (Gen. 19:15, 24).

[4] As ”morning“ signifies the state of enlightenment and salvation of the good, and the state of thick darkness and destruction of the evil, therefore also ”morning“ signifies the time of the Last Judgment, when they are to be saved who are in good, and they are to perish who are in evil; consequently it signifies the end of a former church, and the beginning of a new church, which things are signified in the Word by the Last Judgment (n. 900, 931, 1733, 1850, 2117-2133, 3353, 4027, 4535). This is signified by ”morning“ in these passages:--

He said unto me, Until evening, the morning, two thousand three hundred; and then shall the holy thing be justified (Dan.  8:14).

In the morning, in the morning, will Jehovah give judgment for the light, it will not be lacking; I will cut off nations, their corners shall be devastated (Zeph. 3:5, 6).

One crying unto me out of Seir, Watchman, what of the night?  Watchman, what of the night? The watchman said, The morning cometh, and also the night; if ye are seeking, seek ye, return, come (Isa. 21:11, 12).

In these passages ”morning“ denotes the Lord’s coming and the enlightenment and salvation then, thus a new church; ”night“ denotes the state of man and of the church at that time, that they would be in mere falsities from evil.

[5] It is said ”the morning watch,“ because the night was divided into watches, of which the last of the night and the first of the day was the morning watch. These watchmen used to be upon the walls, spying whether an enemy was coming, and by a cry announcing what they saw.  By them, in the internal representative sense, is meant the Lord, and by their watch His continual presence and protection (n. 7989), as in David:--

Thy watchman will not slumber. Behold, the watchman of Israel shall neither slumber nor sleep. Jehovah is thy watchman; Jehovah is thy shade upon thy right hand. The sun shall not smite thee by day, or the moon in the night. Jehovah shall guard thee from all evil; He shall guard thy soul (Ps. 121:3-7).

Moreover by ”watchmen“ are meant prophets and priests, consequently the Word, in these passages:--

I have set watchmen upon thy walls, O Jerusalem; in all the day and all the night they shall not be silent, making mention of Jehovah (Isa. 62:6).

It is a day, the watchmen shall cry in Mount Ephraim, Arise ye, and let us go up to Zion, unto Jehovah our God (Jer. 31:6).

AC 8212. And Jehovah looked forth to the camp of the Egyptians.  That this signifies the extension thence of Divine influx toward those who were endeavoring to inflict violence by means of falsities, is evident from the signification of ”looking forth,“ when predicated of Jehovah, as being the extension of His influx; for it is evident that the Lord‘s looking forth to anyone denotes influx, because He then presents Himself as present, and gives a perception of good and truth to those who are in truth from good from Himself, which is done by means of influx. Hence it is that when the angels look at anyone they pour into him the affection that belongs to their life. And from the signification of ”the camp of the Egyptians,“ as being falsities from evil (n. 8193, 8196); and because they who were in falsities from evil then pursued the sons of Israel, there is also signified the endeavor to inflict violence by means of falsities (n. 8208).

AC 8213. In the pillar of fire and cloud. That this signifies the presence of Divine good and truth there, is evident from the signification of ”the pillar of fire and of cloud,“ as being the presence of the Lord (n. 8110), consequently of Divine good and truth; for where the Lord is, there are good and truth. As to what is specifically signified by ”the pillar of fire and of cloud,“ (n. 8106-8108).

AC 8214. And troubled the camp of the Egyptians.  That this signifies that the consequent extensions of falsity from evil returned upon them, is evident from the signification of ”troubling the camp of the Egyptians,“ as being the return upon them of the falsities from evil which they were endeavoring to inflict on those who were in truth and good.  These things are signified by these words because the presence of the Lord with the evil leads to this effect; for the evil who by means of injections of falsity and evil desire to inflict violence on the good, cast themselves into the penalty of retaliation, which is, that the falsities and evils which they endeavor to inflict, fall back on themselves.  This punishment, which is called the punishment of retaliation, comes from the following law of order in heaven: ”All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them: this is the law and the prophets“ (Matt. 7:12); and therefore they who do what is good from good, or from the heart, receive what is good from others and also on the other hand, they who do what is evil from evil, or from the heart, receive what is evil from others.  Hence it is that every good has its reward attached to it, and every evil its punishment (n. 696, 967, 1857, 6559). From all this it is now evident that by ”Jehovah troubled the camp of the Egyptians,“ is signified that the extensions of falsity from evil returned upon them, and caused the trouble. That this arises with the evil through the presence of the Lord, see (n. 7989).

AC 8215. And He took off the wheel of his chariots. That this signifies the power of inflicting falsities taken away, is evident from the signification of ”to take off,“ as being to take away; from the signification of ”a wheel,“ as being the power of advancing; and from the signification of ”the chariots of Pharaoh,“ as being doctrinal things of falsity (n. 8146, 8148), thus falsities. What a ”wheel“ signifies in the genuine sense, can be seen from the signification of a ”chariot.“  Chariots were of two kinds: there were chariots for conveying merchandise, and chariots for war. By chariots for conveying merchandise were signified doctrinal things of truth, and in the opposite sense doctrinal things of falsity; and by chariots for war were also signified doctrinal things in both senses, but fighting ones, thus the truths themselves, and the falsities themselves, prepared for war.  From this it can be seen what is meant by ”the wheel of a chariot,“ namely, the power of advancing, here of inflicting falsities and of fighting against truths. As this power belongs to man’s intellectual part, by a ”wheel“ is also signified the intellectual part in respect to those things which are of doctrine.

[2] In the other life there frequently appear chariots laden with merchandise of various kinds, the chariots differ in form and size; and when they appear, there are signified by them truths in their complex, or doctrinal things, which are as it were receptacles of truth; and by the merchandise are signified knowledges of various use.  These things appear when the angels discourse in heaven about doctrines; for as their discourse cannot be comprehended by those who are beneath, it is presented representatively, and as before said, to some by means of chariots, in which each and all things of the discourse are presented in a form, and before the eyes, from which the contents of the discourse can be comprehended and seen in a moment; some in the form of the chariot; some in its construction; some in its color; some in its wheels; some in the horses which draw it; some in the merchandise which the chariot conveys. It is from these representatives that ”chariots“ in the Word signify doctrinal things.

[3] From this it can in some measure be seen that by the ”wheel of chariots“ is signified the power of understanding; for as a chariot moves and goes forward by means of the wheels, so the truths which are of doctrinal things move forward by means of the understanding. This is also signified by ”wheels“ in Isaiah:--

Whose arrows are sharp, and all the bows bent; the hoofs of his horses are accounted as rock; his wheels as a whirlwind (Isa. 5:28);

speaking of him who vastates truth: ”arrows“ denote falsities; and a ”bow“ the doctrine of falsity (n. 2686, 2709); ”the hoofs of the horses“ denote sensuous memory-knowledges from a perverted understanding (n. 7729); ”wheels,“ the powers of perverting and destroying truths, like a whirlwind.

[4] In Ezekiel:--

I saw the living creatures, when behold one wheel on the earth with the living creatures, beside the four faces thereof.  The appearance of the wheels and their work was as the look of a beryl; and they four had the same likeness; moreover their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the midst of a wheel; where they went, they went upon their four squares; they turned not when they went. [As for] their circles, they had height and they had fear; moreover their circles were full of eyes round about for them four: thus when the living creatures went, the wheels went with them; the spirit of the living creatures was in the wheels (Ezek. 1:15-20; 10:9-17);

by the ”four living creatures“ which were cherubs, is signified the providence of the Lord (n. 308); by the ”wheels,“ Divine intelligence, or foresight; from which it is said that ”the wheels went together with the living creatures,“ and that ” their circles were full of eyes,“ also that ” the spirit of the living creature was in them,“ that is, the truth of wisdom.

[5] In Daniel:--

I saw even until the thrones were cast forth, and the Ancient of days did sit: His garment like the white snow; the hair of His head like the clean wool; His throne flames of fire; His wheels burning fire (Daniel 7:9);

here ”the Ancient of days“ denotes the Lord as to Divine good; ”the thrones cast forth“ denote falsities ”His garment“ denotes truth Divine in the external form; ”the hair of His head“ denotes good Divine in the external form; ”His throne“ denotes heaven and the church; the ”wheels“ denote the things of wisdom and of intelligence, thus truths Divine; ” burning fire“ denotes the things of love and charity.  Under the ten basins around the temple of Solomon there were also wheels of brass; the work of the wheels was like the work of a chariot wheel; their hands, and their backs, and their tires, and their spokes, were all molten (1 Kings 7:30-33); by these ”basins“ or ”bases“ were signified receptacles of the truth, by means of which a man is purified and regenerated; by the ”wheels“ were signified the intellectual powers, whereby is advancement.

AC 8216. And he drew it in heaviness. That this signifies resistance and impotence, is evident from the signification of a ”wheel,“ as being the power of inflicting falsities (n. 8215); consequently ”to draw it in heaviness“ denotes a hindering by means of resistance, and the consequent impotence.

AC 8217. And the Egyptian said.  That this signifies the thought, namely of those who were in falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ when evil assails, as being thought (n. 7094, 7107, 7244, 7937); and from the signification of ”the Egyptian,“ as being those who were in falsities from evil (n. 8132, 8135, 8146, 8148).

AC 8218. I will flee before Israel. That this signifies separation from those who are in the good of truth and the truth of good, is evident from the signification of ”fleeing,“ as being separation (n. 4113, 4114, 4120); and from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church, or what is the same, who are in the good of truth and the truth of good (n. 7957).

AC 8219. For Jehovah wageth war far them against the Egyptians. That this signifies that the Lord alone sustains the fight against falsities and evils, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8175), where like words occur.

AC 8220. Verses 26-28. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Stretch out thy hand over the sea, and let the waters return upon the Egyptians, upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned, at the turn of the morning, to the strength of its flow; and the Egyptians fled to meet it; and Jehovah shook out the Egyptians into the midst of the sea. And the waters returned, and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the army of Pharaoh that came after them into the sea; there was not left of them even one.  ”And Jehovah said unto Moses,“ signifies influx; ”Stretch out thy hand over the sea,“ signifies the rule of the power of truth Divine over hell; ”and let the waters return upon the Egyptians,“ signifies that the falsities would flow back to them, and would environ those who are in falsities from evil; ”upon his chariots and upon his horsemen,“ signifies doctrinal things of falsity, and reasonings from a perverted understanding; ”and Moses stretched out his hand over the sea,“ signifies, as above, the rule of Divine power over hell; ”and the sea returned, at the turn of the morning, to the strength of its flow,“ signifies the flowing back to them of the falsities from evil, by reason of the presence of the Lord; ”and the Egyptians fled to meet it,“ signifies that they immersed themselves in the falsities from evil; ”and Jehovah shook out the Egyptians into the midst of the sea,“ signifies that thus they cast themselves into hell, where are falsities from evil; ”and the waters returned,“ signifies the return of the falsities into them; ”and covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the army of Pharaoh,“ signifies that their own falsities hid them; ”that came in after them into the sea,“ signifies that took possession of them; ”there was not left of them even one,“ signifies all and each.

AC 8221. And ”Jehovah said unto Moses.  That this signifies influx, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah said,” when concerning the rule of power to be exercised by means of Divine truth, which is represented by Moses, as being influx (n. 7291, 7381).

AC 8222. Stretch out thy hand over the sea.  That this signifies the rule of the power of truth Divine over hell, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8200), where are like words.

AC 8223. And let the waters return upon the Egyptians. That this signifies that the falsities from evil would flow back to those, and would environ those, who are in falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of “waters,” as being falsities (n. 6346, 7307, 8137, 8138); consequently by “let the waters return” is signified the flowing back or return of the falsity, here also an environment, because by the waters of the sea Suph, which denote the falsities from evil of those who being of the church had been in faith separate and in a life of evil; and from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who are in falsities from evil. How the case herein is, that the falsities would flow back or return to those who intended to pour them forth upon those who were in truth and good, who are represented by the sons of Israel, see above (n. 8214), namely, that the evil which is intended to others returns upon themselves, and that this arises from the law of Divine order: “Do not to another save only what thou wouldest others should do to thee‘ (Matt. 7:12). From this law, which in the spiritual world is constant and perpetual, the laws of retaliation delivered in the representative church derived their origin; namely, the following:--

If any harm shall happen, thou shalt give life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, blow for blow (Exod. 21:23-25).

If a man hath caused a blemish in his neighbor; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him; fracture for fracture, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; as he hath caused a blemish in a man, so shall it be caused in him (Lev. 24:19, 20).

If a witness shall answer a lie against his brother, ye shall do to him as he had thought to do to his brother (Deut. 19:18, 19).

From these passages it is clearly evident that these laws originate from that universal law which in the spiritual world is constant and perpetual, namely, that thou art not to do to others except as thou wouldst that others should do to thee. Thus it is clear how it is to be understood that the falsities from evil which are intended to be inflicted on others, flow back or return upon the persons themselves.

[2] But the case with this law in the other life is further as follows.  When the like, or retaliation, is evil, it is inflicted by the evil, and never by the good; that is, it comes from the hells, and never from the heavens.  For the hells, or the evil who are there, are in the continual cupidity of doing evil to others, for this is the very delight of their life; and therefore as soon as it is permitted, they do evil, caring not to whom, whether he is evil or good, whether he is a companion or an enemy; and as it is from a law of order that evil returns upon those who intend evil, consequently, when it is permitted by the law, they rush on them.  This is done by the evil who are in the hells, never by the good who are in the heavens, for these latter are in the continual desire of doing good to others, because this is the delight of their life; and therefore as soon as there is an opportunity, they do good both to foes and to friends, nay, they do not resist evil, for the laws of order defend and protect what is good and true.  Hence it is that the Lord says, ”Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; but I say to you that evil must not be resisted.  Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy; but I say to you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, impart benefits to them that hate you; that ye may be sons of your Father in the heavens“ (Matt. 5:38, 39, 43-45).

[3] It frequently happens in the other life that when evil spirits wish to inflict evil on the good, they are grievously punished, and that the evil which they intend to others returns upon themselves. At the time this appears as if it were revenge from the good; but it is not revenge, neither is it from the good, but from the evil, to whom an opportunity is then given from the law of order. Nay, the good do not wish evil to them, but still they cannot take away the evil of punishment, because they are then kept in the intention of good just like a judge when he sees a malefactor being punished, or like a father when he sees his son punished by his master.  The evil who punish do it from the cupidity of doing evil; but the good from the affection of doing good. From all this it can be seen what is meant by the Lord’s words concerning love for an enemy, in Matthew, as above; and concerning the law of retaliation, which was not abrogated by the Lord, but explained; namely, that they who are in heavenly love ought not to have delight in retaliation or revenge, but in imparting benefits; and that the very law of order, which protects what is good, performs it from itself, through the evil ones.

AC 8224. Upon his chariots, and upon his horsemen. That this signifies doctrinal things of falsity, and reasonings from a perverted understanding, is evident from the signification of the ”chariots of Pharaoh,“ as being doctrinal things of falsity (n. 8146, 8148, 8215); and from the signification of ”horsemen,“ as being reasonings from a perverted understanding (n. 8146, 8148).

AC 8225. And Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, signifies the rule of Divine power over hell (n. 8200, 8222).

AC 8226. And the sea returned, at the turn of the morning, to the strength of its flow. That this signifies the flowing back to them of the falsities from evil by reason of the presence of the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”returning,“ when said of the falsities from evil which are signified by the ”waters of the sea Suph,“ as being a flowing back or return to them (n. 8223); from the signification of ”the sea,“ here of the waters of the sea, as being falsities from evil which are in hell (n. 6346, 7307, 8137); from the signification of ”the turn of the morning,“ as being the presence of the Lord; and from the signification of ”to the strength of its flow,“ as being according to the general state and order in hell; for in the hells there is order equally as in the heavens, because in the hells there is consociation by means of evils, as in the heavens by means of goods, but the consociation in the hells is like that of robbers.  That ”at the turn of the morning“ denotes the presence of the Lord, can be seen from what was shown above concerning the morning (n. 8211), namely, that ”the morning“ denotes a state of thick darkness and destruction to the evil, and a state of enlightenment and salvation to the good, and this from the mere presence of the Lord (n. 7989, 8137, 8138, 8188), that is, from the presence of His Divine Human (n. 8159).

[2] The like to what is here said of ”the Egyptians“ is said of ”Babel“ in Jeremiah:--

He is the Former of all things, chiefly of the rod of His inheritance, Jehovah Zebaoth is His name. Thou art my hammer, weapons of war; and by Thee will I scatter the nations; and by Thee will I destroy kingdoms; and by Thee will I scatter the horse and his rider; and by Thee will I scatter the chariot and him that is borne therein; and I will recompense to Babel and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea all their evil that they have done in Zion before your eyes (Jer. 51:19-21, 24);

by ”Babel“ here are signified those who have been of the church and have profaned good; and by ”Chaldea,“ those who have profaned truth; their intellectual part and the derivative doctrinal things and reasonings are here also signified by ”horse,“ ”chariot,“ and ”him that is borne therein;“ and vastation, by their ”being scattered.“ The Lord as to the Divine Human, by virtue of whose presence their scattering is effected, is meant by these words: ”He is the Former of all things, chiefly of the rod of His inheritance, Jehovah Zebaoth is His name; Thou art my hammer and weapons of war; and by Thee will I scatter the nations; and by Thee will I destroy kingdoms;“ ”nations“ denote evils, and ”kingdoms“ falsities. From all this also it is evident that the evils which they do to others flow back or return upon themselves, for it is said that ”their evil shall be recompensed to them;“ and also in various places in the Word it is said that in the day of visitation vengeance shall be taken, and that there shall be an avenging.

AC 8227. And the Egyptians fled to meet it. That this signifies that they immersed themselves in the falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of ”fleeing to meet the sea,“ as being to immerse themselves in the falsities from evil which are signified by the waters of that sea (n. 8226). The case herein is this. He who does not know the interior things of causes, cannot believe otherwise than that the evils which be fall the evil, such as punishments, vastations, damnations, and finally casting into hell, are from the Divine; for so it does absolutely appear, because such things arise from the presence of the Divine (n. 8137, 8138, 8188); but still nothing of the kind befalls them from the Divine, but from themselves. The Divine and its presence have for their sole end the protection and salvation of the good; and when the Divine is present with these, and protects them against the evil, then the evil are still more inflamed against them, and more still against the Divine Itself, for this latter they hate most intensely (they who hate good, intensely hate the Divine); consequently they make an attack upon these, and in so far as they do this, so far do they by virtue of the law of order cast themselves into punishments, vastations, damnation, and at last into hell. From all this it can be seen that the Divine (that is, the Lord) does nothing but good, and does evil to no one, but that they who are in evil cast themselves into such things. This is what is signified by ”the Egyptians fled to meet the sea,“ that is, that they immersed themselves in falsities from evil.

[2] As regards this matter something further shall be said. It is believed that evils too are from the Divine, because the Divine permits them, and does not take them away; and he who permits and does not take away when he is able, appears to will, and thus to be the cause.  but the Divine permits because it cannot prevent, or take away; for the Divine wills nothing but good; and if it were to prevent and take away evils, that is, those of punishments, vastations, persecutions, temptations, and the like, then it would will evil, for then such persons could not be amended, and evil would increase until it had the dominion over good. The case herein is like that of a king who acquits the guilty: he is the cause of the evil afterward done by them in the kingdom; and is also the cause of the consequent license taken by others; not to mention the fact that the evil person would be confirmed in evil; and therefore a just and good king, though able to take away punishments, nevertheless cannot do it, for in this way he would not do good, but evil.  Be it known that all the punishments, and also the temptations, in the other life, have good as their end.

AC 8228. And Jehovah shook out the Egyptians into the midst of the sea.  That this signifies that thus they cast themselves into hell where are falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of ”shaking out into the midst of the sea,“ as being to cast into falsities from evil, for these falsities are signified by the waters of that sea (n. 6346, 7307, 8137, 8138). That evils which in the sense of the letter of the Word are attributed to Jehovah - that is, to the Lord - are from the very ones who are in evil, and nothing of them from the Lord, and that the Word in its internal sense is so to be understood, see (n. 2447, 6071, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7643, 7679, 7710, 7877, 7926, 8227).

AC 8229. And the waters returned.  That this signifies the return of the falsities into them, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8223, 8226).

AC 8230. And covered the chariots, and the horsemen, even all the army of Pharaoh.  That this signifies that their own falsities hid them, is evident from the signification of ”covering,“ as being to overwhelm, and thus to hide; and from the signification of ”the chariots and the horsemen of Pharaoh,“ as being doctrinal things of falsity, and reasonings, fighting against truths and goods, in general the very falsities from evil. ”Chariots“ denote doctrinal things of falsity, and ”horsemen“ reasonings from a perverted understanding, (n. 8146, 8148); and they denote these fighting against truths and goods, (n. 8215).

AC 8231. That came after them into the sea.  That this signifies that took possession of them, is evident from the signification of ”those which came after them,“ when said of the waters of the sea, by which are signified falsities from evil, as being to take possession of.

AC 8232. There was not left of them even one. That this signifies all and each, is evident without explication. In this verse the subject treated of is the immersion or casting into hell of those who have been in falsities from evil. But what immersion and casting into hell are, is known to few, it being supposed that it is a casting down into a certain place where is the devil with his crew, who torment those who are there. But such is not the case with this matter. Casting into hell is nothing else than a crowding by mere falsities which are from evil, in which evil they had been when in the world. When they have been crowded there by these falsities, they are in hell, and the evils and falsities in which they then are, torment them.  But the torment does not arise from their grieving at the evil which they have done, but from their not being able to do evil, which is the delight of their life; for when they do evil to others in hell, they are punished and tormented by those to whom they do it. They chiefly do evil to one another from the cupidity of exercising command, and of subjugating others with this end in view, which is done (if others do not suffer themselves to be subjugated) by a thousand methods of punishments and torments.  But the lordships there, which they continually aspire to, take turns, those who had punished and tormented others being subsequently punished and tormented by these others; and this until at last this kind of ardor abates from the fear of the penalty. From all this it can now be seen whence comes hell, and what hell is. The fire of hell is nothing else than concupiscence originating in the love of self, which inflames and torments (n. 6314, 7324, 7575).

AC 8233. Verses 29-31. And the sons of Israel went on the dry into the midst of the sea; and the waters were a wall to them on their right hand, and on their left. And Jehovah saved Israel on this day out of the hand of the Egyptians; and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. And Israel saw the great hand which Jehovah wrought on the Egyptians, and the people feared Jehovah; and they believed in Jehovah, and in His servant Moses.  ”And the sons of Israel went on the dry into the midst of the sea,“ signifies that they who were in the good of truth and the truth of good passed safely through that hell without infestation; ”and the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left,“ signifies that they were withheld from falsities on every side; ”and Jehovah saved Israel on this day out of the hand of the Egyptians,“ signifies that in this state the Lord protected those who were of the spiritual church from all violence by reason of falsities from evil; ”and Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore,“ signifies the view of the damned scattered here and there; ”and Israel saw the great hand which Jehovah wrought on the Egyptians,“ signifies the acknowledgment of the Lord‘s omnipotence; ”and the people feared Jehovah,“ signifies adoration; ”and they believed,“ signifies faith and trust; ”in Jehovah, and in His servant Moses,“ signifies the Lord as to Divine good, and as to Divine truth proceeding from Him and ministering.

AC 8234. And the sons of Israel went on the dry into the midst of the sea. That this signifies that they who were in the good of truth and the truth of good passed safely through that hell without infestation, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8185), where are the like words. It is said ”in the good of truth and in the truth of good,“ and there is meant the spiritual church; for they who are of this church are first in the good of truth, and afterward in the truth of good; for at first they do what is good because the truth prescribes that it ought to be done, consequently from obedience; but afterward they do what is good from affection. Then they see truth from good and also do it.  From this it is evident that before the man of the spiritual church receives a new will from the Lord, that is, before he has been regenerated, he does truth from obedience; but after he has been regenerated he does truth from affection, and then, to him, truth becomes good, because it is of the will. For to act from obedience is to act from the intellectual part; but to act from affection is to act from the will part. From this also it is that they who do truth from obedience are men of the external church; but they who do it from affection are men of the internal church.  From all this it is evident that they who are of the spiritual church are meant when it is said ”they who are in the good of truth and the truth of good.“

AC 8235. And the waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. That this signifies that they were withheld from falsities on every side, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8206), where are like words.

AC 8236. And Jehovah saved Israel on this day out of the hand of the Egyptians.  That this signifies that in this state the Lord protected those who were of the spiritual church from all violence by reason of falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of ”to save,“ as being to protect; from the signification of ”in this day,“ as being in this state. ”Day“ denotes state, (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850); from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church; and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in falsities from evil, consequently it is evident that ”to save out of their hand“ denotes to be protected from violence on the part of those who are in falsities from evil.

AC 8237. And Israel saw the Egyptians dead upon the sea shore. That this signifies the view of the damned scattered here and there, is evident from the signification of ”to see,“ as being to look at, or the view; from the representation of ”the Egyptians,“ as being those who are in falsities from evil; from the signification of ”dead,“ as being damned (n. 5407, 6119, 7494); and from the signification of ”upon the sea shore,“ as being in the region which surrounds the utmost parts of hell; that ”shores“ denote the utmost parts is evident; and that ”the sea“ denotes hell has been already shown. Hence it is that by ”seeing them dead upon the sea shore“ is signified the view of the damned scattered here and there. As the view of the damned is mentioned, it must be made clear how the case herein is. They who are in hells are not seen by those who are in another hell, not even by those who are in the next or nearest, for they are completely separated; but they appear to those who are in heaven whenever the Lord pleases. For the Lord rules the hells also by means of angels, to whom an opportunity is given of seeing all things that come forth there, from the place where they are.  This is done to the end that there may be order in hell also, and that one may not do violence to another beyond what is permitted.  This office is given to the angels, and through it there is rule over the hells. To look into the hells and to see what is going on there, is also sometimes granted to good spirits, for it is from order that lower things can be seen from higher, but not higher things from lower.  Thus the hells and their inhabitants can be seen by those who are in heaven, but not the reverse.  Hence it is that evils can be seen from good, but not goods from evil, for good is higher and evil is lower.

AC 8238. Add Israel saw the great hand which Jehovah wrought on the Egyptians. That this signifies the acknowledgment of the omnipotence of the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”to see,“ as being to understand, to acknowledge, and to have faith (n. 897, 2150, 2325, 2807, 3796, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 5400, 6805); from the signification of ”a hand great,“ ”strong,“ ”firm,“ ”high,“ when said of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord, as being omnipotence (n. 878, 7188, 7189, 7518, 8050, 8069, 8153); and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in damnation; now, those who are in hell.

AC 8239. And the people feared Jehovah. That this signifies adoration, is evident from the signification of ”fearing Jehovah,“ as being worship either from love, or from faith, or from fear (n. 2826); thus adoration.

AC 8240. And they believed. That this signifies faith and trust, is evident from the signification of ”believing,“ as being to have faith, and also to have trust; for he who has faith has trust also. Trust belongs to love through faith, consequently trust in Jehovah, that is, in the Lord, is possible with those only who are in love to the Lord and toward the neighbor, because with others there is no faith.

AC 8241. In Jehovah, and in His servant Moses. That this signifies the Lord as to the Divine good, and as to the Divine truth proceeding from Him and ministering, is evident from the fact that by ”Jehovah“ in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6281, 6303, 6945, 6956); and indeed the Lord as to the Divine good (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 4402, 6905); from the representation of Moses, as being the Divine truth proceeding from Him (n. 6752, 7010, 7014, 7089, 7382). It is said ”the Lord as to the Divine good and as to the Divine truth,“ because Divine good is in the Lord, and Divine truth is from the Lord; Divine good is to Divine truth as the fire of the sun is to the light from it; the light not being in the sun, but from the sun.  And from the signification of ”servant,“ as being one who ministers. That he is called a ”servant“ who is of service, thus who ministers, see (n. 7143); and that on this account the Lord as to the Divine Human, when He was in the world, is called in the Word a ”servant,“ (n. 3441); for He then ministered, as He Himself also says: ”Whosoever would become great among you must be your minister; and whosoever would be first must be your servant; even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister“ (Matt. 20:26-28; Mark 10:43-45).

CONTINUATION ABOUT THE SPIRITS AND THE INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH JUPITER

AC 8242. I have also been shown what kind of faces the inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have; not that I have seen the inhabitants themselves, but that the spirits were seen with faces like those which they had while on their earth. But before this was shown, one of their angels appeared behind a bright cloud, who gave leave, and then two faces were shown.  They were like the faces of the men of our earth, fair, but more beautiful; sincerity and modesty shone forth from them.

AC 8243. When the spirits of Jupiter were with me, the faces of the inhabitants of our earth appeared smaller to me than usual, the source of which was that there inflowed from those spirits the idea which they had about their own faces - that they were larger. For while they live as men on their own earth, they believe that after their decease their faces will be larger, and round in form; and because this idea has been impressed on them, it consequently remains, and when they become spirits, they appear to themselves to have larger faces. The reason why they believe that their faces will be larger is that they say that the face is not the body, because by its means they speak and present their thoughts, and because the mind is thus as it were transparent through it; consequently they have an idea of the face as of the mind in form; and as they know that they will be wiser after their life in the world, they believe that the form of their mind, that is, their face, will become larger.

AC 8244. When they are in the world, they also believe that after their decease they will perceive a fire which will warm their faces. They infer this from the fact that the wiser of them know that fire in the spiritual world is love, and that this fire is the fire of life, and that from this fire the angels have heat.  Moreover those of them who have lived in celestial love obtain their wish, and perceive their faces to be warmed as by a fire; and then the interiors of their minds are kindled, not with heat, but with love.

AC 8245. For this reason they also frequently wash and cleanse their faces, and also carefully preserve them from the heat of the sun. They have a covering made of bluish bark or rind, which they bind about their heads, and thus preserve the face. But they do not care much about the body.

AC 8246. They said that the faces of the men of our earth are not beautiful; and they wondered that the faces of some of them are full of warts and pimples, and are in other respects disfigured; and they said that none such ever appear among them. Still, they were pleased with some of the faces, namely, those which were cheerful and smiling, and those which were a little prominent about the lips.

AC 8247. The reason why they were pleased with the cheerful and smiling faces, was that in their earth the faces of almost all are such, and this for the reason that they have no solicitude about future things, nor have they worldly cares, for these are things which bring sadness and anxiety into the lower mind, and from this into the face; and if with those who are not good there is cheerfulness and a smile in the face, it is in the outer skin, and not in the fibers from within. It is otherwise with the inhabitants of Jupiter.  The reason why they were pleased with the faces that were prominent about the lips, was that most of their speech is effected by means of the face, and especially by means of the region of it that is around the lips; and also because they never dissemble, that is, speak otherwise than they think. For this reason they do not control their faces, but let them have free play. It is otherwise with those who from childhood have learned to dissemble. Their face is consequently contracted from within, lest anything of the thought should shine out therefrom. Neither has it free play outwardly, but is kept ready for letting out, or for drawing in, just as cunning dictates. The truth of this can be seen from an examination of the fibers round about the lips; for there are manifold series of fibers there, folded together and united together, that were not created for chewing and verbal speech only, but also for expressing the ideas of the lower mind.

AC 8248. It was also shown how the thoughts are set forth by means of the face.  The affections of love are exhibited by the features and their changes, and the thoughts in these affections by means of variations in respect to the forms of the interiors, which cannot be further described. The inhabitants of the earth Jupiter have also the speech of words; but it is not so sonorous as with us. The one kind of speech is an aid to the other, and life is insinuated into the speech of words by means of the speech of the face.

AC 8249. I have been informed by the angels that the first speech of all in every earth was a speech by means of the face, and this from two origins in the face - from the lips, and from the eyes.  The reason why such speech was the first, is that the face was formed just to effigy the things which a man thinks and which he wills; from this the face has also been called the effigy and index of the mind; and also because in the most ancient or first times there was sincerity (n. 8118), and man thought nothing, and wished to think nothing, but what he was willing should shine forth from his face; so that the affections of the lower mind and the ideas of the thought could be presented to the life, and fully. In this way they appeared to the eye also, as in a form, and very many together. This speech therefore surpassed the speech of words as much as the sense of sight surpasses that of hearing; that is, as the sight of a country surpasses hearing a description of it. They added that such speech was in agreement with the speech of the angels, with whom, furthermore, men in those times had communication.  Moreover when the face speaks, or the mind through the face, it is the angelic speech with man in an ultimate natural form; and there is a presence of the internal sight or thought of one in that of another, but not when the mouth speaks by means of words. The most ancient people on this earth spoke in a similar way, (n. 607, 608, 1118, 1120, 7361). Everyone also can know that the speech of words was not possible to the most ancient people, because the words of language were not imparted immediately, but had to be invented and applied to the things, which could not be done except in course of time.

AC 8250. So long as there were sincerity and uprightness with man, so long also such speech remained; but as soon as the mind began to think one thing and speak another, which took place when man loved himself and not the neighbor, then the speech of words began to grow, the face being either silent or likewise counterfeiting.  From this the internal form of the face was changed; it contracted itself, grew hard, and began to be nearly devoid of life; whereas the external form, inflamed from the fire of the love of self, seemed to be alive; but the absence of life, which is beneath, and is as a plane inwardly, does not appear before the eyes of men, but before the eyes of the angels, for these see the things within. Such are the faces of those who think one thing and speak another; for pretence, hypocrisy, cunning and deceit, which at this day are sagacity, lead to such things. But the case is otherwise in the other life, where it is not allowable to speak in one way and think in another.  The dissidence is also clearly perceived in every word, and in every tone of the voice; and when it is perceived, the spirit in whom there is such dissidence is cast out of fellowship, and is fined.  Afterward he is brought by various methods to speak as he thinks, and to think as he wills, until his mind is one and not divided if he is good, to will good and to think and speak what is true from good; and if evil, to will evil, and to think and speak what is false from evil.  The good one is not previously raised into heaven, and the evil one is not previously cast into hell; and this to the end that in hell there may be nothing but evil, and that the falsity there may be the falsity of evil; and that in heaven there may be nothing but good, and that the truth may be the truth of good.

AC 8251. A continuation concerning the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Jupiter will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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