HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 18

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

AC 8635. No one can be regenerated unless he knows such things as are of the new life, that is, of spiritual life; for man is introduced into this life by means of regeneration. The things which are of the new life, or of spiritual life, are truths which must be believed, and goods which must be done; the former are of faith, the latter of charity.

AC 8636. No one can know these things from himself, for man apprehends only those things which have been obvious to his senses; from these he has procured for himself a light which is called natural light, by virtue of which he sees nothing else than what belongs to the world and to himself, and not what belongs to heaven and to God; these he must learn from revelation.

AC 8637. For example, that the Lord, who was God from eternity, came into the world to save the human race; that He has all power in heaven and in earth; that everything of faith and everything of charity, thus everything of truth and good is from Him; that there is a heaven, and that there is a hell; that man will live to eternity, in heaven if he has done well, in hell if he has done evil.

AC 8638. These things and more are of faith, which must be known by the man who is to be regenerated; for he who knows them can think them, then will them, and lastly do them, and thus have new life.

AC 8639. On the other hand, he who does not know that the Lord is the Saviour of the human race, cannot have faith in Him, worship Him, love Him, and thus do good for His sake. He who does not know that all good is from Him, cannot think that his own righteousness and his own salvation are from Him, still less can he will it to be so, thus he cannot live from Him. He who does not know that there is a hell, and that there is a heaven, nor that there is eternal life, cannot even think about the life of heaven, nor apply himself to receiving it; and so in all other things.

AC 8640. From all this it can be seen what the quality of the life of a regenerate person is, that it is a life of faith; and also that it cannot be given to a man until he is in such a state as to be able to acknowledge the truths of faith, and in so far as he acknowledges them, to will them.

EXODUS 18:1-27

1. And Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, in that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt.

2. And Jethro, Moses‘ father-in-law, took Zipporah, Mosess wife, after he had sent her away:

3. And her two sons; of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land:

4. And the name of the other was Eliezer; Because the God of my father was my help, and liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh.

5. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law came, and his sons, and his wife, unto Moses, unto the wilderness where he was encamped at the mount of God.

6. And he said unto Moses, I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, with her two sons with her.

7. And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed himself down, and kissed him; and they asked a man his companion as to peace; and they came into the tent.

8. And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel‘s sake, all the trouble that found them in the way, and Jehovah rescued them.

9. And Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel, who rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians.

10. And Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah, who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians.

11. Now I know that Jehovah is great above all the gods; for the reason that they dealt proudly over them.

12. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses‘ father-in-law before God.

13. And it was on the morrow, and Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood over Moses from the morning until the evening.

14. And Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, and he said, What is this word that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou alone, and all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening?

15. And Moses said to his father-in-law, Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God:

16. When they have a word, it cometh unto me; and I judge between a man and his companion, and I make known the judgments of God, and His laws.

17. And Moses‘ father-in-law said unto him, The word that thou doest is not good.

18. Wearing thou wilt wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee; because the word is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to do it, thou alone.

19. Now hear my voice, I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee: be thou for the people with God, and bring thou the words unto God:

20. And do thou teach them the statutes and the laws, and make known to them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do.

21. And do thou see out of all the people men of strenuousness, fearing God, men of truth, hating gain; and do thou set of them for princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens:

22. And let them judge the people in every time; and it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee, and every small word let them judge; and devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee.

23. If thou do this word, and God have commanded thee, then thou shalt be able to stand, and also all this people shall come upon its place in peace.

24. And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said.

25. And Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel, and gave them as heads over the people: princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens.

26. And they shall judge the people in every time, the difficult word they shall bring unto Moses, and every small word they shall judge.

27. And Moses let his father-in-law go, and he went to himself unto his own land.

THE CONTENTS

AC 8641. The subject treated of in the internal sense in this chapter is truths in successive order from the First to the last, and that they are set in order by good Divine. Truth in the first degree is represented by Moses; the truths derived therefrom in successive order are represented by the princes of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.  And good Divine, by which the setting in order is effected, is represented by Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 8642. Verses 1-5.  And Jethro, the priest of Midian, Moses‘ father-in-law, heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people, in that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt; and Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses‘ wife, after he had sent her away. And her two sons, of which the name of the one was Gershom for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land. And the name of the other Eliezer; Because the God of my father was my help, and liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh. And Jethro Moses’ father-in-law came, and his sons, and his wife, unto Moses, into the wilderness where he was encamped at the mount of God. “And Jethro the priest of Midian,” signifies the Divine good; “Moses‘ father-in-law,” signifies from which is the good conjoined with truth Divine; “heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people,” signifies the perception of those things which had been done for those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; “in that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt,” signifies that they had been liberated by the Lord from infestations; “and Jethro Moses‘ father-in-law took Zipporah, Moses’ wife,” signifies good from the Divine conjoined with truth Divine; “after he had sent her away,” signifies separation hitherto relatively to the state of those who are of the spiritual church; “and her two sons,” signifies the goods of truth; “of which the name of the one was Gershom, for he said I have been a sojourner in a strange land,” signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are out of the church; “and the name of the other was Eliezer,” signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are within the church; “because the God of my father was my help,” signifies the Lord‘s mercy and presence in the church; “and liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh,” signifies liberation from the falsity of those who infested’ “and Jethro Moses‘ father-in-law came,” signifies the Divine good; “and his sons,” signifies the goods of truth; “and his wife,” signifies good conjoined with truth Divine; “unto Moses unto the wilderness,” signifies conjunction in the state before regeneration when there are temptations; “where he was encamped at the mount of God,” signifies near to the good of truth.

AC 8643. And Jethro the priest off Midian.  That this signifies the Divine good, is evident from the representation of Jethro the priest of Midian, as being the good of the church that is in the truth of simple good (n. 7015), but here he denotes the Divine good, for the reason that Moses, of whom Jethro was the father-in-law, represents Divine truth.  For when the son-in-law represents truth, then the father-in-law represents the good in a higher degree, because he is the father of the other’s wife.  That the Divine good is here represented by Jethro, is because in this chapter the subject treated of is the setting in order of truths with the man of the spiritual church, and this is effected by Divine good through Divine truth; for all setting in order is by good through truth. This setting in order is effected with the man of the spiritual church when he begins to act no longer from truth, but from good; for this state is his second state, which arises after he has undergone temptations. For when he acts from truth, then he is tempted, to the intent that the truths with him may be confirmed; and when these have been confirmed, then they are reduced by the Lord into order; and when they have been reduced into order, then he enters the second state, which consists in willing truths and doing them, whereby they become of the life, and are called goods.  This setting in order is treated of below.

AC 8644. Moses‘ father-in-law.  That this signifies from which is good conjoined with truth Divine, is evident from the signification of “father-in-law,” as being the good from which is the good that is conjoined with truth (n. 6827); and from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (n. 6752, 6771, 7010, 7014, 7382). The reason why “a father-in-law” signifies good from which is good conjoined with truth, is that “a wife” signifies good when “the man” signifies truth (n. 2517, 4510, 4823). As in what follows, the conjunction of Divine good with Divine truth is treated of, whereby a setting in order may be effected in the man of the church, be it known that between Divine good and Divine truth there is this distinction that Divine good is In the Lord, and Divine truth is from the Lord. It is as with the fire of the sun and the light which is therefrom; the fire is in the sun, and the light is from the sun; in the light there is not fire but heat.

[2] Moreover in the other life the Lord is the Sun, and also is the light. In the Sun there, which is Himself, is Divine fire, which is the Divine good of the Divine love.  From that Sun is Divine light, which is Divine truth from Divine good.  In this Divine truth there is also Divine good, but not such as is in the Sun, it being accommodated to reception in heaven; for unless it were accommodated to reception, heaven could not have come into existence, because no angel can bear the flame from the Divine love. He would be consumed in a moment, would a man if the flame of the sun of this world should blow directly upon him.

[3] But how the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love is accommodated to reception, cannot be known by anyone, not even by the angels in heaven, because it is an accommodation of the Infinite to the finite; and the Infinite is such as to transcend all the understanding of the finite, insomuch that when the understanding of the finite desires to look in that direction, it falls as into the depth of the sea and perishes. That the Lord is the Sun in heaven, and that the Sun there is the Divine good of His Divine love, and that the light therefrom is Divine truth, from which is intelligence, (n. 1053, 1521-1533, 1619-1632, 2776, 3094, 3138, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3225, 3339, 3341, 3636, 3643, 3993, 4180, 4302, 4408, 4409, 4415, 4523, 4533, 4696, 7083, 7171, 7174, 7270, 8197).

AC 8645. Heard all that God had done for Moses, and for Israel His people. That this signifies the perception of those things which had been done for those who are of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” namely, all that God had done, as being perception (n. 5017, 8361); from the signification of “all that God had done,” as being the things that had been done by the Divine; and from the representation of Israel, who here is Moses and the people for whom the things were done, as being those who are of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223); for Moses together with the people represents this kingdom, Moses as the head, and the people as the things that are subject to the head; thus also Moses represents the Lord as to Divine truth, for from this is the spiritual kingdom.

AC 8646. In that Jehovah had brought forth Israel out of Egypt.  That this signifies that they had been liberated by the Lord from infestations, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth,” as being to liberate; from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual kingdom (n. 8645); and from the signification of “Egypt,” as being infestations by falsities (n. 7278). That “Egypt” signifies infestations, is because by “the Egyptians” and “Pharaoh” are signified those who by means of falsities infested in the other life those who were of the spiritual church (n. 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7317, 8148).

AC 8647. And Jethro, Moses‘ father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’ wife.  That this signifies good from the Divine conjoined with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Jethro Moses‘ father-in-law, as being the Divine good from which is good conjoined with truth, in this case with the truth Divine which is represented by Moses (n. 8643, 8644); and from the representation of Zipporah, Moses’ wife, as being good Divine For marriages represent the conjunction of good and truth; in the celestial church the husband represents good, and the wife the derivative truth; but in the spiritual church the man represents truth, and the wife good.  Here, Moses‘ wife represents good, because the spiritual kingdom is treated of (n. 2517, 4510, 4823, 7022).

AC 8648. After he had sent her away. That this signifies separation hitherto relatively to the state of those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “sending away,” as being separation.  That it is relatively to the state of those who are of the spiritual church, is because in the first state of those who are in the spiritual church good does not appear, but only truth.  How this is, can be seen from what has been already shown concerning the two states of those who are of the spiritual church; namely, that in the first state they act from truth and not from good, but in the second they act from good.  In the first state, when they act from truth and not from good, good is as it were absent, and is like a wife that has been sent away; but in the second state, when they act from good, then good is present, and is like a wife that is conjoined with her man. This is what is meant in the internal sense by “after he had sent her away.”

[2] Be it further known, that this is relatively to those who are of the spiritual church, for the truth which proceeds from the Lord is always conjoined with its good; but in the first state, which is before regeneration, good is not received, but only truth, although both flow in through heaven from the Lord. In the second state however, which is after regeneration, good is received conjoined with truth. That which takes place with man is predicated as taking place with the Lord, for the reason that it so appears.  This is the case in very many other instances, as for example, that the Lord does evil, punishes, casts into hell. These things are predicated of the Lord because it appears so, when yet all evil which befalls man is done by the man. There are very many such things in the Word, which however are plain to him who searches the Scriptures from the affection of truth, and for the sake of the good of life, because he is enlightened by the Lord.

AC 8649. And her two sons. That this signifies the goods of truth, is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2159, 2623, 3704, 4257), in this case the goods of truth, because they are called “sons of the wife,” as is plain from the original tongue, in like manner as in the sixth verse following.  Consequently as by “wife” is signified good conjoined with truth (n. 8647), by the “sons” are here signified the goods of truth. The goods of truth are truths which have become of the will and consequently of the life, and constitute the new will with the man of the spiritual church.

AC 8650. Of which the name of the one was Gershom; for he said, I have been a sojourner in a strange land.  That this signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are out of the church, is evident from the signification of “name” and of “calling the name,” as being the quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3006, 3421, 6674).  This quality is described by the words which Moses then said, namely, “I have been a sojourner in a strange land.” That by these words is signified the good of truth of those who are out of the church, is because by “a sojourner” are signified those who were born out of the church, and yet were being instructed in the things of the church; and by “a strange land” is signified where the church is not.  That “a sojourner” denotes those who were out of the church, and were being instructed in the things that belong to the church, (n. 1463, 4444, 7908, 8007, 8013). That “a strange land” denotes where the genuine church is not, is because by “land” is signified the church (n. 662, 1067, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577), and “strange” denotes where there is not what is genuine; for the Lord’s church is scattered through the whole world, thus also among the Gentiles (n. 2049, 2284, 2589-2604). Moreover that when Gershom was born, Moses was out of his own church, and was among those who were in the good of simple truth, and who are signified by “the Midianites,” (n. 6793-6796).

AC 8651. And the name of the other was Eliezer.  That this signifies the quality of the good of truth of those who are within the church, is evident from the signification of “name” and of “calling the name,” as being the quality (n. 8650).  That it denotes the quality of the good of truth, is because by the “two sons” are signified the goods of truth (n. 8649).  That the quality of this good of truth is that of those who are within the church, is plain from the words which Moses spoke concerning this son when he was born, namely, “because the God of my father was my help, and delivered me from the sword of Pharaoh;” and from the fact that the quality of the good of truth, which was signified by “the name of the first son, Gershom,” is that of those who are out of the church (n. 8650).

AC 8652. Because the God of my father was my help.  That this signifies the Lord‘s mercy and presence in the church, is evident from the signification of “father,” as being the church as to good (n. 5581), and as being the Ancient Church (n. 6050, 6075, 6846); from the signification of “the God of my father,” as being the Divine of the Ancient Church, which was the Lord (n. 6846, 6876, 6884); and from the signification of “help,” when predicated of the Lord, as being mercy; for help from Him is of mercy, and is also of presence, because where the reception of mercy is, there is presence; and this is especially in the church, because there is the Word, and through the Word the Lord’s presence.

AC 8653. And liberated me from the sword of Pharaoh. That this signifies the liberation from the falsity of those who infested, is evident from the signification of “a sword,” as being truth, and in the opposite sense, falsity, fighting and vastating (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); and from the representation of Pharaoh, as being those who infest the upright in the other life by means of falsities (n. 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7317).

AC 8654. And Jethro Moses‘ father-in-law came.  That this signifies the Divine good, is evident from the representation of Jethro and Moses, as being the Divine good and the Divine truth; and from the signification of “father-in-law” (n. 8643, 8644).

AC 8655. And his sons, signifies the goods of truth (n. 8649).

AC 8656. And his wife. That this signifies good conjoined with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses’ wife, as being good from the Divine conjoined with truth Divine (n. 8647).

AC 8657. Unto Moses unto the wilderness.  That this signifies conjunction in the state before regeneration when there are temptations, is evident from the signification of “coming unto Moses,” as being conjunction, namely, of the Divine good which is represented by Jethro with the Divine truth which is represented by Moses; and from the signification of “the wilderness,” as being a state of undergoing temptations (n. 6828, 8098), thus the state before regeneration.  That there are two states which those enter into who are being regenerated and are becoming a spiritual church, and that when they are in the former state they undergo temptations, see above (n. 8643).  The former state is described by the state of the sons of Israel in the wilderness, and the latter state by their state in the land of Canaan under Joshua.

AC 8658. Where he was encamped at the mount of God.  That this signifies near to the good of truth, is evident from the signification of “being encamped,” as being the setting in order of the truth and good which are of the church with man (n. 8103, 8130, 8131, 8155); and from the signification of “the mount of God,” as being the good of love (n. 795, 796, 2722, 4210, 6435, 8327), here the good of truth, because the subject treated of is the good of those who are of the spiritual church, who are represented by the sons of Israel.  The good they have is the good of truth (this good is also the good of charity), and therefore it is called “the mount of God,” because “God” is said where truth is treated of, and “Jehovah” where good is treated of (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873).  From all this it is evident that by “he was encamped at the mount of God,” is signified the setting in order of the good and truth of the church near to the good of truth. What is meant by this shall be briefly told. When man is in the former state, namely, when he acts from truth and not yet from good, that is, when he acts from faith and not yet from charity, he is In a state of undergoing temptations.  By these he is progressively carried to the second state, namely, that he acts from good, that is, from charity and the affection of it. When therefore he comes near to this state, he is said to be “encamped at the mount of God,” that is, at the good from which he will afterward act. This is said because in what now follows the subject treated of is the new disposition or setting in order of the truths for entering into this state, to which the man of the church comes after he has undergone temptations, and before the law Divine is inscribed on his heart.  In what precedes the subject treated of was temptations, and in what now follows it is the law promulgated from Mount Sinai.  “Mount Sinai” denotes the good in which is truth.

AC 8659. Verses 6, 7. And he said unto Moses, I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her. And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, and bowed himself down, and kissed him; and they asked a man his companion as to peace; and they came into the tent. “And he said unto Moses,” signifies influx and the derivative perception; “I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her,” signifies Divine goods in their order; “and Moses went out to meet his father-in-law,” signifies the application of truth Divine to Divine good; “and bowed himself down,” signifies immission; “and kissed him,” signifies conjunction; “and they asked a man his companion as to peace,” signifies a natural Divine celestial state; “and they came into the tent,” signifies the holiness of the union.

AC 8660. And he said unto Moses. That this signifies influx and the derivative perception, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Divine good to Divine truth concerning the setting in order of truths, as being influx; and because it denotes influx it also denotes perception, for perception is from influx. Relatively to the agent “to say” denotes influx, and relatively to the recipient, perception, (n. 5743).

AC 8661. I thy father-in-law Jethro am come unto thee, and thy wife, and her two sons with her. That this signifies Divine goods in their order, is evident from the representation of Jethro, Moses‘ father-in-law, as being Divine good (n. 8643, 8644); from the representation of Zipporah, Moses’ wife, as being good therefrom conjoined with truth Divine (n. 8647); and from the representation of her sons, as being the goods of truth (n. 8649-8651); thus goods in their order. Goods in their order are goods interior and exterior in order successively according to degrees (n. 3691, 4154, 5114, 5145, 5146, 8603).

AC 8662. And Moses went out to meet his father-in-law. That this signifies the application of truth Divine to Divine good, is evident from the signification of “going out to meet,” as being application that “to go out to meet” denotes application is because it presently follows that “he kissed him,” by which is signified conjunction, and application precedes conjunction; from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (n. 8644); and from the representation of Jethro, who is his father-in-law, as being Divine good (n. 8643, 8644).

AC 8663. And bowed himself down.  That this signifies immission, is evident from the signification of “bowing down,” as being humiliation and submission (n. 2153, 5682, 7068), but in this case immission,   because it is predicted of truth Divine relatively to Divine good.

AC 8664. And kissed him.  That this signifies conjunction, is evident from the signification of “kissing,” as being conjunction from affection (n. 3573, 3574, 4215, 4353, 5929, 6260).

AC 8665. And the asked a man his companion as to peace. That this signifies a mutual Divine celestial state, is evident from the signification of “asking as to peace,” as being consociation in respect to a Divine celestial state; and from the signification of “a man to his companion,” as being mutually.  That “asking as to peace” denotes consociation in respect to a Divine celestial state, is because in the internal sense “to ask as to peace” is to ask about the life, its prosperity and happiness; but in the supreme sense, where Divine good and truth Divine are the subject treated of “to ask as to peace” denotes consociation in respect to a Divine celestial state.  For in the supreme sense “peace” signifies the Lord, and from this the state of the inmost heaven, where they are who are in love to the Lord, and from this in innocence. These moreover are above all others in peace, because in the Lord; and their state is called “Divine celestial.” Hence it is that by “peace” is here meant such a state. “Peace” denotes in the supreme sense, and what in the internal sense, (n. 3780, 4681, 5662, 8455).

AC 8666. And they came into the tent. That this signifies the holiness of the union, is evident from the signification of “a tent,” as being the holy of love (n. 414, 1102, 2145, 2152, 4128), thus the holiness of the union, because love is union.  Hence “to come into the tent” denotes to be united from holy love. In this verse the subject treated of is the union of the Divine good with truth Divine. And because all union is first effected by means of an influx of the one into the other and the consequent perception, next by application, then by immission, afterward by conjunction, therefore there is first described the influx and the consequent perception (n. 8660), next the application (n. 8662), then the immission (n. 8663), after this the conjunction (n. 8664), finally the union by love.

AC 8667. Verses 8-11. And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians for Israel‘s sake, all the trouble that followed them in the way, and Jehovah rescued them. And Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel, who rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians. And Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah, who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh; who rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians. Now I know that Jehovah is great above all the gods; for the reason that they dealt proudly over them. “And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians,” signifies perception then from truth Divine concerning the power of the Lord’s Divine Human against those who were in falsities and infested; “for Israel‘s sake,” signifies in behalf of those who are of the spiritual church; “all the trouble that found them in the way,” signifies labor in temptations; “and Jehovah rescued them,” signifies liberation by virtue of the Lord’s Divine aid; “and Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel,” signifies a state of Divine good when all things succeed; “who rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians,” signifies on account of liberation from the reviling of those who infested; “and Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah,” signifies the Divine good;    “who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh,” signifies liberation from the reviling of those who infested; “who hath rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians,” signifies mercy toward those who were in the good of truth and truth of good; “now I know that Jehovah is great above all the gods,” signifies the Lord, that there is no God besides Him; “for the reason that they dealt proudly over them,” signifies by reason of the endeavor to rule over those who are of the church.

AC 8668. And Moses told his father-in-law all that Jehovah had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians. That this signifies perception then from truth Divine concerning the power of the Lord‘s Divine Human against those who were in falsities and infested, is evident from the signification of “Moses told,” as being perception from truth Divine. “To tell” denotes to perceive, (n. 3209); and “Moses” denotes truth Divine, (n. 6752, 6771, 7010, 7014, 7382); from the representation of Moses’ father-in-law, as being the Divine good from which is good conjoined with truth Divine (n. 8643, 8644); from the signification of “all that Jehovah had done,” as being those things which were done for the sons of Israel in Egypt and afterward in the wilderness. And as these things in the internal sense involve the things which were done for those who were of the Lord‘s spiritual church, and who were detained in the lower earth until the Lord glorified the Human in Himself, therefore by these words is signified perception concerning the power of the Lord’s Divine Human. They who were of the Lord‘s spiritual church were detained in the lower earth and were saved by the power of the Lord’s Divine Human, (n. 6854, 7035, 7091, 7828, 8018, 8054, 8099, 8321). And from the representation of Pharaoh and the Egyptians, as being those who were in falsities and infested (n. 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7317).

AC 8669. For Israel‘s sake. That this signifies in behalf of those who were of the spiritual church, is evident from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual spiritual church (n. 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223).

AC 8670. All the trouble that had found them in the way. That this signifies labor In temptations, is evident from the signification of “trouble,” as being labor-that “trouble” denotes labor is temptations, it is predicated of temptations, for in these they who are tempted have labor against falsities and evils, and the angels also have labor with them to keep them in the faith, and thus in the power of conquering; and from the signification of “that had found them in the way,” as being In respect to temptations (namely, labor), because “in the way,” means in the wilderness, where they underwent temptations.

AC 8671. And Jehovah rescued them.  That this signifies liberation by virtue of the Lord’s Divine aid, is evident from the signification of “rescuing,” as being liberation. “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, (n. 1343, 1736, 1815, 2447, 2921, 3035, 5041, 5663, 6280, 6303, 6905).

AC 8672. And Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel.  That this signifies the state of Divine good when all things succeed, is evident from the representation of Jethro, as being Divine good (n. 8643); from the signification of “rejoicing over all the good,” when predicated of the Divine good which is represented by Jethro, as being the state of this good; for the state of the Divine when good is done to heaven and the angels there, and also to the church and the man there, is expressed in the Word by “joy,” but the quality of this joy is beyond comprehension, because it belongs to the Infinite.  That there is also infinite joy on account of the reception of good by those who are in heaven and the church, can be seen from the Divine love, which is infinite toward the human race (n. 8644), for all joy is of love. From all this it is evident that by “Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Jehovah had done to Israel,” is signified the state of the Divine good when all things succeed; for by “Israel” are meant those who were of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom and spiritual church (n. 8669), with whom all things had succeeded, because they had been liberated from infestations, and afterward had conquered in temptations, as has been above described.

AC 8673. And rescued them out of the hand of the Egyptians.  That this signifies on account of liberation from the reviling of those who infested, is evident from the signification of “rescuing,” as being liberation (n. 8671); and from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who infested by falsities (n. 8668).

AC 8674. And Jethro said, Blessed be Jehovah.  That this signifies that from the Lord is all good, is evident from the signification of “blessed be Jehovah,” as being that all good is from the Lord (n. 1096, 1422, 3140). “Jehovah” denotes the Lord, (n. 8671). That “blessed be Jehovah” denotes that from the Lord is all good, is because in the case of man, “blessing” involves all the good of eternal life, that is, the good of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor (n. 3406, 4981); and these goods make eternal life with man.

AC 8675. Who hath rescued you out of the hand of the Egyptians, and out of the hand of Pharaoh. That this signifies liberation from the reviling of those who infested, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 8671, 8673).

AC 8676. Who hath rescued His people from under the hand of the Egyptians.  That this signifies mercy toward those who were in the good of truth and truth of good, is evident from the signification of “rescuing,” as being liberation (n. 8675); from the signification of “the Egyptians,” as being those who infested by falsities (n. 8668); and from the representation of Israel, who are here “the people of Jehovah,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8645), thus who are in the good of truth and truth of good (n. 7957, 8234). That it is of the Lord’s mercy is because it is said, “blessed be Jehovah who hath rescued,” and by “blessed be Jehovah” is signified that from Him is all good from His Divine love (n. 8674). The Divine love from which good comes to man who is in a state of misery, because of himself he is wholly in evil and in hell, is mercy.

AC 8677. Now I know that Jehovah is great above all gods. That this signifies the Lord, that there is no God besides Him, is evident from what has been said and shown above (n. 7401, 7444, 7544, 7598, 7636, 8974).

AC 8678. For the reason that they dealt proudly over them. That this signifies by reason of the endeavor and the force used to rule over those who are of the church, is evident from the signification of “dealing proudly,” as being the endeavor and the force used to rule; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, who a they over whom they dealt proudly, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8645).  That “to deal proudly” denotes the endeavor and the force used to rule, is because this endeavor and the consequent force are in all pride, for pride is to love self more than others, and to set self above them, and to wish to exercise command over others; and they who wish this also despise others in comparison with self, and also persecute from hatred and revenge those who set themselves above them, or do not pay them respect.  The love of self, which is pride, is of such a quality that so far as the rein is given it, it rushes on, growing step by step to the utmost of the ability that is granted to it, until at last it lifts itself to the very throne of God with the desire to be in His stead. Such are all who are in hell.  That they are such is perceived from their endeavor from there, and also from their dangerous hatreds and direful revenges one against another for the sake of rule.  This endeavor is what is restrained by the Lord, and is meant by “the head of the serpent which the seed of the woman shall trample on” (n. 257).  Such are also meant by “Lucifer” In Isaiah:--

How hast thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the dawn! thou hast been cut off to the earth, thou hath been weakened beneath the nations; yet thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; and I will sit on the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north; I will ascend above the heights of the cloud; I will become like the Most High. Yet verily thou hast been let down to hell, to the sides of the pit, thou hast been cast forth out of thy sepulchre like an abominable shoot, the raiment of the slain, thrust through with the sword, that go down to the stones of the pit, like a carcass that is trampled on (Isa. 14:1-16, 19).

[2] That pride of heart, which is the love of self, repels from itself the Divine, and removes heaven from itself, can be plainly seen from the state of reception of the Divine and of heaven, which is a state of love toward the neighbor, and a state of humiliation toward God. So far as a man can humble himself before the Lord, and so far as he can love his neighbor as himself, and, as in heaven, above himself, so far he receives the Divine, and consequently is so far in heaven. From all this it is evident in what state are those who love themselves more than the neighbor, and who “deal proudly over him,” that is, who are in the love of self; namely, that they are in a state opposite to heaven and to the Divine, consequently in the state in which the infernals are.  See what has been already said and shown about the love of self (n. 2041, 2045, 2051, 2057, 2219, 2363, 2364, 2444, 3413, 3610, 4225, 4750, 4776, 4947, 5721, 6667, 7178, 7255, 7364, 7366-7377, 7488-7492, 7494, 7643, 7819, 7820, 8318, 8487).

AC 8679. Verse 12.  And Jethro Moses‘ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God; and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel, to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.  “And Jethro Moses‘ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God,” signifies worship from the good of love and truths of faith; “and Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel,” signifies the things of the church which are primary; “to eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God,” signifies the appropriation of these things by virtue of the Divine good.

AC 8680. And Jethro Moses‘ father-in-law took a burnt-offering and sacrifices for God.  That this signifies worship from the good of love and truths of faith, is evident from the signification of “a burnt-offering” and of “sacrifices,” as being representatives of the celestial and spiritual things which are of internal worship; burnt-offerings being representative of celestial things, that is, of the good of love; and sacrifices being representative of spiritual things, that is, of the truth of faith (n. 922, 923, 1823, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519, 6905). That burnt-offerings represented those things which are of the good of love, and sacrifices those things which are of the truth of faith, is evident from their institution; namely, that in the burnt-offerings all was consumed, both the flesh and the blood; but in the sacrifices the flesh was eaten, as can be seen from what is said in Leviticus i. to v.; Numbers 28, and in Deuteronomy, where are these words:--

That thou mayest make thy burnt-offerings, the flesh and the blood, upon the altar of Jehovah thy God; the blood of the sacrifices shall be poured out upon the altar of Jehovah thy God, and thou shalt eat the flesh (Deut. 12:27);

the reason why these two things were represented by the burnt-offerings and the sacrifices, was that the burnt-offerings and the sacrifices represented all the worship of God in general (n. 923, 6905) and the worship of God in general is founded upon love and faith, for without these there is no worship, but only a rite, such as is of the external man without the internal, thus devoid of life.

AC 8681. And Aaron came, and all the elders of Israel.  That this signifies the things of the church which are primary, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the truth of doctrine (n. 6998, 7009, 7089, 7382); and from the representation of the elders of Israel, as being the chief truths of the church that are in agreement with good (n. 6524, 8578, 8585); for by “Israel” is signified the church (n. 8645).

AC 8682. To eat bread with Moses’ father-in-law before God.  That this signifies the appropriation of these things by virtue of the Divine good, is evident from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 3832, 4745); and from the signification of “bread,” as being the good of love (n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 3735, 4211, 4217, 4735, 5915); that it denotes from the Divine good, is signified by their “eating the bread before God.” By “bread” is here meant all the food that was used at that time, especially the flesh of the sacrifices; for when sacrifices were offered, the flesh of them was eaten beside the altar. By “bread” is signified all worship in general, (n. 2165).

[2] The reason why the flesh of the sacrifices was eaten, was that there might be represented the appropriation of celestial good, and also consociation by love, for the flesh of the sacrifice which they then ate, signified the good of love; wherefore this was to them a holy feast. “Flesh” denotes the good of love, (n. 7850). From all this it can be seen what was meant by the Lord when He said that they should “eat His flesh” (John 6:53-56); and also when He instituted the Holy Supper, that the bread was “His body” (Matt. 26:26).  No one can ever know the meaning of these things unless he knows that there is an internal sense, and that in this sense are understood celestial and spiritual things in place of the natural things; and that the natural things correspond to them, and have a signification according to the correspondences.  Otherwise no one could ever know why the Holy Supper was instituted, and what holiness there is in the bread; and why the bread is the body and the flesh, besides countless other things.

AC 8683. Verses 13-16. And it was on the morrow, and Moses sat to judge the people, and the people stood over Moses flown the morning until the evening.  And Moses‘ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people, and he said, What is this word that thou doest to the people? why sittest thou alone, and all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening? And Moses said to his father-in-law, Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God; when they have a word, it cometh unto me; and I judge between a man and his companion, and I make known the judgments of God, and His laws. “And it was on the morrow,” signifies what is eternal; “and Moses sat to judge the people,” signifies the disposing of truth Divine with those who were of the spiritual church in the state before it was from good; “and the people stood over Moses,” signifies obedience then in conformity with truth Divine; “from the morning until the evening,” signifies in every state then interiorly and exteriorly; “and Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people,” signifies the omniscience of Divine good; “and he said, Why sittest thou alone?” signifies that there was no influx of truth from good from any other source; “and all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening,” signifies that at that time this was the source of everything of will with those who were of the spiritual church, in every state; “and Moses said to his father-in-law,” signifies the reciprocity that is in the answer; “Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God,” signifies that they do not will and act from any other source than from the fact that the Word has so said; “when they have a word,” signifies in everything that befalls; “it cometh unto me, and I judge between a man and his companion,” signifies that at this time they are disposed in conformity with revealed truth; “and I make known the judgments of God, and His laws,” signifies that from this source they are taught what is true and what is good.

AC 8684. And it was on the morrow. That this signifies what is eternal, is evident from the signification of “tomorrow,” or “the morrow,” as being what is eternal (n. 3998).

AC 8685. And Moses sat to judge the people. That this signifies the disposing of truth Divine with those who were of the spiritual church in the state before it was from good, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the truth Divine that proceeds immediately from the Lord (n. 7010, 7382); from the signification of “judging,” as being a disposing. That “judging” here denotes a disposing, is because truth Divine does not judge anyone, but flows in and disposes that it may be received, and according to the reception judgment then takes place in accordance with the laws of order, which is meant by the judgment of the Lord (Matt. 25:31-46; John 5:22, 26, 27, 30; 9:39), as is evident from the Lord‘s words where He says that He “judges no man” (John 3:17-21; 8:15; 12:47, 48). And from the representation of Israel, who is here “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8645). From all this it is evident that by “Moses sat to judge the people,” is signified the disposing of the truth Divine that proceeds immediately from the Lord with those who are of the spiritual church.

[2] That it denotes In a state before it is from good, is evident from what follows.  For the man who is being regenerated and becoming a church has two states; in the first state he acts from truth, in the second from good (n. 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658).  In both states the man is led by the Lord; but in the first by immediate influx, and in the second by influx both immediate and mediate. Concerning the influx of good and truth from the Lord, immediate and mediate, see (n. 6472-6478, 6982, 6985, 6996, 7058-7058, 7270). Immediate influx is represented by Moses judging the people alone; but influx both immediate and mediate, by the princes of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens, being chosen, to judge small affairs, and to refer great affairs to Moses. But these are arcana which scarcely anyone can understand, except one who is in enlightenment from the Lord, and through enlightenment in perception.  These two kinds of influx, and also the consequent effects, can indeed be described, but still they do not fall rightly into the thought unless there is perception from heaven; and perception from heaven is not given except with those who are in the love of truth from good; and not even then unless they are in the love of truth from genuine good.

AC 8686. And the people stood over Moses. That this signifies obedience then in conformity with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine (n. 8685), consequently “to stand over hin”’ signifies to consult truth Divine, to await an answer from it, and to do according to this, that is, to obey. By these words in the internal sense is described the first state, wherein the man who is being regenerated is led by means of truth from the Lord; the truth by means of which he is led is the Word, for this is truth Divine.

AC 8687. From the morning until the evening. That this signifies in every state interiorly and exteriorly, is evident from the signification of “morning” and of “evening,” as being spiritual states, which succeed each other like the states of times in the world, namely, morning, midday, evening, night, and again morning. That these times correspond to changes of states in the other life (n. 5672, 5962, 6110, 8426).  That they are interiorly and exteriorly, is because in the other life the angels are interiorly in good and truth when in a state of morning there, that is, in a state corresponding to the time of morning, but exteriorly in good and truth when in a state of evening there; for when they are in a state of evening they are in natural delight; but when they are in a state of morning they are in spiritual delight (n. 8431, 8452).

AC 8688. And Moses‘ father-in-law saw all that he did to the people.  That this signifies the omniscience of Divine good, is evident from the signification of “seeing all that he did,” when said of the Divine good which is represented by Jethro Moses’ father-in-law, as being omniscience; for in the internal sense “to see” denotes to understand and perceive (n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 4403-4421, 5400), but in the supreme sense, where the Lord is treated of, it denotes foresight and providence (n. 2837, 2839, 3686, 3854, 3863), consequently “to see all that he did” denotes omniscience.

AC 8689. And he said, Why sittest thou alone? That this signifies that there was no influx of truth from good from any other source, is evident from the signification of “sitting alone,” when said of truth Divine proceeding immediately from the Lord, which is represented by Moses, as being influx from Him alone, and not at the same time from any other source. (n. 8685).

AC 8690. And all the people standing over thee from the morning until the evening.  That this signifies that at that time this was the source of everything of will with those who were of the spiritual church, in every state, is evident from the representation of Israel, who is here “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8645); from the signification of “standing over” Moses, as being obedience in conformity with truth Divine (n. 8686), and because it denotes obedience, it is of the will, for obedience is of the will, but it is the will to do truth by reason of command, not by reason of affection, and this will is obedience; and from the signification of “from the morning until the evening,” as being in every state, interior and exterior (n. 8687). The first state, in which man is before regeneration, is here treated of, which is that he does good from obedience, and not yet from affection; but this good is the truth which he does, because it is done only from command, thus as yet from compulsion, but not from freedom.  He does good from freedom when he does it from affection; for everything that flows from the affection which is of love is free. When man is in the former state, then the Lord flows in and leads immediately; but the immediate influx of the Lord does not come to perception, because it is into the inmosts of the man; whereas the influx of the Lord which is immediate and at the same time mediate, does come to perception, and gives affection, for it is not only into man‘s inmosts, but also into his mediates and outmosts. This latter state is treated of in what follows in this chapter; the former is described in these verses, where it is said of Moses that he judged alone (n. 8685).

AC 8691. And Moses said to his father-in-law.  That this signifies the reciprocity that is in the answer, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as here being the answer, for Moses makes answer to his father-in-law.  Reciprocity is meant because by Moses is represented Divine truth conjoined and united to Divine good (n. 8664, 8666); and when there is conjunction and union, the“ there is reciprocity, for good acts and truth reacts; the reaction is the reciprocity that is in the answer.  So also it is in general with good and truth in the man in whom they have been conjoined.

AC 8692. Because the people cometh unto me to inquire of God.  That this signifies that they do not will and act from any other source than from the fact that the Word has so said, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine, thus the Word (n. 5922, 6723, 6752); and from the signification of ”the people coming to him to inquire of God,“ as being to consult what the Divine dictates, thus what they should will and do.

AC 8693 When they have a word.  That this signifies in everything that befalls, is evident from the signification of ”a word,“ as being a thing that befalls.  That ”in everything“ is meant, is because the people came to him alone, and thereby is signified that truth Divine was to be consulted in everything.

AC 8694. It cometh unto me, and I judge between a man and his companion.  That this signifies that at this time they are disposed in conformity with revealed truth, is evident from the signification of ”coming unto him,“ when said of the truth Divine which is represented by Moses, as being to consult what must be willed and done (n. 8692); and from the signification of ”judging between a man and his companion,“ as being a disposing among truths. ”To judge,“ denotes to dispose, (n. 8685). That it is in conformity with revealed truth, follows; for it is said just above, that ”the  people came unto him to inquire of God,“ and just below, that he ”makes known to them the judgments and laws of God.“

[2] By ”revelation“ is meant enlightenment when the Word is read, and perception then; for they who are in good and long for truth are taught in this way from the Word; but they who are not in good cannot be taught from the Word, but can only be confirmed in such things as they have been instructed in from infancy, whether true or false. The reason why those who are in good have revelation, and those who are in evil have no revelation, is that in the internal sense each and all things in the Word treat of the Lord and of His kingdom, and the angels who are with man perceive the Word according to the internal sense.  This is communicated to the man who is in good, and reads the Word, and from affection longs for truth, and consequently has enlightenment and perception. For with those who are in good and from this in the affection of truth, the intellectual part of the mind is open into heaven, and their soul, that is, their internal man, is in fellowship with angels; but it is otherwise with those who are not in good, thus who do not from the affection of good long for truth; to these heaven is closed.

[3] But what is the nature of the revelation with those who are in good and from this in the affection of truth, cannot be described.  It is not manifest, neither is it altogether hidden; but it is a certain consent and favoring from within that a thing is true, and a non-favoring if it is not true. When there is a favoring, the mind is at rest and is serene, and in this state there is the acknowledgment which is of faith. The cause of its being so is from the influx of heaven from the Lord; for through heaven from the Lord there is light, that surrounds and enlightens the intellect, which is the eye of the internal sight.  The things which are then seen in that light are truths, for this very light is the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord. That this Divine truth is light in heaven, has been frequently shown.

AC 8695. And I make known the judgments of God, and His laws.  That this signifies that from this source they are taught what is true and what is good, is evident from the signification of ”making known,“ as being to teach; from the signification of ”judgments,“ as being truths (n. 2235, 6397); and from the signification of ”laws,“ as being the truths of good.  That ”laws“ denote the truths of good, is because in a wide sense ”the law“ signifies the whole Word, in a less wide sense the historic Word, in a close sense the Word which was written by Moses, and in the closest sense the ten commandments of the Decalogue (n. 6752). Consequently as the Word is the Divine truth which proceeds from the Divine good of the Lord, ”laws“ denote the truths of good.  The truths of good are truths which are from good, and in themselves are goods, because they derive their spring from good.

AC 8696. Verses 17-23. And Moses’ father-in-law said unto him, The word that thou doest is not good.  Wearing thou wilt wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee, because the word is too heavy for thee; thou art not able to do it, thou alone.  Now hear my voice, I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee. Be thou for the people with God, and bring thou the words unto God; and do thou teach them the statutes and the laws, and make known to them the way wherein they must walk, and the work that they must do. And do thou see out of all the people men of strenuousness, fearing God, men of truth, hating gain; and do thou set them for princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes fifties, and princes of tens; and let them judge the people in every time; and it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee, and every small word let them judge; and devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee.  If thou do this word, and God have commanded thee, then thou shalt be able to stand, and also all this people shall come upon its place in peace.  ”And Moses‘ father-in-law said unto him,“ signifies foresight; ”The word that thou doest is not good,“ signifies that a change must be made; ”wearing thou wilt wear way, both thou, and this people that is with thee,“ signifies that thus the truth which has been implanted would perish; ”because the word is too heavy for thee,“ signifies that it is not possible because not in conformity with order; ”thou art not able to do it, thou alone,“ signifies without the influx of truth from the Divine from some other source; ”now hear my voice,“ signifies agreement from the union; ”I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee,“ signifies that it is from the Divine; ”be thou for the people with God,“ signifies the truth proceeding immediately from the Lord; ”and bring thou the words unto God,“ signifies mediation and intercession; ”and do thou teach them the statutes and the laws,“ signifies that from truth immediately from the Lord come the external and internal goods and truths of the church; ”and make known to them the way wherein they must walk,“ signifies the light of intelligence and the consequent life; ”and the work that they must do,“ signifies faith In act; ”and do thou see out of all the people,“ signifies the choosing of ministering truths; ”men of strenuousness, fearing God,“ signifies with which good from the Divine could be conjoined; ”men of truth, hating gain,“ signifies with which the truths are pure without a worldly end; ”and do thou set them for princes of thousands,“ signifies primary truths which are in the first degree under the truth immediately from the Divine; ”princes of hundreds,“ signifies primary truths in the second degree; ”princes of fifties,“ signifies intermediate primary truths; ”and princes of tens,“ signifies primary truths in the third place; ”and let them judge the people in every time,“ signifies a disposing In this manner perpetually; ”and it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee,“ signifies that everything is from the truth that is immediately from the Divine; ”and every small word let them judge,“ signifies the appearance of some singular and particular things as from another source; ”and devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee,“ signifies thus functions and offices for them; ”if thou do this word, and God have commanded thee,“ signifies that thus it is from the Divine; ”then thou shalt be able to stand,“ signifies thus an abode with them; ”and also all this people shall come upon its place in peace,“ signifies that they who are of the spiritual church shall thus be in good, and shall be led by means of good.

AC 8697. And Moses’ father-in-law said unto him. That this signifies foresight, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ when it is predicated of the Divine good that is represented by Jethro, Moses‘ father-in-law, as being foresight (n. 5361, 6496).

AC 8698. The word that thou doest is not good.  That this signifies that a change must be made, is evident from what follows.

AC 8699. Wearing thou wilt wear away, both thou, and this people that is with thee. That this signifies that thus the truth which has been implanted would perish, is evident from the signification of ”wearing away,“ as being to be gradually consumed, thus to perish. That it denotes the truth which has been implanted, is because by ”Moses“ is meant truth from the Divine, and by ”the people“ those who receive. How the case is with these things shall be told in what follows.

AC 8700. For the word is too heavy for thee. That this signifies that it is not possible because not in conformity with order, is evident from the signification of ”a heavy word,“ as being that it is not possible. That ”a heavy word“ here denotes that it is not possible, is evident from what precedes, namely, that ”wearing he would wear away, and the people that were with him,“ by which is signified that the truth which has been implanted would perish; and also from what follows, namely, ”Thou art not able to do it, thou alone;“ and afterward, ”If thou do this word, thou shalt be able to stand;“ by which is meant impossibility unless a change is made.

[2] That it is not possible because not in conformity with order, is because in the other life everything is possible that is in conformity with order. The Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord is what makes order, and is order itself. Consequently as everything that is according to Divine truth is according to order, it is possible; and as everything that is contrary to Divine truth is contrary to order, it is impossible.  That this is the case may appear more evident from examples. It is according to order that they who have lived well shall be saved, and that they who have lived ill shall be condemned. Hence it is impossible that they who have lived well should be sent into hell, and that they who have lived ill should be raised into heaven. Consequently it is impossible that they who are in hell can of the Lord’s pure mercy be brought out therefrom into heaven and be saved; for it is the reception of the Lord‘s mercy while they lived in the world through which everyone is saved. They who receive it then are in the other life in the Lord’s mercy, for they are then in the capacity of receiving it there To give it to others, and in general to everyone at pleasure, provided they have faith, and thus believe that they are cleansed from sins, is impossible, because it is contrary to order, that is, contrary to the Divine which is order.

[3] It is according to order that faith and charity be implanted in freedom and not under compulsion, and that the faith and charity which have been implanted in freedom, endure; but not if they have been implanted under compulsion. The reason is that what is done in freedom is insinuated into the affection, and thus into the will of man, and is therefore appropriated; but not what is done under compulsion. Consequently it is impossible for man to be saved unless, seeing that he has been born in evil, he is allowed to do evil, and to desist from evil. When in this freedom he desists from evil of himself, the affection of truth and good is insinuated by the Lord, whereby he has freedom to receive the things which are of faith and charity, for freedom belongs to the affection. From this it is plain that it is impossible to compel man to salvation. If this could be done, all men in the world would be saved.

[4] It is according to order for all in the other life to be associated together according to the life which they have acquired to themselves in the world; the evil with the evil, and the good with the good.  Consequently it is not possible for the evil and the good to be together; neither is it possible for those to be in good who are evil, because good and evil are opposites, and the one destroys the other. For this reason also it is plain that it is not possible for those to be saved who are in hell; thus that it is not possible for salvation to be from mercy alone however a man has lived. They who are in hell and are there tormented, impute the torments there to the Divine, saying that the Divine can take away their torment if He will, because He is omnipotent; but that He will not, and that therefore He is the cause of their torment; for he who can and will not, they say, is the cause. But to take away such torments is impossible, because it is contrary to order; for if they were taken away, the evil would rise up against the good, and would subjugate the angels themselves, and destroy heaven.  But the Divine wills nothing but good, namely, the happiness of the good, and for the sake of this, the bridling, and at the same time, the amendment, of the wicked.  This being the end--the end of the Divine love and of mercy itself--it is not possible that torments should be taken away from him who is In hell. From these examples it can be seen that everything is impossible which is contrary to order, howsoever it may appear as possible to those who do not know the arcana of heaven.

AC 8701. Thou art not able to do it, thou alone.  That this signifies without the influx of truth from good   from some other source, is evident from the signification of ”doing it alone,“ when said of the truth Divine represented by Moses, as being the influx of truth from it alone, and not at the same time from some other source.  How the case herein is can be seen from what was said above (n. 8685) concerning the immediate influx of truth Divine, and concerning its influx immediate and at the same time mediate; namely, that the influx of truth Divine is immediate in the first state of man when he is being regenerated; but that the influx is immediate and mediate in the second state, that is, when he has been regenerated.  When the influx is immediate, the Lord indeed flows in with good and truth, yet the good is not then perceived, but truth; therefore the man is then led by means of truth, not so much by good. But when the influx is at the same time mediate, then good is perceived, for mediate influx is into the man‘s external sensuous; hence it is that the man is then led by the Lord by means of good. In general be it known that a man has not been regenerated until he acts from the affection of good; for he then wills good, and it is delightful and blessed to him to do it. When he is in this state, his life is the life of good, and he is in heaven, for what universally reigns in heaven is good; the truth which is of faith however, leads man to good, thus to heaven, but does not place him in heaven. The reason of this is that in the other life all are associated together according to the life of the will, not according to the life of the understanding; for where the will is, there the understanding is, but not the reverse: it is so in heaven, and it is so in hell. They who are evil are not sent into hell until they are in the evil of their life; for when they are in this, they are also in the falsity of their evil; in like manner they who are in good are, in heaven, in the truth of their good.  In the other life all are reduced to the state of having one mind, namely, that what they will they also think, and they do not think differently from what they will. But in the world it is otherwise, for in the world a man can think differently, and even understand differently, from what he wills; but this in order that he may be reformed, that is, may understand good though he wills evil, and thus may be led by his understanding to will good; but in the other life everyone is led according to his will which has been acquired in the world.

AC 8702. Now hear my voice. That this signifies agreement from the union, is evident from the signification of ”hearing a voice,“ as being obedience, but here agreement, because it is said by Jethro, by whom is represented the Divine good united to the Divine truth which is represented by Moses. They are united, (n. 8666); consequently by ”hear my voice“ is signified agreement from the union.  He it known that when good and truth have been conjoined, there is agreement in each and all things, namely, of good with truth and of truth with good.  The reason is that good is of truth and truth is of good, and thus these two are one; for what good wills, this truth confirms; and what truth perceives as truth, this good wills, and both together do. The case is similar with good and truth as with the will and the understanding; what the will wills and loves, this the understanding thinks and confirms, and vice versa.  That these two are alike is because good is of the will, and truth is of the understanding.  In such a state are they who are led of the Lord by means of good (n. 8701).

AC 8703. I will counsel thee, and God shall be with thee.  That this signifies that it is from the Divine, is evident from the signification of ”to counsel,“ when by the Divine good which is represented by Jethro, as being what is determined by the Divine, thus what is from the Divine; and from the signification of ”God shall be with thee,“ as also being from the Divine.  But from the Divine, as signified by ”to counsel,“ respects the Divine good which is represented by Jethro; whereas from the Divine, as signified by ”God shall be with thee,“ respects the Divine truth which is represented by Moses.

AC 8704. Be thou for the people with God.  That this signifies the truth proceeding immediately from the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”being for the people with God,“ when said of the Divine truth represented by Moses, as being nearest with the Lord, because proceeding immediately from Him.  What these things involve, will be plain from what now follows.

AC 8705. And bring thou the words unto God.  That this signifies mediation and intercession, is evident from the signification of ”bringing the words unto God,“ when said of the Divine truth, as being to mediate with the Divine Itself and to intercede, for he who mediates and intercedes brings the matters to Him who gives aid. Mediation and intercession are of the Divine truth, because this is nearest with the Divine good, which is the Lord Himself.  That the Divine truth is nearest with the Divine good, which is the Lord, is because it proceeds immediately from Him. As the occasion offers, it shall here be told how the case is with the Lord’s mediation and intercession.  They who believe that there are three Persons who constitute the Divine and who together are called one God, from the sense of the letter of the Word have no other idea of mediation and intercession than that the Lord sits at the right hand of His Father, and speaks with Him as man with man, and brings the supplications of men to the Father, and entreats that for His sake, because He suffered the cross for the human race, He may pardon them and have mercy.  Such is the idea of intercession and mediation which every simple person has from the sense of the letter of the Word.

[2] But be it known that the sense of the letter is according to the apprehension of simple men, in order that they may be introduced into interior truths themselves; for the simple cannot have any other idea of the heavenly kingdom than as of an earthly kingdom, nor any other idea of the Father than as or a king on the earth, and of the Lord than as of the son of a king who is the heir of the kingdom. That the simple have such an idea, is plainly evident from the idea of the Lord‘s apostles themselves about His kingdom; for at first they believed, like the rest of the Jews, that the Lord as the Messiah would be the greatest king upon the earth, and would raise them to a height of glory above all the nations and peoples on the whole globe. But when thee heard from the Lord Himself that His kingdom is not on earth but in heaven; then neither could they think otherwise than that His kingdom in heaven is altogether like a kingdom on the earth. And therefore James and John asked that in His kingdom the one might sit on His right hand and the other on His left; and the rest of the apostles, who also wanted to become great in that kingdom, had indignation, and disputed among themselves which of them should be greatest there.  And as such an idea cleaved to them and could not be rooted out, the Lord indeed said unto them that they should ”sit on twelve thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel“ (Mark 10:37, 41; Luke 22:24, 30; Matt. 19:28); but they did not then know what the Lord meant by the ”twelve thrones,“ and by the ”twelve tribes,“ and by ”judgment.“

[3] From all this it can now be seen what the idea is, and whence it is, concerning the Lord’s mediation and intercession with the Father.  But he who knows the interior things of the Word has a totally different notion about the Lord‘s mediation and His intercession, namely, that He does not intercede as a son with a royal father on earth, but as the Lord of the universe with Himself, and as God of Himself, for the Father and He are not two, but are one, as He Himself teaches (John 14:8-11).  He is called ”Mediator“ and ”Intercessor,“ because by ”the Son“ is meant the Divine truth, and by ”the Father“ the Divine good (n. 2803, 2813, 3704), and mediation is effected through the Divine truth, because by means of it access is given to the Divine good; for the Divine good cannot be approached, because it is like the fire of the sun, but the Divine truth, because it is like the light therefrom, which gives to man’s sight, which is of faith, passage and access (n. 8644). Hence it can be seen what mediation and intercession are. It shall be told further whence it is that the Lord Himself, who is the Divine good itself and the Sun itself of heaven, is called ”a Mediator and Intercessor with the Father.“

[4] When the Lord was in the world, and before He was fully glorified, He was the Divine truth; wherefore at that time there was mediation, and He interceded with the Father, that is, with the Divine good itself (John 14:16, 17; 17:9, 15, 17).  But after He was glorified as to the Human, He is called ”Mediator and Intercession“ for this reason, that no one can think of the Divine Itself unless he presents to himself the idea of a Divine Man; still less can anyone be conjoined through love with the Divine Itself except by means of such an idea.  If anyone without the idea of a Divine Man thinks of the Divine Itself, he thinks indeterminately, and an indeterminate idea is no idea; or he conceives an idea of the Divine from the visible universe without an end, or with an end in obscurity, which idea conjoins itself with the idea of the worshipers of nature, and also falls into nature, and thus becomes no idea. From this it is evident that there would not be any conjunction with the Divine through faith, nor through love.  All conjunction requires an object, and the conjunction effected is according to the quality of the object. For this reason the Lord as to the Divine Human is called ”a Mediator“ and ”an Intercessor,“ but He mediates and intercedes with Himself.  That the Divine Itself cannot be apprehended by any idea, is evident from the Lord‘s words in John:--

No one hath ever seen God; the only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18).

Ye have never heard the voice of the Father, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).

[5] Nevertheless, what is remarkable, all who think from themselves or from the flesh about God, think of Him indeterminately, that is without any determinate idea; whereas they who think of God not from themselves, nor from the flesh, but from the spirit, think about Him determinately, that is, they present to themselves an idea of the Divine under a human form.  So the angels in heaven think of the Divine, and so the wise ancients thought, to whom also, when the Divine Itself appeared, it appeared as a Divine Man; for the Divine passing though heaven is a Divine Man. The reason is that heaven is a Grand Man, as has been shown at the end of many chapters. From all this it is evident of what sort are the intelligent of the world, and of what sort are the intelligent of heaven; namely, that the intelligent of the world remove from themselves the idea of the human; and consequently between their minds and the Divine there is no mediation, whence they have thick darkness whereas the intelligent of heaven have an idea of the Divine in the Human; thus the Lord is to them mediation, and consequently in their minds there is light.

AC 8706. And do thou teach them the statutes and the laws. That this signifies that from truth immediately from the Lord come the external and internal goods and truths of the church, is evident from the representation of Moses, of whom it is said that he should teach, as being the truth proceeding immediately from the Lord (n. 7010, 7382); from the signification of ”the statutes,“ as being the external goods and truths of the church (n. 3382, 8362); and from the signification of ”the laws,“ as being the internal goods and truths of the church (n. 8695).

AC 8707. And make known to them the way wherein they must walk.  That this signifies the light of intelligence, and the consequent life, is evident from the signification of ”the way,“ as being predicated of the understanding of truth (n. 627, 2333), here in an interior degree, because it is predicated of the understanding which the man of the spiritual church has from the immediate influx of truth from the Lord, from which there is no perception of truth, but light which gives the capacity of understanding. It is with this light as with the light of the sight of the eye; in order that the eye may see objects, there must be a light from which there is a general illumination. In this light the eye sees and discerns objects, and is affected with beauty and delight according to their agreement with order.  The case is similar with the sight of the internal eye, which is the understanding; in order that this may see, there must also be a light from which there is a general illumination, in which come into view the objects which are the things of intelligence and wisdom.  This light is from the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Lord (n. 8644). The objects presented in this light appear beautiful and delightful according to their agreement with each person’s good. And from the signification of ”wherein they must walk,“ that is, in the light, as being the consequent life. In the internal sense ”to walk“ denotes life, (n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605, 8417, 8420).

AC 8708. And the work that they must do.  That this signifies faith in act, is evident from the signification of ”the work that they must do,“ as being action, here action from the light of intelligence, thus from faith; for faith from the Lord is in the light of intelligence (n. 8707). In proportion as a man receives of the truths which are of faith, he enters into that light and is raised into heaven; but the reception of the truths of faith is not effected by acknowledgment alone, but by acknowledgment conjoined with life; that is, by their being acknowledged in act.  This reception is what is meant by ”the work that they must do.“

AC 8709. And do thou see out of all the people.  That this signifies the choosing of ministering truths, is evident from the signification of ”seeing,“ as here being to choose; and from the signification of ”the people,“ as being predicated of truths (n. 1259, 1260, 3581, 4619), here of truths that minister to the truth immediately from the Divine which is represented by Moses (n. 7010); for the princes whom he was to choose were to be ministrant to him. ”Princes“ denote ministrant truths.

AC 8710. Men of strenuousness, fearing God.  That this signifies with which good from the Divine could be conjoined, is evident from the signification of ”men of strenuousness,“ as being those who have strength from the truths which are from good; for by ”man“ is signified truth (n. 3134, 5502), and by ”strenuousness,“ the consequent strength.  Moreover in the original tongue ”strength“ is signified by the same expression that is here rendered ”strenuousness.“ That it denotes strength from the truths that are from good, is because the men are said also to be ”God fearing,“ and by ”God fearing“ are signified those who are in good from the Divine; for ”the fear of God“ denotes worship from the good of faith and from the good of love (n. 2826, 5459).

AC 8711. Men of truth, hating gain. That this signifies because the truths are pure without a worldly end, is evident from the signification of ”men of truth,“ as being pure truths; that ”men of truth“ denote pure truths is because by ”men“ are signified truths (n. 3134, 5502), and by ”truth,“ faith (n. 3121), thus by ”men of truth“ are signified truths of faith, that is, pure truths; and from the signification of ”hating gain,“ as being aversion to persuasions from falsity and evil, for by ”hating“ is signified aversion, and by ”gain,“ the falsity and evil which persuade and draw away from truth and good. By ”gain“ in general is signified all the falsity from evil that perverts the judgments of the mind; and as this is the case with those who have the world as their end, therefore by ”those who hate gain“ are also signified those who are without a worldly end.  That ”gain“ denotes all the falsity from evil which perverts the judgments of the mind and withdraws from truth and good, can be seen by everyone who reflects, and in this sense ”gain“ is frequently mentioned in the Word (Isa. 33:15; 56:11; 57:17; Jer. 6:13; 8:10; 22:17; Ezek.  22:27; 33:31; Ps. 119:36).

AC 8712. And do thou set them for princes of thousands.  That this signifies the primary truths which are in the first degree under the truth that is immediately from the Divine, is evident from the signification of ”princes,“ as being primary things (n. 1482, 2089, 5044), here truths from good, because these princes were to be under Moses, by whom is represented truth Divine proceeding from Divine good, that is, from the Lord; and from the signification of ”thousands,“ as being those who are in the first degree; for by ”a thousand“ are signified many persons, or in the abstract sense many things and where there are many things, or they who are over many, and are thereby in a degree of greater dignity than those who are over few; here therefore those who are in the first degree, for they who were in a lower degree were princes of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.  In the internal sense ”a thousand“ does not mean a thousand, but many persons or many things, (n. 2575).

AC 8713. Princes of hundreds.  That this signifies primary truths in the second degree, is evident from the signification of ”princes,“ as being primary things (n. 8712); and from the signification of ”hundreds,“ as being many persons or many things, but in the second degree, because ”thousands“ signify those in the first degree. ”A hundred“ denotes much, (n. 4400).

AC 8714. Princes of fifties.  That this signifies intermediate primary truths, is evident from the signification of ”princes,“ as being primary things (n. 8712, 8713); and from the signification of ”fifties,“ as being intermediate things, namely, between the truths from good that are in the second degree and those which are in the third, signified by ”princes of hundreds“ and ”princes of tens.“ That ”fifty“ denotes things intermediate, is because by ”fifty“ is signified both much and somewhat, the like as by ”five“. That it signifies much, see (n. 5708, 5956); that it signifies somewhat, (n. 4638, 5291); consequently when ”fifty“ is named between ”a hundred“ and ”ten,“ it denotes things intermediate. Intermediate things are those which draw near to one side, and proceed from the other, thus are between those which for the sake of conjunction are in a prior degree and those which are in a posterior one.

AC 8715. And princes of tens. That this signifies primary truths in the third place, is evident from the signification of ”princes,“ as being primary things; and from the signification of ”tens,“ as also being many, but in a less degree, because under ”hundreds“. That ”tens,“ or ”ten,“ also denotes many, see (n. 3107, 4638). Princes being set in order over a thousand, over a hundred, and over ten, abstractedly from all number represented many things in the first degree, in the second, and in the third, in like manner as in other passages in the Word, as where the Lord said of the servant that he ”owed ten thousand talents,“ and that the fellow-servant ”owed him a hundred pence“ (Matt. 18:24, 28) in like manner where He spoke of ”a king about to wage war with another king, as consulting whether he was able with ten thousand to meet the other who was coming with twenty thousand“ (Luke 14:31). In like manner in John:--

An angel coming down from heaven laid hold on the dragon, and bound him a thousand years, and cast him into the abyss, that he should seduce the nations no more, until the thousand years should be consummated: the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were consummated: this is the first resurrection (Rev. 20:1-3, 5)

in this passage by ”a thousand“ is not signified a thousand, but much, without any number.  In like manner in Moses:--

Jehovah doing mercy to a thousand generations that love Him (Exod. 20:5, 6; Deut. 5:9, 10; 7:9; Jer. 32:18).

In David:--

The word He commanded to a thousand generations (Ps. 105:8).

A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand; it shall not come nigh thee (Ps. 91:7)

The chariots of God are twenty thousand, thousands of peaceful ones (Ps. 68:17).

Our flocks thousands, and ten thousands in our streets (Ps. 144:13).

A thousand years in Thy sight are as a day (Ps. 90:4).

It is similar with ”a hundred‘ and with “ten,” for lesser numbers signify the like with the greater that result from multiplication by a like number (n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973); “a hundred” and also “ten” signify much, (n. 3107, 4400, 4638).

AC 8716. And let them judge the people in every time.  That this signifies a disposing in this manner perpetually, is evident from the signification of “judging,” as being the disposing of truths (n. 8685); and from the signification of “in every time,” as being perpetually.

AC 8717. And it shall be, every great word let them bring unto thee. That this signifies that everything is from the truth that is immediately from the Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth immediately from the Divine (n. 7010, 7382); that everything is from this, is signified by “every great word let them bring unto him.” It appears from the sense of the letter as if everything was to be brought to Divine truth; but as everything comes from the Lord through the truth proceeding from Him, or everything of life is from Him, therefore in the internal sense it is not signified to this truth, but from it.  The case herein is as was shown concerning influx (n. 3721, 5119, 5259, 5779, 6322), namely, that influx does not take place from exteriors to interiors; but from interiors to exteriors.  The reason is that all exteriors are formed to minister to interiors, as instrumental causes to their principal causes, and the former are dead causes without the latter. Be it known that in the internal sense things are set forth such as they are in themselves; not such as they appear in the sense of the letter.

[2] In itself the fact is that by means of the truth proceeding from Himself the Lord directs all things down to the veriest singulars; not as a king in the world, but as God in heaven and in the universe. A king in the world exercises only a care over the whole, and his princes and officers a particular care. It is otherwise with God, for God sees all things, and knows all things from eternity, and provides all things to eternity, and from Himself holds all things in their order.  From this it is evident that the Lord has not only a care over the whole, but also a particular and individual care of all things, otherwise than as a king in the world. His disposing is immediate through the truth Divine from Himself, and is also mediate through heaven. But the mediate disposing through heaven is also as it were immediate from Himself, for what comes out of heaven comes through heaven from Him. That this is so the angels in heaven not only know, but also perceive in themselves. The Divine disposing or providence of the Lord is in all things and each, nay, in the veriest singulars of all, howsoever otherwise it appears before man, (n. 4329, 5122, 5904, 6058, 6481-6487, 6490, 6491).

[3] But this subject falls with difficulty into the idea of any man, and least of all into the idea of those who trust in their own prudence; for they attribute to themselves all things that happen prosperously for them, and the rest they ascribe to fortune, or chance; and few to the Divine Providence.  Thus they attribute the things that happen to dead causes, and not to the living cause.  When things turn out happily they indeed say that it is of God, and even that there is nothing that is not from Him; but few, and scarcely any, at heart believe it. In like manner do those who place all prosperity in worldly and bodily things, namely, in honors and riches, and believe that these alone are Divine blessings; and therefore when they see many of the evil abound in such things, and not so much the good, they reject from their heart and deny the Divine Providence in individual things, not considering that Divine Blessing is to be happy to eternity, and that the Lord regards such things as are of brief duration, as relatively, are the things of this world, no otherwise than as means to eternal things. Wherefore also the Lord provides for the good, who receive His mercy in time, such things as contribute to the happiness of their eternal life; riches and honors for those to whom they are not hurtful; and no riches and honors for those to whom they would be hurtful. Nevertheless to these latter He gives in time, in the place of honors and riches, to be glad with a few things, and to be more content than the rich and honored.

AC 8718. But every small word let them judge. That this signifies the appearance of some particular and singular things as from another source, is evident from the things unfolded just above (n. 8717), namely, that by their bringing every great word unto Moses is signified that each and all things down to the veriest singulars are from the Lord. From this it also follows that “a small word” too, that is, things particular and singular, are from Him.  That there is an appearance that they are from another source will be seen below.

AC 8719. And devolve from upon thee, and let them bear with thee. That this signifies thus functions and offices for them, is evident from the signification of “to devolve from upon thee,” as being to hand down to others also; and from the signification of “bearing with thee,” as being to be of assistance. That by these words is signified thus functions and offices for them, is because the Lord does each and all things from Himself immediately, and mediately through heaven.  That He acts mediately through heaven is not because He needs their and, but that the angels there may have functions and offices, and consequently life and happiness in accordance with their offices and uses. From this there is an appearance to them that they act from themselves, but a perception that it is from the Lord. These things are signified by Moses “devolving from upon him,” and by the princes, who were to judge small matters, “bearing with him.”  The Lord flows in not only immediately, but also mediately, and not only into the firsts, but also into the mediates and lasts of order, (n. 6982, 6985, 6996, 7004, 7007).

AC 8720. If thou do this word, and God have commanded thee.  That this signifies that thus it is from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “if God have commanded that thou do this word,” as being when it is so from the Divine.

AC 8721. Then thou shalt be able to stand. That this signifies thus an abode with them, is evident from the signification of “thou shalt be able to stand,” as being to have an abode with those who are of the spiritual church. That this is signified, is because if truth flowed in only immediately from the Divine, and not also through heaven mediately, the man of that church could be led only by means of truth, and not by means of good, as can be seen from what was shown above (n. 8685, 8701); and unless he were led by means of good, he could not be in heaven, thus the Lord could not have an abode with him; for the abode of the Lord with man is in the good with him, and not in the truth except through the good.

AC 8722. And also all this people shall come upon its place in peace. That this signifies that they who are of the spiritual church shall thus be in good, and shall be led by means of good, is evident from the signification of “the people,” as being those who are of the spiritual church, because by “the people” are meant the sons of Israel, by whom is represented the spiritual church; from the signification of “coming unto a place,” as being to the state to which they shall be led, which state is a state of good; for they who are of the spiritual church are led by means of truth to good, and when they come to good, then they come to their own place. “Place” denotes state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381); and the signification of “peace,” is the Divine in good; for in the supreme sense “peace” denotes the Lord, and it is from this that it inmostly affects good, and is the very being of the happiness of those who are in good.  So long as man is in truth, and not yet in good, he is in an untranquil state; but when he is in good, then he is in a tranquil state, thus in peace. The reason is that evil spirits cannot attack good, but flee away at the first perception of it; whereas they can attack truth. Hence it is that when men are in good, they are in peace. This is what is signified by “all this people shall come upon its place in peace.” What it is to be led by the Lord by means of truth, and what by means of good, see (n. 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701).

AC 8723. Verses 24-27.  And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said.  And Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel, and gave them as heads over the people: princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens. And they shall judge the people in every time, the difficult word they shall bring unto Moses, and every small word they shall judge.  And Moses let his father-in-law go, and he went to himself unto his own land.  “And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said,” signifies the effect according to the setting in order of Divine good; “and Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel,” signifies the choice of truths with which good could be conjoined among those who were of the spiritual church; “and gave them as heads over the people,” signifies influx into these truths; “princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens,” signifies primary truths that are subordinate in successive order to the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine; “and they shall judge the people in every time,” signifies their consequent perpetual dependence; “the difficult word they shall bring unto Moses,” signifies mediation and intercession; “and every small word they shall judge,” signifies the appearance of some particular and singular things as from another source; “and Moses let his father-in-law go,” signifies a state of truth Divine accommodated; “and he went to himself unto his own land,” signifies to the Divine Itself.

AC 8724. And Moses hearkened to the voice of his father-in-law, and did all that he had said.  That this signifies the effect according to the setting in order of Divine good, is evident without explication; for by Jethro Moses’ father-in-law is represented the Divine good (n. 8643), and by Moses the Divine truth which proceeds from the Divine good (n. 8644). The Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord does nothing of itself, but from the Divine good which is the Divine Itself; for the Divine good is the Being, but the Divine truth is the Coming-forth therefrom; wherefore the Being must be in the Coming-forth that this may be anything, and consequently that anything may be done.  When the Lord was in the world He was Divine truth, and then the Divine good in Him was “the Father;” but when He was glorified, then He became the Divine good even as to the Human.  The Divine truth which then proceeded from Him is called the “Paraclete,” or “Spirit of Truth.” He who knows these two arcana, if he is in enlightenment from the Lord when he reads the Word, can be in the understanding of many things which the Lord Himself spake concerning the Father and concerning Himself, and also concerning the Paraclete, the Spirit of Truth, which otherwise would be incomprehensible mysteries; as in John:--

Jesus said, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the Father doing; for what things soever He doeth, these the Son also doeth in like manner. As the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given also to the Son to have life in Himself (John 5:19, 26).

The Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:39).

If I go not away, the Paraclete will not come unto you; but If I go, I will send Him unto you; He, the Spirit of Truth, shall not speak from Himself; but what things soever He shall hear, shall He speak. He shall glorify Me, for He shall receive of Mine (John 16:7, 13, 14).

AC 8725. And Moses chose men of strenuousness out of all Israel.  That this signifies the choice of truths with which good could be conjoined among those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of “men of strenuousness,” as being truths with which good can be conjoined (n. 8710); and from the representation of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 8645).  It is said “the choice of truths with which good can be conjoined,” because there are truths with which good cannot as yet be conjoined, and truths with which it can.  The truths with which it can be conjoined, are truths confirmed, and also consociated with many others, even with such as delight the intellectual sight; in this way these truths enter into the affection, which makes the man will them.  When this takes place, then good conjoins itself with them; for to will truths, and from this to do them, makes them to be good.  Be it known further, that good is not conjoined with truths until these truths have been purified from the falsities which are from evil, and until they have a connection with all the truths which must be truths of faith with him who is to be regenerated.  From the Lord the angels clearly and plainly see and perceive the connection and purification of truths, however little the man may feel or perceive in himself anything of the kind.

AC 8726. And gave them as heads over the people.  That this signifies influx into these truths, is evident from the signification of “men of strenuousness,” who here are those whom he made heads over the people, as being truths with which good can be conjoined (n. 8725); from the representation of Moses, as being the truth immediately from the Divine; and from the signification of “giving them as heads,” as being to flow in, and thus to give quality to, in order that the truth immediately from the Divine may through them lead the man of the church by means of good.  How this is, can be seen from what has been before set forth, namely, that the man who is being regenerated is at first led by means of the truth which is of faith; but when he has been regenerated he is led by means of the good which is of charity (n. 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701); and that in the first state, namely, when he is led by means of truth, the Lord flows in through the truth Divine which proceeds immediately from Him; but in the other state, namely, when he is led by means of good, the Lord flows in through both the truth which proceeds immediately, and that which proceeds mediately, from Him (n. 8685, 8701); and that the mediate influx is equally from the Lord as is the immediate (n. 8717). These are the things described in this verse in the internal sense. The very mediate influx of truth from the Divine is signified by the words, “Moses gave them as heads over the people.”

AC 8727. Princes of thousands, princes of hundreds, princes of fifties, and princes of tens.  That hereby are signified primary truths that are subordinate in successive order to the truth proceeding immediately from the Divine, is evident from what was adduced above (n. 8712-8715, 8717, 8718, 8722).

AC 8728. And they shall judge the people in every time.  That this signifies their consequent perpetual dependence, is evident from the signification of “judging,” as being the disposing of truths (n. 8685), here the subordinate disposing, which is dependence; for the princes who were to judge the people were in the place of Moses in small matters; in the internal sense that truths in successive order from interior to exterior are subordinate to the truth immediately from the Divine, through which truths the Lord thus acts mediately; but in the sense determined to persons it means the angels and angelic societies in such subordination and dependence, for through them the Lord acts mediately and directs men; nevertheless, it is not the angels who direct, but the Lord through them (n. 8718, 8719).  As further concerning this subject, be it known that some things also come from the angels themselves who are with man; but all the good and truth which become of faith and charity, that is, of the new life with man, come from the Lord alone, and also through the angels from Him; in like manner all disposing, which is continual, is for this use.  The things which come from the angels themselves are such as accommodate themselves to the affection of the man, and in themselves are not goods, but still serve for introducing the goods and truths which are from the Lord.  That “in every time” denotes perpetually, is evident without explication.

AC 8729. The difficult word they shall bring unto Moses.  That this signifies mediation and intercession, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8705).  It is here said that they shall bring the word unto Moses,“ and there, that ”Moses shall bring it to God“ but each involves what is similar.

AC 8730. And every small word they shall judge, signifies the appearance of some particular and singular things as from another source, as above (n. 8718), where are the same words.

AC 8731. And Moses let his father-in-law go.  That this signifies a state of truth Divine accommodated, is evident from the fact that when all things have been reduced into order, that is, accommodated, namely, when mediate truths have been subordinated to the truth immediately from the Divine, it is the end of this state.  This is described by Moses letting his father-in-law go; for the beginning of this state is described by Jethro‘s coming unto Moses, and by their being thus consociated for that end.  The reason why it was not before commanded by Jehovah that princes should be set in order who also should judge the people, but that this was done by the counsel and persuasion of Jethro, was in order that the subject of this chapter might be fully represented in its order.  For in what precedes, the subject treated of was the previous state in which are those of the spiritual church during regeneration, namely, when they are being lad by the Lord by means of truth.  To this state the other succeeds, which is that they are led by the Lord by means of good.  This turning or change of one state into the other is what is described in this chapter by Jethro.

AC 8732. And he went to himself unto his own land.  That this signifies to the Divine Itself, is evident from the signification of ”going unto his own land,“ as being to the former state, thus to the Divine.  Moreover by ”land“ in the internal sense is signified the church, and also heaven; therefore in the supreme sense is signified the Divine. That by ”land“ in the internal sense is signified the church, thus also the kingdom of the Lord in heaven, (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011). That by ”land“ in the supreme sense is signified the Divine, is because Jethro represented the Divine good, thus the Divine Itself, the returning whereto cannot otherwise be expressed in the historic sense of the letter than by ”going unto his own land.“ For the significatives in the Word accommodate themselves to the thing represented, the signification which properly belongs to the expression still remaining, as for instance the signification of ”land,“ which properly signifies the church, for the reason that they who are in heaven do not think of land when it is read of in the Word, but of the spiritual state of the nation which is in the land, thus of the religion there; and therefore when a ”land“ is read of where the church is, then they have an idea of the church there; and when an idea of the church, they have also an idea of the Lord’s kingdom, consequently of heaven; and when an idea of heaven, they have also an idea of the Divine there.  But when the thing represented treats of any other holy thing in the church or in heaven, then that thing can be understood by ”land,“ - as love, charity, good, faith.  Hence it is evident that the signification still remains which properly belongs to the expression; as when good is signified, or love or charity, still through all there remains the signification of the church; for these things are the essentials of the church, and make it to be the church.

CONTINUATION CONCERNING THE SPIRITS AND THE INHABITANTS OF THE EARTH JUPITER

AC 8733. As the spirits of the earth Jupiter bear relation in the Grand Man to the Imaginative of Thought, they speak little and think much; and when they speak, their speech is cogitative, and differs from the speech of others in the fact that it does not terminate so much in sound, as in a kind of soft murmur which is inwardly rapid. The very thought with them in this way unfolds itself into speech. The reason is that they are of a genius intermediate between the spiritual and the celestial; for the spiritual speak sonorously, and bring the whole of their thought into their speech; wherefore in order that their thought may be known, it must be gathered from the words.  But not so the celestial; for that which is of their will rolls itself by somewhat of thought into what is like a wave, which affects and moves the will of another according to the state of the matter.

AC 8734. The speech of spirits in general is formed from ideas of thought that fall into words according to the fulness and the affection; and as the entire idea of the thing is thus presented and communicated, spirits can express more within a minute than a man in the world can within an hour; for the whole idea of the thing, such as it is in the thought, is fully transmitted into the thought of the other. From this it was made plain to me what the conjunction of minds or spiritual conjunction is (which is charity or mutual love), namely, that the mind of the one presents itself in the mind of the other with all the good of its own thought and will toward him, and in this way affects him; and on the other hand, what spiritual disjunction is (which is enmity and hatred), namely, that the mind of the one presents itself in the mind of the other with the thought and will of destroying him, which causes rejection.

AC 8735. I was further instructed by the spirits of the earth Jupiter who were with me for a considerable time, that on that earth there are also those who call themselves ”saints,“ and who, under a penalty, command their servants, whom they multiply, to call them ”lords.“ They likewise forbid them to adore the Lord of the universe, saying that they are the Lord‘s mediators, and that they will bring their supplications to the Lord of the universe.  The Lord of the universe, who is our Lord, they do not call ”the One Only Lord,“ as the rest do, but ”the Supreme Lord,“ for the reason that they also call themselves lords.

AC 8736. These saints, who are saluted as lords by their servants, call the sun the face of the Supreme Lord, and believe His abode to be there, wherefore they also adore the sun. The rest of the inhabitants hold them in aversion, and will not have intercourse with them, both because they adore the sun, and because they call themselves lords, and are worshiped by their servants as mediatory gods.

AC 8737. The instructing and chastising spirits (n. 7802-7812), do not come to these, as to others on that earth, because they do not suffer themselves to be instructed, nor are they amended by discipline. They are inflexible, because they act from the love of self.  The spirits say that they know from the coldness that it is they; and that when they notice the coldness, they depart from them.

AC 8738. There was shown me by the spirits the head-covering of those who call themselves saints: it was a towering hat of a darkish color.

AC 8739. In the other life such appear to the right, backward, at some height, and there sit like idols, and also are at first worshiped by their servants, who had been with such; but are afterward held by them’ in derision.  And what surprised me, their faces shine there as if from fire, which is because of their having believed that they were saints, and in the likeness of the Lord, who is in the sun. But notwithstanding this fiery appearance of their faces, they are cold, and have an intense desire to be made warm. From‘ this it is plain that the fire with which they shine is as it were an ignis fatuus.

AC 8740. In order to make themselves warm, the same seem’ to themselves to cut wood, and while they are cutting, there appears underneath the wood somewhat of a man whom they at the same time attempt to strike. This comes to pass because of their attributing merit to themselves; and as they attribute sanctity, they also impute to themselves righteousness.  They who do this in the world, in the other life seem to themselves to cut wood; as is the case likewise with some from our earth, concerning whom previously, from‘ experience, which experience, for the sake of illustrating the subject, may here be quoted (n. 4943): ”In the lower earth, under the soles of the feet, are also those who have placed merit in good deeds and in works. Some of them appear to themselves to cut wood. The place where they are is rather cold, and they seem’ to themselves to acquire warmth by their labor. With these also I conversed; and it was given me to ask them whether they wished to come out of that place. They replied that they had not yet merited it by their labor. But when this state has been passed through, they are taken out thence.  These spirits also are natural, because the wish to merit salvation is not spiritual, for it comes from their own; not from the Lord.  Moreover they regard themselves as superior to others, and some of them even despise others.  If these persons do not receive more joy than others in the other life, they are indignant against the Lord; and therefore when they cut wood, there sometimes appears as it were somewhat of the Lord under the wood, and this from their indignation.  But as they have led a pious life, and have acted in this way from ignorance, in which there was something of innocence, therefore angels are occasionally sent to them who console them.  And sometimes too there appears to them from above on the left as it were a sheep, at the sight of which they also receive consolation.“ (n. 1110).

AC 8741. The subject of the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Jupiter will be continued at the end of the following chapter.


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