HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 20

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

AC 8853. Every man has something of his own which he loves above all things. This is called that which rules, or if you will, that which reigns universally with him.  This is constantly present in his thought, and also in his will, and makes his veriest life.

AC 8854. As for example, he who loves wealth above all things, whether money or possessions, is continually revolving in his mind how he may procure it; he inmostly rejoices when he acquires it; he inmostly grieves when he loses it; his heart is in it.  He who loves himself above all things is mindful of himself in everything, thinks of himself, speaks of himself, acts for the sake of himself; for his life is a life of self.

AC 8855. A man has as the end that which he loves above all things; in each and all things he has regard to this; it is in his will like the hidden current of a river which draws and hears him away, even when he is doing something else, for it is what animates him. It is this which one man searches out in another, and also sees, and according to it either leads him, or acts with him.

AC 8856. When a man is being regenerated, charity is implanted by means of faith, even until it becomes that which rules; and when charity has become this, he has a new life, for it is then continually present in his thought, and continually in his will, nay, in every single thing of them, even when he is meditating about other things, and when he is engaged in business.

AC 8857. The case is the same with love to the Lord. When this love is that which rules, it is present in every single thing of the man’s life; as for instance with him who loves his king, or his parent, his love toward them shines forth in their presence from every feature of his face, it is heard in every expression of his speech, and is seen in his every gesture. This is meant by having God continually before the eyes, and by loving Him above all things, with all the soul and with all the heart.

AC 8858. A man is wholly such as is the ruling principle of his life; by this he is distinguished from others; according to this is formed his heaven if he is good, and his hell if he is evil; for it is his veriest will, and thus the very being of his life, which cannot be changed after death.  From all this it is evident what is the nature of the life of one who is regenerate, and what is the nature of the life of one who is not regenerate.

EXODUS 20:1-23

1. And God spake all these words, saying,

2. I am Jehovah thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants.

3. Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces.

4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any likeness, of that which is in the heavens above, or that which is in the earth beneath, or that which is in the waters under the earth:

5. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I Jehovah thy God am a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of them that hate Me:

6. And doing mercy to thousands of them that love Me and keep My commandments.

7. Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain.

8. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy.

9. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work:

10. And the seventh day is the sabbath to Jehovah thy God; thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is in thy gates:

11. For in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.

12. Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.

13.    Thou shalt not kill.  Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie.

14. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor‘s house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s wife, and his manservant, and his maidservant, and his ox, and his ass, and anything that is thy neighbor‘s.

15. And all the people saw the voices, and the torches, and the voice of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and the people saw, and they quaked, and stood afar off.

16. And they said unto Moses, Speak thou with us, and we will hear; and let not God speak with us, lest perchance we die.

17. And Moses said unto the people, Fear not; because God is come to tempt you, and that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not.

18. And the people stood afar off, and Moses came near unto the thick darkness where God was.

19. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven.

20. Ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you.

21. An altar of ground thou shalt make to Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings, thy flocks, and thy herds; in every place where I shall put the memory of My name, I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee.

22. And if thou make Me an altar of stones, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou move thy tool upon it, thou wilt profane it.

23. And thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it.

THE CONTENTS

AC 8859. In this chapter the subject treated of in the internal sense is the truths Divine which are to be implanted in the food with those who are of the Lord’s spiritual church.  The ten commandments of the decalogue denote these truths. The commandments concerning sacrifices, and concerning the altar, which follow in this chapter, denote the external truths which are of worship.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 8860. Verse 1. And God spake all these words, saying, signifies truths Divine for those in the heavens, and for those on earth.

AC 8861. And God spake all these words, saying.  That this signifies truths Divine for those in the heavens and for those on earth, is evident from the signification of ”the words which God spake,“ as being truths Divine, for the things which God speaks are nothing else than truths.  From this also truth Divine is called ”the Word,“ and ”the Word“ is the Lord, according to (John 1:1), for the reason that when the Lord was in the world He was the Divine truth itself, and afterward when He was glorified He became the Divine good, and thenceforth all Divine truth proceeds from Him.  This Divine truth is light to the angels, which light is also that which illuminates our internal sight, which is that of the understanding.

[2] As this sight does not see natural, but spiritual things, it has for its objects in the spiritual understanding the truths which are called the truths of faith; but in the natural understanding it has for its objects truths of the civil state which relate to what is just, and also truths of the moral state which relate to what is reputable, and lastly natural truths which are conclusions from the objects of the external senses, especially of the sight. From all this it can be seen in what order truths follow, and that all and each have their origin from truths Divine, which are the internal beginnings of all things.  Moreover the forms in which they are have had their origin from the same source, for these were created to receive and contain. This shows what is meant in John by all things having been created through the Word (John 1:1-3); for truth Divine is the veriest essential, and is the only substantial through which all things are.

AC 8862. That by ”the words which God spake“ are meant truths Divine for those in the heavens and those on the earth, is because the ten commandments, which are called the decalogue, and the subsequent statutes promulgated and commanded from Mount Sinai, are such truths as are not only for those who are on the earth, but also for those who are in the heavens; for all the words, that is, all the truths which are from the Lord, are not only for men, but are also at the same time for the angels, since they come through heaven and thus pass over to earth.  But in the heavens they do not sound as they do on the earth, for in the heavens they are in a spiritual form, but on the earth in a natural form.  What is the nature of those things which are in a spiritual form as compared with those which are in a natural form, is evident from all the particulars of the Word in the internal sense and in the external sense.  Those in the internal sense are spiritual, but those in the external sense, which is the sense of the letter, are natural.  The latter have been accommodated to men on the earth, but the former to angels in the heavens.

[2] That such is the case can be seen from the fact that the Word has been sent, and thus has passed, from the Divine Itself through heaven to earth; and that when it comes to the earth it is truth accommodated to the human race, which is in earthly and bodily things; whereas in the heavens it is accommodated to angels, who are in spiritual and heavenly things.  Such being the nature of the Word, it is holy in itself; for it contains in itself what is heavenly and Divine.  This can be plainly seen from the ten commandments of the decalogue.  Everyone can see that these commandments are such things as have been known everywhere on the earth; as that parents are to be honored, that murder, adultery, and theft are not to be committed, and that no one should bear false witness; consequently that the Israelitish nation might have known these laws from natural light alone; for what nation is there which does not know them? And yet for their promulgation Jehovah Himself came down and promulgated them out of fire which burned even to the heart of heaven.  From this it can be seen that these commandments contain in their bosom more things than appear in the letter, namely, such things as are at the same time for the heavens and that fill the heavens. All things of the Word are of this nature, because they are from the Divine. From this it is plain whence it is that the Word is holy, and what is meant by the Word‘s being inspired as to every jot and tittle, and as to every little horn (Matt. 5:18; Luke 16:17). The nature of the commandments of the decalogue in the spiritual sense, that is, their nature in the heavens, shall accordingly be seen in what follows.

AC 8863. Verses 2-7.  I am Jehovah thy God, who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants.  Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces.  Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any likeness of that which is in the heavens above, or that which is in the earth beneath, or that which is in the waters under the earth; thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them; for I Jehovah thy God am a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of them that hate Me; and doing mercy to thousands of them that love Me and keep My commandments.  Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain; for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.  ”I am Jehovah thy God,“ signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human universally reigning in each and all things of good and truth; ”who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants,“ signifies liberation by Him from hell; ”Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces,“ signifies that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord; ”Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image,“ signifies not from self-intelligence; ”nor any likeness,“ signifies a semblance of those things which are from the Divine; ”of that which is in the heavens above, or that which is in the earth beneath,“ signifies of those things which are in spiritual light, or of those which are in natural light; ”or that which is in the waters under the earth,“ signifies of those which are in the sensuous corporeal; ”thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them,“ signifies no Divine worship is to be paid them; ”for I Jehovah thy God,“ signifies the Divine from the Lord in each and all things; ”am a zealous God,“ signifies that falsity and evil are therefrom; ”visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon tile sons,“ signifies the consequent prolification of falsity derived from evil; ”upon the thirds and upon the fourths,“ signifies in a long series, and the conjunction of them; ”of them that hate Me,“ signifies who absolutely reject the Divine of the Lord; ”and doing mercy unto thousands,“ signifies good and truth unto them forever; ”of them that love Me,“ signifies who receive the good of love; ”and keep My commandments,“ signifies who receive the truths of faith; ”Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain,“ signifies profanings and blasphemings of the truth and good of faith; ”for Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain,“ signifies that these things cannot be forgiven.

AC 8864. I am Jehovah thy God.  That this signifies the Lord as to the Divine Human universally reigning in each and all things of good and truth, is evident from the fact that in the Word no other than the Lord is meant by ”Jehovah“ (n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 3445, 5663, 6280, 6281, 6303, 8274), in like manner by ”Jehovah Zebaoth,“ by ”the Lord Jehovih,“ by ”Jehovah God“ (n. 2921, 3023, 3445, 6303); and that the Lord is called ”Jehovah“ from the Divine good, which is the Divine Being, but ”God“ from the Divine truth, which is the Divine Coming-forth (n. 6905, 709, 732, 1096, 2586, 2769, 2507, 2822, 3921, 4402).  That it is the Divine Human of the Lord which is here meant by ”Jehovah God,“ is because the Lord as to this is meant in the Word both by ”Jehovah“ and by ”God“-the Divine good, which He is even as to the Human, by ”Jehovah;“ and the Divine truth, which He is because it proceeds from Him, by ”God.“

[2] That the Divine Human of the Lord is meant by ”Jehovah God,“ is because the Divine Itself which is in the Lord cannot be seen in heaven, and not even perceived, thus cannot be received in faith and love, but the Divine Human only. That the Divine Itself cannot be communicated to the angels in heaven, and still less to men on earth, except through the Divine Human, is known in the churches from the words of the Lord in the Evangelists, where He says that He is the ”door,“ that He is the mediator,” that “no one can come to the Father but through Him,” that “Do one knoweth the Father but He,” and that “no one hath seen the Father,” not even any “shape” of Him.  From this it is plain that it is the Lord who is here meant by “Jehovah God.” That it is He also who redeemed the human race and liberated it from hell is likewise known. This is signified by the words which follow: “who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants.” From all this it is now plain that Jehovah God who spake from Mount Sinai denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human.

[3] That this is the first thing which is said by the Lord from Mount Sinai, is because this ought to reign universally in each and all things that follow; for what is said first must be kept in the memory in the things that follow, and must be regarded as the universal thing that is in them.  What is meant by “universally reigning” shall be seen in what fools.  The things said by the Lord are all of this nature, namely, that the things said first are to reign in the things which follow, and are to involve them, and so successively the things that follow in the series. The things which follow in this chapter are the commandments of the decalogue, which are internal truths, and then the statutes, which are external truths.  In both of these the Lord must reign as to the Divine Human, for they are from Him, and are Himself, because all truths that are truths proceed from Him, and the things which proceed from Him are Himself. That the Lord as to the Divine Human must reign in each and all things of faith, is also known in the churches, for it is there taught that without the Lord there is no salvation, and that all the truth and good of faith are from Him.  Thus as He is the source of faith, He is the faith with man, and if the faith, He is also every truth that is contained in the doctrine of faith, which is from the Word. From this also it is that the Lord is called “the Word.”

[4] That the things which precede must reign in the things which follow, and thus in the series, as said above, is evident from everything which the Lord spake, especially from His prayer, which is called “the Lord’s Prayer.” In this prayer all things follow on in such a series that they constitute as it were a column that grows larger from top to bottom, in the interiors of which are the things which precede in the series.  What is first therein is inmost, and what succeeds in order adds itself to the inmost successively and thus grows. That which is inmost reigns universally in those things which are round about; that is, in each and all things for from this is that which is essential to the existence of all things.

AC 8865. What is meant by “universally reigning” can be seen from what has been said and shown above (n. 8853-8858), namely, that that is universally regnant with man which is in each and all things of his thought, and in each and all things of his will, consequently which constitutes his very mind, or life.  Such a regnant must the Lord be with man, for such a regnant is the Lord with the angels in heaven, of whom therefore it is said that they are “in the Lord.” The Lord becomes regnant when it is not only believed that all good and all truth are from Him, but also when it is loved to be so. The angels are not only in the faith, but also in the perception, that it is so.  Hence it is that their life is the Lord‘s life in them; the life of their will is the life of love from the Lord, and the life of their understanding is the life of faith from the Lord. From all this it is evident how it is that the Lord is the all in all of heaven, and that He Himself is heaven.  When the Lord universally reigns with a man of the church, as with the angels of heaven, then the Lord is in all the truths and goods of faith with him, as the heart is in all the blood-vessels, because these derive from it their origin, and the blood which is their life.

[2] Be it further known that such spirits and such angels are with a man as is his universal regnant. The reason is that that which reigns universally is the being of the life of everyone (n. 8853-8858). All the cheerfulness and all the content a man has, even when he is thinking about other things, are therefrom; for therein the angels and spirits who are with him dwell and as it were have their abode, and their gladness flows into the man, and causes his cheerfulness and content. That such is its source does not come to the perception of the man, because he does not know that his life flows in, nor that the universal regnant makes his life, nor that when this regnant of his life is touched, it is as if the pupil of the eye is touched; with delight when by beautiful objects; and with pain when by ugly ones. It is called universal from the fact that it is the whole singular in the complex, and thus the universal regnant is that which is in each and all things (n. 1919, 5949, 6159, 6338, 6482, 6483, 6571, 7648, 8067).

AC 8866. Who brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of servants.  That this signifies liberation by Him from hell, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth,” as being liberation; from the signification of “the land of Egypt,” as being infestations by the infernals (n. 7240, 7278); and from the signification of “the house of servants,” as being spiritual captivity (n. 8049). That “the house of servants” denotes spiritual captivity and also hell, is because it is servitude to be held captive and to be led by those who are in hell, and it is freedom to be led by the Lord (n. 892, 905, 2870-2875, 2582, 2884, 2892, 2893, 6205, 8209). They who are of the spiritual church and are represented by the sons of Israel were liberated from hell by the Lord, by His coming into the world and making the Human in Himself Divine, (n. 6854, 6914, 7035, 7828, 7932, 8018, 8321).

AC 8867. Thou shalt have no other gods before My faces.  That this signifies that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord, is evident from the signification of “gods,” as being truths, and in the opposite sense as being falsities (n. 4402, 4544, 7268, 7873, 8301); and from the signification of “faces,” when predicated of God, as being love, mercy, peace, good (n. 222, 223, 2434, 5585), thus the Lord Himself, for it is the Lord from whom these are.  That “no other gods before My faces” signifies that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord, is also because the Divine Human of the Lord, which is signified by “I am Jehovah thy God,” is first spoken of, and consequently holds the first place in order, and must universally reign in each of the truths that follow (n. 8864, 8865); and therefore there are now perceived such things as must be avoided, because they would destroy and prevent the universal reign of the Lord in all and each of the truths contained in the commandments and statutes that were dictated and commanded from Mount Sinai. The first thing which would destroy is the thinking of truths from some other source than the Lord, which is signified by the command to have no other gods before the Lord’s faces. The rest of the things that would destroy this universal regnant are contained in the things which follow in order, namely, that they should not make to themselves a graven image, nor the likeness of anything that is in the heavens, in the earth, or in the waters, and that they should not bow down themselves to them nor serve them.  After this therefore it again follows “for I am Jehovah thy God,” by which is signified that the Lord must be in each and all things.

AC 8868. It must also be briefly told what is meant by truths which are from some other source than the Lord. They are in general those truths in which the Lord is not. The Lord is not in the truths with a man when the man denies Him and His Divine, and also when he acknowledges Him and still believes that good and truth are not from Him, but from himself, and who consequently claims righteousness for himself. Truths also in which the Lord is not are those which are taken from the Word, especially from the sense of its letter, and are explained in favor of self-rule and self-gain.  In themselves these are truths, because they are from the Word; but in this case they are not truths, because they are wrongly explained and thus perverted.  They are such as are meant by the Lord by these words in Matthew:--

If anyone shall say, Lo, here is the Christ, or there; believe it not. For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall give great signs and wonders; so as to lead into error, if possible, even the elect (Matt. 24:23-26);

 (n. 3900). And in Luke:--

See that ye be not led astray; for many shall come in My name, saying, I am; and, The time is at hand; go ye not therefore after them (Luke 21:8).

[2] The truths which are from the Lord are always truths from the Lord in the internal form; and the truths which are not from the Lord appear as truths in the external form only, but not in the internal form; for within they are either empty, or false, or evil.  In order for truth to be truth there must be life in it; for truth without life is not the truth of faith with man; and life is from no other source than good, that is, through good from the Lord.  If therefore the Lord is not in truth, it is truth without life, thus is not truth; but if falsity is in it, or evil, the truth itself in man is falsity or evil; for that which is within makes the essence, and also in the other life shines through the outside.  From all this it can now be seen how it is to be understood that truths must not be thought of from any other source than the Lord.

[3] As few know how the case is with truths which in the internal form are truths, thus which live from the Lord, something shall be said about these from experience.  In the other life it is openly perceived from everyone who speaks there what lies hidden within the words of his speech, as whether it is closed within, or whether it is open, also what kind of affection there is therein. If the affection of good is within, it is inwardly soft; if the affection of evil, it is inwardly hard; and so on. With the angels of heaven all things of their speech are open even to the Lord, and this is both clearly perceived and also heard from the softness and the quality of this.  From this also it is known what lies hidden within truths, whether the Lord or not.  Truths in which the Lord is are truths which are alive, but truths in which the Lord is not are truths which are not alive.  Those which are alive are truths of faith from love to the Lord and from charity toward the neighbor.  Those which are not alive are not truths, because within them there are the love of self and the love of the world.  In the other life spirits and angels can be discriminated by this, for everyone has truths according to his life, that is, according to that which universally reigns with him.

AC 8869. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image.  That this signifies not from self-intelligence, is evident from the signification of “a graven image,” as being that which is not from the Lord, but from what is man‘s own.  That which is man’s own of his intellect is signified by “a graven image,” and that which is man‘s own of his will is signified by “a molten image.”  To have either the one or the other for a god, or to adore it, is to love above all things all that which proceeds from self. They who do this entirely disbelieve that anything of intelligence and wisdom flows in from the Divine, for they attribute all things to themselves; everything else that happens to them they ascribe either to fortune or to chance.  They totally deny the Divine Providence in such things.  They suppose that if there is anything of Deity present, it is in the order of nature, to which they ascribe all things.  They do indeed say with their lips that some Creator God has impressed such things upon nature; but still in their heart they deny any God above nature. much are they who from the heart attribute everything to themselves and to their own sagacity and intelligence, and nothing to the Divine; and those of them who love themselves, adore what belongs to themselves and also desire to be worshiped by others, even as gods, and would do so openly if the church did not forbid. These are the formers of graven images, and the graven images themselves are what they hatch from their own, and wish to be adored as things divine.

[2] That these things are signified in the Word by “graven images,” is evident from the passages where they are mentioned, as in Jeremiah:--

Every man is become a fool from knowledge; every founder is put to shame by his graven image; for his molten image is a lie, and there is no breath in them (Jer. 10:14; 51:17);

as by “a graven image” is signified that which does not proceed from the Lord, but from self-intelligence, therefore it is said, “Every man is become a fool from knowledge, and every founder is put to shame by his graven image;” and as in those things which are hatched from self-intelligence there is nothing of spiritual life, which is solely from the Lord, therefore it is also said, “and there is no breath in them.”

[3] In Habakkuk:--

What profiteth the graven image that the maker thereof hath graven it, the molten image, and the teacher of a lie, because the maker of his invention trusteth upon this, when he maketh dumb gods? there is no breath in the midst of it (Habakkuk 2:18, 19);

here the “graven image” denotes those things which are hatched from self-intelligence, wherein there is nothing of life from the Lord.

[4] In Jeremiah:--

A drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up; for it is a land of graven images, and they glory in horrors; therefore the ziim dwell with the iim, and the daughters of the owl dwell therein (Jer. 50:38, 39);

speaking of Chaldea and Babel; “a drought upon the waters, and they shall be dried up,” denotes truths wherein there is nothing of life; “the ziim, and the iim, and the daughters of the owl, dwell therein,” denotes evils and falsities, thus those things which are of death within; from this it is that they are called “a land of graven images.”

[5] In Isaiah:--

They that fashion a graven image are all of them vanity; and their most desirable things shall not profit; and they are witnesses to themselves, they see not nor know (Isaiah 44:9-11);

“they that fashion a graven image,” denotes those who hatch out doctrines which are not grounded in truths from the Word, but in self-intelligence, of which doctrines it is said that “their most desirable things do not profit,” and that “they see not nor know.” In what follows (Isaiah 44:12-16) there is treated of the art of inventing and of hatching by reasonings from self-intelligence, things which they desire should be acknowledged as Divine, of which things it is thus finally said:--

The residue thereof he maketh into a god, his graven image, he adoreth it, he boweth himself down, and yet they know not, neither do they understand; and their eyes do not see, that their hearts may not understand (Isaiah 44:17, 18);

that “they know not, and understand not, and see not” denotes that truths and goods are not within, for all things which go forth from self-intelligence are not inwardly truths and goods, but falsities and evils, because they proceed from one’s own, and that this at its root is evil, (n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1023, 1044, 1047, 1581, 3812, 4328, 5660, 5786, 8480).

[6] In the same:--

To whom will ye liken God? and what image will ye compare with Him. The craftsman casteth the graven image, and the founder overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains. He that is destitute of an oblation chooseth wood that will not rot; he seeketh him a wise craft man to prepare a graven image that shall not be shaken (Isa. 40:18-20);

“the graven image which the craftsman casteth” denotes false doctrine which is from man‘s own; “the founder overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains,” denotes that through reasonings he makes the falsities of doctrine appear as truths.

[7] In the same:--

I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness, to open the blind eyes, to bring out the bound one from the prison, them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house. I am Jehovah, this is My name, and My glory will I not give to another, nor My praise to graven images (Isa. 42:6-8);

speaking of the Lord, that He is Jehovah, and that from Him is all wisdom, and nothing of it from man.  That the Lord is here treated of is evident.  That He is “Jehovah” here is also evident, for it is said that “Jehovah hath called Him in righteousness,” and then, “I am Jehovah, this is My name, and My glory will I not give to another.” That from Him is the wisdom that belongs to life, is signified by His “opening the blind eyes,” and “bringing out the bound one from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house;” that nothing of wisdom is from man, is signified by “I will not give My praise to graven images.”

[8] By “graven images” are also signified the things of self-intelligence in the following passages:--

And there cometh a chariot of a man, a pair of horsemen. And he answered and said, Babel is fallen; and all the graven images he hath broken into the earth (Isa. 21:9).

Then will ye judge unclean the covering of the graven images of their silver, and the clothing of the molten image of their gold; thou shalt scatter them as a menstruous cloth; it shall be called dung (Isa. 30:22).

Why have they provoked Me to anger by their graven images, by vanities of strangers? (Jer. 8:19).

They have called themselves, so they went for the sake of themselves; they sacrifice to the Baals, and burn incense to graven images (Hos. 11:2).

Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination to Jehovah, the work of the hands of the craftsman (Deut. 27:15).

AC 8870. Nor any likeness.  That this signifies a semblance of those things which are from the Divine, is evident from the signification of a “likeness,” as being a semblance.  That it denotes a semblance of those things which are from the Divine, is plain from what precedes and from what follows - from what precedes, that they shall have “no other gods before the faces of Jehovah God,” and that they shall not “make to themselves a graven image,” by which words are signified truths from another source than the Divine, and yet which are set forth like them; and from what follows, as “of that which is in the heavens, or which is in the earth, or which is in the waters,” whereby are meant such things as are from the Divine everywhere.

[2] It must here be told what is meant by a semblance of those things which are from the Divine, because these things are treated of in what follows of this verse and in the beginning of the following verse.  Semblances of those things which are from the Divine are made by men when they speak Divine things with the mouth, and also in act do such things as have been commanded by the Divine, and thus induce a belief that they are in good and truth, when yet at heart they think altogether otherwise, and will nothing but evil: such are dissemblers, hypocrites, and the deceitful, and these are they who make semblances of those things which are from the Divine.  In the other life evil spirits make semblances of those things which are from the Divine, who set forth a likeness and appearance in outward things, within which there is nothing of the Divine.  Dissemblers, hypocrites, and the deceitful learn to do this in the other life, and in general all who from frequent use have contracted the habit of speaking otherwise than they think, and of doing otherwise than they will.  Sole by such practices wish to get reputation, that they may seem to be good, and thus deceive; some that they may exercise command.

[3] Moreover there, such things are abuses of correspondences.  But the outward things whereby they have made a pretense of such things as are of charity and faith, are successively taken away from them; for in this way they act from their very nature that has been acquired in the world, and no more from any pretense or hypocrisy.  They who are of this character, and who perceive that these external things are to be taken away from them, say that if these external things were left them, they would be able to live with their associates in the other life, and do what is good in appearance, just as formerly in the world. But this cannot be done, because by the externals which are apparently good they would communicate in some measure with heaven, that is, with those who are in the encompassing parts there and are simple, who correspond to the cuticles in the Grand Man; while by their internals they would communicate with the hells.  And as the evils which are within rule, because they are of the will, and the goods that are made a pretense of in externals serve the evil as a means for acquiring dominion, therefore it is contrary to Divine order itself to leave them free to act with pretense and hypocrisy as in the world.  Wherefore such things are taken away from them, and they are remitted into the very evil of their will.

AC 8871. Of that which is in the heaven above, or that which is in the earth beneath.  That this signifies of those things which are in spiritual light, or of those which are in natural light, is evident from the signification of “a likeness of those things which are in the heavens above,” as being those things which appear and are seen in spiritual light, all of which bear relation to the good and truth which are of faith, of charity toward the neighbor, and of love to the Lord to counterfeit and make a pretense of these things is to “make a likeness of the things which are in the heavens above;” and from the signification of “a likeness of those things which are in the earth beneath,” as being those things which appear and are seen in natural light, which are such as bear relation to civil and moral good and truth to counterfeit and make a pretense of these things is to make a likeness of those things which are in the earth beneath. In the sense of the letter are meant such things as appear in heaven, as the sun, the moon, the stars; and such things as appear on the earth, as animals of various kinds, both flying, walking, and creeping; but in the internal sense are meant such things as are signified by these, all of which bear relation to good and truth, as was said above.

[2] These things are further described in Moses, in these words:  Lest ye make you a graven image in the shape of any likeness, the figure of male or of female, the figure of any beast that is on the earth, the figure of any winged bird that flieth under heaven, the figure of anything that creepeth on the earth, of a fish that is in the waters under the earth: and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and look at the sun, and the moon, and the stars, all the army of the heavens, and thou be impelled, and bow thyself to them, and serve them. Take heed to yourselves, lest ye forget the covenant of Jehovah your God, which He made with you, and make you a graven image of any figure.  For Jehovah thy God is a devouring fire, a zealous God.  When ye shall beget sons, and sons’ sons, and ye shall have grown old in the land, and shall corrupt yourselves, and make a graven image of any figure, I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that perishing ye shall quickly perish from off the land. Jehovah shall scatter you among the peoples, where ye shall serve gods, the work of a man‘s hands, wood and stone (Deut.  4:16-19; 23-28).

[3] The reason why it was so severely forbidden to make a likeness of anything in the heavens and on the earth, was chiefly for the reason that that people, which was from Jacob, was very prone to worship external things The cause was that they were not willing to know anything about the internal things of the church, which belong to faith and love to the Lord, and to charity toward the neighbor.  Therefore if they had been allowed to make likenesses of things, they would then have bowed themselves to them and worshiped them as gods; as is very evident from the golden calf which they made for themselves in the midst of so many miracles, and also from their frequent apostasy from Divine worship to idolatrous worship.  Nevertheless in the internal sense such things as these are not meant, but the things which have been set forth above.

AC 8872. Or of that which is in the waters under the earth. That this signifies such things as are in the sensuous corporeal, is evident from the signification of “a likeness of those things which are in the waters under the earth,” as being the things below those which are in natural light; and that these things are such as are in the sensuous corporeal is manifest from the successive degrees of the light that belongs to the intellectual in man.  In the first degree in man are those things which are in spiritual light, which are signified by “those which are in the heavens above.” In the second degree are those which are in natural light, which are signified by “those which are in the earth beneath.” And in the third degree are those which are in the sensuous corporeal, which are signified by “those which are in the waters under the earth.” What and of what quality is the sensuous corporeal, (n. 5084, 5089, 5094, 5125, 5128, 5580, 5767, 6183, 6201, 6310-6316, 6318, 6598, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6624, 6844, 6845, 6948, 6949, 7442, 7693). To the sensuous corporeal bear relation those memory-knowledges which arise most immediately from the experience of the external senses and also of their delights.  With the good these knowledges and their delights are good because they are applied to goods; but with the evil they are evil because they are applied to evils. To deceive by means of these, as dissemblers, hypocrites, and the deceitful are wont to do, is to “made a likeness of such things as are in the waters under the earth.”

AC 8873. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them.  That this signifies that no Divine worship is to be paid them, is evident from the signification of “bowing down one’s self,” as being humiliation (n. 2153, 5682, 6266, 7068); and from the signification of “serving,” as being submission (n. 5164). That it denotes Divine worship, is because humiliation and submission are essentials of worship, for worship without them is not worship, but gesture in imitation of those who are in the truth of worship; in which gesture there is nothing of life, for life from the Lord flows in solely into a humble and submissive heart, because such a heart has been fitted to receive. That such is the case is because when the heart is truly humble, nothing of the love of self and of the love of the world stands in the way.  That both expressions are used, is because “bowing down” signifies worship from the good of love, and “serving” signifies worship from the truth of faith.

AC 8874. For I Jehovah thy God.  That this signifies the Divine from the Lord in each and all things, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 8864, 8865).

AC 8875. Am a zealous God.  That this signifies that falsity and evil are therefrom, is evident from the fact that in the genuine sense “a zealous God” denotes the Divine truth of the Divine good, for “God” is predicated of truth (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4287, 4402, 7010, 7268, 8301), and “zealous” of good.  But relatively to those who do not receive the Divine truth of the Lord‘s Divine good, “a zealous God” denotes falsity and evil; for they who are in the opposite perceive Divine truth as falsity, and Divine good as evil; because everyone sees these things from his own quality.  Hence it is that the zeal of the Lord, which in itself is love and compassion, appears to them as anger; for when the Lord from love and mercy protects His own in heaven, they who are in evil are indignant and angry against the good, and rush into the sphere where the Divine truth and Divine good are, with the endeavor to destroy those who are there; and then the Divine truth of the Divine good works in them and makes them feel torments such as are in hell.  Hence it is that they attribute wrath and anger to the Divine, and also all evil, when yet in the Divine there is absolutely nothing of anger, and absolutely nothing of evil; but pure clemency and mercy.

[2] From all this it is evident why “zealous” signifies falsity and evil, and “zeal” signifies anger.  See what has been shown above on these subjects, namely, that wrath and anger are attributed to the Lord, when yet they are with those who are in evil, or who are in anger against the Divine (n. 5798, 6997, 8284, 8483).  That in like manner evils, punishments, and vastations are attributed to the Lord, when yet in the Lord there is nothing but love and mercy, (n. 2447, 6071, 6559, 6991, 6997, 7533, 7632, 7643, 7679, 7710, 7877, 7926, 8214, 8223, 8226-8228, 8282, 8632); also that the evil devastate themselves, and cast themselves into damnation and hell by endeavoring to destroy what is good and true, (n. 7643, 7679, 7710, 7926, 7989); as also that the Lord appears to everyone according to his quality, (n. 1861, 6832, 8197). That “the zeal of the Lord” denotes love and mercy, and that when the Lord protects the good against the evil, it appears as hostility and also as anger, is evident from the following passages in the Word.

[3] That “the zeal of the Lord” denotes love and mercy, in Isaiah:--

Look forth from the heavens, and behold from the habitation of Thy holiness and of Thy comeliness: and where is Thy zeal and Thy mighty deeds; the yearning of Thy bowels and Thy compassions toward me have restrained themselves (Isa. 63:15);

where “zeal” denotes mercy, which is the “yearning of the bowels,” and is predicated of good; for it is said “Thy zeal and Thy mighty deeds,” where “zeal” is said of good, and “mighty deeds” of truth; in like manner “the yearning of the bowels” is said of good, and cœcompassions“ is said of truth; so likewise ”the habitation of holiness“ denotes the heaven where they are who are of the celestial kingdom, and ”the habitation of comeliness,“ the heaven where they are who are of the spiritual kingdom.  From this it is also evident that in the Word where mention is made of good, mention is also made of truth, on account of the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, in every detail of the Word, as in the case of the two names of the Lord, ”Jesus“ and ”Christ,“ which signify the Divine marriage that is in the Lord (n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 4138, 5138, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339).

[4] In the same:--Unto us a child is born, unto us a Son is given; and the government shall be upon His shoulder, and He called His name Wonderful, Counselor, God, Hero, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace. To the multiplying of His government and peace there shall be no end. The zeal of Jehovah shall perform this (Isa. `ix. 6, 7).  This is said of the Lord and of His coming; ”the zeal of Jehovah shall perform this,“ denotes that He will do it from the ardent love of saving the human race. Again:--

Out of Jerusalem shall go forth remains, and an escape from Mount Zion. The zeal of Jehovah shall perform this (Isa.  37:32);

”the zeal of Jehovah shall perform this“ denotes that He will do it from love and mercy.

[5] In Ezekiel:--

Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Now will I bring back the captivity of Jacob, and will have mercy upon the whole house of Israel; and I will be zealous for the name of My holiness (Ezek. 39:25);

where being” zealous“ denotes to have compassion. In David The zeal of Thy house hath eaten me up (Ps. 69:9); speaking of the Lord; ”the zeal of the house of Jehovah“ denotes His love toward those who receive good and truth, for these are ”the house of Jehovah.“

[6] That when the zeal or mercy of the Lord protects the good it appears as hostility, is manifest in Isaiah:--

Jehovah shall go forth as a Hero; He shall stir up zeal like a man of war; He shall shout and cry, He shall prevail over His enemies (Isa. 42:13).

In Joel:--

Jehovah shall be zealous for His land, and shall spare His people (Joel 2:18).

[7] That the zeal of the Lord is called ”anger“ and ”wrath“ because mercy so appears to the evil, is manifest in these passages:--

Ye shall not go after other gods, of the gods of the peoples which are around you, for Jehovah thy God in the midst of thee is a zealous God; lest the anger of Jehovah thy God be kindled against thee, and He destroy the from off the faces of the earth (Deut. 6:14, 15).

They provoked Him to zeal with strange ones, with abominations they rendered Him angry. They sacrificed to demons.  They have moved My zeal with that which is not God; they have provoked Me to anger with their vanities (Deut. 32:16, 17, 21).

When Mine anger shall be spent and I shall make My wrath to rest on them, it shall repent Me; and they shall know that I Jehovah have spoken in My zeal, when I shall have consummated My wrath upon them (Ezek. 5:13).

The angel of Jehovah in me said unto me, Cry thou, saying, Thus said Jehovah Zebaoth, I have been zealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with great zeal. For with great indignation I am indignant against the careless nations (Zech. 1:14, 15; 8:2).

I will pour upon them Mine indignation, all the wrath of Mine anger; for all the earth shall be devoured in the fire of My zeal (Zeph. 3:8).

Jehovah will not please to pardon him, but then the angel of Jehovah shall smoke; and His zeal against that man, and all the curse shall rest upon him (Deut. 29:20).

How long, O Jehovah! wilt Thou be angry forever? Shall Thy zeal burn like a fire? your out Thine anger upon the nations that have not known Thee (Ps. 79:5, 6).

In like manner the zeal of Jehovah is described as anger” in (Ps. 38:1; Ezek. 16:42; 23:25; 38:19). From all this it can be see“ what is meant by ”the zeal of Jehovah,“ or what by ”a zealous God;“ namely, that in the genuine sense are meant love and mercy; but in a sense not genuine, such as appears to those who are in evils and falsities, anger and vastation are signified.

[8] Be it known that Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is especially called ”zealous,“ or ”an avenger,“ when that is corrupted which ought to reign universally with the man of the church, namely, the Divine, which must be loved, or thought of, or feared, above all things.  When this has been corrupted or destroyed, then instead of heavenly light mere thick darkness usurps its place, for there is no longer any influx of this light from the Divine, because there is no reception. For this reason it is said, ”I am Jehovah thy God, a zealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths of then) that hate Me,“ and this in case they worshiped other gods or made unto themselves a graven image or likenesses for these things corrupt the Divine which ought to reign universally.

[9] Therefore it is declared in like manner elsewhere in Moses:--

Take heed lest ye make you a graven image of any fire, for Jehovah God is a devouring fire, a zealous God (Deut. 4:23, 24).

Thou shalt not adore another God; for Jehovah, whose name is Zealous, zealous is He (Exod. 34:14).

This was so severely forbidden in the case of the Israelitish nation because the adoration of other gods, of graven things, and of images, was destructive of every representative of the church among them; for in heaven Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is the universal regnant; His Divine fills all things there, and makes the life of all.  If anything had been worshiped instead of the Divine, every representative would have perished, and thus the communication with heaven.

AC 8876. Visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons. That this signifies the consequent prolification of falsity derived from evil, is evident from the signification of ”visiting the iniquity of the fathers,“ as being the prolification of evils; that ”to visit“ denotes prolification is because the state of those who utterly reject from themselves the Divine is here treated of, who therefore are no longer receptions of good, but of evil, and this continually, for with such, evil is continually increasing, and this is prolification (that ”father“ denotes good, and in the opposite sense evil, (n. 3703, 5902, 6050, 7833, 7834); and from the signification of ”sons,“ as being truths (n. 1147, 2623, 3373), consequently in the opposite sense falsities.  In the sense nearest the letter, by ”visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons“ is not meant that the sons suffer the penalty of the iniquity of their fathers, for this is contrary to the Divine (Deut. 24:16); but that evil increases with the fathers, and thus is by heredity carried over into the children, and that there is a consequent successive accumulation of evil (n. 2910, 3701, 4317, 8550, 8551).  But in the spiritual sense by ”fathers“ are not meant fathers, but evils; nor are sons meant by ”sons,“ but falsities; therefore by the above words is signified the continual prolification of falsity derived from evil.

AC 8877. Upon the thirds and upon the fourths.  That this signifies in a long series and the conjunction of them, is evident from the signification of ”three,“ as being what is full from beginning to end (n. 2788, 4495, 7715), thus what is in a long series, and therefore ”the third sons“ denote falsities in a long series (that ”sons“ denote falsities see just above, n. 8876); and from the signification of ”four,“ as being conjunction, in like manner as ”two“ (n. 1686, 5194, 8423); therefore ”the fourth sons“ denote falsities conjoined in a long series.  That this is the signification of ”the third and fourth sons“ must needs seem like a paradox, or foreign to the sense of the Word; but be it known that in the internal sense numbers do not signify numbers, but things (n. 482, 487, 575, 647, 648, 755, 813, 1963, 1988, 2075, 2252, 3252, 4264, 4495, 4670, 5265, 6175).

AC 8878. Of them that hate me.  That this signifies who absolutely reject the Divine of the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”them that hate God,“ as being those who are in evil and thence in falsity, for these are they who reject the Divine of the Lord; and so far as they are in evil and thence in falsity, so far they not only reject it, but also hold it in hatred.  That it is the Divine of the Lord which they reject, is because they who are in evil are not in heavenly light, but in natural light, and finally are in sensuous light which is from the corporeal.  From this light they cannot possibly see the Human of the Lord otherwise than as human, for they cannot perceive what the Divine Human is, because they have an idea about the Divine that is utterly empty and worthless.  If they are told that the Divine Itself is Divine love, that the Divine love is the being of all life, and that from conception the Lord was this love, which was thus the inmost being of His life, thus was Jehovah, and that He glorified His Human to the likeness of this, that is, made it Divine, all this may indeed be in some measure apprehended by those who are endowed with some intellectual penetration; but still they do not believe it, for when they descend from the intellectual light in which they then are, into their own natural and sensuous light, they fall into mere thick darkness in respect to this truth, and from this into denial.

AC 8879. And doing mercy unto thousands.  That this signifies good and truth unto them forever, is evident from the signification of ”mercy,“ as being the influx of good and truth from the Lord and the consequent spiritual life, which is bestowed by means of regeneration (n. 6180, 6307), for the Lord in mercy bestows such things as belong to eternal life and happiness; and from the signification of ”a thousand,“ as being very much, and when it is said of the Divine mercy, as being forever (n. 2575, 8715).

AC 8880. Of them that love Me.  That this signifies who receive the good of love, is evident from the signification of ”those who love Jehovah,“ that is, the Lord, as being to receive the good of love, for they who love the Lord do not love from themselves but from the Lord; for all good flows in from Him, and those love who desist from evil, because evil stands in the way and rejects the influx of good from the Lord.  Wherefore when evil has been removed, good is received, which is continually present from the Lord and endeavoring to enter.

AC 8881. And keep My commandments.  That this signifies who receive the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of ”commandments,“ as being the truths of faith (n. 3382, 8362). That ”to keep“ these denotes to receive, is because in order that the truths which are called the truths of faith may be of faith, and may be living with a man, these also flow in from the Lord.  They are indeed learned by the man, and stored up in the memory, but so long as the man does not will them, and consequently does not do them, they do not become living.  But when they are brought forth from the memory, and are insinuated through the intellectual into the will, that is, through the thought into the affection, and thence into act, they then become living, and are truths of faith.  This is effected by the Lord when the man desists from evils (n. 8880).

AC 8882. Thou shalt not take the name of Jehovah thy God in vain  .  That this signifies profanations and blasphemings of the truth and good of faith, is evident from the signification of ”the name of God,“ as being all in the complex by which the Lord is worshiped, thus all the truth and good of faith (n. 2724, 3006, 6674); and from the signification of ”taking in vain,“ as being to profane and blaspheme.  By ”taking the name of God in vain“ is properly signified to turn truth into evil, that is, to believe that it is truth, and nevertheless to live in evil; and it also denotes to turn good into falsity, that is, to live holily, and yet not to believe.  Both are profanation (n. 4601), for believing is of the understanding, and living is of the will; and therefore in those who believe otherwise than they live, the thought and will are divided.  But as the will continually flows into the understanding, for the understanding is the for”’ of the will; that is, the will manifests itself there in light; therefore it is that when a man believes in one way and lives in another, truth and evil, or good and falsity, are conjoined; thus the things that are of heaven with man are conjoined with those which are of hell.  This conjunction cannot be dissolved, and thereby the man be healed, except by a pulling asunder which carries away with it everything of spiritual life; and therefore these persons are sent into a hell the most grievous of all, where they are direfully tormented.

[2] This is what is meant by the words of the Lord in Matthew:--

All sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy of the spirit shall not be forgiven unto men. If anyone shall say a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but be who shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age, nor in that which is to come (Matt. 12:31, 32).

Also by these words in Luke:--

When the unclean spirit hath gone out of a man, he goeth through dry places, seeking rest; and finding none, he saith, I will return into my house whence I came out. And if on coming he findeth it swept and garnished, he goeth away and taketh seven other spirits worse than himself: and they enter in and dwell there; and the man‘s last things become worse than the first (Luke 11:24, 26).

[3] By these words is described the profanation of truth from the Lord; by “the unclean spirit when he goeth out” is meant the acknowledgment and faith of truth; by “the house swept” is meant a life contrary to truths; by “his return with seven other spirits” is meant a state of profanation.  These are the things which are signified by “taking the name of God in vain.” That such a state with man cannot be healed, thus cannot be forgiven, is signified also by the words which immediately follow, namely, “Jehovah will not hold him unless that taketh His name in vain,” by which is meant that it cannot be forgiven. For further information about the nature of profanation, and who are guilty of it, (n. 593, 1003, 1008, 1010, 1059, 1327, 1328, 2051, 2426, 3398, 3399, 3402, 3489, 6348, 6595, 6959, 6963, 6971, 8394).

[4] By “taking the name of God in vain” is also signified blasphemy, which takes place when those things which are of the Word, or of the doctrine of faith, thus which are holy, are held in derision, and are debased to unclean earthly things, and thus are defiled (n. 4050, 5390). But by “taking the name of God in vain,” relatively to the Israelitish nation, which did not acknowledge any good and truth of faith (which are signified by “the name of God”), is meant the applying of the name of Jehovah, and also of the commandments and statutes which were commanded them, to the worship of idols, as they did in the wilderness to the worship of the golden calf, unto which they not only offered burnt offerings and sacrifices, and ate of the things sanctified thereby, but also called the day of its celebration “a feast to Jehovah,” as we read in Moses:--

Aaron made of the gold a molten calf, and they said, These be thy gods, Israel, which brought thee up out of the land of Egypt. And when Aaron saw it, he built an altar before it, and made proclamation, and said, Tomorrow is a feast to Jehovah. And therefore they rose up in the morning of the next day, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought things eucharistic (Exod.  32:4-6).

[5] That those who thus took the name of Jehovah God in vain could not be forgiven, which is signified by their “not being held guiltless,” is evident from the words of Jehovah to Moses at that time concerning them, namely:--

Him that hath sinned against Me, I will blot out of My book.  Nevertheless go, lead this people in unto the place of which I have spoken unto thee; but in the day of My visitation I will visit their sin upon them (Exod. 32:33, 34).

AC 8883. For Jehovah will not hold him guiltless that taketh His name in vain.  That this signifies that these things cannot be forgiven, is evident from what has been unfolded just above (n. 8882).

AC 8884. Verses 8-11. Remember the sabbath day to keep it holy.  Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work. And the seventh day is the sabbath to Jehovah thy God; thou shaft not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is in thy gates.  For in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it.  “Remember,” signifies what is perpetual in the thought; “the sabbath day,” signifies in the supreme sense the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human of the Lord, in the internal sense the conjunction of the Divine Human with the heavens, thus heaven, and so the marriage of good and truth there; “to keep it holy,” signifies no violation in any manner; “Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work,” signifies the combat which precedes and prepares for this marriage; “and the seventh day is the sabbath to Jehovah thy God,” signifies good implanted and thus the marriage; “thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is in thy gates,” signifies that in this case heaven and blessedness are in each and all things in the internal and in the external of man; “for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea,” signifies the regeneration and vivification of those things which are in the internal and in the external man; “and all that is in them,” signifies of all things therein; “and rested in the seventh day,” signifies that then there are peace and the good of love; “wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath   day,” signifies that then is the heavenly marriage from the Lord; “and hallowed it,” signifies that it cannot in any wise be violated.

AC 8885. Remember.  That this signifies what is perpetual in the thought, is evident from the signification of “remembering,” when said of such a thing as must not in any wise be forgotten, as being what is perpetual in the thought.  That is perpetual in the thought which universally reigns there; and that universally reigns with man which is perpetually in his thought, even when he is meditating on other things, or is engaged in business affairs.  The thought of man involves many things together, for it is the form of many things which have entered successively.  Those things which come to manifest perception are at the time in the midst, and thus in the light of the internal sight, while all other things are then at the sides round about. Those which are in the circuits are in obscurity, and are not manifested except when such objects occur as they are associated with.  But the things which are still more remote, and are not on the same plane, but tend downward, are such as the man has rejected and holds in aversion.  Such things are evils and falsities with the good, and goods and truths with the evil.

[2] In the very thought of man are those things which are perpetually there, that is, which universally reign there, which are his inmost things. From these man regards those things which are not perpetually there (that is, those things which do not yet universally reign) as being outside of himself, and also as beneath himself, and as not yet being akin to him; from which he can then choose and adjoin to himself those things which agree with the inmost things, and from the adjunction and final consociation of which, the inmost things, that is, those which universally reign, are strengthened.  This is effected by means of new truths with the good, and by means of new falsities, or by wrong applications of truths, with the evil.

[3] Be it known further that that which universally reigns is that which has been insinuated into the will itself, for the will itself is the inmost of man, because it has been formed from his love. For whatever man loves, this he wills, and that which he loves above all things, this he inmostly wills. But the understanding serves to make manifest before others the things which the man wills, that is, which he loves; and serves also to bend the wills of others by ideas variously formed for accommodation thereto. When this is the case, love or affection flows from the will into the intellectual ideas also, and by a certain kind of inspiration vivifies and moves them.

[4] With the good these intellectual ideas make a one with the affections which are of the will; but it is otherwise with the evil, for with these the thought and the will do indeed inmostly agree, because the evil which the will wills, the understanding thinks, as falsity that is in agreement with this evil; but this agreement does not appear before men in the world, because from their infancy the evil learn to speak differently from what they think, and to act differently from what they will; in a word, they learn to separate their interior man from their exterior, and in this latter to form another will and also another thought besides that which is in their interior man, and thus by the exterior man to counterfeit good that is quite contrary to the interior man, which at the same instant wills evil and also imperceptibly thinks it, But in the other life the quality of the interior will and thought is manifest as in clear light, for in that life external things are removed, and internal things are laid bare.

AC 8886. The sabbath day.  That this signifies in the supreme sense the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human’ of the Lord, in the internal sense the conjunction of the Divine Human with the heavens, thus heaven, and so the marriage of good and truth there, is evident from what was shown before (n. 8495). As such things are signified by “the sabbath,” therefore in the representative church it was most holy, and was that which was to be perpetually in the thought, that is, which was to reign universally.  That this makes the life of man, (n. 8853-8858, 8885). The Israelitish nation did not indeed think about the union of the Divine and the Divine Human of the Lord, nor about His union with heaven, nor about the conjunction of good and truth in heaven, which things were signified by “the sabbath,” because they were altogether in externals without an internal.  But they were enjoined to hold the sabbath as most holy, in order that these Divine and heavenly things might be represented in heaven. How the case herein was with them, is plain from what was shown above concerning that nation and the representative of a church therewith (n. 3147, 3479, 3480, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4289, 4293, 4307, 4444, 4580, 4680, 4825, 4844, 4847, 4899, 4912, 6304, 6306, 7048, 7051, 8301).

AC 8887. To keep it holy.  That this signifies no violation in any manner, is evident from what was commanded concerning the sabbath, as before shown (n. 8495), and from what here follows concerning the sanctification of the sabbath, namely, “Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work; and the seventh day is the sabbath to Jehovah thy God; thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, and thy sojourner that is within thy gates; for in six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it” From these words it is evident that by “keeping the sabbath holy” is signified not to violate it in any manner; but in the internal sense that those things which are signified by “the sabbath” are not to be violated in any manner, namely, the union of the Divine essence of the Lord with His Human essence, also the union of this with the heavens, and the consequent conjunction in these of good and truth (n. 8886); for if these things are violated, spiritual life perishes with that man, and becomes life merely natural and afterward sensuous; and then falsity is readily learned in place of truth, and evil in place of good, for falsity and evil then universally reign with him.

AC 8888. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work.  That this signifies the combat which precedes and prepares for this marriage, is evident from the signification of “six days,” as being states of combat. That “six” denotes combat, (n. 720, 737, 900); and that “days” denote states, (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 2788, 4850, 5672, 5962, 6110, 8426); and from the signification of “laboring and doing one‘s work,” as being to do those things which are necessary to life, here those which are necessary to spiritual life, that is, to the life in heaven.

[2] Moreover by the combat which precedes, and prepares for the heavenly marriage, is meant spiritual combat or temptation; for before he enters into the heavenly marriage, that is, before he is regenerated, the man is in combat against the evils and falsities in himself, because these must be removed before the truth and good which are from the Lord can be received. These evils and falsities are removed by means of the truths of faith, for by means of these the man not only learns what good is, but is also led to good. This state is the first state of the man who is being regenerated, and is called the state which precedes, and prepares for the heavenly marriage. But when the man is in good and is led by the Lord through good, he is then in the heavenly marriage, thus in heaven, for the heavenly marriage is heaven.  The former state is what is signified by “the six days” which precede the seventh, and the latter state by “the seventh day” (concerning these two states with man, see (n. 7923, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 5516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701, 8722).

[3] As by “the sabbath” is signified the heavenly marriage, that is, heaven, therefore the kingdom of the Lord in the heavens is called a perpetual sabbath, thus a perpetual rest and peace, and there are no longer there six days of labor.

AC 8889. And the seventh day is the sabbath to Jehovah thy God. That this signifies good implanted and thus the marriage, is evident from the signification of “the sabbath,” as being the heavenly marriage (n. 8886), thus good implanted by means of truths, and afterward formed by them; for the good with man is not spiritual good until it has been formed by truths; and when it has been so formed, there is then the heavenly marriage; for this is the conjunction of good and truth, and is heaven itself with man. From this also it is that “the seventh day” signifies a holy state. That “day” denotes state, (n. 8888); and that “seven” denotes what is holy, (n. 395, 433, 716, 881, 5265).

AC 8890. Thou shalt not do any work, thou, and thy son, and thy daughter, thy manservant, and thy maidservant, and thy beast, and thy sojourner who is within thy gates.  That this signifies that in this case heaven and blessedness are in each and all things in the internal and in the external of man, is evident from the signification of “not doing any work,” as being rest and peace, thus heaven; for when man is in heaven, he is free from all solicitude, unrest, and anxiety, and when he is free from these he has blessedness; and from the signification of “thou, thy son, thy daughter, thy manservant, thy maidservant, thy beast, the sojourner within thy gates,” as being each and all things in the internal and in the external of man. For by “thou” is signified the man himself, by “son” is signified his intellectual, by “daughter” his will, both in the internal man; by “manservant” is signified the natural as to truth, and by “maidservant” the natural as to good, thus both that are in the external man; but by “beast” is signified affection in general, and by “the sojourner within the gates,” memory-knowledge in general; thus there are signified each and all things. That “son” denotes the intellectual, is because “son” denotes truth, for truths constitute the intellectual; and that “daughter” denotes the will, is because “daughter” denotes good, for goods constitute the will. “Son” denotes truth, thus the intellectual, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4227). “Daughter” denotes good, thus the will, (n. 489-491, 2362, 3024). “Manservant” denotes the natural as to truth, (n. 3019, 3020, 3409, 5305, 7998). “Maidservant” denotes the natural as to good, (n. 2567, 3835, 3849); “Beast” denotes affection in general, (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 2179, 2180, 3218, 5198, 7523, 7872); and “sojourner” denotes one who is being instructed in the truths of the church, (n. 1463, 4444, 8007, 8013). Consequently “the sojourner within the gates” denotes memory-knowledge in general, for memory-knowledge in general is at the gates, that is, at the entrance to the truths which are of the church.

AC 8891. For in six days Jehovah bade heaven and earth and the sea.  That this signifies the regeneration and vivification of those things which are in the internal and in the external man, is evident from the signification of “six days,” as being states of combat (n. 8888), and when predicated of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, they signify His labor with man before he is regenerated (n. 8510); and from the signification of “heaven and earth,” as being the church or kingdom of the Lord in man, “heaven” in the internal man, and “earth” in the external man (n. 82, 1411, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535), thus the regenerate man, that is, one who has found the new life and has thus been made alive; and from the signification of “the sea,” as being the sensuous of man adhering to the corporeal (n. 8872).

[2] In this verse the subject treated of is the hallowing of the seventh day, or the institution of the sabbath, and it is described by the words, “In six days Jehovah made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested in the seventh day; wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.” They who do not think beyond the sense of the letter cannot believe otherwise than that the creation which is described in the first and second chapters of Genesis, is the creation of the universe, and that there were six days within which were created the heaven, the earth, the sea and all things which are therein, and finally man in the likeness of God.  But who that takes into consideration the particulars of the description cannot see that the creation of the universe is not there meant; for such things are there described as may be known from common sense not to have been so; as that there were days before the sun and the moon, as well as light and darkness, and that herb age and trees sprang up; and yet that the light was furnished by these luminaries, and a distinction was made between the light and the darkness, and thus days were made.

[3] In what follows in the history there are also like things, which are hardly acknowledged to be possible by anyone who thinks interiorly, as that the woman was built from the rib of the man; also that two trees were set in paradise, of the fruit of one of which it was forbidden to eat; and that a serpent from one of them spoke with the wife of the man who had been the wisest of mortal creatures, and by his speech, which was from the mouth of the serpent, deceived them both; and that the whole human race, composed of so many millions was in consequence condemned to hell.  The moment that these and other such things in that history are thought of, they must needs appear paradoxical to those who entertain any doubt concerning the holiness of the Word, and must afterward lead them to deny the Divine therein.  Nevertheless be it known that each and all things in that history, down to the smallest iota, are Divine, and contain within them arcana which before the angels in the heavens are plain as in clear day.  The reason of this is that the angels do not see the sense of the Word according to the letter, but according to what is within, namely, what is spiritual and celestial, and within these, things Divine.  When the first chapter of Genesis is read, the angels do not perceive any other creation than the new creation of man, which is called regeneration. This regeneration is described in that history; by paradise the wisdom of the man who has been created anew; by the two trees in the midst thereof, the two faculties of that man, namely, the will of good by the tree of life, and the understanding of truth by the tree of knowledge.  And that it was forbidden to eat of this latter tree, was because the man who is regenerated, or created anew, must no longer be led by the understanding of truth, but by the will of good, and if otherwise, the new life within him perishes (n. 202, 337, 2454, 2715, 3246, 3652, 4448, 5595, 5897, 7877, 7923, 7992, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8690, 8701, 8722).  Consequently by Adam, or man, and by Eve his wife, was there meant a new church, and by the eating of the tree of knowledge, the fall of that church from good to truth, consequently from love to the Lord and toward the neighbor to faith without these loves, and this by reasoning from their own intellectual, which reasoning is the serpent (n. 195-197, 6398, 6399, 6949, 7293).

[4] From all this it is evident that the historic narrative of the creation and the first man, and of paradise, is a history so framed as to contain within it heavenly and Divine things, and this according to the received method in the Ancient Churches.  This method of writing extended thence also to many who were outside of that Church, who in like manner devised histories and wrapped up arcana within them, as is plain from the writers of the most ancient times. For in the Ancient Churches it was known what such things as are in the world signified in heaven, nor to those people were events of so much importance as to be described; but the things which were of heaven.  These latter things occupied their minds, for the reason that they thought more interiorly than men at this day, and thus had communication with angels, and therefore it was delightful to them to connect such things together.  But they were led by the Lord to those things which should be held sacred in the churches, consequently such things were composed as were in full correspondence.

[5] From all this it can be seen what is meant by “heaven and earth” in the first verse of the first chapter of Genesis, namely, the church internal and external.  That these are signified by “heaven and earth” is evident also from passages in the prophets, where mention is made of “a new heaven and a new earth,” by which a new church is meant (n. 82, 1411, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535).  From all this it is now plain that by, “In six days Jehovah made heaven and earth and the sea,” is signified the regeneration and vivification of those things which are in the internal and in the external man.

AC 8892. And all that is in them.  That this signifies the vivification of all things therein, is evident without explication.

AC 8893. And rested in the seventh day.  That this signifies that then are peace and the good of love, is evident from the signification of “resting,” as being peace; and from the signification of “the seventh day,” as being a state of heavenly love (n. 84-87), and therefore what is holy (n. 395, 433, 716, 5265, 5268). That by “rest in the seventh day” is signified peace and the good of love, is because before a man is regenerated, or created anew, he is in an untranquil and restless state, for his natural life then fights with his spiritual life, and wishes to rule over it. Consequently at this time the Lord has labor, for He fights for man against the hells which assault.  But as soon as the good of love has been implanted, the combat ceases, and rest ensues, for the man is then introduced into heaven, and is led by the Lord according to the laws of order there, thus in peace. These things are signified by “the rest of Jehovah in the seventh day.”

AC 8894. Wherefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath   day.  That this signifies that then is the heavenly marriage from the Lord, is evident from the signification of being “blessed,” as being to be disposed into heavenly order, and to be gifted with the good of love (n. 3017, 3406, 4981, 8674); and from the signification of “the sabbath   day,” as being a state of heavenly love (n. 84-87), thus the heavenly marriage; for the heavenly marriage is the conjunction of good and truth, and this is heaven in man.  “The sabbath” denotes this marriage, (n. 8495, 8510).

AC 8895. And hallowed it.  That this signifies that it cannot in any wise be violated, is evident from the signification of “to be hallowed,” when the heavenly marriage in the regenerate man is treated of, as being to be inviolate (n. 8887); for the holy of the Lord with man is inviolable, thus the man who receives the holy of the Lord, that is, who is in the good of love, consequently who is in heaven.

AC 8896. Verse 12. Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.  “Honor thy father and thy mother,” signifies love for good and truth, in the supreme sense for the Lord and for His kingdom; “that thy days may be prolonged upon the land,” signifies the consequent state of life in heaven; “which Jehovah thy God giveth thee,” signifies where the Divine is and the consequent influx.

AC 8897. Honor thy father and thy mother.  That this signifies love for good and truth, in the supreme sense for the Lord and for His kingdom, is evident from the signification of “honoring,” as being to love, for in the spiritual sense “to honor” denotes to love, for the reason that in heaven one loves another, and when he loves be also honors, for in honor there is love. Honor without love is refused in heaven, nay, is rejected, because it is devoid of life from good. From the signification of “father,” as being good (n. 3703, 5581, 5902, 6050, 7833, 7834), and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine good (n. 15, 1729, 2005, 2803, 3704, 7499, 8328); that the Lord in the supreme sense is the “father,” is because He gives new life to man, and thereby man becomes a son and heir of His kingdom; and from the signification of “mother,” as being truth (n. 3703, 5581), and in the supreme sense the Lord as to Divine truth, thus His kingdom, because the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord makes heaven. That the Divine truth of the Lord makes heaven, is because the Lord as to Divine good is in the other life the Sun, and as to the Divine truth is the light. This Divine light from the Lord as the Sun is what illumines angelic minds, and fills them with intelligence and wisdom, and makes them to be angels of light. Divine good is within Divine truth, as heat from the sun is within the light in the time of spring and summer in the world.

AC 8898. That thy days may be prolonged upon the land.  That this signifies the consequent state of life in heaven, is evident from the signification of “to be prolonged,” as being predicated of good and its increase; from the signification of “thy days,” as being states of life (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 5672, 5962, 6110, 7680, 8426); and from the signification of “land,” here the land of Canaan (because it is said to the sons of Israel “which Jehovah thy God giveth thee”), as being the kingdom of the Lord (n. 1413, 1437, 1607, 1866, 3038, 3481, 3686, 3705, 4240, 4447). The reason why “to be prolonged” is predicated of good and its increase, is that length of days is duration of the time of life; and in heaven there is neither time nor space, but instead thereof state. Therefore as “to be prolonged” is predicated of state as to good, it denotes its increase. That “length” is predicted of good, and “breadth” of truth, (n. 1613, 4482); and that in heaven there are no spaces, neither are there times, but instead thereof states, (n. 1274, 1382, 2625, 2755, 2837, 3254, 3356, 3404, 3935, 4321, 4814, 4882, 4901, 4916, 5605, 6110, 7218, 7381).

AC 8899. Which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.  That this signifies where the Divine is and the consequent influx, is evident from the fact that these words are spoken of heaven, which is here signified by “the land” (n. 8898); consequently “Jehovah God” denotes the Divine therein, and “to give” denotes influx; for heaven in general with all, and in particular with each one, is the reception of influx from the Divine. That such things are signified by the commandment about honoring parents, may seem strange, because they are remote from the sense of the letter.  But be it known that the commandments of the decalogue are rules of life both for those who are in the world and for those who are in heaven - the sense of the letter or the external sense being for those who are in the world, and the spiritual or internal sense for those who are in heaven - and consequently both senses, external as well as internal, are for those who while they are in the world are also in heaven, that is, for those who are in the good of life according to the truths of doctrine. That the commandments of the decalogue are also for those who are in heaven, is plain from the internal sense of all things in the Word, and clearly from the fact that the things which Jehovah God (that is, the Lord) Himself speaks, are not only for men, or for the world; but are also for angels, nay, for the whole heaven, because the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord flows through heaven and passes through down unto man.  This is the case with these ten commandments, which the Lord Himself spake from Mount Sinai.

[2] Inasmuch as these commandments were spoken not only for those who are in the world, but also for those who are in heaven, therefore they could not be perceived in the same way by both - as for instance this commandment, that they should honor father and mother in order that their days might be prolonged upon the land which Jehovah God would give them; for in heaven parents and children do not come together the same as on earth; and therefore for “father” there they have the Lord, and for “mother” His kingdom. Nor can it be said of those in heaven that their days would be prolonged, because they live there to eternity; nor can “land” be understood there as in this commandment to mean the land of Canaan, but instead the heavenly Canaan or heaven. As by “father and mother” are meant the Lord and His kingdom, therefore this commandment is the fourth in order, and surpasses in holiness those which follow. The commandment concerning the worship of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, is first and second, because the most holy one.  Next comes the commandment concerning the Sabbath, because by this in the supreme sense is signified the union of the Divine Itself and the Divine Human in the Lord. After this follows the commandment concerning honoring parents, because by this is signified the love of the Lord and the consequent love of good and truth which are from the Lord.  As these things are signified by this commandment, therefore contempt for parents is enumerated among the crimes which are signified by “shedding blood” (Ezek.  22:6, 7) and for this reason disobedient and rebellious sons were stoned (Deut. 21:18-21).

AC 8900. That by “father” is meant the Lord, and by “mother” His kingdom, has been shown just above (n. 8897).  But lest perchance the mind be in doubt whether by “mother” in the internal sense is meant the kingdom of the Lord, that is, heaven, I may add the following to what was said above.  In the Word by “mother” is meant the church (n. 289, 4257, 5581), which also on this account is at one time called “the bride,” and at another “the wife,” of the Lord; and as the kingdom of the Lord is the same as the church, with only this difference, that the kingdom of the Lord on the earth is called “the church,” therefore this also is signified by “mother.” For this reason the sons born of this mother are truths, and are called “the sons of the kingdom” (Matt. 13:38); (n. 3373). Moreover to all those who are therein the Lord’s kingdom is their country, and one‘s country is “mother” in a natural sense, as the church is “mother” in the spiritual sense.

AC 8901. Verse 13. Thou shalt not kill, signifies not to take away spiritual life from anyone, also not to extinguish faith and charity, as also not to hold the neighbor in hatred.

AC 8902. Thou shalt not kill.  That this signifies not to take away spiritual life from anyone, also not to extinguish faith and charity, as also not to hold the neighbor in hatred, is evident from the signification of “killing,” as being to deprive of spiritual life. That “killing” means this in the internal sense, is because in this sense spiritual life, or the life of heaven with man, is treated of; and spiritual life, or the life of heaven with man, is the life of faith and of charity; therefore by “not to kill” is signified also not to extinguish faith and charity in anyone. The reason why “not to kill” is also in the internal sense not to hold the neighbor in hatred, is that he who holds in hatred continually wishes to kill, and also would kill in act unless prevented by the fear of the penalty, of the loss of life, of reputation, and the like. For hatred is of evil, is contrary to charity, and breathes nothing but the murder of him whom it hates: in the world the murder of his body; in the other life the murder of his soul. This is meant by the words of the Lord in Matthew:--

Ye have heard that it was said to them of old time, Thou shalt not kill; and whosoever shall kill shall be in danger of the judgement; but I say unto you, that whosoever is angry with his brother rashly shall be in danger of the judgment; and whosoever shall say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council; and whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of the Gehenna of fire (Matthew 5:21, 22);

hatred against the neighbor is meant by being “angry with the brother rashly,” and the degrees of its increase are described by saying to him “Raca,” and by calling him “a fool”. Anger is a turning away from charity, and is from evil, thus it is hatred, (n. 357, 4164, 5034, 5798, 5887, 5888).

[2] That in the internal sense “to kill” denotes to take away spiritual life from anyone, consequently to extinguish faith and charity, is evident from almost all the passages in the Word where a “ killing,” or “to kill,” is mentioned, as in Isaiah:--

Behold the day of Jehovah cometh, cruel, and of indication, and of wrath, and of anger; to make the land a waste, and He shall destroy the sinners thereof out of it. Then the stars of the heavens and the constellations thereof shall not shine with their light, the sun shall be darkened in his rising, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine. I will visit the wickedness upon the world, and their iniquity upon the wicked. I will make a man more rare than pure gold, and the son of man than the gold of Ophir. Everyone that is found shall be thrust through, and everyone that is gathered shall fall by the sword.  Their infants shall be dashed in pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished. Their bows shall dash the young men in pieces, their eye shall not spare sons (Isa. 13:9-12, 15, 16, 18);

the subject treated of in this passage is the last time of the church, when there is no longer any faith and charity, which time is “the day of Jehovah cruel, full of indignation, of wrath, and of anger.” Everyone can see that something else is here meant than that which the words nakedly declare; but what is meant cannot be known except from the significations of the words in their spiritual sense.  In this sense “the land” denotes the church (n. 566, 662, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 8732); therefore “to make the land a waste, and to destroy the sinners out of it” signifies that the man of the church is then without faith and charity.

[3] “Stars” and “constellations” denote the knowledges of truth and good (n. 2120, 2495, 2849, 4697), and these are said “not to shine with their light,” when they are no longer illuminated by the light of heaven which flows in through the faith of charity.  That “the sun” denotes love to the Lord, and “the moon” faith in Him, see (n. 2120, 2441, 2494, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696, 5097, 5377, 7078, 7083, 7171, 7173, 8644, 8812); therefore “the sun being darkened in his rising,” signifies that love to the Lord cannot arise with man; and “the moon not causing her light to shine,” signifies that neither can charity and faith arise, thus that man cannot any longer be regenerated.

[4] “To make a man more rare than pure gold, and the son of man than the gold of Ophir,” signifies that good is no longer seen, nor truth; for by “man” is signified the good of the church (n. 4287, 8547), and by “the son of man” truth from good, in the supreme sense the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord (n. 1729, 1733, 2813, 3704). That “everyone found shall be thrust through” signifies that all will perish by reason of the evil of falsity; and that “everyone that is gathered shall fall by the sword” signifies that they will perish by reason of falsity. “To be thrust through” denotes to perish by reason of the evil of falsity, (n. 4503); “To fall by the sword” denotes to perish by reason of falsity, (n. 2799, 4499, 7102, 8294).

[5] The “infants being dashed in pieces” signifies that they will utterly extinguish innocence, for “infants” denote innocence (n. 430, 2126, 3183, 3494, 5608). The “wives being ravished” signifies that the goods of truth will be perverted by the evils of falsity, for “wives” denote the goods of truth (n. 2517, 4510, 4823, 7022), and “to be ravished” denotes to be perverted (n. 2466, 4865).  That “their bows shall dash the young men in pieces” signifies that the truths of good will perish through the doctrines of falsity from evil; for a “bow” denotes the doctrine of truth, and in the opposite sense the doctrine of falsity (n. 2686, 6422, 8800); “young men” denote truths confirmed (n. 7668). “And their eye shall not spare sons” signifies that he who understands truths will nevertheless extinguish them, for “sons” denote truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2803, 2813, 3373, 4257, 5542); and “the eye” denotes the understanding of truth (n. 2701, 4403, 4421, 4523, 4534).  From all this it is now clear what is meant by the above prophetic words, namely, that when the church arrives at its end, all truth and all good will perish.  It is also evident from what has been said, that “to be thrust through,” “to be dashed in pieces,” in a word “to be killed,” denotes the extinction of faith and charity.

[6] In Jeremiah:--

Drag them away like a sheep for the slaughter, and destine them for the day of killing. How long shall the land mourn, and the herb of every field wither? For the wickedness of them that dwell therein, the beasts shall be consumed and the bird (Jer.  12:3, 4);

“the day of killing” here denotes the time of the vastated church, which is its last time, when there is no longer faith because there is no charity; “the land shall mourn” denotes the church; “the herb of every field shall wither” denotes that every truth of the church will do so; “ the beasts and the bird shall be consumed” denotes that goods and truths will be so. “The land” denotes the church, (n. 8902). “The herb of the field” denotes the truth of the church, (n. 7571); “The field” denotes the church, (n. 2971, 3310, 3766). “Beasts” denote goods and the affections of good, (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 719, 1823, 2179, 2180, 3218, 3519, 5198). “Birds” denote truths and the affections of truth, (n. 5149, 7441). From all this it can be seen what is the internal sense of these words, and also that what is spiritual and holy of the church and of heaven is in all the particulars; and that without the internal sense it would not in any wise he understood what is meant by “the day of killing,” by that “the earth shall mourn,” that “every herb of the field shall wither,” and that “the beasts and the bird shall then be consumed.”

[7] In Zechariah:--

Thus said Jehovah thy God, Feed the sheep of the killing, whose possessors kill them, and do not own themselves guilty (Zech. 11:4, 5);

where “the sheep of the killing’ denote those who are in simple good, in whom the truths of faith are extinguished, not by their own fault, but by the fault of those who teach.

[8] In Isaiah:--

In those that are to come shall Jacob take root; Israel shall blossom and flower; so that the faces of the world shall be filled with produce. Hath he smitten him according to the stroke of him that smote? is he killed according to the slaughter of his killed? (Isa. 27:6, 7).

Behold, Jehovah cometh forth out of His place to visit the iniquity of the land; then shall the land uncover its bloods, and shall not hide its killed (Isa. 26:21).

Here also in the internal sense the subject treated of is the last time of the church, when a new church shall be resuscitated, the old perishing.  ”Jacob“ denotes those who are in the external of the church; ”Israel“ those who are in the internal; ”the faces of the world“ denote the church in general; ”the land“ denotes the old church; ”the killed“ those in whom there is no faith because no charity.

[9] In the same:--

Thou art cast forth out of thy sepulchre like an abominable shoot, a vestment of the killed, that through with the sword.  Thou shalt not be united with them in the grave, because thou hast destroyed thy land, thou hast killed thy people (Isa. 14:19, 20);

”the killed“ denote those who have been deprived of spiritual life; ”thou hast killed thy people“ denotes the destruction of the truths and goods of faith.  Babel is here treated of, by which is signified the profanation of good (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326), and also its vastation (n. 1327).

[10] In Jeremiah:--

I have heard the voice of the daughter of Zion, she sigheth, she spreadeth out her hands, saying, Woe is me now, for my soul is wearied because of killers. Run ye to and fro through the streets of Jerusalem, and see I pray, and know, and seek in the avenues thereof, if ye can find a man, if there be any that doeth judgment, that seeketh truth (Jer. 4:31; 5:1);

”the daughter of Zion“ denotes the celestial church; ”killers,“ those who destroy goods and truths; ”a man who doeth judgment,“ denotes those who are in truths from good.

[11] In Ezekiel:--

Ye have profaned Me among My people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, to kill the souls that should not die, and to keep the souls alive that should not live (Ezek. 13:19);

”to kill souls“ here plainly denotes to take away spiritual life.  As ”killing“ had also this signification, therefore it was one of the curses upon Mount Ebal, ”to slay one‘s companion in secret, and to take a gift to kill the soul innocent of blood“ (Deut. 27:24, 25).

[12] Again:--

In the consummation of the age they shall deliver you into tribulation, and shall kill you; and ye shall be hated of all the nations for My name’s sake (Matt. 24:9).

Jesus said to His disciples, The hour cometh, that whosoever killeth you shall think that he offereth holy worship to God; and these things will they do, because they know not the Father, nor Me (John 16:2, 3).

In these passages also by ”killing“ is signified to deprive of spiritual life, that is, of faith and charity; for by ”the disciples“ are signified all things of the truth and good of faith and charity (n. 3488, 3858, 6397).  That the disciples to whom the Lord spake are not here meant, is evident from the fact that the subject treated of is the consummation of the age, when the Lord is to come in the clouds of heaven, concerning which the disciples had asked, and by which is meant the last time of the church, when the disciples would not be alive (n. 3488).

[13] In like manner in Mark:--

Brother shall deliver up brother to death, and the father his children; children shall rise up against parents, and shall kill them (Mark 13:12);

here also the last times are treated of, and by ”killing“ here also is signified to deprive of the truths and goods which are of faith and charity, thus of spiritual life.

[14] In Luke:--

I will send unto them prophets and apostles; but some of them they shall kill and persecute; from the blood of Abel unto the blood of Zechariah the prophet it shall be required of this generation (Luke 11:49, 51);

”prophets and apostles“ denote in the spiritual sense the truths and goods of the church; ”to kill“ denotes to extinguish them; ”the blood of Abel“ denotes the extinction of charity. ”Prophets“ denote the truths of doctrine from the Word, (n. 2534, 7269); and ”the blood of Abel“ denotes the extinction of charity, (n. 374).

[15] In like manner in John:--

The blood of saints, and of prophets, and of the killed, was found in Babylon (Rev. 18:24);

where also ”the blood of saints and of prophets“ denotes the extinction of the good and truth of faith and charity, and ”the killed“ denote those who have perished as to spiritual life.  ”Blood“ denotes violence done to charity, as well as all evil in general, (n. 374, 1005); as also, specifically, the profanation of truth, (n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326).

[16] As by one ”killed,“ or ”thrust through,“ is signified the extinction of good and truth, and as all things which were instituted in the Jewish Church were representative of the spiritual and celestial things in the Lord‘s kingdom, and in the supreme sense, of the Divine things in the Lord, therefore when one was found lying in the field thrust through, the following procedure of expiation for the people was commanded, namely:--

They were to measure toward the cities from him that was lying in the field thrust through, and the elders of the nearest city were to take a she-calf of an ox, by which no labor had yet been done, and upon which there had not yet been a yoke, and were to bring her down to a rapid stream, and the priests, the sons of Levi, were to behead her there, and then the elders of the city were to wash their hands over the calf, and were to say that their hands had not shed that blood, neither had their eyes seen it, and that thus the blood would be expiated (Deut. 21:1-8).

Who would ever know why such a procedure was instituted on account of one lying in the field thrust through, unless it were known from the internal sense what is signified by ”one in a field thrust through,“ by ”the nearest city,“ by ”a calf,“ by ”a rapid stream,“ by ”the washing of hands,“ and by the other things there mentioned? By ”one in the field thrust through“ is signified truth and good extinguished (n. 4503); by ”field,“ the church (n. 2971, 3310, 3766); by ”city,“ the doctrine of truth (n. 402, 2449, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493); by ”the elders of the city,“ truths agreeing with good (n. 6524, 6525, 8578, 8585); by ”a calf upon which there had not yet been a yoke,“ truth not as yet confirmed (what ”a calf“ signifies, see (n. 1824, 1825); by ”washing the hands over the calf at a rapid stream“ is signified purification from that evil, because done from the immoderate zeal of one ignorant of what truth is.

[17] From the above, as from the other passages, it can be seen what and how great arcana are contained in the particulars of the Word, which will not appear even as arcana if it is believed that the sense of the letter is the whole of the Word; and thus it will not be believed that anything more holy and heavenly lies inwardly hidden therein; when yet the sense of the letter is for man in the world, that is, for the natural man; while the internal sense is for man in heaven, that is, for the spiritual man. Hence it is plain what is involved in the commandment ”not to kill,“ namely, that not only is man not to be killed as to the body, but also that he is not to be killed as to the soul; thus that he is not only not to be deprived of life in the world, but especially that he is not to be deprived of life in heaven. If this commandment had not involved within it at the same time this meaning, it would not have been pronounced by Jehovah Himself, that is, the Lord, in a living voice upon Mount Sinai with so great a miracle; for all peoples and nations know without immediate revelation, and moreover their laws decree, that man is not to be killed, as also that adultery, theft, and false witness are not to be committed. Neither is it to be believed that the Israelitish nation was so stupid as alone to be ignorant of what all other nations on the globe know. But the revealed Word, being from the Divine Itself, over and above this stores up in its bosom higher and more universal things, namely, such things as are of heaven, thus which not only concern the life of the body, but which also concern the life of the soul, or eternal life. Herein the Word differs from, is separated from, and is pre-eminent over, all other writing.

AC 8903. Verse 13. Thou shalt not commit adultery, signifies that those things which are of the doctrine of faith and of charity are not to be perverted; thus that the Word is not to be applied to confirm evils and falsities; also that the laws of order are not to be upset.

AC 8904. Thou shalt not commit adultery.  That this signifies that those things which are of the doctrine of faith and of charity are not to be perverted, thus that the Word is not to be applied to confirm falsities and evils, also that the laws of order are not he upset, is evident from the signification of ”committing adultery,“ ”debauching,“ and ”whoredom,“ as being in the spiritual or internal sense, to pervert the goods, and falsify the truths, which are of the doctrine of faith and of charity. And as these things are signified by ”committing adultery,“ there is also signified to apply the Word to confirm evils and falsities; for the Word is the very doctrine itself of faith and charity, and the perversion of the truth and good of the Word is its application to falsities and evils. That these things are signified by ”committing adultery“ and ”debauching“ in the spiritual sense, is known to scarcely anyone at this day, for the reason that within the church few now know what the spiritual is, and in what respect it differs from the natural.  And scarcely anyone knows that there is a correspondence between the two, and indeed of such a nature that the image of the one is presented in the other, that is, the spiritual is represented in the natural, consequently that the spiritual is like a soul, and the natural is like its body; and thus that through influx and the consequent conjunction they constitute a one; as in the regenerate man do his internal man which is also called spiritual, and his external man which is also called natural.

[2] Such things being at this day unknown, it therefore cannot be known what is signified by ”committing adultery,“ further than being unlawfully conjoined as to the body. These things, as has been said, being at this day unknown, the reason may be told why ”committing adultery“ in the spiritual sense signifies to pervert those things which are of the doctrine of faith and charity, thus to adulterate goods and falsify truths. The reason, which at this day is a secret one, is that conjugial love descends from the marriage of good and truth, which is called ”the heavenly marriage.“ The love which flows in from the Lord and which exists between good and truth in heaven, is turned into conjugial love on the earth, and this by correspondence. Hence it is that the falsification of truth is ”whoredom,“ and the perversion of good is ”adulteration,“ in the internal sense. Hence also it is that they who are not in the good and truth of faith cannot be in genuine conjugial love; and also that those who find the delight of life in adulteries can no longer receive anything of faith.  I have heard it said by the angels that as soon as anyone commits adultery on the earth and takes delight in it, heaven is closed to him, that is, he refuses any longer to receive from heaven anything of faith and charity.  That at this day in the kingdoms where the church is, adulteries are made light of by very many persons, is because the church is at its end, and thus there is no longer any faith, because there is no charity; for the one corresponds to the other.  Where there is no faith, falsity is in the place of truth, and evil is in the place of good, and from this there flows the result that adulteries are no longer accounted as criminal; for when heaven is closed with a man, such things flow in from hell. See what has been said and shown before on this subject, (n. 2727-2759, 4434, 4835, 4837).

[3] That ”to debauch,“ and ” to commit adultery,“ in the internal or spiritual sense denote to falsify and to pervert the truths and goods of faith and charity, consequently also to confirm falsity and evil by wrong applications from the Word, can be seen from the several passages in the Word where mention is made of ”committing adultery,“ of ”debauching,“ and of ”committing whoredom;“ as will plainly appear from the following passages; as in Ezekiel:--

Son of man, cause Jerusalem to know her abominations. Thou didst commit whoredom because of thy name, and didst pour out thy whoredoms on everyone that passed by. Thou didst take of thy garments, and didst make for thee high places of various colors, and didst commit whoredom upon them. Thou didst take the vessels of thine adornment of My gold and of My silver, which I had given thee, and madest for thee images of a male; thou didst commit whoredom with them. Thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto Me, and these hast thou sacrificed. Was there little of thy whoredoms? Thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt, thy neighbors, great of flesh; and hast multiplied thy whoredom to provoke Me. And thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Asshur, when thou wast insatiable; yea, thou hast committed whoredom with them, and yet thou wast not sated. And thou hast multiplied thy whoredom, even unto the land of traffic, unto Chaldea; and yet in this thou wast not sated. A woman, an adulteress under her man, taketh strangers. They give hire to all harlots; but thou hast given hirings to all thy lovers, and hast recompensed them, that they may come unto thee from every side for thy whoredoms.  Wherefore, O harlot, hear the word of Jehovah. I will judge thee with the judgments of adulteresses, and of the shedders of blood (Ezek. 16:2-38);

[4] who cannot see that by ”whoredoms“ here are signified falsifications of truth and adulterations of good?  And who can understand a syllable of the passage unless he knows that ”whoredom“ has such a signification; also unless he knows what is meant by ”the sons of Egypt,“ by ”the sons of Asshur,“ and by ”Chaldea,“ with whom Jerusalem is said to have ”committed whoredom?“ That she did not do this with those peoples themselves is manifest.  It must therefore be told what these things signify in the internal sense.  By ”Jerusalem“ is meant the church perverted; her ”garments“ here denote truths which are perverted; consequently the falsities which are acknowledged are ”the high places of various colors;“ ”the sons of Egypt“ denote memory-knowledges; ”the sons of Asshur,“ reasonings; ”Chaldea,“ the profanation of truth (that ”garments“ denote truths, (n. 1073, 2576, 4545, 4763, 5248, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6918); that ”high places“ denote worship, and ”the high places of various colors,“ here, the worship of falsity, (n. 796); ”vessels of adornment of gold and of silver“ denote the knowledges of good and truth (that ”vessels“ denote knowledges, (n. 3068, 3079); that ”gold“ denotes good, (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917); and ”silver,“ the truth of good, (n. 1551, 2048, 2954, 5658); ”images of a male“ signify appearances and likenesses of truth (n. 2046); ”the sons and daughters whom they bare“ denote the truths and goods which they have perverted.  (That ”sons“ denote truths, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373); and that ”daughters“ denote goods, (n. 489, 2362, 3024); that ”the sons of Egypt“ denote the memory-knowledges through which is perversion, (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 4749, 4964, 4966, 5700, 5702, 6004, 6015, 6125, 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692, 6750, 7296, 7779, 7926); that ”Asshur“ denotes the reasoning through which by means of memory-knowledges the truths of faith are perverted, and the goods thereof adulterated, (n. 119, 1186); and that ”multiplying whoredom even unto the land of Chaldea“ denotes even to the profanation of truth; also that ”Chaldea“ denotes the profanation of truth, (n. 1368); from this it is plain why she is called ”a woman an adulteress,“ and also ”a harlot.“

[5] In like manner we read of Babylon in the Apocalypse:--

There came one of the seven angels that had the seven vials, and spake with me, saying to me, Come, I will show thee the judgment of the great harlot that sitteth upon many waters; with whom the kings of the earth have committed whoredom, and the inhabitants of the earth were made drunken with the wine of her whoredom. It was Babylon the great, the mother of the harlots and of the abominations of the earth (Rev. 17:1, 2, 5; 14:8; 18:3).

That ”Babylon“ denotes those who pervert the truths and goods of the church for the sake of self-dominion and of self-gain, and this even to profanation, is evident from the signification of ”Babel“ (n. 1182, 1283, 1295, 1304, 1306-1308, 1321, 1322, 1326, 1327).  Hence it is that Babylon is called ”a harlot“ and ”the mother of harlots.“ They who know nothing of the internal sense will believe that the kings of the earth who committed whoredom with her signified kings upon the earth, or kingdoms.  Yet they do not signify kings, or kingdoms, but the truths of faith of the church, to ”commit whoredom“ with which denotes to pervert them.  That ”kings“ denote the truths of faith, (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148); and that ”the earth“ denotes the church, (n. 566, 662, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 8732). ”The inhabitants of the earth made drunk with the wine of whoredom“ denotes that they who were within the church were brought into errors and ravings through the falsities of evil; for to be ”made drunken“ denotes to be led into errors through false reasonings and wrong interpretations of the Word (n. 1072). ”Wine“ denotes falsity from evil (n. 6377); consequently ”the wine of whoredom“ denotes falsity from the perversion of truth.  That ”earth“ denotes the church has just been shown; she is said to ”sit upon many waters,“ because upon falsities, for in the genuine sense ”waters“ denote truths, and in the opposite sense, falsities (n. 729, 790, 8137, 8138, 8568).

[6] That ”to commit adultery and whoredom“ denotes to pervert the goods and the truths of the church, is plainly evident also from another passage in Ezekiel:--

Two women, the daughters of one mother, committed whoredom in Egypt; they committed whoredom in their youth.  Ohola is Samaria, and Oholibah is Jerusalem. Oholah committed whoredom under Me; and she doted on her lovers, on the Assyrians her neighbors, clothed in blue, governors and leaders, all of them desirable young men, horsemen riding on horses. She bestowed her whoredoms upon them, the choice of all the sons of Asshur. Yet she forsook not her whoredoms from Egypt; for they lay with her in her youth.  Oholibah was more corrupt in her love than she, and in her whoredoms above the whoredoms of her sister. She doted on the sons of Asshur.  She added to her whoredoms, when she saw men portrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion, and she loved them at the look of her eyes. The sons of Babel also came to her unto the copulation of loves; they defiled her with their whoredom. Yet she multiplied her whoredoms, while she remembered the days of her youth, wherein she had committed whoredom in the land of Egypt.  She doted on them more than their courtezans (Ezek. 23:2-20).

In this passage also no one can fail to see that by ”whoredoms“ are meant spiritual whoredoms, that is, perversions of the good, and falsifications of the truth, which are of the church; also that the things here contained in the internal sense are not manifest unless it is known what is signified by ”the sons of Egypt,“ by ”the Assyrians“ or ”the sons of Asshur,“ by ”Chaldea,“ and by ”Babel;“ for it is clear that these nations are not meant, but such things as are of falsity; because the inhabitants of Samaria and Jerusalem did not commit whoredom with them.  But what is signified by ”Egypt,“ ”Asshur,“ ”Chaldea,“ and ”Babylon“ can be seen shown just above.

[7] From the following passages also it is evident that ”whoredoms“ and ”adulteries“ in the internal sense denote falsifications and perversions of good and truth, thus adulterations of these; as in Hosea:--

Strive ye with your mother, strive ye, because she is not My wife, and I am not her husband; that she may remove her whoredoms from her faces, and her adulteries from between her breasts. I will not have mercy on her sons; because they are sons of whoredoms.  For their mother hath committed whoredom, saying, I will go after my lovers, that give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, mine oil and my drinks. But I will lay waste her vine and her fig-tree, whereof she hath said, These are my harlot-hire that my lovers have given me (Hosea 2:2, 4, 5, 12);

by ”mother“ in the internal sense is here meant the church (n. 289, 2691, 2717, 4257, 5581, 8897); in like manner by ”wife“ (n. 252, 253, 409, 749, 770), who is said ”not to be a wife,“ because in truths perverted, that is, in falsities; by ”sons“ are meant the truths of the church, here falsities, because they are called ”sons of whoredoms“ (n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257).  What is meant by ”bread,“ what by ”water,“ what by ”wool and flax,“ also by ”oil and drink,“ and likewise by ”vine and fig-tree,“ has been shown in their places; namely, that they are the goods of love and of charity, also the goods and truths of faith interior and exterior; but in the opposite sense evils and falsities; for goods become evils, and truths become falsities, when they are perverted. What is meant by ”bread,“ (n. 276, 680, 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4217, 4735, 4976, 5915, 6118, 6409); also what by ”waters,“ (n. 739, 790, 8137, 8138, 8568); what by ”flax,“ (n. 7601); and what by ”oil,“ (n. 886, 3728, 4582); what by ”drink,“ (n. 3069, 3168, 3772, 8562); what by ”vine,“ (n. 1069, 5113, 6376); and what by ”fig-tree,“ (n. 4231, 5113). ”Harlot-hire“ denotes the falsity of doctrine which they vaunt as truth.

[8] In the same:--

My people asketh wood, and their staff answereth to it, because the spirit of whoredom hath led them astray, and they have committed whoredom from under their god. They sacrifice upon the tops of the mountains, and burn incense upon the hills, therefore your daughters commit whoredom, and your daughters-in-law commit adultery. If thou, Israel, committest whoredom, let not Judah become guilty. Shall I not visit upon your daughters, because they commit whoredom, and upon your daughters-in-law, because they commit adultery? for they divide with whores, and they sacrifice with prostitutes (Hosea 4:12-15);

”to commit whoredom from under their god“ denotes to pervert truth, for by ”god“ in the internal sense is signified truth, and in the opposite sense, falsity (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 4295, 4402, 4544, 7010, 7268, 7873, 8301, 8867); ”mountains and hills“ denotes loves, here the loves of self and of the world (n. 795, 796, 1691, 2722, 6435); ”the wood of which counsel is asked“ denotes the good of the delight of some cupidity (n. 643); ”the staff which answereth“ denotes imaginary power from one’s own intellectual (n. 4013, 4015, 4876, 4936, 7011, 7026). As ”gods“ in the genuine sense signify truths, and in the opposite sense falsities, therefore falsifying truths and adulterating goods is signified by,  They have gone a whoring after strange gods, as after Baal, after Molech, after idols (Ezek. 6:9; Lev. 20:5).

[9]  From all this it can now be seen what is meant by ”adulteries“ and ”whoredoms“ in the following passages:--

Come hither, ye sons of the sorceress, the seed of the adulterer, and she hath committed whoredom; against whom do ye delight yourselves? against whom make ye wide the mouth, and thrust out the tongue? are ye not born of transgression, a seed of a lie, who have been hated among gods under every green tree? (Isa. 57:3-5).

It shall come to pass at the end of seventy years, Jehovah will visit Tyre, that it may return to its harlot-hire, and commit whoredom with all the kingdoms of the earth upon the faces of the world (Isa. 23:17).

And a man put away his wife, and she went from him, and was another man‘s; she committed whoredom with many companions. Thou hast profaned the land with thy whoredoms and with thy wickedness. Hast thou seen what backsliding Israel hath done? She goeth away upon every high mountain, and under every green tree, and thou committest whoredom there. Moreover her treacherous sister Judah went away, and she also committed whoredom, insomuch that she hath profaned the land by the voice of her whoredom; she hath committed debauchery with stone and with wood (Jer. 3:1, 2, 6, 8, 9).

This is thy lot, because thou hast forgotten Me, and trusted in a lie; thine adulteries, and thy neighings, the wickedness of thy whoredom, on the hills in the field I have seen thine abominations.  Woe to thee, O Jerusalem (Jer. 13:25, 27).

Against the prophets. The land is full of adulterers; for because of the curse the land mourneth; the pastures of the wilderness have dried up, because both prophet and priest practice hypocrisy.  In the prophets of Jerusalem also I have seen a horrible stubbornness, in committing adultery and walking in a lie; they have strengthened the hands of the evil; they speak a vision of their heart, not out of the mouth of Jehovah (Jer. 23:9-11, 14, 16).

They have wrought folly in Israel, and have committed debauchery with the wives of their companions, and have spoken a word in My name falsely, which I commanded them not (Jer. 29:23).

[10] From these passages it is very manifest that ”to commit adultery,“ and ”to debauch,“ denote to explain and pervert the truths of the Word from one’s own heart, that is, from one‘s own, in such a manner as the loves of self and of the world persuade one to do; consequently it is to speak lies, that is, falsities, as is openly said.  Again:--

Be not glad, O Israel, because thou hast committed whoredom from under thy God, thou hast loved harlot-hire upon all the cornfloors (Hos. 9:1).

Jehovah spake unto Hosea, Go, take unto thee a woman of whoredoms and children of whoredoms; because in whoring the land doth commit whoredom from behind Jehovah (Hos. 1:2).

Woe to the city of bloods!  Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favored harlot, the mistress of sorceries, that selleth nations through her whoredoms, and families through her sorceries (Nahum 3:1, 4).

Your sons shall be feeders in the wilderness forty years, and they shall bear your whoredoms forty years; according to the number of the days in which ye spied out the land, for every day a year, shall ye bear your iniquities (Num. 14:33, 34).

[11] Inasmuch as falsifications of truth and adulterations of good corresponded to whoredoms on the earth, therefore the penalty of death was for adulterers (Lev. 20:10); and the daughter of a man who was a priest, if she profaned herself by committing whoredom, was to be burnt with fire (Lev. 21:9); also no daughter in Israel was to be exposed to whoredom (Lev.  19:19).  In like manner a bastard was not to come into the congregation of Jehovah, not even his tenth generation (Deut.  23:2); and the hire of a harlot was not to be brought into the house of Jehovah, because it is an abomination (Deut.  23:18).

[12] From these passages it can now be fully seen what is signified by ”committing adultery,“ namely, that in the external sense it is to commit adulteries; in the internal representative sense it is to worship idols and other gods by means of such things as are of the church, consequently idolatry external and internal; but in the internal spiritual sense are signified adulterations of good and perversions of truth.  From all this it is plainly evident whence it is that adulteries are in themselves so wicked, and are called ”abominations,“ namely, from the fact that they correspond to the marriage of falsity and evil, which is the infernal marriage; and on the other hand, why genuine marriages are holy, namely, from the fact that they correspond to the marriage of good and truth, which is the heavenly marriage.  Nay, genuine conjugial love descends from the marriage of good and truth, thus out of heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord; whereas the love of adultery is from the marriage of falsity and evil, thus from hell, that is, from the devil.

AC 8905. Verse 13.  Thou shalt not steal, signifies that no one’s spiritual goods must be taken away from him, and that those things which belong to the Lord are not to be attributed to self.

AC 8906. Thou shalt not steal. That this signifies that no one‘s spiritual goods must be taken away from him, and that those things which belong to the Lord are not to be attributed to self, is evident from the signification of ”stealing,“ as being to take away spiritual goods from anyone. That this is signified by ”stealing,“ is because riches and wealth in the spiritual sense are the knowledges of good and truth, in general all those things which are of faith and charity, that is, which are of spiritual life in man. Wherefore to take these things away from anyone is ”to steal“ in the spiritual sense. And because all spiritual goods, that is, all things of faith and charity, are from the Lord alone, and absolutely nothing from man, therefore by ”stealing“ is also signified to attribute to one’s self what belongs to the Lord. They who do this are also called ”thieves and robbers“ in John:--

Verily I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber; but he that entereth in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep. I am the door; by Me if any man enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and go out, and find pasture.  The thief cometh not but that he may steal, and slay, and destroy; I came that they may have life, and may have abundance (John 10:1, 2, 9, 10);

”to enter by the door into the sheepfold“ denotes to enter by the Lord, for the Lord is the ”door,“ as He Himself says; ”the sheep“ are they who are in charity and thence in faith. These enter by the Lord when they acknowledge that from Him is everything of faith and charity, for then these flow in from Him.  But to attribute them to others, especially to themselves, is to take them away, thus ”to slay and to destroy.“ They who attribute to themselves what is the Lord‘s, also place merit in works, and make themselves righteousness (n. 1110, 1877, 2027, 2273, 2340, 2373, 2400, 3816, 4007, 4174, 4943, 6388-6390, 6392, 6393, 6478). This then is ”stealing“ in the spiritual sense, and this comes to the angels in heaven when man reads in the Word about ”stealing,“ for the angels understand the Word only spiritually.

[2] The like is signified by ”stealing“ in Hosea:--

When I healed Israel, then the iniquity of Ephraim was revealed, and the evils of Samaria; because they wrought a lie; and the thief cometh, the troop spreadeth itself abroad; now do their works encompass them before my faces; they make the king glad by their wickedness, and the princes by their lies (Hosea 7:1-3).

And in Joel:--

The day of Jehovah cometh. A fire devoureth before it, and after it a flame burneth; the land is as the garden of Eden before it, but after it a waste wilderness. The appearance thereof is as the appearance of horse; and as horsemen, so do they run, as the sound of chariots on the tops of the mountains; they run to and fro in the city, they run on the wall, they climb up into the houses, they enter in through the windows like a thief.  The earth quaked before Him, the heavens trembled, the sun and the moon were made black, and the stars withdrew their shining (Joel 2:1-10);

the subject here treated of is the desolation of the church, when falsities break in and destroy truths; these falsities are the ”thieves who climb up into houses and enter in through the windows.“ Who can help wondering why it is said that ”the day of Jehovah will be as the appearance of horses,“ and that then ”they shall run like horsemen, they shall run to and fro in the city, they shall run on the wall, shall climb up into the houses, shall enter in through the windows, the earth shall quake, the heavens shall tremble, the sun and the moon shall be made black, and the stars shall withdraw their shining?“ He who knows nothing of the internal sense, and who in his heart calls the holiness of the Word into doubt, will say that these are mere words devoid of anything Divine stored up within them, and perhaps will call them worthless sayings. But he who believes that the Word is most holy, because it is Divine, and who moreover knows that there is an internal sense which treats of the church, of heaven, and of the Lord Himself, will confess that every word herein has its own weighty import.  It shall therefore be briefly unfolded what the words and sayings in this passage signify.

[3] ”The day of Jehovah“ denotes the last state, or last time, of the church, when there is no longer any truth, but falsity in the place of truth; ”the fire which devours before it“ denotes the desire of evil; ”the flame which burns after it’ denotes the consequent desire of falsity; “the appearance of horses” denotes the intellectual reasoning from falsity as if from truth; “the horsemen who run” denote reasoners; “the chariots” denote doctrinal things of falsity; “a city” denotes the doctrine itself; “the wall upon which they run” denotes essential falsity; “the houses into which they climb” denotes the will of man; “the windows through which they enter in” denote intellectual things; “the thief” denotes the falsity which takes away truth; “the earth which will quake before Him” denotes the church, so also do the heavens which will tremble;“ ”the sun“ denotes love to the Lord; the moon,” faith in Him, these are said to be “made black” when they no longer appear; “the stars” denote the knowledges of good and truth which will no longer have light from faith and love, thus from heaven, and this is meant by “withdrawing their shining.” From all this it can be seen what these words involve in general, and also in what sense “that day,” or the last state of the church, is called “a thief who will climb up into the houses, and enter in through the windows,” namely, that it is falsity, which will then take possession of the whole man, both of his will and of his understanding, and thus will take away all truth and good. The like is signified by a “thief” in Obadiah:--

The Lord Jehovah said to Edom, If thieves came to thee, if destroyers by night (how art thou cut off!), will they not steal till they have enough? (Obadiah 1:1, 5).

In like manner by a “thief,” or “one who steals,” in (Zech. 5:1-4; Ps. 50:18-20; Matt. 6:19, 20).

[4] As all the statutes commanded the sons of Israel by the Lord were founded on the laws of order which are in heaven, that is, derived their existence and essence from the spiritual world, so for the same reason were the statutes which were enacted concerning theft; as that he who stole an ox and sold it should restore five, if a sheep four (Exod. 22:1); also that if a thief he smitten in breaking in, there shall be no blood; but if the sun be risen, there shall be blood; the thief shall repay or shall be sold; if the theft be found in his hand, he shall restore double (Exod. 22:2-4).

He that stealeth a man, and selleth him, but if he be found in his hand, dying he shall die (Exod. 21:16).

If a man be found who hath stolen a soul of his brethren, of the sons of Israel, and hath made gain in him, while he sold him, that thief shall be killed; that thou mayest put away the evil from the midst of thee (Deut. 24:7);

in the internal sense “the men of the sons of Israel” denote those who are in the truths and goods of faith, thus in the abstract sense they denote the truths and goods of faith (n. 5414, 5879, 5951); and therefore “to steal a man of the sons of Israel” denotes to take these away, and “to sell him” denotes to cast them off, and also to make them serve.  For the truths and goods of faith, being from the Lord, are in a free state, and serve the Lord alone; but when they are cast off, they then come into a servile state, for they serve any evil of the love of self or of the love of the world, thus any bodily cupidity; whence come the derivation and correspondence of the above law.  And as then from being free the truth and good of the church become servile, thus from being alive become dead, therefore the penalty which is the effect, is “death.”

AC 8907.  Verse 13.  Thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie, signifies that good is not to be called evil, nor truth falsity; thus conversely, neither is evil to be called good, nor falsity truth.

AC 8908. Thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie.  That this signifies that good is not to be called evil, nor truth falsity; thus conversely, neither is evil to be called good, nor falsity truth, is evident from the signification of “the witness of a lie,” as being the confirmation of falsity.  That “witness” denotes confirmation, (n. 4197); and that “a lie” denotes the falsity of faith will be plain from what follows. “To answer against a neighbor” denotes to speak in such manner against anyone; for by “neighbor” is signified every man, and specifically everyone who is in good, and in the abstract sense, good itself (n. 3419, 5025, 6704, 6706-6711, 6818, 8123). Consequently “thou shalt not answer against thy neighbor the witness of a lie,” in the internal sense denotes not to say to anyone what is false, that is, to say that what is good is evil, and what is true is false, or the converse.

[2] How the case herein is shall be briefly explained.  All with whom there reigns the love of self or the love of the world, that is, who have as their end eminence, or honors, or wealth, or gain, do not hesitate to say and persuade others that what is just is unjust, and that what is unjust is just, and thus to act the part of witnesses of a lie. The reason why they are of such a character is that their will is wholly subject to these loves and their cupidities, and is wholly occupied and possessed by them; and then the understanding, which is the other part of the mind, is indeed able to see what is just and what is unjust; but is not willing to see, because the will prevails over the understanding, and by means of influx persuades it, and at last also blinds it.  These same persons neither have conscience, nor do they know that it belongs to conscience to call that just which is just, for no other reason than because it is just, that is, from the love of what is just.  They who are of this character in the world are also of the same character in the other life, but with the difference that they do not then call what is just unjust, but the good which is of faith they call evil, and truth they call falsity; for what is just in the civil world corresponds to what is good and true in the spiritual world. And they do this without conscience and also without shame, because they have been inured and habituated to it in the life of the body.

[3] Frequent mention is made in the Word of “a lie,” and by this in the internal sense is everywhere signified the falsity and evil of faith, and by “the witness of a lie,” which is also called “the witness of violence,” is signified the confirmation of falsity, whether it he before a judge, or before anyone else, or before one‘s self within the thought by self-persuasion (Exod.  23:1-9; Lev. 19:11, 12; Deut.  19:16-20).  That in the spiritual sense “a lie” denotes the evil and falsity of faith, is evident from the following passages. In John:--

Ye are of your father the devil, and the desires of your father ye will to do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and stood not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, be speaketh from his own; for he is a liar, and the father of it (John 8:44);

“a lie” here denotes the falsity of faith; for the subject treated of is the Jews, that they were not willing to acknowledge the Lord. In the spiritual sense “the devil” here denotes falsity, and “the father of it” denotes evil; for falsity is from evil as a son is from his father. The falsity which is of the devil is the falsity of faith, and the evil is the evil of the love of self and the love of the world.

[4] In Isaiah:--

Moab is exceeding haughty, his pride, and his haughtiness, and his anger, his lies are not firm (Isa. 16:6);

“lies” denote the falsities of faith, because “Moab” denotes those who are in the evil of the love of self, and therefore falsify truths (n. 2468, 8315). Again:--

We have made a covenant with death, and with hell have we made a vision; we have made a lie our trust, and have lurked in falsehood (Isa. 28:15).

This is a rebellions people, lying sons, sons that are not willing to hear the law of Jehovah (Isa. 30:9).

They mock every man his companion, and speak not the truth; they have taught their tongue to speak a lie (Jer. 9:5).

I am against them that prophesy dreams of a lie, and tell them, that they may seduce My people by their lies (Jer. 23:32).

0 sword against the liars, that they may be foolish (Jer.  50:36).

They have seen vanity and divination of a lie, saying, Jehovah hath said, when Jehovah hath not sent them. Therefore thus said the Lord Jehovah, Because ye speak vanity, and see a lie, therefore behold I am against you (Ezek. 13:6-9).

Woe to the city of bloods! it is all full of lying and rapine (Nahum 3:1).

The remains of Israel do no perversity, nor will they speak a lie, neither shall a tongue of fraud be found in their mouth; they shall feed and be at rest (Zeph. 3:13).

Without are dogs, and enchanters, and whoremongers, and murderers, and idolaters, and everyone that loveth and maketh a lie (Rev. 22:15).

In these as in many other passages “a lie” denotes the falsity and evil of faith.

AC 8909. Verse 14.  Thou shalt not covet   thy neighbor’s house, thou shalt not covet   thy neighbors wife, and his manservant, and his maidservant, and his ox, and his ass, and anything that is thy neighbor‘s, signifies that one must beware of the love of self and of the world; and thus lest the evils which are contained in the preceding commandments become of the will, and so come forth.

AC 8910. Thou shall not covet thy neighbors house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbors wife, and his manservant, and his maidservant, and his ox, and his ass, and anything that is thy neighbor’s.  That this signifies that one must beware of the love of self and of the world, and thus lest the evils which are contained in the preceding commandments become of the will and so come forth, is evident from the signification of “coveting (concupiscere),” as being to will from an evil love. That “coveting” has this signification, is because all concupiscence is of some love; for nothing is coveted (concupiscitur) unless it is loved, and therefore concupiscence (or “coveting”) is the continuous of love, in this case of the love of self or of the world, and is as it were the life of its breath. For that which an evil love breathes is called “concupiscence,” but that which a good love breathes is called “desire.” Love itself belongs to the other part of the mind, which is called the will, for whatever a man loves he wills; but concupiscence belongs to both the will and the understanding, though it is properly of the will in the understanding. From all this it is evident whence it is that by the words, “thou shalt not covet the things that are thy neighbor‘s,” is signified that one must beware lest they become of the will; for the things which become of the will are appropriated to the man, because the will is the man himself.

[2] It is believed in the world that the thought is the man; but there are two things which constitute the life of man, the understanding and the will. To the understanding belongs thought, and to the will the affection which is of love.  Thought without the affection which is of love does not make anything of life with man; but thought from affection which is of love, thus understanding from will. That these two are distinct from each other is plain to everyone who reflects, from the fact that a man can understand and perceive that to be evil which he wills, and that to be good which he either wills or does not will; from which it is clear that the will is the man himself, but not the thought, except in so far as there passes into it something from the will. Hence it is that the things which enter into the thought of man, and not through the thought into the will, do not defile him; but the things which enter through the thought into the will. These things defile him because they are then appropriated to him, and become his; for the will, as already said, is the man himself. The things which become of the will are said to enter into his heart and to come forth therefrom; whereas the things which are only of the thought are said to enter into the mouth, but to go out through the belly into the draughts - according to the Lord’s words in Matthew:--

Not that which entereth into the mouth defileth the man; but that which cometh forth out of the mouth, this defileth the man.  Whatsoever entereth into the mouth goeth into the belly, and is cast out into the draught. But the things which come forth out of the mouth come forth out of the heart; and these defile the man.  For out of the heart come forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries, fornications, thefts, false witness, blasphemies (Matt. 15:11, 17-19).

[3] From these words, as from all His other words, it can be seen of what nature was the Lord‘s speech, namely, that internal and spiritual things were meant, but that they were expressed by external or natural things, and this according to correspondences; for the mouth corresponds to the thought, as also all things that belong to the mouth, as the lips, the tongue, the throat; and the heart corresponds to the affection which is of love, thus to the will. That there is a correspondence of the heart with these, (n. 2930, 3313, 3883-3896, 7542).  Consequently “to enter into the mouth” denotes to enter into the thought, and “to come forth out of the heart” denotes out of the will; “to go into the belly and to be cast out into the draught,” or privy, is to be cast into hell, for the belly corresponds to the way toward hell, and the draught or privy corresponds to hell; hell is also so called in the Word.  From this it is plain what is signified by, “whatsoever entereth into the mouth goeth into the belly and is cast out into the draught,” namely, that evil and falsity are injected into the thought of man from hell, and are rent back again thither. These things cannot defile the man, because they are sent back; for a man cannot stand apart from thinking evil, but from doing it But so soon as he receives evil from the thought into the will, it then does not go out of him, but enters into him, and this is called “coming forth out of the heart.” The things which come forth thence defile him, because what a man wills goes forth into speech and into act, in so far as external bonds, which are fear of the law, of the loss of reputation, of honor, of gain, and of life, do not forbid.  From all this it is now evident that by “thou shalt not covet” is signified that one must beware lest evils become of the will, and so come forth.

[4] That concupiscence (or “coveting”) is of the will, this of the heart, is also evident from these words of the Lord in Matthew:--

Ye have heard that it was said to them of old, Thou shalt not commit adultery; but I say unto you, that if anyone looketh on a strange woman so that he lusteth after (concupiscat) her, he hath committed adultery with her already in his heart (Matt. 5:27, 28);

by “lusting after” is here meant to will, and unless fears (which are external bonds) restrained, to do; hence it is said that “he who looketh on a woman so that he lusteth after her hath committed adultery with her in his heart.”

[5] The concupiscence of evil is also meant by “the right eye giving offence,” and the concupiscence of falsity by “the right hand giving offence,” in the Lord’s words also in Matthew:

If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee; for it will be better for thee that one of thy members perish, and not thy whole body be cast into Gehenna. And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee; for it will be better for thee that one of thy members perish, and not thy whole body be cast into Gehenna (Matt. 5:29, 30);

from these words it is again evident in what manner the Lord spake, namely, from the Divine, as everywhere else in the Word; thus that He expressed internal and heavenly things by external or natural things according to correspondences; here the affection of evil or the concupiscence thereof by “the right eye offending;” and the affection of falsity or the concupiscence thereof by the “right hand offending;” for the eye corresponds to faith, the left eye to the truth of faith, and the right eye to the good of faith, and in the opposite sense to the evil which is of faith; thus “the right eye offending” corresponds to the concupiscence thereof (n. 4403-4421, 4523-4534). But the hand corresponds to the power which is of truth, the right hand to the power of truth from good, and in the opposite sense to the power of falsity from evil, thus “the right hand offending” corresponds to the concupiscence thereof (n. 3091, 3563, 4931-4937, 8281). “Gehenna” denotes the hell of concupiscences. Everyone can see that in this passage by “the right eye” is not meant the right eye, nor is it meant that the eye should be plucked out; also that by “the right hand” is not meant the right hand, and that it is to be cut off; but that something else is meant, which cannot be known unless it is known what is signified by “the eye,” specifically by “the right eye,” also what by “the hand” and specifically by “the right hand,” and likewise what by “to give offence;‘, nor can it be known what is signified by these expressions except from the internal sense.

[6] As concupiscences are things that come from an evil will, thus from an evil heart, and out of the heart or the will come forth murders, adulteries, fornication, thefts, false witness, according to the words of the Lord in (Matthew 15:19), thus such things as are contained in the preceding commandments of the decalogue, therefore it is said that by ”not coveting those things which are the neighbor’s,“ is signified that one must beware lest the evils which are contained in the preceding commandments become of the will, and so come forth.  That by ”not coveting those things which are the neighbor‘s“ is signified that one must beware of the love of self and of the world, is because all the evils of concupiscence spring from these loves as from their fountains (n. 2045, 7178, 7255, 7366-7377, 7488, 8318, 8678).

AC 8911. From what has been thus far said it can be seen how the case is with man and his life, namely, that man is such as his will is, and that he remains such after death, because death is not the end of life, but its continuation. As therefore man is such as his will is, because, as before said, the will is the man himself, therefore ”to be judged according to his deeds“ signifies to be judged according to his will, for will and deed are not at variance, the deed being in the will and the will in the deed, provided external bonds do not hinder, such as fears of the law, of the loss of honor, of gain, of reputation, and of life. This is circumstanced like endeavor and motion. Motion is nothing else than continuous endeavor; for when endeavor ceases, motion ceases, and therefore there is nothing essential in motion except endeavor. The learned know this, for it is an acknowledged and confirmed theorem. Endeavor in man is will, and motion in him is action; they are so called in man because in him endeavor and motion are living. To be judged according to the will is the same thing as to be judged according to the love, and also the same as to be judged according to the ends of life, likewise to be judged according to the life, for the will of man is his love, and is his end of life, and is his very life itself. That this is the case is evident from the words of the Lord quoted above, that ”whoever looketh on a strange woman to lust after her hath committed adultery with her already in his heart“ (Matt. 5:27, 28); also that ”to kill“ a man is not only to do so in act, but also to will to do it, which is signified by ”being angry“ with him and treating him with insult (Matt. 5:21). Moreover man is judged according to his deeds, but no further than in so far and in such a manner as his deeds have proceeded from his will.

AC 8912. It must also be explained briefly what is meant in the internal sense by the things here mentioned, namely, ”house,“ ”wife,“ ”manservant,“ ”maidservant,“ ”ox,“ and ”ass,“ which are not to be coveted. They are all the goods and truths of faith in one complex, which are not to be taken away from anyone, and to which no injury is to be done; and they are the same things which in the internal sense are signified by ”keeping the sabbath day holy,“ ”honoring father and mother,“ ”not killing,“ ”not committing adultery,“ ”not stealing,“ ”not bearing false witness,“ all which things have been shown above to be in the internal sense such as are of love and faith. By ”house“ is meant all good in general; by ”wife,“ all truth in general; by ”manservant,“ the affection of spiritual truth; by ”maidservant,“ the affection of spiritual good; by ”ox,“ the affection of natural good; and by ”ass,“ the affection of natural truth. These are the things which are ”not to be coveted,“ that is, which are not to be taken away from anyone, or to which harm must not be done. That these things are meant in the internal sense, is because the Word in this sense is for those who are in heaven, for those who are there do not perceive the Word naturally, but spiritually, thus not house, nor wife, nor manservant, nor maidservant, nor ox, nor ass, but the spiritual things that correspond to them, which are the goods of love and the truths of faith. In a word, the external sense or the dense of the letter is for those who are in the world, but the internal sense is for those who are in heaven, and also for those who are in the world, yet in so far as they are at the same time in heaven, that is, so far as they are in charity and faith.

AC 8913. Verses 15-17. And all the people saw the voices, and the torches, and the voice of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking; and the people saw, and they quaked, and stood afar off And they said unto Moses, speak thou with us, and we will hear; and let not God speak with us, lest perchance we die. And Moses said unto the people, Fear not; because God is come to tempt you, and that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not. ”And all the people saw the voices, and the torches,“ signifies the perception of truths Divine from good; ”and the voice of the trumpet,“ signifies the same things through heaven; ”and the mountain smoking,“ signifies the good itself of truth not perceptible except in the external form; ”and the people saw, and they quaked,“ signifies the tremor which there is when they are received; ”and they stood afar off,“ signifies remoteness from internal things; ”and they said unto Moses,“ signifies complaint; ”Speak thou with us,“ signifies the reception of truth in an accommodated form, which in this manner they would obey; ”and let not God speak with us,“ signifies truth in a form not accommodated; ”lest perchance we die,“ signifies that thus the life of heaven with them would perish; ”and Moses said unto the people,“ signifies information; ”Fear not, because God has come to tempt you,“ signifies that the life of heaven will not perish, this is merely that it may be known that it exists, and what is its quality; ”and that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not,“ signifies holy fear therefrom of the Divine, and the consequent preservation of spiritual life.

AC 8914. And all the people saw the voices, and the torches. That this signifies the perception of truths Divine from good, is evident from the signification of ”seeing,“ as being to understand and perceive (n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 4567, 4723, 5400) from the signification of ”voices“ or thunderings, as being truths Divine (n. 7573, 8813); and from the signification of ”torches“ or lightnings, as being the brightnesses which truths have from the good of love, and which strike through and penetrate (n. 8813).

[2] By truths Divine from good are here meant all the commandments of the decalogue, which were pronounced from Mount Sinai out of the midst of thunderings and lightnings; these being then displayed because the thunderings signified truths Divine, which are also for this reason called ”voices;“ and the lightnings signified the brightnesses which truths have from good, which are also for this reason called ”torches“ or flames. ”Flames“ denote Divine truths proceeding from the Lord’s Divine good, (n. 6832).

AC 8915. And the voice of the trumpet.  That this signifies the same things through heaven, namely, Divine truths from good, is evident from the signification of ”the voice of the trumpet,“ as being the state of the angelic heaven encompassing the Divine, and as being truth Divine therefrom (n. 8815, 8823); from which it can be seen what is signified by the words of the Lord where He foretells concerning the consummation of the age, or the last time of the church, that then the Lord shall send His angels with a great voice of a trumpet, who shall gather together His elect from the four winds (Matt. 24:31).  He who does not know that all the words of the Lord have stored up within them also heavenly and Divine things, that is, that there is in them an internal sense, will believe that when the Last Judgment is at hand, angels will appear, and will announce it, and will also gather together the elect with the voice of a trumpet. But that by ”the voice of a trumpet“ is not there meant the voice of a trumpet, but truth Divine in the internal form through heaven, and the evangelization thereof, see (n. 4060, 8815, 8823).

AC 8916. And the mountain smoking.  That this signifies the good itself of truth not perceptible except in the external form, Is evident from the signification of a ”mountain,“ here Mount Sinai, as being the Divine good united to the Divine truth in heaven (n. 8805); and from the signification of ”smoking,“ as being in the external form. That this is meant by ”smoking,“ is because Divine truth, or the Word in the internal form, is like light and like flame, but in the external form it is like a cloud and like smoke.  The reason is that truth Divine, or the Word in the internal form, is such as it is in heaven, thus such as it is in the light there; but in the external form it is such as it is in the world, thus such as it is in the light there; and relatively to the light of heaven, the light of the world is like a cloud, or like smoke relatively to flame. Truth Divine, or the Word in the internal form, is the internal sense of the Word, and in the external form it is its external or literal sense; that this literal sense is called a ”cloud,“ (n. 2135a, 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8781); and that it is called ”smoke“ is because by ”smoke“ is signified what is obscure of truth (n. 8819).  That the mountain appeared smoking before the sons of Israel, was not because the Divine there was of such a quality, but because the Divine appears to everyone according to the quality of him who sees it; and the quality of those who then saw was that they made everything of worship to consist in externals, and nothing in internals; and that consequently they understood the Word only according to the sense of the letter.  Therefore in respect to the truth which was being promulgated, the Divine must needs appear to them as smoke, that is, as obscure; whence it is also said that they ”stood afar off,“ by which is signified that they were remote from internal things.  But on this more below.

AC 8917. And when the people saw, they quaked.  That this signifies the tremor which there is when Divine truths are received, is evident from the signification of ”to quake,“ as being a tremor, here a tremor such as there is when Divine truths are received (n. 5459, 8816).

AC 8918. And they stood afar off That this signifies remoteness from internal things, is evident from the signification of ”standing afar off,“ as being remotely, here, from internal things, because from Mount Sinai, by which is signified heaven and the Divine there (n. 8805).  Whether you say ”remotely from the Divine,“ or ”from heaven,“ or ”from internal things,“ it is the same, because heaven is in internal things. For the internal of man is in the light of heaven, and his external is in the light of the world; or what is the same, the soul or spirit of man is in heaven, but his body in the world. Heaven is nearer to the Divine than the world, because in heaven the Divine of the Lord reigns, and is the all in all. As further regards the signification of ”afar off,“ be it known that in the spiritual sense ”afar off“ has no reference to space, but to the Divine, thus to good and truth. Distance from the very good itself which proceeds from the Divine, causes the appearance of distance in heaven. The angelic societies there appear distinct and even remote from one another; but as already said this idea of space comes from distance from the good and truth which are from the Divine of the Lord.  This must needs appear a paradox, nay, absurd, to many in the world. The reason is that the thoughts and their ideas with man are founded upon spaces and times, insomuch that man cannot think without them. Consequently if you abstract times and spaces from a man‘s thought, he scarcely perceives anything.  Nevertheless the angels in heaven think absolutely without any idea of time and space, and with such fulness that in intelligence and wisdom their thoughts surpass the thoughts of man thousands, nay, myriads of times; and, wonderful to say, if there occurs to them an idea derived from time and space, shade and thick darkness at once come to their minds, because they then fall from the light of heaven into the light of nature, which to them is thick darkness.

[2] That there are no spaces and times in the other life, but states; or that the appearances of spaces and times arise from the variations of state in respect to good and truth, (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 3404, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381). From this then it is evident what ”standing afar off“ signifies in the spiritual sense, namely, remoteness from heaven where the Divine is; here, remoteness from internal things, because, as said above, that nation which then stood afar off from Mount Sinai was very remote from internal things, for it was in external things only, and it made everything of Divine worship to consist in these. Moreover to do so was permitted that nation, because thus it could represent heavenly and Divine things; for in order to be representative an external is required, and is also possible without an internal (n. 3147, 3670, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4307, 8588).

[3] ”Afar off“ signifies remoteness from good and truth, which are from the Divine, thus remoteness from internal things, also in the following passages. In Luke:--

In hell the rich man lifting up his eyes saw Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. Abraham said to him, Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed; that those who would pass over from hence to you cannot; neither can those who are there pass over to us (Luke 16:23, 26);

by ”Abraham“ is not meant Abraham, for he is not known in heaven; but in the supreme sense the Lord, and in the relative sense those in heaven who are in the good of love and faith in the Lord (n. 1834, 1876, 1965, 1989, 2011, 3245, 3305, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6894).  They who are in hell are said to ”see those who are in heaven afar off,“ because they are in a state most remote from good and truth. The ”great gulf“ between them denotes the remoteness itself from good, which also gives the appearance of an intervening gulf.

[4] They who think from an idea of space, as do all men in the world, perceive no otherwise than that hell is far distant from man, and that heaven is so too.  But the case is otherwise. Hell and heaven are near to man, yea, in man; hell in an evil man, and heaven in a good man. Moreover everyone comes after death into that hell or into that heaven in which he has been while in the world. But the state is then changed; the hell which was not perceived in the world becomes perceptible, and the heaven which was not perceived in the world becomes perceptible; the heaven full of all happiness, and the hell of all unhappiness. That heaven is within us, the Lord teaches in Luke:--

The kingdom of God is within you (Luke 17:21).

See ”afar off“ also in the following:--

They come from a land afar off, from the extremity of the heavens (Isa. 13:5; Jer. 5:15).

Hear, ye that are far off, what I have done; and ye that are near, acknowledge My might (Isa. 33:13).

I will say to the north, Give; and to the south, Keep not back; bring My sons from far, and My daughters from the extremity of the earth. Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears (Isa. 43:6, 8; 19:12).

Attend, O isles, unto Me; hearken, ye peoples, from far (Isa. 49:1; Jer. 31:10).

The voice of the cry of the daughter of My people from a land afar off: Is not Jehovah in Zion? is not her King in her? (Jer. 8:19).

Jehovah, Thou hast planted them, and they have also taken root. But Thou art near in their mouth, but far off from their reins (Jer. 12:2).

Am I a God near, and not a God afar off? (Jer. 23:23).

In all these passages ”afar off“ signifies remoteness from good.

AC 8919. And they said unto Moses. That this signifies complaint, is evident from what follows in this verse; for what they said are complaints.

AC 8920. Speak thou with us, and we will hear. That this signifies the reception of truth in an accommodated form which so they would obey, is evident from the signification of ”speaking,“ as being influx and communication (n. 2951, 3060, 4131, 5481, 5797, 6228, 7270, 8128), therefore also reception, for that which flows in and is communicated is received; and from the representation of Moses, who was to speak, as being truth from the Divine beneath heaven conjoined with truth Divine in heaven, thus mediating between the Lord and the people (n. 8760, 8787, 8505); hence it is that ”Moses“ here denotes truth in an accommodated form.

[2] As regards truth in an accommodated form, be it known that when truth Divine descends through the heavens to men, as the Word has descended, it is on the way accommodated to all, both to those who are in the heavens, and to those who are on the earth. But truth Divine is in quite a different form in the heavens from what it is in the world.  In the heavens it is such as is the internal sense of the Word; in the world it is such as is its sense in the letter. Nay, in the heavens themselves it is in diverse forms, in one form in the inmost or third heaven, in another form in the middle or second heaven, and in still another in the first or ultimate heaven.  The form of truth Divine, that is, the perception, thought, and utterance of it, in the inmost or third heaven, so transcends that in the middle or second heaven, that in this heaven it cannot be apprehended, it is so Divine and exalted; for it contains innumerable things that cannot be uttered in the second heaven; it consists of mere changes of state in respect to the affections of love.  But the form of truth Divine in the middle or second heaven transcends in like manner that in the first or ultimate heaven, and still more the form of truth Divine in the world.  Hence it is that the things which are uttered in those heavens are such as no human mind has ever perceived, nor any ear heard, as those know from experience who have been raised into heaven.

[3] They who do not know this believe that in the heavens they think no otherwise and speak no otherwise than on the earth; but this they believe because they do not know that the interiors of man are in a more exalted state than his exteriors, and that the thought and speech of those who are in the heavens is celestial and spiritual, but of those who are on the earth it is natural, the difference between which is so great that it cannot be described in words.  But concerning these kinds of speech, (n. 1634-1650, 1757-1759, 1876, 2157, 2472, 2476, 3342-3345, 4104, 4609, 5225, 5287, 6040, 6982, 7002, 7089, 7131, 7191, 7381, 8343, 8733, 8734).

[4] From all this it is also evident that unless truth Divine or the Word were presented in an accommodated form, it could not be apprehended; for if it were in a more exalted form than the state of perception, it would not fall into the understanding, thus not into the faith.  Hence it is that truth Divine was given to man such as is the Word in the letter; for if it were to appear such as it is in heaven, no man would apprehend it, and on the first view and notice would reject it, because it would not fall into such things as are of natural light; and moreover it would be full of arcana such as could in no wise enter into any idea of man, because they are altogether repugnant to the appearances and fallacies which are derived from the world through the external senses; to say nothing of the deeper arcana which lie hidden within these arcana in manifold series, and that cannot possibly be expressed except by means of variations and changes of state of heavenly light and flame, by which angelic speech and thought are carried on.

AC 8921. And let not God speak with us.  That this signifies truth in a form not accommodated, is evident from what precedes; for by ”Moses“ is signified truth Divine beneath heaven conjoined with truth Divine in heaven, thus mediating between the Lord and the people, consequently truth Divine in an accommodated form (n. 8920).  Consequently by ”Let not God speak with us,“ is signified truth Divine in a form not accommodated; for by ”God“ is here meant the Lord as to Divine truth in heaven (n. 8805), consequently the Divine truth itself; which is also the reason why it is said ”God,“ and not ”Jehovah;“ for in the Word where ”God“ is named, the Lord as to Divine truth is meant; but where ”Jehovah“ is named the Lord as to Divine good is meant (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4295, 4402, 7091, 7268, 7873, 8301, 8867).

AC 8922. Lest perchance we die.  That this signifies that thus the life of heaven with them would perish, is evident from the signification of ”dying,“ as being to die spiritually (n. 6119), thus to perish in respect to the life of heaven. That truth Divine in a form not accommodated has this effect, is evident from what was shown just above (n. 8920). For truth in a form not accommodated, such as it is in heaven, transcends the apprehension, and that which transcends the apprehension is not received, and that which is not received does not flow into any faith, thus neither into the life of faith, which is the life of heaven. For man is regenerated, that is, receives the life of heaven, by means of the truth Divine which is of faith (n. 2046, 2063, 2189, 2979, 3155, 3876, 3877, 5893, 5912, 6247, 8635-8640, 8772).)

AC 8923. And Moses said unto the people. That this signifies information, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ here by Moses unto the people, as being information; for the things which he said are matters of information about that of which they complained.  In like manner in other places by ”saying“ is signified information, when information is given about the subject of inquiry (n. 7769, 7793, 7825, 8041).

AC 8924. Fear not, because God is come to tempt you. That this signifies that the life of heaven will not perish; this is merely that it may be known that it exists, and what is its quality; is evident from the signification of ”not fearing,“ namely, that they will die, as being that they will perish in respect to the life of heaven (n. 8922); and from the signification of ”to tempt you,“ as being to teach that there is a life of heaven and what its quality is. That this is signified by ”tempting,“ is because all spiritual temptation teaches and confirms such things with man. For temptations are to the intent that the faith of truth, and the affection of truth, and afterward the affection of good, may be implanted and inrooted, and that thus the man may receive new life, which is the life of heaven.

[2] For temptations are combats with evils and falsities, and when the man conquers these, he is confirmed, for he fights from truths and for truths against falsity and evil. That he fights from truths and for truths, the man is not sensible of at the time, because truths are in the interiors; and therefore they do not come manifestly to sense, which is of the exteriors; but that it is from them and for them is evident from the fact that there is combat and afterward victory, which is not possible except by collisions of things opposite to each other: the opposites are evil and good, and falsity and truth.

[3] But be it known that the man does not fight, but the Lord for the man, and indeed against the hells, which then attempt to attack and subdue the man (n. 840, 1661, 1692, 8159, 8168, 8172, 8175, 8176). From all this it is evident that by the words ”Fear not, for God is come to tempt you,“ is signified that they ought not to fear that the life of heaven will perish, for this comes to pass that they may be taught and know that there is a life of heaven, and also what its quality is. But concerning temptations, see (n. 2272, 2768, 3318, 3927, 3928, 4249, 4299, 4341, 4572, 5036, 5246, 5356, 6144, 6574, 6611, 6657, 6663, 6666, 6829, 8131, 8273, 8351, 8367, 8370, 8403, 8567).

AC 8925. And that the fear of Him may be before your faces, that ye sin not.  That this signifies holy fear therefrom of the Divine, and the consequent preservation of spiritual life, is evident from the signification of ”the fear of God,“ as being a holy fear of the Divine; from the signification of ”faces,“ as being the interiors (n. 1999, 2434, 3527, 4066, 4796, 4797, 5102, 5585, 5592); consequently ”the fear of God before their faces“ denotes a holy fear of the Divine in their interiors; and from the signification of ”that ye sin not,“ as being the preservation of spiritual life, for spiritual life is preserved by not sinning. To sin is to do and think what is evil and false intentionally and from the will, for the things which are done intentionally and from the will are such as come forth out of the heart and defile the man (Matt. 15:11, 17-19), consequently which destroy spiritual life with him (n. 8910). As regards the holy fear which is signified in the Word by ”the fear of God,“ be it known that this fear is love, but love such as is the love of little children toward their parents, of parents toward their children, of consorts toward each other, who fear to do anything which displeases, thus which in any way does injury to love.  Such fear is insinuated into love during man’s regeneration.  As this fear is in agreement with love, and can be within and actually is within or united to love, it is for this reason called holy fear, and is the fear of sinning or doing contrary to the commandments, thus contrary to the Lord.  But this fear differs with everyone according to the quality and amount of the love (n. 2826, 3718, 3719, 5459, 7280, 7788).

AC 8926. Verses 18-20.   And the people stood afar off, and Moses came near unto the thick darkness where God was. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel, Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven. Ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold, ye shall not make unto you.  ”And the people stood afar off,“ signifies remoteness from internal truths; ”and Moses came near unto the thick darkness were God was,“ signifies conjunction still of the truth of spiritual good with truth Divine; ”and Jehovah said unto Moses,“ signifies instruction further; ”Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel,“ signifies those who are of the spiritual church; ”Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven,“ signifies all things of the Word by means of influx from the Divine through heaven; ”ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold,“ signifies that they should wholly abstain from such things as in the external form appear as true and good, but in the internal form are false and evil; ”ye shall not make unto you,“ signifies that they must carefully beware.

AC 8927. And the people stood afar off That this signifies remoteness from internal truths, is evident from the signification of ”standing afar off,“ as being remoteness from internal things (n. 8918).

AC 8928. And Moses came near unto the thick darkness where God was.  That this signifies the conjunction still of the truth of spiritual good with truth Divine, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being truth Divine beneath heaven conjoined with truth Divine in heaven, consequently mediating (n. 8760, 8787, 8805), thus the truth of spiritual good, for this is truth Divine beneath heaven, in which truth is the spiritual church that is represented by the sons of Israel - this truth is represented by Moses as the head of that church (n. 7041); from the signification of ”coming near,“ as being conjunction, for to come near unto the Divine is to be conjoined therewith; and from the signification of ”thick darkness,“ as being truth Divine relatively to those who are of the spiritual church, also relatively to that people which Moses was in charge of as their leader. That truth Divine is thick darkness to that church and that people, is because they are not in any light in respect to truths Divine.

[2] In the first place, those who are of the spiritual church believe that they are in light; but that they are in obscurity, nay, in thick darkness, in respect to truth Divine, is evident from the fact that they do not know from any internal perception that what the church says is true, but merely from the fact that the church says so; and this they confirm with themselves whether it be false or true; and he who is not in any internal perception concerning truth Divine is in thick darkness, or what is the same thing, to him Divine truth is thick darkness. For example, they who are of the spiritual church do not know, nor desire to know, that there is any internal sense of the Word; and if perchance they were to believe it, it would not be from any internal perception that it is so, but from persuasion from some other source.

[3] To take another example: they who are of the spiritual church say that faith is the only means of salvation, even without charity and its goods. This they believe because the church says so, nor do they come to such a light of perception as to perceive that there is no faith except where there is charity, and that the one belongs to the other as consort to consort; consequently that charity is an essential of the church, because it is of good. From this also it is plain in what obscurity, or in what thick darkness, the spiritual church is. And because they are in this thick darkness they divide the church into as many churches as there are diverse doctrines concerning the truths of faith; which they would not do if they were in light.  For he who is in light never doubts, still less denies, that love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor are essentials of the church, and that upon them are based all the truths of the Word, consequently all the truths of faith. The case is similar with all the other truths which hang upon this and are called truths of faith. But these things have been more plainly shown above, (n. 2708, 2715, 2831, 2849, 2935, 2937, 3241, 3246, 6289, 6427, 6865, 6945, 7233). That they who are of the spiritual church do not attain unto the first threshold of the wisdom, or unto the first ray of light, in which they are who are of the celestial church, (n. 2718, 3833, 6500).

[4] Another reason why Moses is said to have entered into thick darkness when he came near unto God, is that Moses as a leader represented the Israelitish and Jewish people, which was in such thick darkness concerning internal truths as to be wholly ignorant of them, for they made everything of worship and everything Divine to consist in external things.  This is the reason why to them the Divine was thick darkness; for it is known to everyone that the Divine is never in darkness, but in light, for the Divine is light itself; and therefore when it is called ”thick darkness“ it is relatively to those who are in no light, for unto such the Divine truths make the light of heaven appear no otherwise; because they are not believed, and are even denied.  And the Divine appears unto everyone according to the quality of his life and faith, consequently as light to those who are in light, and as thick darkness to those who are in thick darkness.  That the Israelitish and Jewish people was of such a quality, (n. 3479, 3769, 4281, 4293, 4307, 4314, 4316, 4433, 4680, 4825, 4832, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4903, 6304); also that the Lord appeared unto them upon Mount Sinai in smoke, in a cloud, and in thick darkness, in accordance with their quality, (n. 1891, 6832, 8814, 8819).

AC 8929. And Jehovah said unto Moses.  That this signifies instruction further, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ as being instruction, for ”saying“ involves what follows, here instruction (n. 6879, 6881, 6883, 6891, 7186, 7267, 7304, 7380, 8127).

AC 8930. Thus shalt thou say unto the sons of Israel. That this signifies those who are of the spiritual church, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the spiritual church (n. 6426, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 7957, 8234, 8805).

AC 8931. Ye have seen that I have spoken with you from heaven. That this signifies all things of the Word by means of influx from the Divine through heaven, is evident from the signification of ”speaking from heaven,“ when by Jehovah to those who are of the church, who are represented by the sons of Israel (n. 8930), as being truth Divine, or the Word from the Divine through heaven; for that which Jehovah speaks is truth Divine, thus the Word which is in the church; and that which He speaks passes through heaven.

[2] Be it known that heaven is not in any certain and determinate place, thus not, according to the common opinion, on high; but heaven is where the Divine is, thus with everyone and in everyone who is in charity and faith; for charity and faith are heaven, because they are from the Divine, and there also the angels dwell. That heaven is where the Divine is, that is, where the Lord is, is evident from the fact that Mount Sinai, from which the Lord spoke, is here called ”heaven;“ and this is also the reason why by ”Mount Sinai“ is signified heaven, from which is Divine truth (n. 8805).

[3] That all things of the Word are signified, is because Jehovah or the Lord then began to reveal the Word which should serve the human race for doctrine and life, first by Moses, and afterward by the prophets.  In order therefore that they might know that the Word was from the Divine through heaven, the Lord Himself willed to come down, and with a living voice proclaim the ten commandments, and thus show that all that follows of the law, that is, of the Word, was in like manner by means of influx from the Divine through heaven.

AC 8932. Ye shall not make with Me gods of silver and gods of gold.  That this signifies that they should wholly abstain from such things as in the external form appear as true and good, but in the internal form are false and evil, is evident from the signification of ”making gods,“ as being to worship, for he who makes unto himself gods does it for the sake of worship; from the signification of ”silver,“ as being truth, consequently in the opposite sense, falsity; and from the signification of ”gold,“ as being good, and consequently in the opposite sense, evil (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 2954, 5658, 6914, 6917, 7999). That those things are meant which appear true and good in the external form, but in the internal are false and evil, is because it is said, ”Ye shall not make then‘ with Me,“ that is, with Jehovah God; for Divine truth itself and Divine good itself are in internals and are likewise in externals; but in externals Divine truth and good are in representative types; for external things in a type have reference to and represent internal things.  External things are false and evil whenever, being separate from internal things, they are accounted holy or are worshiped; and yet they still appear as true and good, because they represent what is true and good. These things are signified by ”making with Jehovah God gods of silver and gods of gold.“

[2] This commandment follows immediately after the ten commandments, for the reason that the Israelitish and Jewish people was such that it accounted holy, and worshiped altogether as Divine, external things separated from internal (n. 3479, 3769, 4281, 4293, 4307, 4314, 4316, 4433, 4680, 4825, 4832, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4903, 6304, 6832, 8814, 8819). That it may be further known what and of what quality are those things which in the external form appear as true and good, but in the internal are false and evil, let us take as an example all the rites of the Jewish Church; as the sacrifices, incenses, washings, and many others. In the external form these were true and good, not of themselves, but because in a type they had reference to or represented internal truths and goods, which are of love and faith in the Lord. When such things were accounted holy in the external form, and especially when they were worshiped, as by the Jews and Israelites when becoming idolaters they applied them to the worship of strange gods, they then retained nothing of the truths and goods which in a type they had reference to or represented, except the appearance, because in the internal form they were falsities and evils.

[3] The case was similar with all the other things which with that people were types representative of heavenly and Divine things. For as soon as the external things which represented internal things were applied to the worship of other gods, they became idols which they worshiped, or gods of silver and of gold which they made with Jehovah God; for then in external form they appeared as true and good, but in the internal they were false and evil.

[4] In general ”gods of silver and of gold“ denote all the falsities and derivative evils of worship, which are rendered like truth and good by wrong applications and interpretations of the Word, and at the same time by reasonings from self-intelligence. Such things are signified by ”the gods of silver and of gold“ in the following passages. In Isaiah:--

In that day a man shall cast forth his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which they made for themselves to how down to, to the moles and to the bats; to enter into the clefts of the rocks, and into the clefts of the crags (Isa. 2:20, 21);

”moles and bats“ denote those who are in darkness, that is, in falsities and in the derivative evils.

[5] Again in Isaiah:--

In that day they shall cast away every man his idols of silver, and his idols of gold, which your hands have made for you, a sin (Isa. 31:7);

”which the hands have made“ denotes those things which are from self-intelligence.  Again:--

The craftsman casteth a graven image, and the caster overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains (Isa. 40:19);

”graven images“ denote those things which are from one’s own (n. 8869); ”to overlay with gold“ denotes to make them appear good in the external form; ”casting silver chains,“ denotes to make them cohere together as if connected with truths. ”Gold“ denotes good, and ”silver“ truth.

[6] In like manner in Jeremiah:--

The statutes of the nations are vanity: surely he cutteth out wood from the forest, the work of the hands of the workman.  He decketh it with gold and with silver; they fasten them with nails and with hammers, that it sway not to and fro (Jer. 10:3, 4).

In Hosea:--

The Ephraimites sin more and more, and make them a molten image of silver, idols in their intelligence, all the work of the craftsmen (Hosea 13:2);

”Ephraim“ denotes the intellectual of the church (n. 5354, 6222, 6234, 6238, 6267); ”a molten image of silver“ denotes falsity appearing as truth, wherefore it is said ”in their intelligence “ ”all the work of the craftsmen“ denotes that all was through reasonings from their own.

[7] In Habakkuk:--

Woe unto him that saith to the wood, Awake; to the dumb stone, This shall teach. Behold this is fixed with gold and silver, but there is no breath in the midst of it (Habakkuk 2:19);

”wood“ denotes evil; ”stone“ falsity; ”fixed with gold and silver“ denotes the appearance of good and truth by means of applications.  In Daniel:--

Belshazzar said while he well tasted the wine, that they should bring the vessels of gold and of silver which his father Nebuchadnezzar had brought out of the temple that was in Jerusalem; that the king and his great ones, his wives and his concubines, might drink therefrom.  And they drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, of stone (Daniel 5:2-4, 23);

”the vessels of gold and of silver, which were from the temple of Jerusalem,“ represented the goods and truths of the church and kingdom of the Lord; ”to drink wine out of them“ signified to profane by means of evils and falsities, which are ”the gods of gold and of silver.“

[8] In David:--

Their idols are silver and gold, the work of a man‘s hands.  They have a mouth, but they speak not; eyes have they, but they see not (Ps. 115:4, 5; 135:15, 16);

”the silver and gold which are idols“ denote falsities and evils; ”the work of a man’s hands“ denote that they are from self-intelligence.  In Moses:--

The graven images of the gods of the nations shall ye burn with fire; thou shalt not covet the silver and the gold that is on them, to take it unto thee, for that is an abomination to Jehovah thy God; therefore thou shalt not bring an abomination into thy house, that there become what is accursed, like unto it, thou shalt utterly abhor it (Deut. 7:25, 26);

”the silver and gold upon graven images“ denote the falsities and evils which are worshiped as truths and goods by reason of the appearance that is induced on them.

AC 8933.  Ye shall not make unto you.  That this signifies that they must carefully beware, is evident from the fact that it is again said that it was not to be done.  The iteration or repetition involves that it was not to be done at all, or that they must carefully beware.

AC 8934.  Verses 21-23.  An altar of ground thou shalt make to Me, and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings, thy flocks, and thy herds; in every place where I shall put the memory of My name, I will come unto thee and I will bless thee.  And if thou make Me an altar of stones, thou shalt not build it of hewn stones; for if thou move thy tool upon it, thou wilt profane it.  And thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it.  ”An altar of ground thou shalt make unto Me,“ signifies a representative of worship in general from good; ”and shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings,“ signifies worship specifically according to the state of the spiritual life of each one; ”thy flocks, and thy herds,“ signifies goods internal and external; ”in every place where I shall put the memory of My name,“ signifies a state of faith in the Lord with everyone; ”I will come unto thee and I will bless them,“ signifies the presence of the Divine then, and influx; ”and if thou wake Me an altar of stones,“ signifies a representative of worship in general from truths; ”thou shalt not build it of hewn stones,“ signifies that it must not be from self-intelligence; ”for if thou move thy tool upon it,“ signifies if it is from one‘s own; ”thou wilt profane it,“ signifies that then there will be no worship; ”and thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar,“ signifies no elevation to interior things which are celestial; ”that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it,“ signifies the idea of thought concerning them thus full of falsities, which idea will then be made manifest.

AC 8935. An altar of ground thou shalt make unto Me. That this signifies a representative of worship in general from good, is evident from the signification of ”an altar,“ as being the principal representative of the Lord, and consequently of the worship of Him (n. 921, 2777, 2811, 4489, 4541); and from the signification of ”ground,“ as being good. That ”ground“ denotes good is because by ”ground“ is signified the church which is in good (n. 566). Hence Adam was said to be ”from the ground“ (Gen. 2:7; 3:19), for by him was signified the man of the celestial church, or the church which is in good (n. 478, 479). There are two things from which the worship of the Lord is effected; good and truth. Worship from good was represented by an altar of ground, but worship from truth was represented by an altar of stones; both kinds of altars are here treated of.  These two things from which worship is effected are called faith and charity; worship from truth bears relation to faith, and worship from good to charity. As regards worship from faith and worship from charity, or from truth and from good, the case is this.  Before a man is regenerated he is in worship from truth, but when he has been regenerated, he is in worship from good. For before a man has been regenerated he is led by means of truth to good, that is, by means of faith to charity; but when he has been regenerated he is in good and thence in truth; that is, he is in charity and thence in faith (n. 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658). These two kinds of worship are what are represented by altars of ground and of stone. That an altar is the chief representative of the worship of the Lord, because thereon were made burnt-offerings and sacrifices, and these were the things in which the Divine worship of the Hebrew nation, and thus of the Israelitish and Jewish nation, chiefly consisted, (n. 923, 1343, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519, 6905).

AC 8936. And shalt sacrifice thereon thy burnt-offerings, and thy thank-offerings.  That this signifies worship specifically according to the state of the spiritual life of each one, is evident from the signification of ”burnt-offerings and sacrifices,“ as being all internal worship in general, with variety according to the various kinds of celestial and spiritual things, that is, of good which is of love to the Lord, and of truth which is of faith in the Lord (n. 922, 923, 2165, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519, 6905), thus according to every state of spiritual life specifically.  From this it was that sacrifices were instituted of kinds so various, as, besides the daily sacrifices, those of the sabbaths, of the feasts, of the new moons, of inaugurations, of sanctifications, also for every guilt, for sin, for cleansing, for healing, and for birth. From this also it was that according to the state (to be represented) various kinds of animals were employed, as oxen, bullocks, lambs, rams, she-goats, and he-goats, by which were specifically signified the various goods of spiritual life.

AC 8937. Thy flocks, and thy herds.  That this signifies goods internal and external, is evident from the signification of ”flocks,“ as being internal goods, and from the signification of ”herds,“ as being external goods (n. 2566, 5913). That by ”flocks“ are signified internal goods; is because to flocks belong lambs, sheep, kids, she-goats, rams, and he-goats, by which are signified such things as are of innocence, and of celestial and spiritual love in the internal man; and that by ”herds“ are signified external goods, is because to herds belong oxen, bullocks, calves, by which are signified such things as are of good and truth in the external man.  What is signified by ”oxen,“ (n. 2180, 2566, 2781); what by ”bullocks,“ and by ”calves,“ (n. 1824, 2830); what by ”lambs,“ (n. 3519, 3994, 7840); what by ”sheep,“ (n. 4169); what by ”kids,“ and by ”she-goats,“ (n. 3519, 4005, 4006, 4871); what by ”rams,“ (n. 2830, 4170); and what by ”he-goats,“ (n. 4169, 4769).

AC 8938. In every place where I shall put the memory of My name.  That this signifies a state of faith in the Lord with everyone, is evident from the signification of ”place,“ as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 3404, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381); thus ”every place“ denotes the state of everyone, or with everyone.  That a state of faith is signified, is because the ”name of Jehovah“ signifies everything in one complex by which the Lord is worshiped, thus all things of faith and charity (n. 2724, 3006, 6674); consequently ”to put the memory of the name of Jehovah God“ denotes with whom, or in whose heart, are charity and faith from the Lord.  It is according to the sense of the letter that they were to sacrifice burnt-offerings and thank-offerings, thus their flocks and their herds, in Jerusalem, which was the place chosen by the Lord for the worship of Himself, thus in which He put the memory of His name. According to the internal sense, however, place is not meant, but every man in whom are faith and charity; for in the internal sense by ”place“ is not signified place, but state; neither by ”name“ is there signified name, but faith and worship; thus there is meant the man who is in a state of reception of faith from the Lord.  Moreover in Jerusalem, which was the place where the Lord was worshiped by burn-offerings and thank-offerings, were represented all things that belong to the church. Consequently by ”Jerusalem“ in the Word, and by the ”New Jerusalem“ in the Apocalypse, is signified the church of the Lord; and the church of the Lord is with everyone who is in a state of reception of charity and faith from the Lord; for a man is himself a church, and a number in whom is the church make the church in general. Hence it is also evident that by ”in every place in which I put the memory of My name“ is signified a state of faith with everyone.

AC 8939. I will come unto thee, and I will bless thee. That this signifies the presence of the Divine then, and influx, is evident from the signification of ”coming unto“ anyone, when it is said by Jehovah, as being presence (n. 5934, 6063, 6089); and from the signification of ”to be blessed,“ when by Jehovah, as being to be gifted with faith and charity (n. 2846, 3406, 4981, 6091, 6099, 8674), thus also their flowing in, for faith and charity flow in from the Lord with man. These things are ”a blessing“ in the internal sense, for they are what render man blessed and happy to eternity. During man’s life in the world, the things which he calls blessings are those which render him blessed and happy in time, such as riches and honors. But the things which are meant in the internal sense of the Word are not temporal things, but eternal things, compared with which temporal things are of no account. For there is no ratio between what is temporal and what is eternal, not even if the time be extended to thousands or myriads of years, for these have an end, but that which is eternal has no end. Wherefore that which is eternal is, for that which is without end is, because it has being from the Divine, which is infinite, and the infinite as to time is the eternal. But that which is temporal relatively is not, because when it is ended it is no more. Hence also it is plain that ”blessing“ in the spiritual sense is that which has within it being from the Divine, thus the things of eternal life, consequently those which are of charity and faith.

[2] That worldly blessing is nothing in comparison with heavenly blessing, which is eternal, the Lord thus teaches in Matthew:--

What is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his soul? (Matt. 16:26).

But the man who is in worldly and earthly things does not apprehend this saying, for worldly and earthly things suffocate it, and cause him not even to believe that there is an eternal life. And yet I can asseverate that as soon as a man dies he is in the other life, and lives as a spirit among spirits, and that he then appears to himself and to others in that life in all respects like a man in the world, endowed with every sense internal and external (n. 1881); consequently that the death of the body is only the casting off of such things as had served for use and service in the world; and moreover that death itself is a continuation of life, but in another world, which is invisible to the eyes of the earthly body, yet is there seen in a light exceeding a thousand times the midday light of the world.

[3] As I know this from the living experience of so many years, which is still continued, I solemnly declare it. I still speak, and I have spoken, with almost all whom I had known in the world and who are dead, with some after two or three days from their decease.  Very many of them were exceedingly indignant that they had not believed at all in a life which was to continue after death.  I have spoken with them not merely for a day, but for months and years; and it has also been given me to see their states of life in succession, or in progress, either to hell or to heaven.  Wherefore let him who wishes to be eternally happy know and believe that he will live after death.  Let him think of this and keep it in mind, for it is the truth. Let him also know and believe that the Word is the only doctrine which teaches how a man must live in the world in order to be happy to eternity.

AC 8940. And if thou make Me an altar of stones.  That this signifies a representative of worship in general from truths, is evident from the signification of ”an altar,“ as being a representative of Divine worship in general (n. 921, 2777, 2811, 4489); and from the signification of ”stones,“ as being truths (n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798, 6426, 8609). There is worship of the Lord from good, and there is worship of Him from truth. The worship of the Lord from good was represented by an altar of ground, and the worship from truth by an altar of stone. As to both kinds of worship, (n. 8935). As an ”altar of stone“ signified worship from truth, it was therefore commanded that such an altar should be erected as soon as they passed over the Jordan and came into the land of Canaan, and upon it were to be written the commandments of the law, that is, truths Divine from heaven; for by the ”ten commandments“ are signified all truths Divine in sum total.  Concerning this altar it is thus written in Moses:--

When ye shall pass over Jordan, thou shalt set thee up great stones, and plaster them with plaster; and then thou shalt write upon them all the words of this law. After, thou shalt build there an altar unto Jehovah thy God, an altar of stones, upon which thou shalt not strike iron. Thou shalt build the altar of Jehovah thy God of whole stones, and thou shalt cause to go up upon it burnt-offerings, and thank-offerings. And thou shalt write upon the stones of the altar the words of the law very plainly (Deut. 27:1-8; Josh. 8:30-32).

[2] The reason why the words of the law were to be written upon the stones of the altar, was that by ”stones“ were signified truths, and by ”an altar of stones,“ worship from truths. This also was the reason why the ten commandments, which signified Divine truths in the complex, were written on tables of stone.  That this was to be done as soon as they had passed over the Jordan, was because the Jordan, which was the first and the last boundary of the land of Canaan on the side of the wilderness, signified introduction into the church or heaven, which is effected by means of the knowledges of truth and good, thus by means of truths from the Word (n. 4255); for all the rivers which were boundaries of that land signified the first and the last things of the Lord‘s kingdom (n. 4116, 4240). By the stones of the altar” are signified the truths of faith also in Isaiah:--

He shall take away sin when He maketh all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are scattered (Isa. 27:9);

speaking of the vastation of the church; “the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are scattered” denotes that so it shall be with the truths of faith which are of worship. As regards altars in general, they were of ground, of stones, of brass, of wood, and also of gold--of brass, wood, and gold, because these signified good. Concerning an altar of brass, (Ezekiel 9:2); concerning an altar of wood, (Ezek. 41:22); and concerning an altar of gold, which was the altar of incense, (1 Kings 6:22; 7:48; Rev. 8:3). That “brass” signifies good, (n. 425, 1551); that “wood” does so, (n. 643, 2784, 2812, 3720, 8354); and likewise “gold,” (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658).

AC 8941. Thou shalt not build it of hewn stones. That this signifies that it must not be from self-intelligence, is evident from the signification of “hewn stones,” as being such things as are from self-intelligence; for “stones” denote truths (n. 8940); and to “hew,” or fit, them denotes to hatch or devise truths, or such things as resemble truths, from one’s own, or from self-intelligence.  For things which are hatched or devised from one‘s own, or from self-intelligence, have their life from man, which life is no life, because man’s own is nothing but evil (n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1047, 5660, 5786, 8480); whereas that which is not from man‘s own, but from the Divine, has life in itself, because all life is from the Divine.  The worship of the Lord from truth is here treated of, for this worship is signified by “an altar of stones” (n. 8940).

[2] The truths from which the Lord is to be worshiped are to be taken solely from the Word, for in every detail of the Word there is life from the Divine. When truths are taken from one’s own, they regard and have as their end dignity and eminence over all in the world, and likewise earthly possessions and wealth above all men, and therefore they have in them the love of self and of the world, thus all evils in the complex (n. 7488, 8318). But truths which are from the Word regard and have as their end eternal life, and have in them love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor, thus all goods in the complex.  When truths are hatched from one‘s own, or from self-intelligence, they rule over the truths which are from the Divine, because these are applied to confirm them; when yet the contrary should be the case, namely, that truths from the Divine should rule, and those which are from self-intelligence should serve. Those which are from one’s own, or from self-intelligence, are called truths, but they are not truths; they only appear as truths in the external form, for they are rendered like truths by means of applications from the literal sense of the Word, and by reasonings, while in the internal form they are falsities. What and of what quality they are, (n. 8932).

[3] There are in the world two religiosities which are from self-intelligence,--one in which the love of self and of the world is everything, which religion is that which is called in the Word “Babel;” it is inwardly profane from the love of self and of the world, and outwardly holy from the Word which has bee“ applied to confirm.  The other religiosity is that in which the light of nature is everything; they who are in this acknowledge nothing as truth which they do not apprehend.  Some from this religiosity acknowledge the Word, but they apply it for confirmation, thus to serve. Some however do not acknowledge the Word; but these make the Divine to consist in nature, for their light, being of nature, falls into nature, and cannot be enlightened by the light of heaven, because they reject the Word from which is all enlightenment.  Those who are from these two religiosities are in hell, because they are void of heavenly life, which they cannot receive because they have rejected the Word. And those of them who have applied the Word for confirmation, have made the Word of none effect in their hearts; but because of its great authority with the common people, they have used it for this service, in order to give weight to the devices of their own intelligence. From all this it can be seen what is signified in the spiritual sense by the altar not being to be built of hewn stones.

[4] By ”hewn stone“ is signified that which is from self-intelligence in the following passages also:--

That the people may know, Ephraim and the inhabitant of Samaria, that say in haughtiness and pride of heart, The bricks are fallen, and we will build with hewn stone (Isa. 9:9, 10).

Although I cry and shout, He hath shut out my prayers, He hath fenced about my ways with hewn stone, He hath overturned my paths (Lam. 3:8, 9).

Forasmuch as ye trample upon the worn one, and seize from him the burden of wheat; ye have built houses of hewn stone, but ye shall not dwell in them (Amos 5:11).

In these passages ”hewn stone“ denotes such things in matters of faith as are from self-intelligence.

[5] Such being the signification of ”hewn stone,“ therefore the altar first built in the land of Canaan by the sons of Israel after they had passed over the Jordan, was built of unhewn stones; for by the passage over the Jordan was represented introduction into the kingdom of the Lord, which is effected by means of the truths of faith. Of this altar it is thus written in Joshua:--

Joshua built an altar unto Jehovah the God of Israel in Mount Ebal, as Moses the servant of Jehovah commanded the sons of Israel, an altar of whole stones, upon which no man had moved iron (Joshua 8:30, 31; Deut. 27:1-8).

[6] In like manner the temple of Jerusalem was built of whole stones unhewn, of which it is thus written in the first book of Kings:--

As to the house itself, when it was in building, it was built of whole stone, as it was brought; for there was neither hammer nor axe nor any tools of iron heard in the house, while it was in building (1 Kings 6:7)

for by the temple of the Lord was represented the Lord as to Divine truth. That the Lord was represented by the temple, He Himself teaches in (John 2:19, 21, 22); and that He was represented as to the Divine truth, was because this truth was there taught; for which reason also it was built of stones, because by ”stones“ was signified Divine truth (n. 8940); and hence also the Lord Himself was called the ”Stone of Israel“ (n. 6426).

[7] from all this it is now evident what was signified by the stone of the altar, and what also by the stone of the temple, likewise what by the stones being whole and unhewn, namely, that religion was to be formed by truths from the Lord, thus from the Word, and not from self-intelligence. Truths which are from self-intelligence are thus described also in Isaiah:--

The workman casteth a graven image, and the founder overlayeth it with gold, and casteth silver chains. He seeketh an intelligent workman to prepare a graven image (Isa. 40:19, 20);

”a graven image“ denotes a religiosity that is from one‘s own, which is set up to be worshiped as Divine (n. 8869); ”the workman“ denotes those who hatch and devise from one’s own; that they may appear like truths is described by his ”overlaying it with gold,“ ”casting silver chains,“ and ”seeking an intelligent workman.“

[8] Again:--

They that form a graven image are all of them vanity. All his fellows shall be ashamed, and the workmen themselves. He fashioneth the iron with the tongs, and worketh with coal, and formeth it with sharp hammers; thus he worketh it with the arm of his strength; he fashioneth pieces of wood, he stretcheth out a thread, and marketh it off with a rule, he maketh it into its angles, and defineth it with a compass, that he may make it in the form of a man, according to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house (Isa. 44:9, 11-13);

in this passage also is described a religiosity which is from self-intelligence.  In like manner in Jeremiah:--

The statutes of the nations are vanity; surely he cutteth out wood from the forest, the work of the hands of the workman with an axe. He decketh it with silver and with gold; he fasteneth it with nails and with hammers (Jer. 10:3, 4).

And also in Hosea:--

Nevertheless now they sin more and more, and make them a molten image of silver, idols in their intelligence, all the work of the craftsmen (Hosea 13:2).

A religiosity that is hatched from self-intelligence, and not derived from the Word, is meant in the internal sense by ”idols“ and ”strange gods,“ by ”molten images“ and ”graven images,“ for the things which are from one‘s own are nothing else, because in themselves they are dead, and yet are adored as living.

AC 8942. For if thou move thy tool upon it. That this signifies if it is from one’s own, is evident from the signification of a ”tool,“ as being truth devised, thus from one‘s own; for the tool is of iron, by which stones are cut and fashioned into form.  Here therefore it is man’s own, for this fashions the things which are to be of religion, in order that they may appear in the form of truth. Instead of ”tool,“ the term ”iron“ is sometimes used, and sometimes ”axe“ (Deut. 27:5; Josh. 8:30, 31; 1 Kings 6:7; Isa. 44:11, 12; Jer. 10:3), and by these instruments are signified such things as are of self-intelligence, and which devise.

AC 8943. Thou wilt profane it.  That this signifies that then there will be no worship, is evident from the signification of ”profaning,“ as being to cause that there is not any worship. For that which is from self-intelligence is in itself void of life, nay, is spiritually dead, for man‘s own is nothing but evil; and therefore if Divine worship is performed from it, this worship is nothing else than the worship of an idol, graven or molten, wherein there is no spirit, that is, no life.  But that which is from the Word is alone serviceable for Divine worship, because it is in itself alive.  For within everything of the Word there is a spiritual sense, which treats of the Lord’s kingdom; and within this sense is the Divine, because the Word in its inmost sense treats of the Lord alone; from this is the sanctity and the life of the Word, and not from any other source. The Word is like a Divine man; the literal sense is as it were his body, but the internal sense is as it were his soul; which shows that the literal sense has life through the internal sense. It appears as if the literal sense vanishes or dies through the internal sense; but on the contrary it does not vanish, still less dies; but through the internal sense it lives. From all this it is now evident that worship truly Divine has its existence from those things which are of the Word, and in no case from those things which are of self-intelligence. Hence it is that by ”if thou move a tool upon the altar thou wilt profane it,“ is signified, if thou devise not from the Word, but from self-intelligence such things as must be of Divine worship, there is no worship.

AC 8944. It is believed in the world that a man is able to know from the light of nature, thus without revelation, many things that belong to religion; as that there is a God, that He is to be worshipped, and also that He is to be loved, likewise that man will live after death, and many other things that depend upon these; and yet these things being such as are from self-intelligence. But I have been instructed by much experience that of himself, and without revelation, man knows nothing whatever about Divine things, and about the things that belong to heavenly and spiritual life. For man is born into the evils of the love of self and of the world, which are of such a nature that they shut out the influx from the heavens, and open influx from the hells; thus such as make man blind, and incline him to deny that there is a Divine, that there is a heaven and a hell, and that there is a life after death. This is very manifest from the learned in the world, who by means of knowledges have carried the light of their nature above the light of others; for it is known that these deny the Divine, and acknowledge nature in place of the Divine, more than others; and also that when they speak from the heart, and not from doctrine, they deny the life after death, likewise heaven and hell, consequently all things of faith, which they call bonds for the common people. From this it is plain what is the quality of the light of nature without revelation.  It has also been shown that many who have written upon natural theology, and from the light of their nature have skilfully confirmed those things which belonged to the doctrine of their church, in the other life at heart deny these same things more than others do; and also deny the Word itself, which they attempt utterly to destroy; for in the other life hearts speak. It has also been shown that the same can receive nothing of influx out of heaven, but only from the hells.  Hence it was plain what is the quality of the light of nature without revelation; consequently what is the quality of that which  comes from man‘s own intelligence.

[2] But two considerations have arisen which bring the mind into doubt upon this subject: first, that the ancients who were Gentiles nevertheless knew that there is a Divine, that this is to be worshiped, and not man as to the soul is immortal; second, that these things are known also to many nations at this day, with whom there is no revelation.  But as regards the ancients, they did not know these things from the light of their own nature, but from revelation, which had spread from the church even unto them; for the Lord’s church had been in the land of Canaan from the most ancient times (n. 3686, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136, 6516).  From this source such things as pertained to Divine worship spread to the nations round about, and likewise to the neighboring Greeks, and from these to the Italians or Romans. From this source both Greeks and Romans had knowledges about the Supreme Deity, and the immortality of the soul, of which their learned men wrote.

[3] As regards the nations at this day who also know that there is a Divine, and that there is a life after death, these have not had this knowledge from the light of their own nature, but from a religiosity derived by them from ancient times, which had been founded on such things as had spread in various ways from the church, which had revelation.  This was of the Lord‘s Divine Providence. Moreover, those of them who from their religiosity acknowledge a Divine over all things, and from their religiosity perform the duties of charity to their neighbor, when instructed in the other life receive the truths of faith, and are saved (n. 2589-2604).

AC 8945. And thou shalt not go up on steps unto the altar. That this signifies no elevation to interior things which are celestial, is evident from the signification of ”going up by steps,“ as being to raise one’s self to higher or interior things.  Whether we say ”interior things,“ or ”higher things,“ it is the same, for interior things appear as higher, (n. 2148, 3084, 4210, 4599); and from the signification of ”an altar,“ as being the chief representative of the Lord (n. 921, 2777, 2811); thus by ”going up on steps unto Mine altar“ is signified to raise one‘s self to the Lord, consequently to interior things which are celestial; for the Lord is more present in interior things. Those things are called celestial which are in the inmost heaven, and those spiritual which are in the middle heaven.  For heaven is distinguished into two kingdoms, namely, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom.  They who are in the celestial kingdom are in the inmost or third heaven, thus nearest to the Lord; for they who are there are in love to the Lord and in innocence, consequently in wisdom above all the other angels.  But they who are in the spiritual kingdom are in the middle or second heaven, thus more remote from the Lord; they who are there are in charity toward the neighbor, and through charity are with the Lord.  Concerning these two kingdoms and the difference between them, (n. 2048, 2088, 2227, 2507, 2669, 2708, 2715, 2718, 3235, 3246, 3374, 3887, 4448, 4585, 4938, 4939, 5113, 5922, 6367, 6435, 7877).

[2] It is to be explained in a few words how the case is with respect to the elevation toward interior things, thus toward celestial things, which is signified by ”going up on steps unto the altar.“ It is not granted anyone in the other life to be raised higher into heaven than to the degree of good in which he is; for if he is raised higher, his defilements, that is, the evils of his loves and the falsities therefrom, are made manifest.  For the more interior, the more pure and holy, it is in heaven. They who are in a more impure state are kept in a lower sphere, where their impurities are not perceived and do not appear, because they are in a grosser good, and a more obscure truth.

[3] It sometimes happens that they who come into heaven desire to come into a more interior heaven, believing that so they will enjoy greater joy.  In order that this desire which clings to them may be removed, they are indeed raised into a more interior heaven; but when they come thither, they begin to be distressed by reason of the evils of their loves, which evils then come to their perception, and they also become ugly by reason of the falsities from the evils with them.  On perceiving these things, they cast themselves down from the more interior heaven, and do not return into a tranquil and peaceful state until they come into their former station.  These are the things which are signified by the statute, ”Thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it.“

[4] The case is similar with those who are beneath heaven.  If these desire to ascend into heaven before they have been prepared, when they are raised there they feel torment almost infernal, and appear to themselves like carcasses.  Even the very life with them labors, like the life of those who are in the death agony; and therefore they cast themselves down headlong, and afterward no more desire to ascend above the state of life in which they are.

[5] Be it known that in the other life heaven is denied by the Lord to no one, and that as many as desire can be admitted. Heaven consists of societies of angels who are in the good of love toward the neighbor and of love to the Lord; and when any are admitted into heaven, they are let into such societies). But when the sphere of their life, that is, when the life of their love, is not in agreement, then conflict arises, from which they have anguish and downcasting.  In this way they are instructed about the life of heaven, and the state of their own life in comparison, also about the fact that no one has heaven merely by being received or admitted (as is the common opinion in the world), and that by his life in the world a man may become of such a character that he can be with those who are in heaven (n. 3938, 4225, 4226, 4299, 4674, 5057, 5058, 7186, 7519, 8794, 8797). These are the things which are signified by the statute, ”Thou shalt not go up on steps unto Mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it;“ and also by a similar statute in (Exod. 28:42, 43).

[6] It is said ”go up on steps,“ for the reason that elevation to interior things appears in the world of spirits, where celestial and spiritual things are presented in forms like those of the world, as an ascent by steps. This representative it has often been given me to see.  For this reason also it was that the angels were seen by Jacob in his dream going up to the Lord by the steps of a ladder (Gen. 28:12). Therefore also by ”steps“ in the Word is signified ascent to higher things, that is, to interior things, as in (Ezekiel 40:6, 22, 26, 31, 34); and in Amos:--

The Lord Jehovih Zebaoth buildeth His steps in the heavens (Amos 9:6).

AC 8946. That thy nakedness be not uncovered upon it.  That this signifies the idea of thought concerning them thus full of falsities, which idea will then be made manifest, is evident from the signification of ”nakedness,“ as being that which is destitute of truths (n. 5433), thus an idea of thought full of falsities; and from the signification of being ”uncovered,“ as being to be made manifest.  How the case herein is, has been explained just above (n. 8945), namely, that a man, a spirit, or an angel, when raised more interiorly into heaven, appears such as he is as to both his lives; as to the life of his thought with respect to truths, and as to the life of his will with respect to goods; for the more interior the advance into the heavens, the purer is the good, and the purer the truth.  In order therefore that the falsities which are of the thought, and the evils which are of the will, should not appear, but be hidden, they are kept in lower parts, where they are in a comparatively obscure light.  From all this also it can be seen what was meant by the saying that ”no one can see Jehovah and live;“ for Jehovah is pure love, and from Him is pure light, and to be seen in these is to perish.  Therefore also the angels themselves in heaven are covered with a cloud (n. 6849); and all who are in hell are veiled in thick clouds (n. 3340, 8137, 8138, 8814, 8819); for clouds there are falsities.

ON THE SPIRITS AND INHABITANTS OF THE PLANET SATURN

AC 8947. The spirits from that earth, and likewise the earth itself, appear in front at a considerable distance, in the plane at the lower part of the knees; and when the eye is opened thither, a multitude of spirits from that earth come into view.  They are seen on this side of that earth, and to the right.

AC 8948. It has also been given me to speak with them, and thereby to know their quality as compared with others. They are upright, and they are modest. And as they esteem themselves small as compared with others, therefore also in the other life they appear small; for the appearance of everyone in the other life is according to his mind, and according to his life.

AC 8949. In worship they are very humble; for therein they account themselves as nothing. They worship our Lord, and acknowledge Him as the One Only God. For the Lord some times appears to those who are on that earth in an angelic form, and thus as a man; and then the Divine beams forth from the face and affects their mind.  Moreover when the in habitants become of age, they speak with spirits, by whom they are instructed concerning the Lord, and how He is to be worshiped, also how they ought to live.

AC 8950. When any wish to lead astray the spirits of that earth, and draw them away from faith in the Lord, or from humility toward Him, and from uprightness of life, they say that they wish to die. Then little knives are seen in their hands, by which they seem to wish to pierce their breasts. When they are asked why they do so, they say that they would rather die than be led away from the Lord. Sometimes the spirits of our earth laugh at these things, and infest them with questionings why they do so. But they answer that they know very well that they are not going to kill themselves, and that this is only an appearance proceeding from the will of their mind, showing that they would rather die than be drawn away from the worship of the Lord.

AC 8951. There are some also on that earth who call their light at night, which is great, the Lord; but these are separated from the rest, and are not tolerated among them. This nocturnal light is shed from the great belt which encompasses that earth at a distance, and from the moons which are called the satellites of Saturn.

AC 8952. They were asked about that great belt, which appears from our earth to be elevated above the horizon of that planet, and to vary its positions. They said that it does not appear to them as a belt, but only as a snowy light in the heavens in various directions.

AC 8953. The inhabitants and spirits of that earth bear relation to that in man which is in the middle between spiritual sense and natural sense; but they withdraw from the natural and draw near to the spiritual. Therefore it is that these spirits often seem to themselves to be carried away, or caught up, into heaven, and afterward to be let back, thus alternately. For whatever is of spiritual sense is in heaven; but whatever is of natural sense is beneath heaven.

AC 8954. There are no cities there, nor kingdoms, but they live distinguished into families, each family apart from others, thus man and wife together with their children.  When the children marry, they are separated from the house of their parents, and have no more concern about it.  Wherefore the spirits from that earth are seen two and two.

AC 8955. All on that earth, otherwise than on ours, know that they shall live after death; and therefore they make no account of their bodies, except in so far as may be necessary for the life, which they say is to remain and serve the Lord. For this reason also they do not bury the bodies of the dead, but cast them forth and cover them with branches of trees from the forest.

AC 8956. They have also little solicitude about food and clothing.  They live on fruits and vegetables of various kinds which their earth produces.  And they are but scantily clothed, for they are encompassed with a thick skin or coat   which wards off the cold.

AC 8957. A continuation about the spirits and inhabitants of the earth Saturn will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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