HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 22

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY

AC 9112. What Conscience is shall now be stated. Conscience is formed in a man from his religious persuasion, according to the reception of this within himself.

AC 9113. With the man of the church, Conscience is formed by means of truths of faith from the Word, or from doctrine drawn from the Word, according to the reception of these in the heart. For when a man knows the truths of faith and apprehends them in his own way, and afterward wills them and does them, a Conscience is then being formed in him. Reception in the heart is reception in the will, for the will of man is that which is called his “heart.”

AC 9114. From this it is that those who have Conscience speak from the heart what they speak, and do from the heart what they do.  Such also have an undivided mind, for they act in accordance with what they believe to be true and good, and in accordance with what they understand. Consequently a more perfect Conscience is possible with those who are more enlightened than others in the truths of faith, and who are in a clearer perception than others, than is possible with those who are less enlightened, and who are in an obscure perception.

AC 9115. Those have Conscience who have received from the Lord a new will. This will is itself the Conscience; and therefore to act contrary to Conscience is to act contrary to this will And as the good of charity makes the new will, the good of charity also makes the Conscience.

AC 9116. Seeing that, as before said (n. 9113). Conscience is formed by means of the truths of faith, as also is the new will, and charity, it follows that to act contrary to the truths of faith is to act contrary to Conscience.

AC 9117. As the faith and charity which are from the Lord make a man’s spiritual life, it follows that to act contrary to Conscience is to act contrary to this life.

AC 9118. As therefore to act contrary to Conscience is to act contrary to the new will, contrary to charity, and contrary to the truths of faith, consequently contrary to the life which man has from the Lord, it is evident from this that a man is in the tranquillity of peace, and in internal blessedness, when he acts according to Conscience; and that he is in intranquillity, and also in pain, when he acts contrary to Conscience. This pain is what is called “the stings of Conscience.”

AC 9119. Man has a Conscience of what is good, and a Conscience of what is just. The Conscience of what is good is the Conscience of the internal man; and the Conscience of what is just is the Conscience of the external man. The Conscience of what is good consists in acting according to the precepts of faith from internal affection; while the Conscience of what is just consists in acting according to civil and moral laws from external affection. They who have a Conscience of what is good, have also a Conscience of what is just; but they who have only a Conscience of what is just, have the capacity of receiving a Conscience of what is good, and moreover do receive it when they are instructed.

AC 9120. What Conscience is may also be illustrated by examples. If unknown to the other, a man has the property of that other in his possession, and thus can keep it for himself without any fear of the law, or of the loss of honor and reputation, and nevertheless restores it to the other because it is not his own, he has Conscience, for he does what is good for the sake of what is good, and what is just for the sake of what is just. Again, if a man who has it in his power to attain a high position, sees that another, who also is a candidate, would be more useful to his country, and yields the position to this other man for the sake of his country‘s good, he has Conscience. So in all other cases.

AC 9121. From these examples may be inferred the character of those who have no Conscience.  They are known from the opposite.  Those among them who for the sake of their own advantage would make what is unjust to appear as just, and what is evil to appear as good; and the reverse; have no Conscience.  Those of them who know that what they do is unjust and evil, and yet do it, do not know what Conscience is, and if instructed, do not wish to know.  Such are they who do all things for the sake of themselves and the world.

AC 9122. Those who have not received Conscience in the world cannot receive Conscience in the other life.  Thus they cannot be saved, because they have no plane into which heaven (that is, the Word through heaven) can flow, and whereby it may operate, and so draw them to itself; for Conscience is the plane and receptacle of the influx of heaven.  Wherefore in the other life such persons are associated with those who love themselves and the world above all things; and these are in hell.

EXODUS 22:1-30

1.   If a thief be caught while digging through, and be smitten, and he die, bloods shall not be shed for him.

2. If the sun have risen upon him, bloods shall be shed for him; repaying he shall repay; if he have nothing, he shall be sold for his theft.

3. If finding the theft be found in his hand, from an ox even to an ass, even to one of the small cattle, living; he shall repay double.

4. When a man shall desolate a field or a vineyard, and shall let his beast go in, and it shall desolate in the field of another; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, he shall repay.

5. When a fire shall go forth, and shall catch hold of thorns, and a stack is consumed, or the standing crop, or a field; he that kindleth the fire repaying shall repay.

6. When a man shall give to his companion silver or vessels to take care of, and it be stolen out of the man’s house; if the thief be caught, he shall repay double.

7. If the thief be not caught, the lord of the house shall be brought unto God, to see whether he hath put his hand to his companion‘s work.

8. Upon every word of transgression, upon ox, upon ass, upon one of the small cattle, upon garment, upon every lost thing, whereof he shall say, This is it; even unto God shall come the word of them both; he whom God shall condemn shall repay double to his companion.

9. When a man shall give to his companion an ass, or an ox, or one of the small cattle, or any beast, to take care of and it die, or be broken, or be led away captive, no one seeing it:

10. The oath of Jehovah shall be between them both, to see whether he hath put his hand to his companion’s work, or whether its lord hath taken it; and he shall not repay.

11. And if stealing it shall be stolen from him, he shall repay to its lord.

12. If tearing it shall be torn, he shall bring a witness for it; he shall not repay that which was torn.

13. And when a man shall borrow from his companion, and it be broken, or die, the lord thereof not being with it, repaying he shall repay.

14. If the lord thereof be with it, he shall not repay; if he is a hireling he shall come in his hire.

15. And when a man shall persuade a virgin who is not betrothed, and shall lie with her, endowing he shall endow her to himself for a woman.

16. If refusing her father shall refuse to give her to him, he shall pay silver according to the dowry of virgins.

17. Thou shalt not suffer a sorceress to live.

18. Everyone that lieth with a beast, dying he shall die.

19. He that sacrificeth to gods, save to Jehovah alone, shall be accurst.

20. And a sojourner thou shalt not afflict, and shall not oppress; for ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt.

21. Any widow and orphan ye shall not afflict.

22. If afflicting thou shalt afflict him, so that crying he shall cry unto Me, hearing I will hear his cry:

23. And Mine anger shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your wives shall become widows, and your sons orphans.

24. If thou shalt lend silver to My people, the needy with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a usurer; ye shall not put usury upon him.

25. If taking a pledge thou shalt take in pledge thy companion‘s garment, even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him:

26. For it is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin, wherein he may sleep; and it shall be, when he shall cry unto Me, that I will hear; for I am merciful.

27. Thou shalt not curse God, and a prince in thy people thou shalt not execrate.

28. The firstfruits of thy grain, and the firstfruits of thy wine, thou shalt not delay. The firstborn of thy sons thou shalt give to Me.

29. So shalt thou do with thine ox, and with thy flock; seven days it shall be with its mother; on the eighth day thou shalt give it to Me.

30. And ye shall be men of holiness to Me; and flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat; ye shall cast it to the dog.

THE CONTENTS

AC 9123. The subject treated of in this chapter in the internal sense is the injuries occasioned in various ways to the truth of faith and the good of charity, and their amendment and restoration; also the aid to be brought should they be extinguished. Afterward instruction in the truths of faith is treated of; and lastly, the state of a man’s life when he is in the good of charity.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 9124. Verses 1-3  . If a thief be caught while digging through, and be smitten, and he die, bloods shall not be shed for him.  If the sun have risen upon him, bloods shall be shed for him; repaying he shall repay; if he have nothing, he shall be sold for his theft. If finding the theft be found in his hand, from an ox even to an ass, even to one of the small cattle, living, he shall repay double.  “If a thief be caught while digging through,” signifies if it is not apparent that good or truth is being taken away; “and be smitten, and he die,” signifies if then it is so injured as to be extinguished; “bloods shall not be shed for him,” signifies that he is not guilty of the violence that is done; “if the sun have risen upon him,” signifies if he shall see it clearly from within; “bloods shall be shed for him,” signifies that he is guilty; “repaying he shall repay,” signifies the amendment and restoration of the truth and good that have been taken away; “if be have nothing,” signifies if nothing remains; “he shall be sold for his theft,” signifies alienation; “if finding the theft be found in his hand,” signifies if there be anything remaining of truth and good by which restoration can be made; “from an ox even to an ass,” signifies whether from exterior good or truth; “even to one of the small cattle,” signifies or from interior truth and good; “living,” signifies in which there is spiritual life; “he shall repay double,” signifies restoration to the full.

AC 9125. If a thief be caught while digging through.  That this signifies if it is not apparent that good of truth is being taken away, is evident from the signification of “digging through,” as being the perpetration of evil in secret, and when it is said of a thief, as being the taking away of good or truth by falsity from evil so that it is not apparent; and from the signification of “a thief,” as being one who takes away good and truth (n. 5135, 8906, 9018, 9020), and in the abstract sense, the truth or good that is taken away. It is said “in the abstract sense,” because the angels, who are in the internal sense of the Word, think abstractedly from persons (n. 5225, 5287, 5434, 8343, 8985, 9007). Moreover in this sense the Word has real things as objects, without determination to persons and places.

[2] That “digging through” denotes the perpetration of evil in secret, and when said of a thief, the taking away of good or truth by falsity from evil so that it is not apparent, is evident from the fact that a distinction is here made between the theft effected by digging through, and that which is committed when the sun is risen. That “digging through” has this signification is also evident from the passages in the Word where it is mentioned, as in Jeremiah:--

Also in thy skirts is found the blood of poor innocent souls. I have not found them in digging through, but they are upon them all (Jer. 2:34);

speaking of filthy loves and the evils from them; “I have not found them in digging through” denotes not by a search in secret; and therefore it is said “they are upon them all,” that is, they appear everywhere. And in Ezekiel:--

He brought me in to the door of the court, where I saw, and behold a hole in the wall. He said unto me, Come, dig through the wall; I therefore digged through the wall, when behold a door (Ezek. 8:7, 8);

speaking of the abominations of the house of Israel which they wrought in secret; “to dig through the wall” denotes to enter in secretly, and to see what they are doing. In Amos:--

Though they dig through into hell, thence shall My hand take them; though they climb up to heaven, thence will I cast them down (Amos 9:2);

“to dig through into hell” denotes to hide themselves there, thus in falsities from evil; for “hell” denotes falsity from evil, because this reigns there. The falsities there are called “darkness,” within which they hide themselves from the light of heaven; for they flee from the light of heaven, which is Divine truth from the Lord. In Job:--

The eye of the adulterer watcheth for the twilight, saying, No eye shall see me; and he putteth a covering on his face. In the dark he diggeth through houses, which they mark for themselves in the daytime; they acknowledge not the light; even so morning is to them the shadow of death; for they acknowledge the terrors of the shadow of death (Job 24:15-17);

here “digging through houses” plainly means secretly plundering the goods of another; for it is said that “in the dark he diggeth through houses;” that “he watcheth for the twilight that no eye may see him;” that “he putteth a covering on his face;” that “he acknowledges not the light;” also that “the morning is to them the shadow of death.”

[3] That “digging through a house” denotes secretly taking away another‘s good, originates from the representatives in the other life. There, when the angels are conversing about falsity destroying good in secret, this is represented below, where angelic conversations are presented to the sight, by digging through a wall; and on the other hand, when the angels are conversing about truth coming to good, and conjoining itself with it, this is represented by an open door through which there is entrance. It is from this that the Lord, who because He spoke from the Divine, spoke according to the representatives that exist in heaven, and according to correspondences, says:--

Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same Is a thief and a robber. But he that entereth in by the door Is the shepherd of the sheep (John 10:1, 2).

This know, that if the master of the house had known in what hour the thief would come, he would surely have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be digged through (Luke 12:39).

Here also a “thief” denotes one who through falsities destroys the goods of faith; “to dig through a house” denotes to do this secretly, because it is done when the master of the house is not watching. From this also it is that “to come as a thief” denotes to come clandestinely, because not through the door, but by some other way, as in John:--

Unless thou watchest, I will come upon thee as a thief, and thou shalt not know in what hour I will come upon thee (Rev.  3:3).

Behold I come as a thief; blessed is he that watcheth (Rev. 16:15).

“To come as a thief” denotes to come clandestinely and unexpectedly. The reason why this is so said by the Lord is that it is meant that the door with man is closed through the falsity of evil.

AC 9126. And be smitten, and he die.  That this signifies if then it is so injured as to be extinguished, is evident from the signification of “being smitten,” when said of truth and good, as being to be injured or harmed (n. 9034, 9058); and from the signification of “dying,” as being to be extinguished. Truth and good are here meant, because by a “thief,” or by “theft,” is signified that which has been taken away, thus good and truth, as also in what follows: “if finding the theft be found in his hand, from an ox, even to an ass, even to one of the flock” (verse 3); an “ox,” an “ass,” and “one of the flock,” signify goods and truths exterior and interior; and they are called “theft,” because found in the hand of the thief; in like manner “silver” and “vessels” (verse 6), which also denote truths interior and exterior.  The like is signified by “thief” as by “theft,” because in the sense abstracted from person, “the thief” denotes the theft; that is, the truth and good that have been taken away (n. 9125).

AC 9127. Bloods shall not be shed for him.  That this signifies that he is not guilty of the violence that is done, is evident from the signification of “blood,” as being in the supreme sense the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord’s Divine good, and in the internal sense thence derived, the truth of good (n. 4735, 6378, 6978, 7317, 7326, 7846, 7850, 7877). Wherefore by “shedding blood” is signified doing violence to truth Divine, or to the truth of good, and also to good itself. For he who does violence to truth does violence likewise to good, because truth has been so conjoined with good that the one belongs to the other; and therefore if violence is done to the one, it is done to the other also.  From this it is plain that by “bloods not being shed for him” is signified that he is not guilty of violence done to truth and good.

[2] He who knows nothing of the internal sense of the Word, knows no otherwise than that by “bloods” in the Word are signified bloods; and that by “shedding blood” is merely signified killing a man.  But the internal sense does not treat of the life of man‘s body, but of the life of his soul, that is, of his spiritual life, which he is to live forever.  This life is described in the Word in the sense of the letter by such things as belong to the life of the body; namely, by the flesh and blood.  And because the spiritual life of man exists and subsists through the good which is of charity and the truth which is of faith, therefore in the internal sense of the Word the good which is of charity is meant by “flesh,” and the truth which is of faith is meant by “blood.” And in a still more interior sense, the good which is of love to the Lord is meant by “flesh,” and the good of love toward the neighbor is meant by “blood.” But in the supreme sense, which treats of the Lord alone, “flesh” denotes the Divine good of the Lord, thus the Lord Himself as to Divine good; and “blood” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, thus the Lord as to Divine truth. These things are understood in heaven by “flesh and blood” when a man is reading the Word; in like manner when he attends the Holy Supper; but in this the bread is the flesh, and the wine is the blood, because by “bread” the same is signified as by “flesh,” and by “wine” the same as by “blood.”

[3] But this is not apprehended by those who are sensuous, as is the case with most men in the world at this day; and therefore let them remain in their own faith, provided they believe that in the Holy Supper, and in the Word, there is something holy, because from the Divine. Granting that they do not know wherein this holiness consists, nevertheless let those who are endowed with any interior perception (that is, who are able to think above the things of sense), consider whether blood is meant by “blood,” and flesh by “flesh,” in the following passages:

Son of man, thus said the Lord Jehovih; Say to every bird of the heaven, to every wild animal of the field, Assemble yourselves, and come; gather yourselves from every side upon My sacrifice that I do sacrifice for you, a great sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel, that ye may eat flesh and drink blood. Ye shall eat the flesh of the mighty, and drink the blood of the princes of the earth; and ye shall drink blood even to drunkenness, of My sacrifice which I will sacrifice for you. Ye shall be sated at My table with the horse and the chariot, and with the strong one, and with every man of war. Thus will I set My glory among the nations (Ezek. 39:17-21).

I saw an angel standing in the sun; and he cried with a loud voice, saying to all the birds that fly in the midst of heaven, Gather yourselves together unto the supper of the great God, that ye may eat the flesh of kings, and the flesh of captains, and the flesh of the strong ones, and the flesh of horses, and of them that sit thereon, and the flesh of all; free and bond, small and great (Rev. 19:17, 18).

It is very clear that in these passages by “flesh” is not meant flesh, and by “blood” is not meant blood.

[4] In like manner then with the “flesh and blood” of the Lord, in the following passage in John:--

The bread that I will give is My flesh. Verily, verily, I say unto you Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye shall not have life in you. He that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day. For My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. He that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, abideth in Me, and I in him. This is the bread that came down from heaven (John 6:51-58).

That the Lord’s “flesh” denotes the Divine good of His Divine love; and that His “blood” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from His Divine good; can be seen from the fact that these are what nourish the spiritual life of a man. From this also it is said, “My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed;” and also, “this is the bread that came down from heaven.” And as man is conjoined with the Lord through love and faith, it is also said, “he that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, abideth in Me, and I in him.” But as before said those alone apprehend this saying who can think above the sensuous things of the body; especially those who are in faith and in love to the Lord, for these are raised by the Lord from the life of the sensuous things of the body toward the life of their spirit; thus from the light of the world into the light of heaven, in which light those material things which are in the thought from the body disappear.

[5] He therefore who knows that “blood” denotes truth Divine from the Lord, is also able to know that by “shedding blood” in the Word is not signified killing, or depriving a man of the life of the body; but killing or depriving him of the life of the soul, that is, destroying his spiritual life, which is from faith in and love to the Lord. That “blood,” when understood as being shed unlawfully, denotes truth Divine destroyed by means of falsities from evil, is clear from the following passages:--

When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have washed away the bloods of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of cleansing (Isa. 4:4).

Your hands are defiled with blood, and your fingers with iniquity. Their feet run to evil, and they make haste to shed innocent blood; their thoughts are thoughts of iniquity (Isa.  59:3, 7).

Also in thy skirts is found the blood of poor innocent souls (Jer. 2:34).

Because of the sins of the prophets, the iniquities of the priests, that shed the blood of the righteous in the midst of Jerusalem, they have wandered blind in the streets, they are defiled with blood; the things which they cannot (defile), they touch with their garments (Lam. 4:13, 14).

I passed by thee, and saw thee trodden down in thy bloods, and I said, In thy bloods live; I washed thee with waters, and I washed away thy bloods from upon thee, and I anointed thee with oil (Ezek. 16:6, 9).

Thou, son of man, wilt thou plead with the city of bloods?  make known to her all her abominations.  And thou shalt say, Thou art become guilty through thy blood which thou hast shed, and art defiled through thine idols which thou hast made. Behold, the princes of Israel, everyone according to his arm, have been in thee, and have shed blood. Slanderous men have been in thee to shed blood; and in thee they have eaten upon the mountains (Ezek. 22:2, 4, 6, 9).

I will set wonders in the heaven and in the earth, blood, and fire, and a pillar of smoke.  The sun shall be turned into thick darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and terrible day come (Joel 2:30, 31).

The sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the whole moon became as blood (Rev. 6:12).

The second angel sounded, and as it were a great mountain burning with fire was cast into the sea; and the third part of the sea became blood (Rev. 8:8).

The second angel poured out his vial into the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man, whence every living soul died in the sea.  The third angel poured out his vial into the rivers, and into the fountains of waters, and they became blood (Rev. 16:3, 4).

[6] In these passages by “blood” is not meant the blood of man‘s bodily life that is shed; but the blood of his spiritual life, which is truth Divine, to which violence has been done through falsity from evil.  The like is meant by “blood” in Matthew:--

Upon you shall come the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel, unto the blood of Zachariah, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar (Matt. 23:35);

by which is signified that the truths of the Word have had violence done to them by the Jews, from the earliest time even to the present, insomuch that they would not acknowledge anything of internal and heavenly truth.  Therefore neither did they acknowledge the Lord.  Their “shedding His blood” signified the complete rejection of truth Divine, for the Lord was Divine truth itself, which is “the Word made flesh” (John 1:1, 14).  The complex rejection of truth Divine which was from the Lord, and which was the Lord, is meant by these Words in Matthew:--

Pilate washed his hands before the people, saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just man; see ye to it.  And all the people answered, His, blood be on us, and on our children (Matt. 27:24, 26).

Therefore this subject is thus described in John:--

One of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and straightway there came out blood and water. He that saw bare witness, and his witness is true; and he knoweth that he saith true things, that ye may believe (John 19:34, 36);

that water also came out was because by “water” is signified external truth Divine, such as is the Word in the letter. That “water” denotes truth, (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8568).

[7] From all this also it is evident what is signified by being purified “by the blood of the Lord,” namely, that it is through the reception of the truth of faith from Him (n. 7918, 9088). So also it is plain what is signified by these words in John:--

They overcame the dragon by the blood of the Lamb, and by the Word of His testimony (Rev. 12:11);

“by the blood of the Lamb” denotes through the Divine truth which is from the Lord, which is also “the Word of His testimony.” “The blood of the Lamb” denotes innocent blood, for “a lamb” denotes innocence (n. 3519, 3994, 7840). The truth Divine that proceeds from the Lord in heaven has innocence inmostly within it, for it affects no others than those who are in innocence (n. 2526, 2780, 3111, 3183, 3494, 3994, 4797, 6013, 6107, 6765, 7836, 7840, 7877, 7902).

AC 9128. If the sun have risen upon him.  That this signifies if he shall see it clearly from within, namely, the theft which is being committed, is evident from the signification of “the sun rising,” as being to be seen in the light, thus clearly; here, that good and truth are taken away, which is signified by “theft” (n. 9125). That “if the sun have risen” has this signification, is because by “the thief being caught while digging through”, is signified the taking away of good and truth in secret, thus when it is not seen (n. 9125). It is said “seen from within,” because such a thing is seen by the internal man.

[2] As this is an important matter, something shall be said about sight from within. A man sees in himself whether what he thinks and wills, and consequently what he says and does, is good or evil, and consequently whether it is true or false. This is quite impossible unless he sees from within.  Seeing from within is seeing from the sight of the internal man in the external. The case is the same as with the sight of the eye: the eye cannot see the things which are within it, but only those which are outside of it. From this then it is that a man sees the good and the evil that are in himself. Nevertheless one man sees this better than another, and some do not see it at all. They who see it, are they who have received from the Lord the life of faith and charity, for this life is the internal life, or the life of the internal man. Such persons, being from faith in truth, and from charity in good, can see the evils and falsities in themselves; for evil can be seen from good, and falsity from truth; but not contrariwise.  The reason is that good and truth are in heaven, and in its light; whereas evil and falsity are in hell, and in its darkness.  From this it is evident that those who are in evil and thence in falsity cannot see the good and truth, nor even the evil and falsity, which are in themselves, consequently neither can they see from within.

[3] But be it known that to see from within is to see from the Lord; for it is the same with sight as with everything that exists, in that nothing exists from itself, but from that which is prior to or higher than itself, thus finally from the First and Highest. The First and Highest is the Lord. He who apprehends this can also apprehend that everything of life with man is from the Lord; and that as charity and faith constitute the veriest life of man, everything of charity, and everything of faith, are from the Lord. He who excels others in the gift of thought and perception, can from this also apprehend that the Lord sees each and all things - even the most minute - that are with man. But evil and falsity do not come forth from what is higher than themselves; but from what is lower.  Consequently they do not come forth from the Lord, but from the world; for the Lord is above, and the world is beneath. Wherefore with those who are in evil and thence in falsity, the internal man is closed above and open beneath. From this it is that they see all things upside down; the world as everything, and heaven as nothing. It is also for this reason that before the angels they appear upside down; with the feet upward, and the head downward. Such are all in hell.

AC 9129. Bloods shall be shed for him.  That this signifies that he is guilty, is evident from the signification of “blood,” as being violence done to good and truth, thus to be guilty of such violence (n. 9127).

AC 9130. Repaying he shall repay.  That this signifies the amendment and restoration of the truth and good that have been taken away, is evident from the signification of “repaying,” as being amendment and restoration (n. 9087, 9097).

AC 9131. If he have nothing.  That this signifies if nothing remains, namely, of the good and truth that have been taken away, is evident from the signification of “his (that is, the thief’s) having nothing,” as being that nothing remains of the truth and good that have been taken away. That the “theft” denotes the good and truth taken away, (n. 9125); also that the same is signified by “a thief” as by “theft,” (n. 9125, 9126).

AC 9132. He shall be sold for his thee.  That this signifies alienation, is evident from the signification of “to be sold,” as being alienation (n. 4752, 4758, 5886), here of the good and truth taken away, of which nothing remains (n. 9131); and from the signification of “for the theft,” as being amendment and restoration by other good or truth in place of that taken away, which is signified by “repaying” (n. 9130); for the thief was sold that the theft might be repaid. With what is contained in this verse the case is this. He who sees that the good or truth with him is being taken away by falsity derived from evil, is guilty of the violence done to them, for it is done with his knowledge. For that which is done with the man‘s knowledge, proceeds from the will, and at the same time from the understanding, thus from the whole man, because man is man from these two, and what is done from these two is done from the falsity which is from evil - from falsity, because from the understanding; and from evil, because from the will. It is from this that the man is guilty. That which comes from a man’s understanding, and at the same time from his will, is made his own (n. 9009, 9069, 9071); and that a man becomes guilty if when he sees the evil of his will he does not repress it by means of his understanding, see (n. 9075).

AC 9133. If finding the theft be found in his hand.  That this signifies if there be anything remaining of truth and good by which restoration can be made, is evident from the signification of “finding there be found,” when said of the good or truth that has been taken away, which is signified by the “theft,” as being to remain; from the signification of “in his hand,” as being in his power; that “the hand” denotes power, (n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5327, 5328, 5544, 6947, 7011, 7188, 7189, 7518, 7673, 8050, 8153, 8281); that “in his hand” also denotes that which appertains to him, will be seen below); and from the signification of “theft,” as being the good or the truth that has been taken away (n. 9125). From this it is plain that by “if finding the theft be found in his hand” is signified if there be anything remaining of good and truth. That it also means whereby restoration can be made, is because this verse treats of the restoration of the good and truth that have been taken away. The case herein is this. So long as a general affection of good remains, there always remains something by means of which any particular good that has been taken away may be restored, for particular goods and truths depend upon a general good (n. 920, 1040, 1316, 4269, 4325, 4329, 4345, 4383, 5208, 6115, 7131). That “in his hand” denotes whatever appertains to him, is because by “the hand” is signified power, and whatever is in anyone‘s power appertains to him. Consequently by “the hand,” especially by “the right hand,” is signified the man himself. From all this it can be seen what is signified by “sitting at the right hand of the Father,” when this is said of the Lord, as being to be everything with the Father, thus to be the Father Himself; which is the same as to be in the Father and the Father in Him; and as all things that are His being the Father’s, and all that are the Father‘s being His; as the Lord teaches in (John 14:8-11; 17:10, 11.

AC 9134. From an ox even to an ass.  That this signifies from exterior good or truth, is evident from the signification of “an ox,” as being the good of the natural (n. 2180, 2566, 2781, 2830, 5913, 8937); and from the signification of “an ass,” as being the truth of the natural (n. 2781, 5492, 5741). The good of the natural is exterior good, and the truth of the natural is exterior truth.

AC 9135. Even to one of the small cattle.  That this signifies if from interior truth and good, is evident from the signification of “one of the small cattle,” as being spiritual truth and good, thus interior truth and good (n. 6016, 6045, 6049). In the Word “flocks” are sometimes mentioned, and sometimes “small cattle;” and in the internal sense by “flocks” are signified interior goods and the truths thence derived; and by “small cattle” are signified interior truths and the goods thence derived. But the difference between these cannot be known unless it is known how the case is with the two states of man, the former and the latter, during regeneration. The former state is when he is being led by means of the truths of faith to the good of charity. The latter state is when he is in the good of charity and from this is in the truths of faith. By the former state, man is introduced into the church, in order that he may become a church; and when he has become a church, he is then in the latter state. The goods and the truths with him in the latter state are signified by “Socks;” but the truths and the goods with him in the former state are signified by “small cattle.” It is from this that truths are here mentioned in the first place, and good in the second. In regard to these two states with the man who is being regenerated, or what is the same, who is becoming a church, (n. 7923, 7992, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701, 8772, 8995, 9088, 9089).

[2] Those goods and truths are called “exterior” which are in the external or natural man; and those are called “interior” which are in the internal or spiritual man. That the latter are interior, and the former exterior, is because the internal man is wise from heaven, but the external man from the world; for heaven is within man, and the world is without him. It is said “from an ox even to an ass, even to one of the small cattle,” in order that every exterior good and truth may be signified, and also every interior truth and good. Moreover in accordance with the Divine order in heaven, in the external man good proceeds toward truth; and in the internal man from truth toward good.

AC 9136. Living.  That this signifies in which there is spiritual life, is evident from the signification of “life,” as being spiritual life, which is the life of faith and charity (n. 5407, 5890); consequently “the living” denote those in whom there is spiritual life.

AC 9137. He shall repay double.  That this signifies restoration to the full, is evident from the signification of “double,” as being to the full (n. 9103); and from the signification of “repaying,” as being restoration (n. 9087).

AC 9138. Verses 4, 5.  When a man shall desolate a field, or a vineyard, and shall let his beast go in, and it shall desolate in the field of another; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, he shall repay. When a fire shall go forth, and shall catch hold of thorns, and a stack is consumed, or the standing crop, or a field; he that kindleth the fire, repaying shall repay.  “When a man shall desolate a field, or a vine yard,” signifies the deprivation of the good and the truth of the church through cupidities; “and shall let his beast go in,” signifies if he does this with but little knowledge; “and it shall desolate in the field of another,” signifies the consuming of the cohering goods; “of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, he shall repay,” signifies restoration from goods and truths still unimpaired; “when a fire shall go forth,” signifies anger from the affection of evil; “and shall catch hold of thorns,” signifies which betakes itself into falsities; “and a stack is consumed,” signifies injury to the goods and truths of faith that have been received; “or the standing crop, or a field,” signifies also to the goods and truths of faith in their conception; “he that kindleth the fire repaying shall repay,” signifies the restoration of what was taken away through anger from the affection of evil.

AC 9139. When a man shall desolate a field, or a vineyard. That this signifies the deprivation of the good and the truth of the church through cupidities, is evident from the signification of “to desolate,” as being to deprive through cupidities (n. 9141); from the signification of “a field,” as being the church as to good (n. 2791, 3766, 4982, 7502), thus the good of the church; and from the signification of “a vineyard,” as being the church as to truth, thus the truth of the church. That “a field” denotes the church as to good, is because the things of a field, such as wheat and barley, signify internal and external goods of the church (n. 3941, 7602, 7605); and that “a vineyard” denotes the church as to truth, is because “wine,” which belongs to a vineyard, signifies the truth of good (n. 1071, 6377).

[2] That “field” and “vineyard” have this signification has its origin from the representatives in the spiritual world. For fields full of wheat and barley appear before spirits when the angels in a heaven above them are conversing about an assemblage of those who are in good; and there appear vineyards full of grapes, with winepresses, when the angels are conversing about an assemblage of those who are in the truth of good. These representatives are not from the fact that there are such things upon earth; but from the correspondences, in that wheat and barley, or the bread made therefrom, nourish the body, as the good of love and of charity nourishes the soul; and in that wine, as drink, acts in like manner. From this it is that in the Word the goods of love and the truths of faith are called “meats and drinks;” in this sense also they are heavenly meats and drinks (n. 56-58, 680, 681, 1973, 1974, 4459, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5576, 5579, 5915, 8562).

[3] That a “vineyard” denotes the church as to the good and the truth of faith, which church is called the spiritual church, is evident from the passages in the Word where a “vineyard” is mentioned; as in Jeremiah:--

Many shepherds have destroyed My vineyard, they have trodden under foot My field, they have made My field of desire into a desert of solitude; he has made it (the vineyard) into a solitude (Jer. 12:10, 11);

where “vineyard” and “field” manifestly denote the church; and as the church is the church from the truth and good of faith and of charity, it is clear that the “vineyard” here denotes the church as to truth, and the “field,” the church as to good. In Isaiah:--

Jehovah cometh into judgment with the elders of His people, and the princes thereof; ye have set on fire the vineyard (Isa.  3:14);

here also “the vineyard” plainly denotes the church in respect to the good and truth of faith; for “the elders with whom Jehovah will come into judgment,” denote the goods of the church (n. 6524, 6525); and “the princes,” its truths (n. 5044).

[4] Again:--

I will sing to my beloved a song of my friend touching his vineyard. My beloved had a vineyard in a horn of the son of oil; and he enclosed it, and planted it with a noble vine (Isa. 5:1, 2);

this is said of the Lord, who is the “beloved” and the “friend;” the “vineyard” denotes His spiritual church; a “noble vine” denotes the good of faith of this church; and a “horn of the son of oil,” the good of the faith of that church from the good of love. He who knows nothing of the internal sense of the Word, cannot possibly know what is signified by “a vineyard in a horn of the son of oil.” Yet in these words there lies hidden a secret that cannot be expressed in words. By these words is fully described the conjunction of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom with His celestial kingdom; that is, the conjunction of the second heaven with the third; consequently the conjunction of the good of faith in the Lord, which is of the spiritual kingdom, with the good of love to the Lord, which is of the celestial kingdom. The “vineyard” denotes the spiritual kingdom; “in a horn” denotes in power, thus in this kingdom; and “the son of oil” denotes the external good of love of the celestial kingdom. The celestial kingdom, which is the inmost heaven of the Lord, is called an “olive-tree” or an “olive-yard,” because “oil” denotes the good of celestial love (n. 886, 4582, 4638). Be it known that the kingdom of the Lord on earth is the church. That there are two kingdoms, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom, and that the spiritual kingdom constitutes the second heaven, and the celestial kingdom the third heaven, (n. 3887, 4138, 4279, 4286); of the conjunction of these, (n. 6435).

[5] Again:--

In that day a vineyard of pure wine, answer ye to it; I Jehovah do keep it; I will water it every moment (Isa. 27:2, 3);

where “a vineyard of pure wine (merum)” denotes the spiritual church. In Amos:--

In all vineyards shall be wailing; I will pass through thee.  Woe unto you that desire the day of Jehovah! what to you is the day of Jehovah? it is of darkness and not of light (Amos 5:17, 18);

this is said of the last time of the church, when there is no longer any good and truth of faith, which time is “the day of Jehovah, a day of darkness and not of light;” whence it is said, “in all vineyards shall be wailing.” In John in the Apocalypse:--

The angel put forth his sickle into the earth, and vintaged the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God (Rev. 14:19);

“to vintage the vine of the earth” denotes to consume the truth and good of the church; “the earth” here being the church. From all this it can be seen why the Lord so often likened the kingdom of the heavens to a “vineyard” (Matt. 20:1-16; 21:28, 29, 33-41; Mark 12:1-12); and why the Lord called Himself “the vine,” in John:--

As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; so neither can ye, except ye abide in Me. I am the vine, ye are the branches. Without Me ye can do nothing (John 15:4-6);

“the vine” denotes faith in the Lord, consequently the Lord as to faith; for the Lord is faith, because faith is from Him; for no faith is faith save that which is from Him. Hence also “the vine” denotes the faith which is directed to Him.

AC 9140. And shall let his beast go in.  That this signifies if he does this with but little consciousness, is evident from the signification of a “beast of burden,” as being bodily pleasure, or appetite. That it signifies with but little consciousness, is because when a man is in these cupidities, he consults reason but little, and thus has but little consciousness of what he is doing. All beasts, of whatsoever genus and species, signify affections; gentle and useful beasts, good affections; and fierce and useless beasts, evil affections (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 714-719, 1823, 2180, 2781, 3218, 3519, 5198, 7523, 7872, 9090). When a beast is called a “beast of burden” it signifies mere bodily affections which have in them but little reason; for the more a man acts from the body, the less he acts from reason, the body being in the world, thus remote from heaven, where genuine reason is. Moreover in the original tongue a “beast of burden” is so called from its brutishness and stupidity, thus from its little consciousness; as in (Isa. 19:11; Ps. 49:10; 73:22; Jer. 51:17).

AC 9141. And it shall desolate in the field of another.  That this signifies the consuming of the cohering goods, is evident from the signification of “to desolate,” as being to deprive through cupidities, thus to consume; and from the signification of “in the field of another,” as being the cohering goods; for “a field” denotes the church, and the things in a field denote goods (n. 9139); thus those which are “in the field of another,” denote the adjacent goods which cohere; for the goods with man are like generations on the earth, and consequently are in various degrees of nearness and coherence (n. 9079).  Those which are not in the same house, or together in the same family, but yet are related, are what are meant by being “in the field of another.”

[2] That “to desolate” denotes to deprive through cupidities, and thus to consume, is because by the word which is used in the original tongue for “to desolate” is properly signified to set on fire and burn, thus also to feed on and consume.  And as this is the derivation of the word, “to desolate” here signifies the consuming that is done by cupidities; for the cupidities in a man are consuming fires.  There is in man the fire of life, and the light of life.  The fire of life is his love, and the light of life is his faith.  The love of good (that is, love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor) makes the fire of life in a good man and in an angel of heaven; and the love of truth and the faith of truth make the light of life in them.  But the love of evil (that is, the love of self and the love of the world) makes the fire of life in an evil man and in a spirit of hell; and the love and faith of what is false make the light of life in them. But the love of evil is called in the Word the “burning of fire,” because it burns and consumes those things which belong to the love of good and truth.  That the “burning of fire” has this signification, (n. 1297, 1861, 5215, 9055).

[3] That a consuming by cupidities is signified by this word in the original tongue, is plain from the following passages:--

Jehovah will come into judgment with the elders of His people, and the princes thereof.  Ye have consumed (set fire to) the vineyard (Isa 3:14).

The breath of Jehovah, like a river of sulphur, doth consume (burn) it (Isa. 30:33);

“a river of sulphur” denotes falsities from the evils of the love of self and the love of the world (n. 2446).

[4] In Ezekiel:--

The Inhabitants of the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set on fire and burn the weapons, both shield and buckler, with bow and with arrows, and with handstaff and with spear, and they shall kindle a fire with them seven years, that they shall bring no wood out of the field, nor cut down any out of the forests (Ezek. 39:9, 10);

thus is described the consuming and desolating of good and truth through cupidities.  But who will see this, unless he knows what is signified by “the inhabitants of the cities of Israel,” also what by “weapons,” “shield,” “buckler,” “bow with arrows,” by “handstaff and spear,” by “seven years,” and by “wood out of the field, and out of the forests.” That “inhabitants” denote goods, (n. 2268, 2451, 2463, 2712); that “cities” denote truths, and consequently doctrinal things from the Word, (n. 2268, 2449, 2943, 3216, 4492); and that “Israel” denotes the church, (n. 4286, 6426), 6637). Consequently “the inhabitants of the cities of Israel” denote the goods of the doctrinal things of the church; and in the opposite sense, these goods turned into evils and falsities.  That “shield,” “buckler,” and “arrows of the bow” denote truths of doctrine from the Word, whereby there is protection from the falsities of evil, (n. 2686, 2709, 6421); that a “handstaff” denotes the power of truth from good, (n. 4876, 7026); in like manner a “spear,” but interior power; that “seven years” denote a full state, thus to the full, (n. 6508, 8976); thus “to kindle a fire for seven years” denotes to consume to the full through cupidities; “wood out of the field” denotes the interior goods of the church, (n. 3720, 8354); “field” being the church, (n. 2971, 3766, 7502, 7571); and “wood out of the forests,” exterior goods, (n. 3220, 9011). When these things are known it may be known that by the above prophecies is described the consuming of all things of the church through cupidities until nothing of the good and truth of the internal and external church remains, which is signified by “they shall kindle a fire for seven years, so that they shall bring no wood out of the field, nor cut down any out of the forests.”

[5] By the same expression is also described the consuming of the good and truth of the church, in Malachi:--

Behold the day cometh, burning as an oven, wherein all that sin proudly, and every worker of wickedness, shall be stubble; and the day that cometh shall consume (kindle) them, said Jehovah Zebaoth, which shall leave them neither root nor branch (Mal.  4:1);

“the day that cometh” denotes the last time of the church, when the loves of self and of the world shall reign, and shall consume all the truths and goods of the church, until nothing survives in the man‘s internal and external, which is signified by “shall leave them neither root nor branch.” The “root” of good and truth is in man’s internal, and the “branch” is in his external. From this then it is evident that “to desolate” signifies to consume through cupidities, as is the case elsewhere in the Word.

AC 9142. Of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, he shall repay.  That this signifies restoration from goods and truths still unimpaired, is evident from the signification of “field,” as being the good of the church; from the signification of “vineyard,” as being the truth of the church (n. 9139); that is called “the best” which after the consuming is still unimpaired; and from the signification of “repaying,” as being restoration (n. 9087).

AC 9143. When a fire shall go forth.  That this signifies anger from the affection of evil, is evident from the signification of “fire,” as being love, here the love of evil and its affection (n. 9141). It is said “the affection” of evil, because by affection is meant what is continuous of love.  That “fire” denotes anger from the affection of evil, is because anger is from this source, for when that which a man loves is assailed, a fieriness bursts forth and as it were burns. Hence it is that anger is described in the Word by “fire,” and it is said “to burn;” as in the following passages:--

There went up a smoke out of His nostrils, and fire out of His mouth; coals did burn from Him (Ps. 18:8).

Kiss the Son, lest He be angry, for His anger will burn shortly (Ps. 2:12).

Who shall abide for us with the devouring fire? who shall abide for us on the hearths of eternity? (Isa. 33:14).

He poured upon him the wrath of His anger; it set him on fire round about, yet he knew not; it burned him, yet he laid it not to heart (Isa. 42:25).

Behold, Jehovah will come in fire, and His chariots like the whirlwind; to recompense them in the wrath of His anger, and His rebuke in flames of fire (Isa. 66:15).

I looked back, and came down from the mount, when the mount was burning with fire. I was afraid by reason of the anger and wrath wherewith Jehovah was angry against us (Deut. 9:16, 19).

In these and many other passages anger is described by “fire.”  The anger is attributed to Jehovah, that is, to the Lord, but it is in man (n. 5798, 6997, 8282, 8483). That the Lord appeared on Mount Sinai to the Israelitish people in accordance with their nature; thus in fire, smoke, and thick darkness, (n. 6832). But be it known that anger is a fire that breaks forth from the affection of evil; while zeal is a fire that breaks forth from the affection of good (n. 4164, 4444, 8598). Therefore zeal also is described by “fire,” as in these passages:--

Jehovah thy God is a devouring fire, a zealous God (Deut.  4:24).

I will pour upon them all the wrath of Mine anger; for all the earth shall be devoured in the fire of My zeal (Zeph. 3:8).

That the zeal of Jehovah is love and mercy, and that it is called “anger” because it so appears to the wicked when they incur the penalty of their evil, (n. 8875).

AC 9144. And shall catch hold of thorns.  That this signifies which betakes itself into falsities, is evident from the signification of “to catch hold of,” when said of the anger which arises from the affection of evil, as being to betake itself, and thus to kindle; and from the signification of “thorns,” as being falsities. Something shall first be said to show how the case herein is. The loves in a man are the fires of his life (n. 9055). Evil loves, which are the loves of self and of the world, are consuming fires, for they consume the goods and truths which belong to the life itself. These fires make the life of man‘s will, and the light from these fires makes the life of his understanding. So long as the fires of evil are kept shut up in the will, the understanding is in light, and consequently is able to perceive good and truth. But when these fires pour forth their light into the understanding, then the former light is dissipated, and the man is darkened in respect to the perception of good and truth, and this the more in proportion as the loves of self and of the world, which are these fires, receive increase; until finally these loves stifle and extinguish all truth, together with all good.

[2] When these loves are assailed, then fire from the will breaks forth into the understanding, and kindles a flame there. This flame is what is called “anger.” Hence it is that when he is angry, a man is said to “become heated,” to “take fire,” and to be “inflamed.” This flame assails the truths and the goods that are in the understanding, and not only hides, but also consumes them; and (this is a secret) when this evil fire breaks forth from the will into the understanding, the latter is closed above and opened below; that is, is closed where it looks toward heaven, and is opened where it looks toward hell. From this it is that when an evil man takes fire with anger, evils and falsities flow in, which kindle into Same. The case herein is like that of a fiber in the body, which, if touched with the point of a needle, instantly contracts and closes itself, and thus prevents the injury from penetrating further, and attacking the life in its first principles. Moreover when falsity is presented to the sight, it has the appearance of being sharp-pointed.

[3] The state of an evil man when angered, resembles that of smoke, which, when fire is applied to it, kindles into flame; for the falsity of evil in the understanding is like smoke; and anger is like the flame of the ignited smoke. There is also a correspondence between them, and therefore in the Word “smoke” denotes what is false; and its “flame” denotes anger; as in David:--

There went up smoke out of His nostrils, and fire out of His mouth; coals did burn in Him (Ps. 18:8).

And in Isaiah:--

Wickedness burneth as the fire, it devoureth the briers and thorns, and kindleth the thickets of the forest, and they mount up as the rising of smoke, in the wrath of Jehovah Zebaoth (Isa. 9:18, 19);

where“ smoke” denotes falsity, from the “kindling” of which there arises anger. “Smoke” denotes falsity, (n. 1861).

[4] From all this it is now clear what is signified in the internal sense by “when fire shall go forth, and shall catch hold of thorns, and a stack is consumed, or the standing crop,” namely, that if the affection of evil breaks forth into anger, and betakes itself into the falsities of concupiscences, and consumes the truths and goods of faith. Every thinking person can see that there is some reason for this law which lies hidden within and does not appear; for nowhere has a law been enacted about fire catching hold of thorns, and thereby consuming a stack, or the standing crop; because such a thing very rarely happens; whereas it is of daily occurrence that the fire of wickedness and anger lays hold of and sets on fire the falsities of concupiscences, and thus consumes the truths and goods of the church.

[5] That “thorns” denote the falsities of concupiscences, is evident from the following passages. In Isaiah:--

Upon the land of My people cometh up thorn and brier (Isa.  32:13);

“the land” denotes the church; “the thorn and brier” denote falsities, and the consequent evils. Again:--

As for your spirit, a fire shall consume you, so the peoples shall be burned into lime, as thorns cut down that are kindled with fire (Isa. 33:11, 12);

the “thorns that are kindled with fire” denote falsities which break into Same, and consume truths and goods.

[6] In Ezekiel:--

There shall be no more a pricking brier to the house of Israel, nor a thorn causing grief (Ezek. 28:24);

“a pricking brier” denotes falsity of the concupiscences of the love of self; “a thorn,” falsity of the concupiscences of the love of the world. In Hosea:--

Your mother hath played the harlot; therefore I hedge up thy way with thorns, and she shall not find her paths (Hosea 2:5, 6);

“ways” and “paths” denote truths; and “thorns,” falsities in place of truths.

[7] Again:--

The high places of Aven, the sin of Israel, shall be destroyed; the thistle and the thorn shall come up on their altars (Hosea 10:8);

“the thistle and the thorn” denote evil and falsity that lay waste the goods and truths of worship. In David:--

They compassed me about like bees; they go out like a fire of thorns (Ps. 118:12);

“a fire of thorns” denotes the concupiscence of evil. In Matthew:--

By their fruits ye shall know them. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles? (Matt. 7:16);

“gathering grapes of thorns” denotes deriving the goods of faith and of charity from the falsities of concupiscences. “Grapes” denote these goods, (n. 1071, 5117, 6378).

[8] In Mark:--

Other seed fell among thorns, but the thorns came up, and choked it, that it yielded no fruit. They that are sown among the thorns, are they that hear the word; but the cares of this world, and the deceitfulness of riches, and the concupiscences of other things entering In, choke the word, so that it becometh unfruitful (Mark 4:7, 18, 19);

here there is explained what is meant by being “sown among thorns,” thus what by “thorns.” The same is signified by “sowing among thorns,” and “reaping thorns,” in Jeremiah:--

Thus said Jehovah to the man of Judah, and to Jerusalem, Break up your fallow ground, and sow not among thorns (Jer. 4:3).

They have sown wheat, and have reaped thorns (Jer. 12:13).

[9] The falsities of concupiscences, which are signified by “thorns,” are falsities which confirm those things which are of the world and its pleasures, for more than all other falsities these take fire and blaze up, because they are from those concupiscences in the body which are felt; wherefore also they close the internal man, so that there is no appreciation of that which concerns the salvation of the soul, and eternal life.

[10] That:--

They put a crown plaited of thorns upon the Lord’s head when He was crucified, and that then He was hailed King of the Jews, and said, Behold the Man (John 19:2, 3, 5),

represented the condition of the Divine Word at that time in the Jewish church; namely, that it was stifled by the falsities of concupiscences.  The “King of the Jews,” as He was then hailed by them, signified truth Divine. By a “king” in the Word is signified truth from the Divine, (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148); and that the like is signified by “the Anointed,” which in the Hebrew idiom is “the Messiah,” and in the Greek “the Christ,” (n. 3004, 3008, 3009, 3732). By “Judah” in the supreme sense is meant the Lord as to Divine good, and in the internal sense as to the Word, and thus as to doctrine from the Word (n. 3881); and that when such a crown was upon His head the Lord said “Behold the Man,” signified, Behold the Divine truth such as it now is in the church. For the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord in heaven is a Man; consequently heaven is the Grand Man, and this by influx and by correspondence, as has been shown at the end of many chapters (n. 1871, 1276, 2996, 2998, 3624-3649, 3741-3750, 7396, 8547, 8988). From this also the Lord‘s celestial church was called “Man” (n. 478, 479), this church being that which the Jews represented (n. 6363, 6364, 8770). From this it is evident what was signified by the “crown of thorns,” and by His being hailed “King of the Jews,” by “behold the Man,” and also by the inscription on the cross, “Jesus of Nazareth, the King of the Jews” (John 19:19, 20); namely, that Divine truth, or the Word, was so regarded and so treated by the Jews, among whom was the church. That all things done to the Lord by the Jews at His crucifixion signified the states of their church with respect to truth Divine, or the Word, (n. 9093). That the Lord was the Word, is evident in John:--

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt in us, and we beheld His glory (John 1:1, 14);

“the Word” denotes the Divine truth.

AC 9145. And a stack is consumed.  That this signifies injury to the truths and the goods of faith that have been received, is evident from the signification of “a stack,” as being the truth and good of faith that have been received.  That “a stack” has this signification, is because it was the standing crop now gathered in, and by “standing crop” is signified the truth and good of faith in their conception, of which in what now follows.

AC 9146. Or the standing crop, or a field.  That this signifies the truth and the good of faith in their conception, is evident from the signification of “standing crop,” as being the truth of faith; and from the signification of “field,” as being the church in respect to good, thus the good of the church (n. 9139). That “standing crop” denotes the truth of faith, is because the different kinds of crop, as wheat and barley, and the bread from these, signify the goods of the church (n. 3941, 7602). The goods of the church are those of charity toward the neighbor and of love to the Lord. These goods are the being and the soul of faith, for by virtue of them faith is faith, and lives. That “standing crop” denotes the truth of faith in its conception, is because it has not yet been gathered into stacks, nor brought into barns; and therefore while it is standing, or is as yet growing, it denotes the truth of faith in its conception.

[2] The like is signified by “standing crop” in Hosea:--

They (Israel) have made a king, and not by Me; they have made princes, and I knew it not; their silver and their gold they have made into idols. Because they sow the wind, they shall reap the whirlwind; he hath no standing crop; the blade shall yield no meal; if so be it yield, strangers shall swallow it up (Hosea 8:4, 7);

the truths and goods of the faith of the church are here treated of, which are dispersed by things empty and false. That these things are treated of, is evident from the series; but what is said of them is evident from the internal sense; for in this sense by “a king” is meant the truth of the faith of the church in the complex (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148); by “princes” are signified primary truths (n. 1482, 2089, 5044); and from this it is evident what is meant by “they (Israel) have made a king, and not by Me; they have made princes, and I knew it not;” for “Israel” denotes the church (n. 4286, 6426, 6637). By “silver” is here signified the truth of good, and in the opposite sense the falsity of evil (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 8932); by “gold” is signified good, and in the opposite sense evil (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932); by “idols” is signified worship from falsities and evils (n. 8941); and from this it is evident what is signified by “their silver and their gold they have made into idols.” By “the wind which they sow” are signified worthless things; by “the whirlwind which they shall reap” is signified the resulting disturbance in the church; by “the standing crop which they have not” is signified the truth of faith in its conception; by “the blade which shall yield no meal” is signified barrenness; by “the strangers who shall swallow it up” are signified the falsities which shall consume.

AC 9147. He that kindleth the fire repaying shall repay.  That this signifies the restoration of what was taken away through anger from the affection of evil, is evident from the signification of “repaying,” as being restoration (n. 9087); from the signification of a “fire that goeth forth,” as being anger from the affection of evil (n. 9143); consequently “to kindle” denotes the taking away or consuming thereby; and that which is kindled denotes that which is taken away or consumed.

AC 9148. Verses 6-14.  When a man shall give to his companion silver or vessels to take care of and it be stolen out of the man’s house, if the thief be caught, he shall repay double. If the thief be not caught, the lord of the house shall be brought unto God, to see whether he has put his hand to his companion‘s work.  Upon every word of transgression, upon ox, upon ass, upon one of the small cattle, upon garment, upon every lost thing, whereof he shall say, This is it, even unto God shall come the word of them both; he whom God shall condemn shall repay double to hid companion.  When a man shall give to his companion an ass, or an ox, or one of the small cattle, or any beast, to take care of; and it die, or be broken, or be led away captive, no one seeing it; the oath of Jehovah shall be between them both, to see whether he hath put his hand to his companion’s work, or whether its lord hath taken it, and he shall not repay. And if stealing it shall be stolen from him, he shall repay to its lord. If tearing it shall be torn, he shall bring a witness for it; he shall not repay that which was torn.  When a man shall borrow from his companion, and it be broken, or die, the lord thereof not being with it, repaying he shall repay. If the lord thereof be with it, he shall not repay; if he is a hireling, he shall come in his hire.  “When a man shall give to his companion silver or vessels to take care of,” signifies truths from good and the corresponding knowledges in the memory; “and it be stolen out of the man‘s house,” signifies the loss of them from there; “if the thief be caught,” signifies remembrance; “he shall repay double,” signifies restoration to the full; “if the thief be not caught,” signifies if there is no remembrance of that which was taken away; “the lord of the house shall be brought unto God,” signifies a search from good; “to see whether he hath put his hand to his companion’s work,” signifies to see whether they have entered into it; “upon every word of transgression,” signifies whatsoever injury and whatsoever loss; “upon ox, upon ass, upon one of the small cattle,” signifies of good and of truth exterior and interior; “upon garment,” signifies of sensuous truth; “upon every lost thing, whereof he shall say, This is it,” signifies everything doubtful; “even unto God shall come the word of them both; he whom God shall condemn,” signifies a searching and a judging by means of truth; “shall repay double to his companion,” signifies amendment to the full; “when a man shall give to his companion an ass, or an ox, or one of the small cattle, or any beast, to take care of,” signifies truth and good exterior and interior, and everything that belongs to the affection of them in the memory; “and it dip, or be broken,” signifies loss or injury; “or be led away captive,” signifies removal; “no one seeing it,” signifies of which the mind is not conscious; “the oath of Jehovah shall be between them both,” signifies a search by means of truths from the Word in respect to each and all of these things; “to see whether he hath put his hand to his companion‘s work, or whether its lord hath taken it,” signifies conjunction with good; “and he shall not repay,” signifies that there is no injury; “and if stealing it shall be stolen from him,” signifies if there is loss; “he shall repay to its lord,” signifies restoration in the place of it; “if tearing it shall be torn,” signifies if the injury is not of fault; “he shall bring a witness for it,” signifies that this is confirmed; “he shall not repay that which was torn,” signifies no penalty; “and when a man shall borrow from his companion,” signifies truth and good from another stock; “and it be broken or die,” signifies bury to it, or extinction; “its lord not being with it,” signifies if the good of this truth is not together with it; “repaying he shall repay,” signifies restoration; “if the lord thereof be with it, he shall not repay,” signifies that if the good of truth be together with it, there shall be no restoration; “if he is a hireling,” signifies if it is for the sake of the good of self-advantage; “he shall come in his hire,” signifies submission and service.

AC 9149. When a man shall give to his companion silver or vessels to take care of.  That this signifies truths from good and the corresponding knowledges in the memory, is evident from the signification of “silver,” as being truth from good (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6914, 6917, 7999, 8932); from the signification of “vessels,” as being memory-knowledges (n. 3068); that corresponding memory-knowledges are meant is because all spiritual truths are stored up in memory-knowledges as in their vessels (n. 3079); and all memory-knowledges correspond to the truths which are contained; and from the signification of “to take care of,” as being to be in the memory; for in the spiritual sense, in which truths and memory-knowledges are treated of, “to be taken care of” denotes to be kept in the memory, because it is in this that such things are taken care of. “A man giving to his companion to take care of,” denotes to store up within himself in the memory, for that which in the sense of the letter is said of one person and another, as here of a man and his companion, in the internal sense is understood of one; for two truths, as also a truth and the corresponding memory-knowledge, are in a human being as a man and his companion.

AC 9150. And it be stolen out of the man’s house.  That this signifies the loss of them from there, is evident from the signification of “theft,” as being the taking away of such things as make the man‘s spiritual life, consequently the taking away of truths and memory-knowledges, which are signified by “silver and vessels” (n. 9149); and from the signification of “a house,” as being where anything is stored up. From this it is that “a house” signifies various things, as the church, the good therein, also a man, and likewise his mind both natural and rational; but here the memory, because therein as in their house are truths and memory-knowledges. That “a house” has various significations, (n. 3128, 3142, 3538, 3652, 3720, 3900, 4973, 4982, 5023, 5640, 6690, 7353, 7848, 7929).

AC 9151. If the thief be caught.  That this signifies remembrance, is evident from the signification of “being caught,” when said of truths and knowledges in the memory that have been taken away, as being remembrance; and from the signification of “the thief,” as being that which has been taken away; for by “the thief” the like is signified as by “the theft” (n. 9125, 9126).

AC 9152. He shall repay double.  That this signifies restoration to the full, is evident from the signification of “repaying,” as being restoration (n. 9087); and from the signification of “double,” as being to the full (n. 9103).  In this verse, and in those which follow, as far as (verse 14), the subject treated of in the internal sense is the loss of the truth of faith with a man, thus the loss of spiritual life, and its restoration; for by means of the truths of faith a man is brought into the good of charity, and becomes spiritual.  But the things treated of in the internal sense in what now follows are for the most part unknown to man.  The reason is that it is not known what spiritual life is, thus neither that spiritual life is an interior life distinct from the natural life, which is exterior.  Neither is it known that spiritual life is given by the Lord to man through the reception of the truth of faith in the good of charity.  Consequently what is said about the loss of this spiritual life and its restoration falls into thick darkness with a man, because it falls among things of which he has no knowledge.  Nevertheless such things make angelic wisdom, for they are suited to the light in which the angels are; and therefore when a man of the church who is in the good of faith reads the Word, angels adjoin themselves to him, and are delighted in the man, because of the wisdom which then inflows to them through the Word from the Lord.  From this is the conjunction of heaven with man, which would not be possible without the Word.  For the Word is such that there is not even a point or a jot in its original tongue which does not affect the angels, and conjoin them with man.  That this is the case I can assever, because it has been shown me from heaven.

AC 9153. If the thief be not caught.  That this signifies if there is no remembrance of that which has been taken away, is evident from the signification of “if the thief be caught,” as being the remembrance of that which had been taken away (n. 9151); here, no remembrance is signified, because it is said, “if the thief be not caught.”

AC 9154. The lord of the house shall be brought unto God.  That this signifies a search from good, is evident from the signification of “being brought unto God,” as being that a search be made (n. 9160); and from the signification of “the lord of the house,” as being the good from which this is to be done. The reason why “the lord of the house” denotes good, is that the subject treated of is truths and memory-knowledges that have been taken away from the memory, which are signified by “the silver and vessels given to be taken care of, and which have been stolen” (n. 9149, 9150); and as these belong to good, and are in good, therefore “the lord of the house” denotes the good to which they belong, and with which they are. Good is called “a lord,” because truths and memory-knowledges belong to good as their lord; and good is also called “a house,” because truths and memory-knowledges are in good as in their house, see (n. 3652), where are unfolded the words of the Lord in Matthew:--

Let him that is upon the roof of the house not go down to take anything out of his house (Matt. 24:17).

[2] As to the search about the truths and knowledges taken away from the memory having to be made from good, the case is this.  The good with a man is that which receives in itself all truths, for good has its quality from truths; and so far as truths have good in them and also around them, so far they are living. The case is the same as with a fiber or a blood-vessel in a living animal. So far as a fiber has spirit in it, and so far as a vessel has blood in it, so far they live; in like manner does a blood-vessel live in so far as it has around it fibers in which is spirit. It is similar with truth and good, truth without good being like a fiber without spirit, and a vein or an artery without blood, the quality of which everyone can comprehend, namely, that they would be devoid of life, and therefore without any use in a living animal. It is similar in respect to faith without charity. Because, as before said, good has its quality from truths, it has its form also from them; for where there is form there is quality, and where there is no form there is no quality. The case is also like that of spirit and blood in a living animal; spirit receiving its determinations and thus its form through fibers; in like manner the blood through its vessels. From this it is evident that truth without good has no life; and that good without truth has no quality, consequently that faith without charity is not living faith. By faith is here meant the faith of truth, and by charity the life of good.

[3] From all this it can be seen how it is to be understood that a search is to be made from good for the truths and memory-knowledges that have been taken away; namely, that when a man is in good, that is, in the affection of doing good, he then comes into the remembrance of all the truths which have entered into the good; but that when he turns away from good, the truths disappear, for it is the falsity of evil which takes them away as if by theft. But the truths which have disappeared come again into remembrance when the man by his life returns into the affection of good or of truth. That it is so everyone who reflects may know by experience in himself and with others. From this it is evident what is meant by searching from good for the truths and knowledges that have been taken away from the memory or from the mind of a man.

AC 9155. To see whether he hath put his hand to his companion’s work.  That this signifies to see whether they have entered into good, is evident from the signification of “whether he hath put his hand,” as being whether good has caused to be of its own right and power; and from the signification of “in his companion‘s work,” as being the truth and memory-knowledge which have been taken away; for the silver and vessels that were given to be taken care of, and were stolen, are what are called the “companion’s work.” That the “silver and vessels” denote truths and memory-knowledges, (n. 9149). From this it is evident that by “to see whether the lord of the house hath put his hand to his companion‘s work” is signified whether good has caused to be of its own right and power the truths and memory-knowledges that had been taken away; thus whether these had previously entered into good (n. 9154). That “the hand” denotes power, (n. 878, 3387, 4931-4937, 5296, 6292, 7188, 7189, 7518, 7673, 8153); also that “in the hand” denotes that which is with anyone and in anyone, (n. 9133).

AC 9156. Upon every word of transgression.  That this signifies whatsoever injury and whatsoever loss, is evident from the signification of “transgression,” as being everything that is contrary to the truth of faith, thus that injures or extinguishes it, consequently all injury and loss thereof whatsoever. In the Word, evils are sometimes called “sins,” sometimes “iniquities,” and sometimes “transgressions;” but what is meant specifically by these several terms is not clear except from the internal sense.  Those evils are called “transgressions” which are done contrary to the truths of faith; those are called “ iniquities,” which are done contrary to the goods of faith; and those are called “sins,” which are done contrary to the goods of charity and of love. The first two proceed from a perverted understanding, but the last from a depraved will. As in David:--

Wash me from mine iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin; for I acknowledge my transgressions, and my sin is ever before me (Ps. 51:2, 3);

“iniquity” denotes evil contrary to the goods of faith; “sin,” evil contrary to the goods of charity and love; and “transgressions,” evil contrary to the truths of faith. As the latter is evil proceeding from a perverted understanding, and thus is known from the truths of faith, it is said, “I acknowledge my transgressions.”

[2] Again:--

Remember, O Jehovah, Thy mercies, and Thy compassions; remember not the sins of my youth, and my transgressions (Ps.  25:6, 7);

“sins” denote evils from a depraved will; and “transgressions,” evils from a perverted understanding. In Isaiah:--

Behold for iniquities were ye sold, and for transgressions was your mother put away (Isa. 50:1);

“iniquities” denote evils contrary to goods, and “transgressions,” evils contrary to the truths of faith of the church; the “mother” denotes the church, which is said to be “put away” when it departs from faith. In Micah:--

For the transgression of Jacob is all this, and for the sin of the house of Israel. What is the transgression of Jacob? Is it not Samaria? She was the beginning of sin to the daughter of Zion; for the transgressions of Israel were found in thee (Micah 1:5, 13);

here in like manner “sin” denotes what is contrary to the good of charity and love; and “transgression” what is contrary to the truth of faith; for “Samaria” denotes the church of perverted faith, and so does “Israel” in this passage.

[3] As “transgressions” denote evils that are contrary to the truths of faith, they are also “trespasses” and “revolts,” which more over in the original tongue are signified by the same expression, as is evident in David:--

For the multitude of their transgressions that out those who rebel against Thee (Ps. 5:10);

“to rebel” is said when there are both revolt and trespass. And in Isaiah:--

Are ye not children of transgression, the seed of a lie; who have heated yourselves with gods under every green tree; who slay the children in the rivers? (Isa. 57:4, 5).

That “transgression” denotes evil contrary to the truths of faith is very evident from these passages, for the “children of transgression” denote the falsities which destroy the truths of faith; and therefore they are also called “the seed of a lie,” for “a lie” denotes falsity (n. 8908); and therefore it is said of them that they “heat themselves with gods under every green tree,” by which in the internal sense is meant worship from falsities; for “gods” denote falsities (n. 4402, 4544, 7873, 8867); and a “green tree,” the perception of falsity from a perverted understanding (n. 2722, 4552); and therefore it is also said “ye slay the children in the rivers,” by which is meant the extinction of the truths of faith by means of falsities; for “to slay” denotes to extinguish; “children” or “sons” denote the truths of faith (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2813, 3373); and “rivers” denote falsities (n. 6693).

AC 9157. Upon ox, upon ass, upon one of the shall cattle.  That this signifies of good and of truth exterior and interior, that is, their injury or loss, is evident from the signification of “ox” and “ass,” as being exterior good and truth; and from the signification of “small cattle,” as being interior truth and good (n. 9135).

AC 9158. Upon garment.  That this signifies of sensuous truth, is evident from the signification of “garment,” as being truth (n. 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6918). In general “garment” denotes the exterior or lower truth which covers interior or higher truths (n. 297, 2576, 5248, 6918); here therefore sensuous truth, because this is the outermost or lowest (n. 5081, 5125, 5767, 6564, 6614). That “garments” denote truths has its origin from the representatives in the other life; for spirits and angels all appear clothed in garments in accordance with the truths of faith they have (n. 165, 5248, 5954).

AC 9159. Upon every lost thing, whereof he shall say, This is it.  That this signifies everything doubtful, is evident from the signification of “what is lost,” as being everything that has suffered injury or loss; and from the signification of “whereof he saith, This is it,” as being that which is doubtful, for the words “of which he shall say, This is it” denote whether it is so or not, and therefore it comes under investigation and judgment.

AC 9160. Even unto God shall come the world of them both; he whom God shall condemn.  That this signifies a searching and a judging by means of truth, is evident from the signification of “even unto God shall come the word,” as being a searching by means of truth; and from the signification of “condemning,” as being a judging and awarding of the penalty to him who has transgressed. That “even unto God shall come the word” signifies a searching by means of truth, is because “coming to God” denotes to come to the judges, who from truth were to search concerning this matter.  Therefore also it is said “he whom God shall condemn,” with the verb in the plural number.  Moreover in the original tongue God is called El, in the singular number, but more frequently Elohim, in the plural; for the reason that the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord is shared in heaven in many ways among the angels; for as many as are the angels, so many are the recipients of truth Divine, each in his own manner (n. 3241, 3744-3746, 3986, 4149, 5598, 7236, 7833, 7836). Hence it is that the angels are called “gods” (n. 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8301); and also “judges,” because the judges were not to judge from themselves, but from the Lord. They judged also from the law of Moses, and thus from the Word which is from the Lord. Even at this day judgment is administered from the Lord when it is done from conscience, in accordance with truths.

[2] In the Word the Lord is called “God” from the Divine truth which proceeds from Him; and “Jehovah” from the Divine good (n. 4402, 6303, 6905, 7268, 8988). Hence where good is treated of in the Word, the Lord is called “Jehovah,” and “God” where truth is treated of (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402, 7268, 8988); thus “God”denotes truth (n. 4287, 7010, 7268).  From all this it is now evident what is signified by “if the thief be not caught, the lord of the house shall be brought unto God” (verse 7); and here by “even unto God shall come the word of them both, and he whom God shall condemn, shall repay;” and also what is signified by “God” in the following passages:

Aaron shall speak for thee unto the people; and it shall come to pass that he shall be to thee for a mouth, and thou shall be to him for God (Exod. 4:16);

that “Moses” denotes the Divine truth, or the Law; and that “for a mouth” denotes the doctrine therefrom, which was represented by Aaron, see (n. 7010).  Again:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, See, I have made thee a god to Pharaoh; and Aaron thy brother shall be thy prophet (Exod. 7:1):

 (n. 7265). And in the first book of Samuel:--

Aforetime in Israel, when a man went to inquire of God, thus he said, Come and let us go to the Seer; for he that is now called the prophet was beforetime called the seer (1 Samuel 9:9);

where “the Seer” and “the prophet” denote truth Divine, and the doctrine of truth and good thence derived (n. 2534, 7269).

AC 9161. Shall repay double to his companion.  That this signifies amendment to the full, is evident from the signification of“ repaying,” as being amendment (n. 9097); and from the signification of “double,” as being to the full (n. 9103).

AC 9162. When a man shall give to his companion an ass, or an ox, or one of the small cattle, or any beast, to take care of. That this signifies truth and good exterior and interior, and everything that belongs to the affection of them in the memory, is evident from the signification of “an ass, an ox, and one of the small cattle,” as being truth exterior and interior (n. 9135); from the signification of a “beast,” as being the affection of good and truth (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714-716, 719, 1823, 2179, 2180, 2781, 3218, 3519, 5198, 7424, 7523, 9090); and from the signification of “giving to take care of,” as being to be stored up and kept in the memory (n. 9149). That “a man” and “his companion” are not one and another, but two in one, (n. 9149).

AC 9163. And it die or be broken.  That this signifies loss or injury, is evident from the signification of “dying,” as being extinction and loss; and from the signification of “to be broken,” as being injury. In the Word “a breach,” and “to be broken,” signifies dispersion and also injury. This has its origin from the spiritual world, where each and all things are conjoined according to the reception of truth Divine from the Lord, thus according to the reception of order, which is induced on each and all things through the truth Divine which proceeds from the Lord (n. 8700, 8988).  From this it is that the truths in a man have a connection one with another according to their reception in good.  Truths which are so connected make a one; and therefore when they are broken in general, the truths together with the good are dispersed; and when they are broken in particular, the truths which are there are dispersed.  For while they are in connection, the one subsists from the other; but when they are broken, the one recedes from the other.  It is from this that in the Word by “being broken,” as also by “being divided,” is signified dispersion (n. 9093), and likewise injury.

[2] Dispersion is signified when the whole is broken, and injury when a part is broken, as is evident from the following passages in the Word. In Isaiah:--

Many among them shall stumble, and fall, and be broken (Isa. 8:15; 28:13);

“to stumble” denotes to be induced to commit evil, and thus to fall from truths into falsities; “to fall and be broken” denotes to be dispersed, here in general.  In Ezekiel:--

Behold, I am against Pharaoh king of Egypt; I will break his arms, the strong, and that which is broken (Ezek. 30:22);

“Pharaoh king of Egypt” denotes the memory-knowledges that pervert and destroy the truths and goods of faith (n. 6651, 6679, 6683, 6692); “to break his arms” denotes to disperse their strength, and thus these memory-knowledges (n. 4932); “the strong, and that which is broken” denote those things which not having suffered injury, resist, and those which having suffered injury do not resist.

[3] In Luke:--

It is written, The stone which the builders rejected hath become the head of the corner; whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken, and on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder (Luke 20:17, 18);

“the stone” denotes the Lord as to Divine truth (n. 6426); and “to be broken,” being said of the truths which are from Him, denotes to be dispersed, and thus to be destroyed; and together with the truths, those things which are of the spiritual life; as comes to pass with those who deny the Lord and discard the truths which are from Him, and these are they who “reject the stone.” In Jeremiah:--

Bring upon them the day of evil, and break them with a double breaking (Jer. 17:18);

“to break with a double breaking” denotes to utterly destroy.

[4] Again:--

I disposed myself even unto the morning; as a lion, so He breaketh all my bones; from day even to night Thou wilt make an end of me (Isa. 38:13).

My flesh and my skin hath He made old, and hath broken my bones (Lam. 3:4).

Thou shalt not carry forth out of the house any of the flesh of the paschal lamb, neither shall ye break a bone in it (Exod. 12:46).

“To break the bones” denotes to destroy the truths from the Divine which are the last in order, and on which interior truths and goods rest, and by which they are supported; for if these are destroyed, those things also fall which are built upon them. The truths last in order are those of the literal sense of the Word, within which are the truths of the internal sense; and upon which these latter rest as columns on their bases. That “bones” denote truths, (n. 3812, 6592, 8005). From all this it is evident what was represented and signified by what is written concerning the Lord in John:--

They came to Jesus, and when they saw that He was dead, they brake not His legs. This came to pass that the Scripture might be fulfilled, A bone of Him ye shall not break (John 19:33, 36).

The reason was that He was the Divine truth itself in the first as well as in the last of order.

[5] Again:--

Jehovah shall bind up the breach of His people, and shall heal the wound of their blow (Isa. 30:26).

From the prophet even unto the priest everyone maketh a lie, and they heal the breach by a thing of no weight (Jer. 6:13, 14).

For the breach of My people am I broken, I am in black (Jer.  8:21).

Thou hast made the earth to tremble; Thou hast broken it; heal the breaches thereof (Ps. 60:2).

I will stir up a shepherd in the land; he shall not heal the broken one, he shall not uphold that which standeth (Zech. 11:16).

There is no scar of thy breach; thy blow is desperate (Nahum 3:19).

In these passages a “breach” signifies injury done to the truths and goods of faith, and thus to the church; “healing” denotes amending and restoration.  The like was signified by the words:--

A man that is brokenfooted or brokenhanded shall not come nigh to offer the bread of God (Lev. 21:17, 19).

That which is broken shall not be offered upon the altar unto Jehovah (Lev. 22:22);

for “that which is broken” signified that which is destroyed.  Injury is signified also by a “fracture,” as in these passages:--

Ye have seen the fractures of the house of David, that they are many (Isa. 22:9).

In that day will I raise up the tent of David that is fallen, and close up the fractures thereof; I will set up again its ruins, and I will build them as in the days of eternity (Amos 9:11);

“the house of David,” and “the tent of David,” denote the church of the Lord, for “David,” in the prophetic Word, denotes the Lord (n. 1888).

AC 9164. Or be led away captive.  That this signifies removal, is evident from the signification of “to be led away captive,” when predicated of the good and truth with man, as being removal.  The case herein is as follows.  When a man is in truth from good, then that truth in which he has the greatest faith is in the middle, next follow the truths in which he has less faith, and finally those which are of doubtful faith.  In the borders round about are falsities, which however are not in a series with the truths, and do not stand upright toward heaven as do the truths of good; but are bent downward, and look toward hell in so far as they come forth from evil.  But when falsity usurps the place of truth, the order is inverted, and the truths pass off to the sides, and form the circumference, while the falsities of evil occupy the middle.  From this it is evident what is here meant by “removal” (n. 3436, 6084, 6103).  That such a removal is signified by “being led away captive,” is because when falsities take truths captive, they lead them away in this manner.  Such also is the signification of “being taken captive,” or “being led away captive,” in Jeremiah:--

The wind shall feed all thy shepherds, and thy lovers shall be led away into captivity (Jer. 22:22).

Woe to thee O Moab! the people of Chemosh hath perished; for thy sons have been led away into captivity, and thy daughters into captivity. Yet will I bring back the captivity of Moab in the end of the days (Jer. 48:46, 47);

the “sons who were led away into captivity” denote truths; and the “daughters,” goods. And in Luke:--

They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive among all the nations; and finally Jerusalem shall be trodden down by the nations (Luke 21:24);

speaking of the consummation of the age, which is the last time of the church. “To fall by the edge of the sword” denotes to perish through falsities, for “the sword” denotes falsity fighting against truth (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); “the nations among whom they were to be led away captive,”, and by whom the church would be “trodden down,” denote evils from which are falsities (n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 1868, 6306); that “Jerusalem,” which should then be trodden down, denotes the church, see (n. 2117, 3654).

AC 9165. No one seeing it.  That this signifies of which the mind is not conscious, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to understand, and also to have faith (n. 2325, 2807, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 5114, 5400); and as the understanding is the sight of the mind, “to see” denotes that the mind is conscious; here that the mind is not conscious, because it is said, “no one seeing it.”

AC 9166. The oath of Jehovah shall be between them both.  That this signifies a search by means of truths from the Word in respect to each and all of these things, is evident from the signification of an “oath,” as being confirmation by means of truths (n. 2842, 3037, 3375), thus “the oath of Jehovah” denotes by means of truths from the Word, for in the Word are the truths of Jehovah, or truths Divine; and from the signification of “them both,” as being in each and all things, for in the internal sense “between both” does not signify between two persons, but in each and all things, for “two” denotes conjunction into one (n. 1686, 3519, 5194, 8423), thus whatsoever is in the one, or each and all things therein.  That these things are perceived in heaven by “two,” is because when the angels are conversing about two truths which do not agree together, there are presented below two debating spirits, who are the subjects of a number of societies. With the one spirit appear each and all things that belong to the one truth, and with the other spirit each and all things that belong to the other truth; and in this way it is perceived how these truths may be conjoined.  That this is so I have been given to know from experience.  Hence it is that by “two” is also signified what is full (n. 9103).

[2] The reason why it was allowable for the Israelitish and Jewish nation to swear by Jehovah, was that they were not internal, but external men; and while they were in Divine worship, they were in the external apart from the internal.  That such was their nature, (n. 4281, 4293, 4429, 4433, 4680, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4903, 6304, 8588, 8788, 8806). When the confirmation of truth descends into the external man separated from the internal, it is effected by an oath. It is otherwise when it descends into the external through the internal; for in the internal man truth appears in its own light, but in the external apart from the internal man, truth appears in darkness.  From this it is that the celestial angels, who are in the inmost or third heaven, being in the highest light, do not even confirm truths by reasons, still less do they debate or reason about them, but merely say Yea, or Nay.  This is because they perceive and see truths from the Lord.

[3] Therefore the Lord said concerning oaths:--

Ye have heard that it was said, Thou shalt not forswear thyself; but shalt perform into the Lord thine oaths. But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by the heaven, for it is God’s throne; nor by the earth, for it is His footstool; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your speech be, Yea, yea; nay, nay; whatsoever is more than these is from evil (Matt. 5:33-37).

These words involve that truths Divine are to be confirmed from the Lord, and not from man, which is effected when men are internal, and not external; for external men confirm truths by oaths, but internal men by reasons.  They who are still more internal do not confirm them; but only say that it is so, or that it is not so.  External men are they who are called natural men; internal men are they who are called spiritual men; and still more internal men are they who are called celestial men. That these celestial men perceive from the Lord whether a thing is true or not, (n. 2708, 2715, 2718, 3246, 4448, 7877). From all this it is evident what is involved in the Lord‘s saying, “Swear not at all,” and “Let your speech be, yea, yea; nay, nay.” But it shall be explained wily He also said that they should not swear by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by Jerusalem, nor by the head, and that any speech more than yea, yea, and nay, nay, is from evil.

[4] “To swear by heaven” denotes by the Divine truth, and thus by the Lord in heaven; for heaven is not heaven from the angels regarded in themselves, but from the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, and thus from the Lord in them; for it is the Divine in them that causes them to be, and to be called, angels of heaven. From this it is that they who are in heaven are said to be “in the Lord;” also that the Lord is everything in each and all things of heaven; and likewise that the angels are truths Divine, because they are recipients of truth Divine from the Lord. That heaven is, and is called, heaven, from the Divine of the Lord therein, (n. 552, 3038, 3700); also that the angels are truths Divine, (n. 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8301); and that something of the Lord is meant in the Word by an “angel,” (n. 1925, 2821, 3039, 4085, 4295, 6280). Because heaven is the Lord as to Divine truth, it is said, “thou shalt not swear by heaven, for it is God’s throne,” for “God‘s throne” denotes the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord (n. 5313, 6397, 9039).

[5] But “to swear by the earth” denotes by the church, and thus by the Divine truth therein; for as heaven is the Lord by virtue of the Divine truth which proceeds from Him, so also is the church, because the church is the Lord’s heaven, or His kingdom, on earth “earth” in the Word being the church, (n. 662, 1066, 1262, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4535, 4447, 5577, 8011, 8732).  And as “the earth” denotes the church, wherein is the Divine of the Lord beneath heaven, it is therefore said,“ thou shalt not swear by the earth, for it is God‘s footstool.” “The footstool” denotes truth Divine under heaven, such as is the Word in the literal sense, for upon this sense rests, and as it were stands, the truth Divine in heaven, which is the Word in the internal sense. This truth is signified by “footstool” in (Ps. 99:5; 132:7; Isa. 60:13; Lam.  2:1).

[6] “To swear by Jerusalem” denotes by the doctrine of truth from the Word, for “Jerusalem” in a wide sense denotes the church (n. 2117, 3654). But when mention is made of “the earth,” which denotes the church, and afterward of “Jerusalem,” then by “Jerusalem” is signified the doctrine of the church, consequently the doctrine of truth Divine from the Word.  Hence it is that it is called “the city of the great King,” for by “a city” in the Word in its internal sense is signified the doctrine of truth (n. 402, 2449, 2943, 3216, 4478, 4492, 4493).

[7] “To swear by one’s own head” denotes by the truth which the man himself believes to be truth, and which he makes of his faith, for this makes the head with the man, and is also signified by the “head” in (Isa. 15:2; 29:10; Ezek. 7:18; 13:18; 16:12; 29:18; Matt. 6:17). Wherefore it is also said, “for thou canst not make one hair white or black,” for “hair” denotes the truth of the external or natural man (n. 3301), such as those have who are in the faith of truth, not because they perceive it to be truth, but because the doctrine of the church so teaches.  And because they do not know it from any other source, it is said that they “shall not swear by it, because they cannot make one hair white or black.” “To make a hair white” denotes to declare from one‘s self that truth is truth; and “to make a hair black” denotes to declare from one’s self that falsity is falsity; for “white” is predicated of truth (n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319), and consequently “black” is predicated of falsity.

[8] From all this it is now evident what is meant by “not swearing at all, neither by heaven, nor by the earth, nor by Jerusalem, nor by one‘s own head,” namely, that truth Divine is not to be confirmed from man, but from the Lord in man.  On this account it is lastly said, “let your speech be, Yea, yea; nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these is from evil.” For they who perceive and see truth from the Lord, do not otherwise confirm it; as is the case with the angels of the inmost or third heaven, who are called celestial angels, and are spoken of above. The reason why speech more than this is from evil, is that what is more than this is not from the Lord, but from man’s own, thus from evil, for man‘s own is nothing but evil (n. 210, 215, 874-876, 987, 1023, 1044, 1047, 3812, 4328, 5660, 8941, 8944).  From all this it is again evident in what manner the Lord spoke, namely, so that in each and all things there is an internal sense; because He spoke from the Divine, and thus for the angels at the same time as for men, for the angels perceive the Word according to its internal sense.

AC 9167. To see whether he hath put his hand to his companion’s work, or whether its lord hath taken it.  That this signifies conjunction under good, is evident from the signification of “to see whether he hath put his hand to his companion‘s work,” when this is said of truth and good exterior and interior, as being to see whether these have entered into good (n. 9155), and thus whether they have been conjoined under good (what conjunction under good is, (n. 9154); and from the signification of “lord,” as being good (n. 9154).  Thus “to see whether its lord hath taken it” denotes to see whether good has made them its own by conjunction. That “the lord” denotes good is because with a spiritual man good is in the first place, and truth in the second; and that which is in the first place is the lord.

[2] Moreover all the truths with a man are arranged in accordance with the quality of the good, just as a house is arranged by its lord.  From this it is that by “Lord” in the Word is meant the Lord as to Divine good, and by “God,” “King,” and “Master,” the Lord as to Divine truth; as in the following passages:--

Jehovah your God, He is God of gods, and Lord of lords (Deut. 10:17).

The Lamb shall overcome them, for He is Lord of lords, and King of kings (Rev. 17:14).

He hath upon His garment and upon His thigh a name written, King of kings, and Lord of lords (Rev. 19:16).

That the Lord is called “God” in respect to Divine truth, (n. 2586, 2769, 2807, 2822, 4402, 7268, 8988); and that He is also called “King” in respect to Divine truth, (n. 2015, 3009, 3670, 4581, 4966, 5068, 6148). From this it is evident that the Lord is called “Lord” in respect to Divine good, for where truth is spoken of in the Word, good is also spoken of (n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2618, 2712, 2803, 3004, 4138, 5138, 5502, 6343, 8339).  In John:--

Ye call Me Master and Lord; and ye say well, for so I am. I, the Lord and Master, have washed your feet (John 13:13, 14);

here also the Lord is called “Lord” from Divine good, and “Master” from Divine truth. In Malachi:--

The Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Angel of the covenant whom ye desire (Mal. 3:1);

speaking of the coming of the Lord, and He is called “Lord” from Divine good, and “Angel” from Divine truth (n. 1925, 2821, 3039, 4085, 4295, 6280).

[3] From this it is that in the Old Testament He is so often called “the Lord Jehovih,” and this when supplication is made, by which is meant, “O Good Jehovah” (n. 1793, 2921); and that in the New Testament He is called “Lord” instead of “Jehovah” (n. 2921). From all this it can also be known what is meant by these words in Matthew:--

No man can serve two lords; for either he will hate the one, and love the other (Matt. 6:24);

“two lords” denote good and evil, for a man must be either in good or in evil; he cannot be in both together. He can be in many truths, provided they have been set in order under one good; for good makes heaven with man, but evil makes hell, and a man must be either in heaven or in hell, and cannot be in both, nor between the two.  From this then it is evident what is meant in the Word by “Lord.”

AC 9168. And he shall not repay.  That this signifies that there is no injury, is evident from the signification of “repaying,” as being amendment, and also restoration (n. 9087, 9097); consequently “not to repay” denotes no restoration, and no amendment, because there is no injury.

AC 9169. And if stealing it shall be stolen from him.  That this signifies if there is loss, is evident from the signification of “theft,” as being the taking away of good and truth (n. 9125), thus loss.

AC 9170. He shall repay to its lord.  That this signifies restoration in the place of it, is evident from the signification of “repaying,” as being restoration (n. 9087); and from the signification of “lord,” as being good (n. 9167). Thus by “he shall repay to its lord,” is signified the restoration of truth to good in the place of that which had been taken away.

AC 9171. If tearing it shall be torn.  That this signifies if the injury is not of fault, is evident from the signification of “torn,” as being injury done by falsities from evil without one’s fault (n. 4171, 5828).

AC 9172. He shall bring a witness for it.  That this signifies that this is confirmed, is evident from the signification of “witness,” as being confirmation (n. 4197).

AC 9173. He shall not repay that which was torn.  That this signifies no penalty, that is, for the injury done without fault, is evident from the signification of “torn,” as being injury without fault (n. 9171); and from the signification of “repaying,” as being the penalty (n. 9102), here no penalty, because it is said “he shall not repay.”

AC 9174. And when a man shall borrow from his companion.  That this signifies truth and good from another stock, is evident from the signification of “borrowing,” as being to receive truth from some other source than one‘s self, and thus truth from another stock. “Borrowing” has this signification because in the spiritual world there are no other goods that are asked from others, and given, than those which are of intelligence and wisdom. There are indeed many other things offered to view, nay, things innumerable, but they are appearances arising from those things which are of intelligence and wisdom. From this it is evident that “to borrow” denotes to be instructed by another, and thus to receive truths, or knowledges of truth and good, from some other source than one’s self.  How this is shall be further explained.  A man is said to receive truths from himself when he infers them from the truths he has with him. In this case he conjoins them with those he formerly possessed. But in doing this he admits only those truths which agree together under the same good; for it is good that disposes truths into series and connects them together. Good is like the soul in man, and truths are like those things with which the soul clothes itself, and by means of which it acts. It is well known that each and all things in man live from his soul; and so also do the truths of faith live from the good of love to the Lord and of love toward the neighbor.  If this good is not the soul of a man, but the good of the love of self or the love of the world, then the man is not a man, but a wild beast, and in the other life in the light of heaven he also appears as a wild beast; though in his own light, which at the approach of the light of heaven becomes thick darkness, he appears as a man. It is however to be understood that the Lord disposes truths into order in accordance with the good of the man‘s life.

[2] A man is said to receive truths from some other source, when he is instructed by another; and if these truths do not agree together under the good in which he is, they are indeed stored up in his memory among memory-knowledges; but they do not become his--that is, of his faith--because they are of another stock.  These are the truths which are treated of in this verse and the following one.

[3] When “borrowing” and “lending” are mentioned in the Word, there is signified to be instructed and to instruct from the affection of charity; as in Matthew:--

Give to everyone that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away (Matt. 5:42);

it is evident that “asking” here does not mean asking, for it is said, “give to everyone that asketh;” and that neither by “borrowing” is meant borrowing; for if a person were to give to everyone that asketh, and also to everyone that would borrow, he would be stripped of all his goods.  But as the Lord spoke from the Divine, by “asking,” and “wishing to borrow;” and by giving and receiving a loan, is meant the communication of heavenly goods, which are those of the knowledges of good and truth; for in regard to such a communication the fact is that the more an angel gives to another from the affection of charity, the more there flows in with him of the general good from heaven, that is, from the Lord (n. 6478).  Thus by “ giving to him that asketh,” an angel is not deprived of goods, but is enriched with them.  The case is the same with a man, when he does good to another from the affection of charity; but charity consists in giving to the good, and it is not charity to give to the evil what they ask and desire (n. 8120); according to these words in David:--

The wicked borroweth, and restoreth not; but the righteous showeth mercy and giveth (Ps. 37:21).

And in Luke:--

If ye lend to them from whom ye hope to receive, what thank have ye? Rather love your enemies, and do good, and lend, hope for nothing again; then shall your reward be great, and ye shall be the sons of the Highest (Luke 6:34, 35);

[4] here also by “lending” is meant doing good from the affection of charity, and thus communicating the goods of heaven; and also the goods of the world, but the latter for the sake of the former as the end in view.  The affection of charity consists in communicating goods without any recompense as the end in view; but there is no affection of charity in communicating goods for the sake of recompense as the end in view (n. 2373, 2400, 3816, 3956, 4943, 6388-6390, 6392, 6393, 6478, 8002).  The affection of charity consists in loving one’s enemies, and in benefiting the evil; but enemies are loved and are benefited when they are instructed, and also when they are corrected by suitable means (n. 8121).

[5] The exercise of charity is also signified by “lending,” in Moses:--

If thou shalt obey the voice of Jehovah, and shalt observe to do His commandments, thou shalt lend to many peoples, but thou shalt not borrow (Deut. 28:1, 12);

“to lend to many peoples” denotes to abound in the goods of intelligence and wisdom, and to communicate them to others out of this abundance; and not to be in need of the goods of others, because all things are given him by the Lord.  So in David:--

A good man who hath mercy and lendeth, will maintain his words in judgment; for he will never be moved (Ps. 112:5, 6);

by “having mercy and lending” is described the state of those who are in genuine charity.  In like manner, (Psalms 37:21); and other passages.

AC 9175. And it be broken or die.  That this signifies injury to it, or extinction, is evident from the signification of “to be broken,” as being injury (n. 9163); and from the signification of “dying,” as being extinction.

AC 9176. Its lord not being with it.  That this signifies if the good of this truth is not together with it in the general form, is evident from the signification of “the lord,” as being good (n. 9167); and from the signification of “not being with it,” as being not together with it in the general form.  How the case herein is can be seen from what was shown above (n. 9154), about truths in good, namely, that all the truths in the general form are disposed under their good.  But the subject here treated of is truths “borrowed,” that is, received from others (n. 9174), and these truths either have their good with them, or they have it not.  The truths that have their good with them, are those which when heard affect the man; but those which have it not, are those which do not affect him. The truths which have their good with them, are meant by the borrowed things that are broken or die when their lord is with them.  But the truths which have not their good with them, are meant by the borrowed things that are broken or die when their lord is not with them.

[2] These latter truths can indeed be described, but not to the apprehension, except that of those who are in the light of heaven from the Lord.  All others, who see only by the light of this world, that is, by natural light, will fail to comprehend them, because in respect to heavenly things they are in thick darkness; and if they seem to themselves to comprehend them, it is nevertheless from fallacies and things material, which rather cause obscurity and envelope in shadows, than impart light.  It is enough to know that the subject treated of is truths of faith conjoined with their good, and not conjoined with it.  Truths not conjoined are those learned from others, which enter no further than into the memory, and abide there as memory-knowledges, and are not perceived among those truths which are set in order in a general form under good.  From all this it can in some measure be known in what angelic wisdom consists; for the angels not only comprehend how the case is with these things, but also at the same time countless things about them; and thus things of which a man does not even know that they exist, and still less what they are; for the angels are in the light of heaven, and the light of heaven has within itself infinite things, because the light of heaven is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord.

AC 9177. Repaying he shall repay.  That this signifies restoration, is evident from the signification of “repaying,” as being restoration (n. 9087).

AC 9178. If the lord thereof be with it, he shall not repay. That this signifies that if the good of truth be together with it, there shall be no restoration, is evident from the signification of “if the lord be with it,” as being if the good of truth be together with it (n. 9176); and from the signification of “repaying,” as being restoration (n. 9177); thus “not to repay” denotes that there shall be no restoration.

AC 9179. If a hireling be with it.  That this signifies if it is for the sake of the good of self-advantage, is evident from the signification of “a hireling,” as being one who does what is good for the sake of self-advantage, or for the sake of reward (n. 8002); thus in the abstract sense it signifies the good of self-advantage, or reward.

AC 9180. He shall come in his hire.  That this signifies submission and service, is evident from the signification of “coming in his hire,” as being to submit one‘s self and serve.  The case herein is this. Those who learn and draw forth truths from the Word, or from the doctrine of the church, or from anyone soever, or even by means of inferences, from themselves, for the sake of self-advantage, that is, in order that they may acquire honors or wealthy or that they may merit heaven; are those who are meant in the internal sense by “hirelings who shall come in their hire,” that is, who will submit themselves and serve. For self-advantage ought to be in the last place with the man of the church, and not in the first. When it is in the last place, it is a servant; but if it is in the first place, it is a lord. He who regards self-advantage in the first place is an inverted man, and in the other life is also represented as being so, with his head in hell; but he who regards charity and faith in the first place, and thus the Lord and the neighbor, is an upright man, and in the other life is represented as standing so, with his head in heaven.  From this it is evident what is meant by good done for the sake of self-advantage; and that this good must submit itself and serve, which things are signified by “if a hireling be with it, he shall come in his hire.”

AC 9181. Verses 15, 16.  When a man shall persuade a virgin who is not betrothed, and shall lie with her, endowing he shall endow her to himself for a woman.  If refusing her father shall refuse to give her to him, he shall pay silver according to the dowry of virgins.  “When a man shall persuade a virgin who is not betrothed,” signifies good not conjoined with truth: “and shall lie with her,” signifies unlawful conjunction; “endowing he shall endow her to himself for a woman,” signifies a token of consent to a lawful conjunction; “if refusing her father shall refuse to give her to him,” signifies if interior good does not allow conjunction; “he shall pay silver according to the dowry of virgins,” signifies other truth consenting in its place.

AC 9182 When a man shall persuade a virgin who is not betrothed.  That this signifies good not conjoined with truth, is evident from the signification of “persuading,” when said of a man and a virgin, as being to entice to conjunction; from the signification of “a man (vir)” as being truth (n. 3134, 7716, 9007); from the signification of “a virgin,” as being the church as to good (n. 3081, 4638), thus the good which is the church; and from the signification of “to be betrothed,” as being conjunction.  It shall here be briefly stated what is the cause and the origin of the law relating to unlawful conjunction that is here treated of.  All the laws delivered to the sons of Israel have their cause in heaven, and their origin in the laws of order there.  All the laws of order in heaven are from the Divine truth and good which proceed from the Lord, consequently they are the laws of the good of love and truth of faith.  The conjunction of good and truth in heaven is called the heavenly marriage, and this is represented in marriages on earth, and is also signified by “marriages” in the Word.  From this it is plain what is involved in unlawful conjunctions, and also in scortations and adulteries.  In these two verses an unlawful conjunction is treated of which is afterward either made lawful or is dissolved.  The unlawful conjunction which afterward is made lawful, is the subject treated of in this verse; and the unlawful conjunction which afterward is dissolved, is the subject treated of in the following verse.

[2] Unlawful conjunction is that which is not made from conjugial affection; but from some other affection, as the affection of beauty, the affection of gain, or the affection of personal rank; and also which is made from lasciviousness.  In the beginning these conjunctions are unlawful, because that which conjoins is external, and not at the same time internal.  Nevertheless a lawful conjunction may afterward be effected from them as means, which takes place when the minds are conjoined; and on the other hand no conjunction may result from them, as is the case when the minds are disjoined.  That this is so, is generally known in the world.

[3] Lawful conjunction, which is that of minds, is effected when both are in the like good and truth; for good and truth make a man’s life; moral and civil good and truth, the life of the external man; and spiritual good and truth, the life of the internal man.  Be it known that a man‘s life is from no other source than good and truth, for all that a man loves is called good, and all that he believes is called truth; or, what is the same, all that a man wills is called good, and all that he understands is called truth. From this it is evident that a lawful conjunction is effected when the husband is in truth, and the wife is in the corresponding good, for in this way the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, is represented in the pair.  From this it is that conjugial love descends from this marriage (n. 2727-2759, 2803, 3132, 4434, 4835).

[4] From these as premises it can be known how the case is with the conjunctions treated of in this verse and the following one.  Betrothals before marriage have been in use from ancient times, and represented the first conjunction, which is that of the internal man apart from the external. The subsequent marriages themselves represented the second conjunction, which is that of the internal man with the external; for during man’s regeneration by means of the goods and truths of faith, the internal man is first regenerated, and afterward the external, because the latter is regenerated by the former (n. 3286, 3321, 3493, 3882, 8746).

[5] From this it is evident what is signified in the Word by “betrothing” and by “being betrothed,” and also what by “bridegroom” and “bride;” namely, by “betrothing” is signified the conjunction of truth and good in the internal man; by “bridegroom” (where the Lord and the church are treated of) is signified good; and by “bride,” truth: as in the following passages.  In Jeremiah:--

I remembered for thee the mercy of thy youth, the love of thy betrothals, when thou wentest after Me in the wilderness, in a land not sown (Jer. 2:2);

speaking of the Ancient Church and of its being set up by the Lord; “the love of betrothals” denotes the affection of spiritual life, which is from the truths of faith and the good of love; and the state of desire, when as yet they were in ignorance and in want of these things, is signified by “going after Me in the wilderness, in a land not sown.”

[6] In Hosea:--

In that day I will make a covenant for them with the wild animal of the field, and with the bird of the heavens, and the creeping thing of the earth; and I will break the bow and the sword and the war; and I will betroth thee unto Me in righteousness and in judgment, and in mercy, and in compassions (Hosea 2:18, 19);

the setting up of a new church is here treated of; “to make a covenant with the wild animal of the field, with the bird of the heavens, and with the creeping thing of the earth,” denotes the conjunction of the Lord through the internal and external good and truth in a man.  That “a covenant” denotes conjunction, (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778); “the wild animal of the field” denotes life from good (n. 841, 908); “the bird” denotes the life of truth (n. 40, 745, 776, 991, 3219, 5149, 7441); “the creeping thing of the earth” denotes the goods and truths of the external and sensuous man (n. 746, 909); “to break the bow, and the sword, and the war,” denotes to destroy the doctrine and the forces of falsity; “the bow” denotes the doctrine of falsity (n. 2686, 2709); “the sword,” falsity fighting against truth (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102); “the war” the combat itself, or spiritual combat (n. 1664, 2686, 8273), and “to break” these denotes to destroy them;

[7] “to betroth in righteousness and in judgment” denotes to be conjoined with the Lord in good and truth; “to betroth” denotes to conjoin with one‘s self; “righteousness” is predicated of good, and “judgment” of truth (n. 2235); “to betroth in mercy and in compassions,” denotes doing so from love toward those who are in good, and in love toward those who are in truths; the Lord’s “mercy” is predicated as being directed toward those who are in need of good and who yet long for it; and His “compassions,” toward those who are in ignorance of truth and who yet long for it. From all this it is evident that “betrothal” denotes the conjunction of good and truth with a man by the Lord. Everyone can see that such things are here signified; for it is clear even to the perception from merely natural light that Jehovah does not make a covenant with the wild animal of the held, with the bird, and with the creeping thing of the earth; but with those who are in the good and truth of faith, thus with the good and truth in the man; consequently that such things are hidden in this prophecy.

[8] And in Malachi:--

Judah hath dealt treacherously, for he hath profaned the holiness of Jehovah, in that he hath loved, and hath betrothed to himself, the daughter of a strange god (Mal. 2:11);

“to betroth the daughter of a strange god” denotes to be conjoined with the evil of falsity; “a strange god” denotes falsity (n. 4402, 4544, 7873).

[9] That where the Lord and the church are treated of, the “bridegroom” denotes good, and the “bride” truth, may be seen in the following passages:--

Jehovah hath clothed me with the garments of salvation, He hath covered me with the robe of righteousness, as a bridegroom putteth on his headdress, and as a bride adorneth herself with her vessels (Isa. 61:10).

I saw the holy city, Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband (Rev. 21:2).

The angel said, Come hither, I will show thee the bride, the lamb‘s wife (Rev. 21:9);

where “the bride” denotes the church.

[10] In Matthew:--

Jesus said unto the disciples of John, Can the sons of the wedding mourn, so long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast (Matt. 9:15; Luke 5:34, 35);

those are called “sons of the wedding” who are in the truths of the church, and receive good, for the good which is from the Lord is “the bridegroom;” that “the sons of the wedding do not mourn so long as the bridegroom is with them” denotes that they are in a blessed and happy state, thus with the Lord, when they are in truths conjoined with their good; “they shall fast when the bridegroom is taken away from them” denotes that they are in an unhappy state when good is no longer conjoined with truths; this state is the last state of the church, but the former is its first state.

[11] The like is signified in (Matthew 25:1-12)by the bridegroom whom the ten virgins went forth to meet; for the virgins who had oil in their lamps denote those who have good in their truths, but those who had no oil in their lamps denote those who have no good in their truths (n. 4638); and that “oil” denotes the good of love, (n. 886, 3728, 4582).

[12] In John:--

John said, I am not the Christ, but I am sent before Him. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom; but the friend of the bridegroom, who standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth with joy because of the bridegroom’s voice (John 3:28, 29);

“the bride” denotes the truth of faith of the church; and “the bridegroom” the good of love of the church, both from the Lord; thus they denote the man of the church with whom good has been conjoined with truths.  From all this it is also plain what is meant in the internal sense by the “joy” and the “voice of the bridegroom and of the bride” in (Isa. 62:5; Jer. 7:34; 16:9; 25:10; 33:11; Rev. 18:23); namely, heaven and the happiness resulting from the conjunction of good and truth with man and angel.

AC 9183. And shall lie with her.  That this signifies unlawful conjunction, is evident from the signification of “lying with a virgin not betrothed,” as being an unlawful conjunction; for by “being betrothed” is signified the conjunction of the internal man; but by “lying with” is signified the conjunction of the external man (n. 9182).

AC 9184. Endowing he shall endow her to himself for a woman. That this signifies a token of consent to a lawful conjunction, is evident from the signification of a “dowry” and of “endowing,” as being a token of consent (n. 4456); and from the signification of “for a woman,” as being to a lawful conjunction, for to take anyone for a woman denotes to be lawfully conjoined.  In the spiritual sense an unlawful conjunction is the conjunction of truth with an affection from the delight of self-advantage or from the delight of being honored.  In such an affection are they who learn the truths of the church for the sake of these delights.  But this conjunction does no harm to those who are afterward regenerated by the Lord, for although these affections remain with them, they are subordinated under the affection of truth for the sake of the good of use and of life; and they serve, for they are in the last place, although at first they appeared to be in the first place. For while a man is being regenerated, the order of his life is inverted.  In this manner is lawful conjunction made out of unlawful conjunction.

[2] That this is possible is because the truths which are of faith enter through the hearing, thus through the external man; and the external man relishes only those things which belong to the world and to self, and which are the delights arising from self-advantage and honors.  But when the internal man has been opened by means of regeneration, good from the Lord then flows in through it, and adopts and conjoins with itself the truths of faith which have entered through the external man, and according to this conjunction the order is inverted, that is, what had been in the first place is put in the last.  The Lord then draws to Himself all things in the man which belong to life, so that they may look upward. The man then regards as ends those things which belong to the Lord and to heaven; and the Lord Himself as the end for the sake of which are all things; and the former things, which are the delights of self-advantage and of honors, he regards as means to this end.  It is known that the means derive their life solely from the end, and that apart from the end they have no life.  Thus when the delights of self-advantage and of honors have become means, they then have their life from the life which comes from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord; for the end for the sake of which they exist is the Lord. When a man is in such an order of life, matters of self-advantage and honors are then blessings to him; whereas if he is in the inverted order, these things are curses to him.  That all things are blessings when a man is in the order of heaven, the Lord teaches in Matthew:--

Seek ye first the kingdom of the heavens and His righteousness, and all things shall be added unto you (Matt.  6:33).

AC 9185. If refusing her father shall refuse to give her to him.  That this signifies if interior good does not allow conjunction, is evident from the signification of “refusing,” as being not to allow; from the signification of “giving her to him,” that is, “for a woman,” as being lawful conjunction (n. 9184); and from the signification of “father,” as being good (n. 3703, 3704, 5581, 5902, 6050, 7499, 8328, 8897); and as being interior good, because from interior good as a father, and from interior truth as a mother, are conceived and born exterior truths and goods, which are therefore in the Word called “sons and daughters.”

AC 9186. He shall pay silver according to the dowry of virgins. That this signifies other truth consenting in its place, is evident from the signification of “silver,” as being truth (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917); from the signification of “paying,” as being substitution in the place of the former, for he who pays a dowry and does not take the virgin gives something else in place of her; and from the signification of “the dowry of virgins,” as being a token of consent to conjunction (n. 9184), which token is truth consenting to interior good.  For the dowry was fifty pieces of silver given to the father of the girl (Deut. 22:29), and thus denotes truths initiating to full conjunction; for “silver” denotes truth, as shown just above; and “fifty” denotes to the full (n. 2252); here other truths in place of the former, and consenting to good.

[2] How the case us with these truths is clear from what was shown above; to which is to be added what follows, namely, in order that an unlawful conjunction may become lawful, the good which flows in from the Lord through the internal man, must conjoin with itself the truth which enters through the external man, that is, through its hearing.  If this truth does not agree with that good, then in place of it there has to be substituted some other truth which does agree; that is, which consents to conjunction.

[3] This might be illustrated by examples; but as the conjunction of good and truth is enveloped in thick darkness on account of the good of love having been removed from the truths of faith, and rejected behind the truths, and almost behind the back, this subject will not become any clearer by examples.  In general no one can apprehend the internal sense of the Word, and thus the things of angelic wisdom, unless he knows and understands that each and all things in heaven bear relation to good and truth; and that nothing exists there except from the one of these conjoined with the other.  Hence it is that those are in darkness who separate the one from the other, namely, the truth which is of faith from the good which is of charity, as do those who say that a man is saved by faith alone, that is, by the mere confidence which is of faith. As these persons ascribe all things to faith, and nothing to charity, they cannot possibly apprehend anything about those heavenly things which are in the internal sense of the Word; for they are in darkness concerning good, thus also in darkness concerning the conjunction of good and truth; and consequently concerning truth itself, for this is then involved in the same darkness. Hence arise mental wanderings and heresies so many and so great. They who are enlightened in respect to truths, are the few who are in the doctrine, and at the same time in the life, of truth.

[4] Let those who are in faith alone know that all the ideas of thought of the angels who are in the second heaven, and are called spiritual, are from truths which have become goods by life; and that all the ideas of thought of the angels who are in the third heaven, and are called celestial, are from good; and that therefore these latter are in wisdom itself, concerning which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy, wonderful things shall be told elsewhere.

AC 9187. Verses 17-19.  Thou shalt not suffer a sorceress to live. Everyone that lieth with a beast, dying he shall die. He that sacrificeth to gods, save to Jehovah alone, shall be accurst.  “A sorceress,” signifies those in whom something of the church has been conjoined with the falsities of the evil of the love of self; “thou shalt not suffer to live,” signifies the deprivation of spiritual life; “everyone that lieth with a beast,” signifies conjunction with the evils of the cupidities of the love of self; “dying he shall die,” signifies damnation; “he that sacrificeth to gods,” signifies the worship of falsities from evil; “shall be accurst,” signifies a casting out; “save to Jehovah alone,” signifies that the Lord, who is the one and only God, is to be worshiped.

AC 9188. A sorceress.  That this signifies those in whom something of the church has been conjoined with the falsities of the evil of the love of self, is evident from the signification of “sorceries,” as being the falsities of the evil of the love of self conjoined with such things as are of the church. There are two things which make heaven and thus spiritual life with man-- the truth of faith in the Lord, and the good of love to Him. And there are two things which make hell and thus spiritual death with man--the falsity of faith, and the evil of the love of self.  The two latter are conjoined in those who are in hell, and make the infernal marriage; but the two former are conjoined in those who are in heaven, and make the heavenly marriage.  So far as possible, the Lord withholds man from the conjunction of truth and good with falsity and evil, because this conjunction is profanation.  Nevertheless many of those who are within the church cannot be withheld, because from early childhood they have learned the things of the church from the Word, and from doctrine drawn from the Word; and some of them have become imbued with such things, and have made them of their faith.  When these persons have arrived at mature age, and have begun to think from themselves, and not as before from others, then they have made nothing of the things they had made of their faith, and in their stead have seized on falsities and imbued themselves with them.  These are they who have conjoined within them truths with falsities; for those truths which have once become truths of faith remain, and cannot be rooted out; and the falsities which are afterward made of their faith conjoin themselves with them.

[2] It is this conjunction which is signified in the internal sense by “sorceries.” The reason why these falsities are falsities of the evil of the love of self, is that all evil springs chiefly from this love, and together with evil, falsity, because they cohere together.  From this it is evident that in such persons there is no spiritual life, because it has been destroyed by falsities of evil; and in so far as they have conjoined these falsities with truths, so far they have extinguished spiritual life within them; and as in this way instead of being alive, they have become dead, it is said, “Thou shalt not suffer them to live.”

[3] That the conjunction in question is signified in the Word by “sorceries,” is plain in Isaiah:--

She said, I shall not sit a widow, neither shall I know the loss of children; but these two things shall come upon thee in a moment in one day, loss of children, and widowhood, because of the multitude of thy sorceries, because of the exceeding greatness of thy magical deeds. Thou hast trusted in thy wickedness; thou hast said, None seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge have led thee astray; when thou saidst in thine heart I am, and there is none else besides me. Therefore shall evil come upon thee which thou shalt not know how to ward off; and calamity shall fall upon thee which thou shalt not he able to atone: devastation shall come upon thee suddenly, thou not knowing. For indeed persist thou in thy magical deeds, and in the multitude of thy sorceries, wherein thou hast labored from thy youth. Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsel. Let the searchers of the heavens, the stargazers, and those who know the new moons, now stand and save thee from the things that shall come upon thee.  Behold they are become as stubble; the fire hath burned them; they shall not rescue their soul from the hand of the flame (Isa. 47:8-14).

[4] That “sorcerers” denote those who conjoin the falsities of the evil of the love of self with the truths of faith, and thus perish, is plain from every particular in the above passage viewed in the internal sense, for they are here described. The extinction of their spiritual life is described by “widowhood and loss of children.” “Widowhood” denotes the privation of truth and of the derivative good; and “loss of children” the privation of truth and good. The origin of falsity, as being from the evil of the love of self, is described by these words, “thy wisdom and thy knowledge have led thee astray when thou saidst in thine heart, I am, and there is none else besides me;” and the evil itself of the love of self, by these words, “behold, they are become as stubble, the fire hath burned them, they shall not rescue their soul from the hand of the flame;” “fire” and “flame” denote the love of self.  That everything of spiritual life has been extinguished, is described by these words, “evil shall come upon thee which thou shalt not know how to ward off, and calamity shall fall upon thee which thou shalt not be able to atone.” They are called “searchers of the heavens, stargazers, and those who know the new moons,” from being in external things without any internal; for such see from the external man and not at all from the internal, thus from natural light and not at all from spiritual light; for in the internal sense “heaven,” the “stars,” and “new moons” denote knowledges and memory-knowledges; here, such as are seen from the world, and not from heaven.

[5] That “sorceries” denote such falsities, is also plain in Micah:--

I will cut off the cities of thy land, and throw down all thy strongholds; I will cut off sorceries out of thine hand; and thou shall have no soothsayers (Micah 5:11, 12):

“the cities of the land” denote the false doctrinal things of their church, which are called “sorceries” because they destroy the truths of faith.  In Nahum:--

Because of the multitude of the whoredoms of the well-favored   harlot, the mistress of sorceries, that selleth nations in her whoredom and families in her sorceries (Nahum 3:4);

“whoredoms” denote perversions of truth; and “sorceries,” the falsities thence derived.  In like manner in the second book of Kings:--

Jehoram said unto Jehu, Is it peace, Jehu? And he answered, What peace, even unto the whoredoms of thy mother Jezebel, and her many sorceries? (2 Kings 9:22).

[6] That those are “sorcerers” who have been taught by themselves, and trust in themselves alone to the extent of loving themselves and desiring to be worshiped as deities, is also plain from passages which treat openly of the coming of the Lord, who will teach them and cast out the sorcerers; for he who shall be taught in the truths and goods of faith must be taught by the Lord, and in no wise by himself. Wherefore it is thus written in Malachi:--

Behold I send Mine angel, who shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord whom ye seek shall suddenly come to His temple, even the angel of the covenant whom ye desire. And I will draw nigh to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers, and those who swear to what is false (Mal. 3:1, 5);

“sorcerers” denote those who have been taught by themselves, and who thus destroy truths which are from the Lord; “adulterers” denote those who destroy goods; and “those who swear to what is false,” those who confirm falsities.  That it is the Lord who will cast them out is plain, for it is said, “ the Lord shall come to His temple, even the angel of the covenant.”

[7] So also in Moses:--

When thou comest unto the land which Jehovah God will give thee, there shall not be found in thee anyone that maketh his son or his daughter pass through the fire, one that divineth divinations, and one that questioneth the hells, and an augur, and a sorcerer, and an enchanter, and one that consulteth a familiar spirit, and a soothsayer, and a questioner of the dead.  For everyone that doeth these thing is an abomination to Jehovah; and because of these abominations Jehovah thy God doth drive them out from before thee. Jehovah thy God will raise up to thee a prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; him shall ye obey. Jehovah said in Horeb, I will raise him up a prophet from the midst of their brethren, like unto thee; and I will put My words in his mouth, that he may speak unto them all that I shall command him. Whence it shall come to pass that the man who will not obey My words, which he shall speak in My name, I will require it of him (Deut. 18:9-19);

[8] by “diviners,” “augurs,” “sorcerers,” and the rest who are here named, are meant in the internal sense those who destroy the truths and goods of the church by means of memory-knowledges wrongly applied; thus who do so from their own intelligence and through falsities from the evils of the love of self and the love of the world, consequently who learn and teach from the cupidity of profit and of honors, and not from any affection for the truth of faith and the good of life. And as all falsities of doctrine and evils of life come forth from this source, mention is made of “a prophet who shall come and teach.” That this “prophet” is the Lord, is known in the church, and was known also to the Jews and Gentiles of that time, as is evident in (Matthew 21:11; Luke 1:76; 7:16; 13:33; Mark 6:4).  Those are taught by the Lord who read the Word not for the sake of self and the world, but for the sake of good and truth itself, for then they are enlightened.  But when men read it for the sake of self and the world, they are blinded. “A prophet” signifies one who teaches, and in a sense abstracted from person, doctrine (n. 2534, 7269); thus the Lord as to the Word, that is, as to Divine truth.

AC 9189. Thou shalt not suffer to live.  That this signifies the privation of spiritual life, is evident from the signification of “suffering to live,” as being to endow with spiritual life (n. 5890); thus “not to suffer to live” denotes to deprive of spiritual life.  That those deprive themselves of spiritual life who conjoin falsities from the evil of the love of self with the truths of faith, and who are signified by “sorcerers,” (n. 9188).

AC 9190. Everyone that lieth with a beast.  That this signifies conjunction with the evils of the cupidities of the love of self, is evident from the signification of “lying with” as being to be conjoined; and from the signification of “a beast,” as being good affection with the good, and evil affection with the evil (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 719, 776, 2781, 3518, 3519, 5198, 7424, 7523, 7872, 9090), thus cupidities; here the cupidities of the love of self.  Evil affections are called “cupidities.”

AC 9191. Dying he shall die.  That this signifies damnation, is evident from the signification of “dying,” as being damnation (n. 5407, 6119, 9008).

AC 9192. He that sacrifieth to gods.  That this signifies the worship of falsities from evil, is evident from the signification of “sacrificing,” as being worship (that “to sacrifice” denotes worship is because sacrifices were the chief things of worship with the Israelitish and Jewish people, (n. 923, 6905, 8680, 8936); and from the signification of “gods,” as being falsities (n. 4402, 4544, 7873, 8941). The worship of falsities from evil is here mentioned, because this is opposed to the worship of truths from good. For all worship has matters of doctrine for its rules; and these matters of doctrine are truths in so far as they are from good; and they are falsities in so far as they are from evil; for truths have their essence and life from good, and on the other hand falsities have their death from evil.

[2] But the case herein is as follows.  There are some who are in genuine truths, some who are in truths not genuine, and some who are in falsities; and yet those who are in genuine truths are often damned, while those who are in truths not genuine, and also those who are in falsities, are often saved.  This will appear paradoxical to most people, but still it is the truth.  Experience itself has confirmed it; for there have been seen in hell those who had been more learned than others in truths from the Word and from the doctrine of their church, both dignitaries and others; on the other hand there have been seen in heaven those who had been devoid of truths, and even those who had been in falsities, both Christians and Gentiles.

[3] The reason why the former were in hell, was that they had indeed been in truths as to doctrine but in evils as to life; and the reason why the latter were in heaven, was that they had not indeed been in truths as to doctrine but nevertheless had been in good as to life.  Some spirits recently deceased with whom it was given me to speak, wondered that those who had been pre-eminent for learning in the Word and in the doctrine of their church, were among the damned, whom they nevertheless had believed would become shining lights in heaven, according to these words in Daniel:--

The intelligent shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever (Daniel 12:3).

But they were told that “the intelligent” are those who are in truth, and who teach truths, and that “they who turn others to righteousness” are those who are in good, and who lead to good; and that therefore the Lord said:--

The righteous shall shine as the sun in the kingdom of their Father (Matt. 13:43).

That righteousness is predicated of good, and thus that “the righteous” are those who are in good, (n. 2235).

[4] And they were further told that those who are learned as to doctrine, but evil as to life, are those who are meant by the Lord in the following passages:--

Many shall say to Me in that day, Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied by Thy name, and by Thy name have cast out demons, and in Thy name done many mighty deeds? But then will I confess unto them, I know you not; depart from Me, ye workers of iniquity (Matt. 7:22, 23).

Then shall ye begin to say, We have eaten and drunk in Thy presence, and Thou hast taught in our streets. But He will say, I tell you, I know you not whence ye are; depart from Me, all ye workers of iniquity (Luke 13:26, 27).

And they were also told that the same were meant by “the foolish virgins who had no oil in their lamps,” of whom it is written in Matthew:--

At last came the other virgins, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us. But He answering said, Verily I say unto you, I know you not (Matt. 25:11, 12);

“to have oil in the lamps” denotes good in the truths which are of the faith of the church (n. 4638); that “oil” denotes the good of love, (n. 886, 4582).

[5] They were told furthermore, that those who are not in truths, nay, who are in falsities from ignorance, and yet are in good and from this in the affection of knowing truth, were meant by the Lord when He said:--

I say unto you, that many shall come from the east even unto the west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of the heavens; but the sons of the kingdom shall be cast forth into the outer darkness (Matt. 7:11, 12).

They shall come from the east and west, and from the north and south, and shall sit down in the kingdom of God. And behold, there are last who shall be first, and there are first who shall be last (Luke 13:29, 30).

That the Gentiles who are in good, though from ignorance in things not true, are received into heaven, (n. 2589-2604, 2861, 2863, 3263, 4190, 4197).

[6] From all this it can now be seen that by “those who sacrifice unto gods” are signified those who are in the worship of falsity from evil, and that these are they who shall be “accurst,” that is, shall be cast out. For falsities from evil are evils in form, because when evil shows itself in the light, and takes form, it is called falsity. Hence it is that those who are in evil as to life, although in truths as to doctrine, are nevertheless in the falsities of their evils.  That this is so is clearly visible in the other life; for when these persons are left to themselves they think from their evil against the truths which they had known and professed; thus they think falsities.  And they do the very same in this world when thinking by themselves; for they then either pervert truths, or deny them, in order to defend the evils of their life.

[7] But they who are in good, and yet in things not true, nay, who are in falsities from ignorance, as are many within the church, and many also outside of the church who are called Gentiles, these indeed regard their falsities as truths; but because their falsities come forth from good, they bend them to good, and therefore there is nothing wicked in these falsities, as there is in those which are from evil.  And as falsities from good are mild and pliant, such persons are in the capacity of receiving truths, and moreover do receive them when they are instructed by the angels.  These falsities may be compared to foods which look unclean, but yet are savory; whereas falsities from evil may be compared to unclean foods which inwardly are putrid.  But truths from evil may be compared to foods which look clean, but are inwardly baneful, and if attended with hypocrisy are poisonous; as the Lord teaches in Matthew:--

Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye make yourselves whited sepulchres which outwardly indeed outwardly appear beautiful, but inwardly are full of dead men’s bones, and of all uncleanness (Matt. 23:27).

AC 9193. Shall be accurst.  That this signifies a casting out, is evident from the signification of “being accurst,” when said of those who are in the worship of falsities from evil, as being to be cast out, that is, from the church. That to be cast out from the church, and thus the rooting out of such falsities, is signified by “being accurst,” is plain in Moses:--

If men of Belial shall go out from the midst of thee, and shall urge the inhabitants of their city, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known; if it be truth, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in the midst of thee; smiting thou shalt smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, making it accurst, and everyone that is therein, and also the beast thereof, with the edge of the sword. All the spoil of it thou shalt carry together into the midst of the street, and shalt burn the city with fire, and all the spoil thereof, to Jehovah thy God; that it may be a heap for eternity; neither shall it be built any more; so that there may not cleave to thine hand anything of the accursed thing (Deut. 13:13-17).

[2] That it is the falsity from evil which is signified by “the accursed thing,” is plain from each detail in the above passage in the internal sense; for “the cities which were to be accursed” denote doctrines, here false doctrines (n. 2712, 2943, 3216); “the edge of the sword, with which the men and beasts were to be smitten,” denotes truth fighting and destroying the falsity which is from evil (n. 2799, 4499, 7102, 8294); “the street into the midst of which the spoil was to be carried together” denotes the truth of doctrine, and in the opposite sense, the falsity of doctrine (n. 2336); “the fire with which the spoil was to be burned together with the city,” denotes the evil of the love of self (n. 1297, 2446, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 7324).  From this it is evident that this “accursing” denotes a casting out from the church, and a rooting out.  Wherefore also it was commanded that the nations in the land of Canaan should be “accursed” (Deut. 7:2, 24-26); for these nations had formerly constituted the church in that land, and therefore they had altars, and likewise offered sacrifices (n. 3686, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136, 6306, 6516, 8054); but when they turned the representative worship, which belonged to the Ancient Church, into idolatrous worship, and thus falsified truths and adulterated goods (n. 8317), it was ordered that not only the men, but also the cities and what was in the cities, should be “accursed.”

[3] The reason was that all things therein represented falsities from evil; the cities themselves, doctrines of falsity; the beasts, evil affections; the gold and silver, their evils and falsities; and all other things in like manner.  The main feature of the worship of the Ancient Church was the worship of God under a human form, thus of the Lord.  But when they turned aside from good to evil, they began to worship the representatives themselves, such as the sun, the moon, the stars, also groves, statues, and God under various idol forms, thus external things apart from anything internal, as is the case when the internal man has been closed.  The internal man is closed by a life of evil; for the Lord flows in by good, and opens the internal man; and consequently it is closed by evil.  And when the internal man has been closed, truths are turned into falsities; and where they remain as truths, they merely serve the evils which are of the love of self and the love of the world.  The main thing of internal worship is to acknowledge the Lord as the one and only God, and that everything good and true is from Him.  Those in the church who do not acknowledge Him cannot be in good, thus neither can they be in truth.  Those acknowledge Him who are in faith, and at the same time in the good of life; but not those who are in evil of life (n. 8878).  That to acknowledge and worship the Lord is to live according to His commandments, that is, to live a life of faith and charity, see (n. 8252-8257).  A life of faith consists in doing the commandments from obedience and a life of charity in doing the commandments from love.

AC 9194. Save to Jehovah alone.  That this signifies that the Lord, who is the one and only God, Is to be worshiped, is evident from the signification of “offering sacrifices,” here to Jehovah alone, as being worship (n. 9192). That “to Jehovah” denotes to the Lord, is because by “Jehovah” in the Word is meant no other than the Lord (n. 1343, 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 4692, 5663, 6303, 6905, 8864). That the Divine which He called “the Father” is the Divine good in Himself, (n. 2803, 3704, 7499, 8897); thus that the Lord is the one and only God, (n. 1607, 2149, 2156, 2329, 2447, 2751, 3194, 3704, 3712, 3938, 4577, 4687, 5321, 6280, 6371, 6849, 6993, 7014, 7182, 7209, 8241, 8724, 8760, 8864, 8865).

AC 9195. Verses 20-23.  And a sojourner thou shalt not afflict, and shalt not oppress; for ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt.  Any widow and orphan ye shall not afflict.  If afflicting thou shalt afflict him, so that crying he shall cry unto Me, hearing I will hear his cry; and Mine anger shall wax hot, and I will kill you with the sword; and your women shall become widows, and your sons orphans.  “And a sojourner thou shalt not afflict, and shalt not oppress,” signifies that those who wish to be instructed in the truths and goods of faith are not to be infested with falsities of doctrine and evils of life; “for ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt,” signifies that they were protected from falsities and evils when infested by the infernals; “any widow,” signifies those who are in good without truth, and yet long for truth; “and orphan,” signifies those who are in truth, and not yet in good, and nevertheless long for good; “ye shall not afflict,” signifies that they are not to be defrauded; “if afflicting thou shalt afflict him,” signifies if they are defrauded; “so that crying he shall cry unto Me,” signifies supplication to the Lord for aid; “hearing I will hear his cry,” signifies that they are to be aided; “and Mine anger shall wax hot,” signifies the state of those who do this; “and I will kill you with the sword,” signifies that they would deprive themselves of good and truth through falsities; “and your women shall become widows,” signifies that the goods with them will perish; “and your sons orphans,” signifies that then at the same time truths will perish.

AC 9196. And a sojourner thou shalt not afflict, and shalt not oppress.  That this signifies that those who wish to be instructed in the truths and goods of faith are not to be infested with falsities of faith and evils of life, is evident from the signification of “a sojourner,” as being one who wishes to be instructed in those things which are of the church, thus in the truths and goods of faith, and who receives these and lives according to them (n. 1463, 8007, 8013); that “a sojourner” has this signification, is because “to sojourn” signifies to be instructed, and also to live (n. 2025, 3672, 6095); and from the signification of “not to afflict,” when said of those who wish to be instructed in the truths and goods of faith, as being that they are not to be infested with falsities of faith; and from the signification of “oppressing,” when said of the same, as being that they are not to be infested with evils of life; for they who infest such with falsities afflict them; and they who infest such with evils oppress them.

AC 9197. For ye were sojourners in the land of Egypt.  That this signifies that they were protected from falsities and evils when infested by the infernals, is evident from what was said concerning the affliction and oppression of the sons of Israel in Egypt, and of their protection and final bringing forth from thence, in Exodus 7 to 14, where it was shown that the afflictions and oppressions of the sons of Israel in Egypt signified the infestations by the infernals, of the faithful who were of the spiritual church, before the Lord‘s coming; and that the protection and bringing forth of the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt signified the protection and liberation of those who were of the spiritual church by the Lord, when He was in the world, and when He rose again.  But it would be too tedious to repeat now the explication of these particulars. See what has been shown in the above mentioned chapters of Exodus, especially in (n. 6854, 6914, 7035, 7091, 7474, 7828, 7932, 8018, 8054, 8099, 8159, 8321)

AC 9198. Any widow.  That this signifies those who are in good without truth, and yet long for truth, is evident from the signification of “a widow,” as being good without truth, and yet longing for it.  That “a widow” has this signification is because by “a man” is signified truth, and by his “woman” is signified good; and therefore when the woman of a man becomes a widow, she signifies good without truth.  But in a still more interior sense “a widow” signifies truth without good.  The reason is that in this sense “a husband” signifies good, and his “wife” truth (n. 3236, 4510, 4823).  In this sense the Lord is called “Husband” and “Bridegroom,” from the Divine good; and His kingdom and church is called “Wife” and “Bride” from the reception of the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord (n. 9182).  But as in the passage under consideration the Lord’s celestial church is not treated of, but His spiritual church, by “a widow” is signified one who is in good and not in truth, and  yet longs for truth.  The case is similar with “an orphan.” In the inmost or celestial, sense “an orphan” signifies those who are in good and long for truth.  See the passages quoted and explained in regard to the signification of “widow” and “orphan” in the celestial sense, in (n. 4844); to which may be added what the Lord says in Luke concerning the widow in Sarepta:--

Verily I say unto you, No prophet is accepted in his own country. Of a truth I say unto you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elias, when the heaven was shut up three years and six months, when there was a great famine over all the land; yet unto none of them was Elias sent, save to Sarepta of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow (Luke 4:24-26).

[2] As all things the Lord spake, He spake from the Divine, therefore His words have an internal sense, and in this sense the subject here treated of is the Lord Himself and His kingdom and church. What therefore the Lord meant in this sense by the words He spake of the widow in Sarepta of Sidon, is plain when they are unfolded.  That “no prophet is accepted in his own country” signifies that the Lord, and the Divine truth which is from Him, are less received and loved in heart within the church, than outside of it.  He spake to the Jews, with whom the church then was; and it is known that the Lord was less received by them than by the nations outside the church.  The case is similar at this day in the church which from Him is called the Christian Church.  In this the Lord is indeed received in doctrine; but only by a few with acknowledgment of heart; and by still fewer from the affection of love. It is otherwise with the converted Gentiles outside the church. These worship and adore Him as their one only God, and they say with the mouth, and think at heart, that they acknowledge Him as God, because He has appeared in a human form (n. 5256).  The reverse is the case within the church, where because He was born a man He is with difficulty acknowledged from the heart as God. These make His Human like their own human, although they know that His Father was Jehovah, and not a man.  From all this it is evident what is meant in the internal sense by “no prophet being accepted in his own country.” A “prophet” in this sense denotes the Lord as to Divine truth, thus in respect to the doctrine of the church.  That “a prophet” denotes one who teaches, and in the abstract sense doctrine, and when predicated of the Lord, the Divine truth of the Word, (n. 9188).

[3] That “there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elias” signifies in the internal sense the state of acknowledgment of truth Divine from the Word at that time in the church. For as before said,“widows” denote those who are in good without truth; “Elias” denotes the Lord as to the Word; “the days of Elias” denote the states of reception of truth Divine from the Word at that time; and “Israel” denotes the church. That “Elias” represented the Lord as to the Word, (n. 2135a, 2762, 5247, 8029); that “days” denote states, (n. 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 6110, 8426); and that “Israel” denotes the church, (n. 4286, 6426, 6637, 8805).

[4] “When the heaven was shut up three years and six months” signifies the full vastation of the internal church; for “heaven” denotes the internal of the church; and “three years and six months” denotes to the full.  That “heaven” denotes the internal of the church, (n. 1733, 1850, 3355, 4535); and this is said to be “shut up” when it is vastated, that is, when it is no more.  That “three years and six months” denotes to the full, is evident from the signification of “a thousand two hundred and sixty days” in (Rev. 11:3; 12:6), (which days make three years and six months), as being to the full, that is, even unto the end; in like manner from the signification of “three days and a half” in (Rev. 11:9-11); and also from the signification of “a time and times and half a time” in (Rev. 12:14; Dan. 12:7), as being to the full, or, even to the end.

[5] “When there was a great famine over all the land” signifies the vastation of the external church also; for “a famine” denotes the lack and desolation of truth and good (n. 3364, 5277, 5279, 5281, 5300, 5360, 5376, 5415, 5576, 6110, 7102); and “the land” denotes the external church (n. 1262, 1413, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535, 5577, 8011, 8732). “Yet unto none of them was Elias sent” signifies the Lord as to the Word--and thus the Word of the Lord--not sent to others, because He would not have been received elsewhere; for “Elias,” as before said, denotes the Lord as to the Word.

[6] “ Save to Sarepta of Sidon, unto a woman that was a widow,” signifies only unto those who are in good and long for truth. It is said “Sarepta of Sidon” because “Sidon” signifies the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201). That “a woman a widow” denotes one who is in good, and longs for truth, is evident from what has just been said, and especially from what is related of her in the first book of the Kings, where are these words:--“Elijah came to Sarepta of Sidon to a widow woman, that she might sustain him; and he said to her, Fetch me a little water that I may drink, and bring me a morsel of bread in thine hand; and she said that she had only a little meal in the barrel, and a little oil in the cruse, sufficient only for a cake for herself and her son.” And Elijah said:--

Make me thereof a little cake first, and bring it out to me, and afterward make for thee and for thy son. She did so; and the barrel of meal was not consumed; and the cruse of oil did not fail (1 Kings 17:9-16).

[7] Obedience, and the longing of good for truth, are described by her giving water to the prophet at his bidding, and afterward by her first making a cake for him out of her own little supply, and then for herself and her son; and that thereby she was enriched with the good of truth is signified by “the barrel of meal not being consumed, and the cruse of oil failing not;” for in the internal sense “water” denotes truth (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8568); “meal,” truth from good (n. 2177); “oil,” the good of love (n. 886, 4582, 4638); and “a cake” made of these, truth conjoined with its good (n. 7978). From all this it is clear that “a widow” denotes one who is in good and longs for truth. Good and its longing for truth is described by the charity toward the prophet, which was greater than toward herself and her son. “The prophet,” as before shown, denotes the doctrine of truth.

[8] From all this it is evident what is the nature of the Word, namely, that it conceals within itself the secret things of heaven, which are not apparent in the letter; when yet in every word which the Lord Himself spake when He was in the world, and which He had before spoken through the prophets, there are things heavenly and wholly Divine, and raised above the sense of the letter; and this not only in each word, but also in each syllable of the words, nay, in every point of each syllable. But who believes that this is so? Nevertheless it is a certain fact, of which I have received full and unquestionable proof, concerning which of the Lord‘s Divine mercy elsewhere.

AC 9199. And an orphan.  That this signifies those who are in truth and not yet in good, and nevertheless long for good, is evident from the signification of “an orphan,” as being those who are in truth and long for good.  The reason why these are signified by “orphans,” is that sons bereaved of father and mother, thus they who are deprived of interior good and truth, are “orphans;” for by “father” in the Word is signified interior good, and by “mother” truth conjoined with this good (n. 5581); and by “sons” are signified the truths thence derived.  That “sons” denote truths, (n. 489, 491, 553, 1147, 2813, 3373, 6583). That sons are here meant by “orphans,” and not daughters, is plain from the following verse, where it is said, “and your sons shall be orphans.” That “orphan sons” denote those who long for good, is “because the Lord is then in the place of a father to them; as in David:--

A father of the orphans, and a judge of the widows, is God in the habitation of His holiness (Ps. 68:5).

[2] That ”orphans“ denote those who have been instructed in the truths of faith of the church from the Word, and thereby are afterward led to good, is plain also from the Lord’s words in John:--

I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Paraclete,   that he may abide with you to eternity, the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, for it seeth him not, neither knoweth him; but ye know him, for he abideth with you, and is among you. I will not leave you orphans; I will come unto you.  These things have I spoken unto you while abiding with you.  But the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, he shall teach you all things (John 14:16-18, 25, 26).

[3] That those are ”orphans“ who are in truths and long for food, can be seen here from every detail; for by ”the Paraclete“ is meant the Divine truth, which the Lord was while in the world, and which proceeded from the Lord after He had glorified His Human and had gone out of the world.  Therefore He says that ”He will send the Paraclete,“ and that ”He Himself will come.“  ”Sending the Paraclete“ denotes enlightening and instructing in the truths of faith; and ”coming to them“ denotes leading into good. Therefore He says, ”I will not leave you orphans.“ It has been stated that by ”the Paraclete“ is meant the Divine truth which the Lord was while in the world, and which proceeded from Him after He had glorified His Human and had gone out of the world.  That this is so, the Lord several times plainly taught.  But those who distinguish the Divine into Persons, and not into Essences united in one, do not apprehend this; for the Word is explained and apprehended by a man according to the ideas previously received by him.  So also where the Lord says that ”He is in the Father and the Father in Him; that the Father and He are one; and that all things that are His are the Father‘s and all things of the Father are His“ (John 10:30; 14:1-11, 20; 16:15; 17:10).

[4] But to proceed with the further explanation of the things stated above.  That by ”the Paraclete“ is meant the Divine truth, is plain from the very words of the Lord, for he is called ”the Spirit of truth,“ and it is also said, ”the Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, shall teach you all things.“ That the Lord was the Divine truth while in the world, is plain also from the words of the Lord in the above passage, for He says that ”He will send another Paraclete (that is, in His place), even the Spirit of truth;“ and of Himself He says that they ”know Him, because He abideth with them, and is among them.“ And also:--

I tell you the truth, if I go not away, the Paraclete will not come unto you; but if I go away, I will send him unto you (John 16:7).

And in another passage:--

This spake He of the Spirit, which they that believed in Him should receive; for the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:39).

And again He says that ”He is the way, and the truth“ (John 14:6);

and also that ”He is the Word, and that God is the Word, and that the Word became flesh“ (John 1:1-3, 14); where ”the Word“ denotes the Divine truth. That the Lord while in the world was the Divine truth, (n. 3195, 4687, 4727, 6716, 6864, 7499, 8127, 8724).

[5] And that the Divine truth proceeds from the Lord since He glorified His Human, and went away out of the world, is plain also from the Lord’s words, ”When I go away, I will send the Spirit of truth unto you“. ”To send“ denotes to go forth and to proceed, (n. 2397, 4710); and also,

”When he is come, he shall teach you all the truth; for he shall not speak from himself; but what things soever he shall hear, he shall speak.  He shall glorify Me; for he shall take of Mine, and shall declare it unto you“ (John 16:13, 14).

That when the Lord went away out of the world He became the Divine good even as to the Human, may be seen above (n. 3704, 3712, 3737, 3969, 4577, 5704, 6864, 7014, 7499, 8241, 8724, 8760, 9167); and that then, from the Divine good, which He Himself is, proceeds the Divine truth, even as from the sun proceeds the light of the universe (n. 3636, 3643, 3969, 5704, 7083, 8127).  To these references may be added those cited above (n. 9194).

AC 9200. Ye shall not afflict.  That this signifies that they are not to be defrauded, is evident from the signification of ”afflicting,“ when said of those who wish to be instructed in truth, and to be led to good, as being to defraud; here, not to defraud, because it is said ”Ye shall not afflict.“ The ”sojourner,“ the ” orphan,“ and the ”widow“ are often mentioned together in the Word, as in the following passages:--

Jehovah, who preserveth the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow (Ps. 146:9).

Defraud ye not the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow (Jer. 22:3).

In thee they have dealt with the sojourner by oppressions; in thee have they defrauded the orphan and the widow (Ezek. 22:7).

Wrest not the judgment of the sojourner, of the orphan, and the widow (Deut. 24:17; 27:19).

What is left in the fields, the oliveyards and the vineyards, shall be for the sojourner, the orphan, and the widow (Deut. 24:19-22; 26:12, 13).

Jehovah executeth the judgment of the orphan, of the widow, and loveth the sojourner (Deut. 10:18).

In like manner in the passage before us, ”a sojourner thou shalt not afflict, and shalt not oppress; any widow and orphan ye shall not afflict.“ When these three are thus mentioned together, they fall with the angels into one sense; namely, that with those who are in the church, good and truth are to be conjoined according to order; thus reciprocally, truth with good, and good with truth; for by ”a sojourner“ are meant those who wish to be instructed in such things as are of the church; by ”widows,“ the conjunction of good with truth; and by ”orphans,“ the conjunction of truth with good; which conjunction is reciprocal. The case is similar with all other passages in the Word: when explained as to the internal sense they seem scattered; but with the angels they are combined inn one sense; nay, into one idea.

AC 9201. If afflicting thou shalt afflict him.  That this signifies if they are defrauded, is evident from the signification of ”to afflict,“ as being to defraud (n. 9200).

AC 9202. So that crying he shall cry unto Me.  That this signifies supplication to the Lord for aid, is evident without explication.  Intense supplication is expressed in the Word by ”a cry,“ because the supplication of those who supplicate from the heart, even if silent, is heard in heaven as a cry.  Such is the case when men merely think, and still more when they groan, from a sincere heart.  This was represented in the representative church by a cry; and hence the cry became a ceremonial observance among the Jews. The case is similar with those who teach; they are heard in heaven as crying aloud.  In heaven, not only the thoughts, but especially the affections which are of good and truth, speak.  That they speak, and if ardent cry out, has been given me to know from experience, concerning which, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy elsewhere.  But affections of evil and falsity are not at all heard in heaven, even though the man who supplicates from them should cry out, and at the same time press his palms tightly together, and raise them together with his eyes to heaven.  These latter affections are heard in hell, and if they are ardent, they are heard there also as cries.

AC 9203. Hearing I will hear their cry.  That this signifies that they are to be aided, is evident without explication.

AC 9204. And Mine anger shall wax hot.  That this signifies the state of those who do this, is evident from the signification of ”anger,“ when attributed to Jehovah, that is, to the Lord, as being clemency and mercy (n. 6997, 8875). But the reason why these words denote the state of those who do this, that is, who afflict and oppress the stranger, the widow, and the orphan, is that the ”anger“ is in them, and then appears as if it were in the Lord.  That anger is attributed to the Lord, when yet it is in the man, (n. 6997, 8284, 8483, 8875); and that in general the evil which is attributed to the Lord in the word is in those who are in evil, (n. 1861, 2447, 6071, 6832, 6991, 7533, 7632, 743, 7679, 7710, 7926, 8197, 8227, 8228, 8282).

AC 9205. And I will kill you with the sword.  That this signifies that they would deprive themselves of good and truth through falsities, is evident from the signification of ”killing,“ when said of such as defraud those who are in good and truth, and who are signified by ”widows, orphans, and sojourners,“ as being to deprive them of such things (that ”to kill“ denotes to deprive of spiritual life, (n. 3607, 6768, 8902); and from the signification of a ”sword,“ as being truth fighting and destroying falsity; and in the opposite sense, as being falsity fighting and destroying truth (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294). Here therefore ”to kill with the sword“ denotes to deprive of goods and truths by means of falsities.

AC 9206. And you women shall become widows.  That this signifies that the goods with them will perish, is evident from the signification of ”women,“ as being goods (n. 6014, 8337); that ”women“ denote goods is because by the marriage of a man and a woman is represented the conjunction of truth and good (that by ”a man“ is signified truth, and by ”a woman“ good, (n. 4510, 4823); and from the signification of ”widows,“ as being those who are in good and not in truths, but who nevertheless long for truths (n. 9198); but here those who do not long for truths, because the evil are spoken of who afflict widows, consequently those are meant with whom goods are perishing.

[2] The case herein is this.  Those who are in good, and do not long for truth, are not in good.  The reason is that good becomes good by means of truths, for good receives its quality from truths (n. 9154).  It is good conjoined with truth that is meant by ”spiritual good;“ and therefore when truth perishes with a man, good also perishes; and conversely, when good perishes, truth also perishes; for the conjunction is drawn asunder and dispersed (n. 3804, 4149, 4301, 4302, 5835, 6917, 7835, 8349, 8356). Thus good is known from the fact that it longs for truth and is affected with truth for the sake of a good use, thus for the sake of life.  Regarded in itself the very longing, that is, the very affection of truth for the sake of life, is the affection of conjunction.  This is like the longing of food or bread for water or wine, for the sake of conjunction; for when they are conjoined they nourish. It is also like light and heat, in that light conjoined with heat produces all things on the earth, and causes them to grow; but if the conjunction is severed, that which has been produced and has grown, perishes.

[3] As it is with good, so it is with all delight, pleasantness, sweetness, consent, and harmony. These things are not such from themselves, but from the things which are in them, the conjunction causing them to be such, and they being such according to the conjunction. But what things therein hear relation to good, and what to truth, may be known to the intelligent if they consider.  For all things whatsoever that are in the world and that are in heaven, thus that are in the universe, bear relation to good and truth; and everything produced by these bears relation to both together, and thus to their conjunction. For this reason the ancients likened all things to marriage (n. 54, 55, 1432, 5194, 7022); and in each particular of the Word there is the marriage of good and truth (n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 4138, 5138, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339).

AC 9207. And your sons shall be orphans.  That this signifies that then at the same time truths will perish, is evident from the signification of ”orphans,“ as being those who are in truth and not yet in good, and nevertheless long for good (n. 9199), here those who are in truth but do not long for good, thus those with whom truths are perishing; for it is said of the evil, whose sons shall become orphans.  That truths perish with those who do not long for good, is plain from what was said just above (n. 9206) about the conjunction of good and truth. With regard to this conjunction it is to be said further, that truths which are conjoined with good always have within them a longing to do what is good, and at the same time, to thereby conjoin themselves more closely with good; or, what is the same, those who are in truths always long to do what is good, and thus to conjoin good with their truths; and therefore those who believe themselves to be in truths and do not long to do what is good, are not in truths; that is, they are not in the faith of these truths, howsoever they may suppose themselves to be so.

[2] This is described by the Lord by ”salt,“ where He says in Matthew:--

Ye are the salt of the earth; but if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? It is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under foot of men (Matt. 5:13);

these words the Lord says to the disciples and to the people. By ”the salt of the earth“ is meant the truth of the church which longs for good; by ”the salt that hath lost its savor“ is meant truth without any longing for good; that such truth is profitable for nothing is described by ”the salt that hath lost its savor being thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under foot.“ To long for good is to long to do what is good, and in this way to be conjoined with good.

[3] So in Mark:--

Everyone shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt. Salt is good; but if the salt have lost its saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and cherish peace one with another (Mark 9:49, 50);

”to be salted with fire“ denotes the longing of good for truth; and ”to be salted with salt“ denotes the longing of truth for good; ”salt that has lost its saltness“ denotes truth without any longing for good; ”to have salt in ones self“ denotes to have this longing.

[4] So in Luke:--

Everyone of you that renounceth not all that he hath, cannot be My disciple. Salt is good; but if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be seasoned? It is fit neither for the land, nor for the dunghill: they cast it out (Luke 14:33-35);

here in like manner ”salt“ denotes truth longing for good; and ”salt that has lost its savor,“ truth which is without any longing for good; ”it is fit neither for the land nor for the dunghill“ denotes that it does not conduce to any use, either good or evil. Those who are in such truth are those who are called ”lukewarm,“ as is plain from the words which precede: that ”no one can be a disciple of the Lord who does not renounce all that he has,“ that is, who does not love the Lord above all things; for those who love the Lord, and likewise themselves, in an equal degree, are those who are called ”lukewarm,“ and who are not fit for either a good use or an evil use.

[5] In Moses:--

Every offering of thy meat-offering shall be salted with salt; neither shalt thou suffer the salt of the covenant of thy God to cease upon thy meat-offering; upon every offering thou shalt offer salt (Lev. 2:13);

that ”in every offering there should be salt“ signified that the longing of truth for good, and of good for truth, should be in all worship.  Consequently this ”salt“ is called ”the salt of the covenant of God,“ for ”a covenant“ denotes conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 2037, 6804, 8767, 8778), and ”salt“ the longing for conjunction.

[6] When the one longs to be reciprocally conjoined with the other, that is, good with truth and truth with good, they then mutually regard each other; but when truth sunders itself from good, then each turns away from the other, and looks backward, or behind itself.  This is signified by Lot’s wife becoming a pillar of salt, as in Luke:--

Whosoever shall be upon the house, and his vessels in the house, let him not go down to take them away; and whosoever is in the field, let him likewise not turn back to the things behind him. Remember Lot‘s wife (Luke 17:31, 32).

That this is ”to look behind“ one’s self, or ”backward,“ (n. 3652, 5895, 5897, 7857, 7923, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8516).

[7] That ”salt“ signifies the longing of truth, is because salt renders the earth fertile, and makes food palatable, and because there is in salt something both fiery and at the same time conjunctive; as there is in truth an ardent longing for good and at the same time for conjunction.  A ”pillar of salt“ denotes disjunction from truth; for in the opposite sense ” salt“ signifies the destruction and vastation of truth (Zeph. 2:9; Ezek.  47:11; Jer. 17:6; Ps. 107:33, 34; Deut. 29:23; Judges 9:45; 2 Kings 2:19-22).  These things have been adduced in order that it may be known what is meant by the longing of truth for good, and the longing of good for truth, which are signified by ”an orphan,“ and ”a widow.“

AC 9208. Verses 24-26. If thou shalt lend silver to My people, the needy with thee, thou shalt not be to him as a usurer; ye shall not put usury upon him.  If taking a pledge thou shalt take in pledge thy companion‘s garment, even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him; for it is his only covering; it is his garment for his skin, wherein he may sleep; and it shall be, when he shall cry unto Me, that I will hear; for I am merciful.  ”If thou shalt lend silver to My people, the needy with thee,“ signifies the instruction of those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet long to learn; ”thou shalt not be to him as a usurer,“ signifies that this must be done from charity; ”ye shall not put usury upon him,“ signifies not for the sake of the consequent profit; ”if taking a pledge thou shalt take in pledge thy companion’s garment,“ signifies if memory-truth be separated through fallacies derived from the things of sense; ”even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him,“ signifies that it must be restored before there is a state of shade from the delights of external loves; ”for it is his only covering,“ signifies because the things of sense underlie interior things; ”it is his garment for his skin,“ signifies that they also clothe exterior things; ”wherein he may sleep,“ signifies rest upon them; ”and it shall be when he shall cry unto Me,“ signifies supplication to the Lord; ”that I will hear,“ signifies aid; ”for I am merciful,“ signifies that from Him is everything of aid, from mercy.

AC 9209. If thou shalt lend silver to My people, the needy with thee.  That this signifies the instruction of those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet long to learn, is evident from the signification of ”silver,“ as being truth (n. 1551, 2048, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 7999, 8932); from the signification of ”lending,“ as being to communicate the goods of heaven from the affection of charity (n. 9174), thus to instruct; from the signification of ”people,“ as being those who are in truths, here those in ignorance of truth, because it is said ”needy people“ (that those are called a ”people“ who are in truths, (n. 1259, 1260, 2928, 3295, 3581, 7207); and from the signification of ”needy,“ as being those who are in ignorance of truth and yet long to learn, for these are in spiritual need, and are to be instructed.

[2] In the Word it is frequently said that benefits are to be conferred on the poor and needy.  Those who are in external truths, and who are not yet initiated into internal truths, believe that benefits are to be conferred on all who need any kind of help, and especially on beggars, who call themselves poorer than others.  They who do this from obedience, because it has been so commanded, do well; for by this outward thing they are initiated into the internal of charity and mercy.  The internal of charity and mercy consists in clearly discerning who and of what character are those upon whom benefits are to be conferred, and in what manner to each one.  They who are at last initiated into the internal of charity and mercy know that this very internal consists in willing well and in doing well to the internal man, thus with such things as conduce to spiritual life; and that the external consists in doing well to the external man, thus with such things as conduce to the bodily life, but yet with such prudence, that while the external man is benefited the internal man may also be benefited at the same time.  For he who does well to the external man and ill to the internal man, does not practice charity; and therefore when the one is done, the other must also he looked to.

[3] It is the external of charity which is described in the external or literal sense of the Word by the injunction that benefits are to be conferred on the poor and needy; but it is the internal of charity which is described in the internal or spiritual sense of the Word; for in this sense is meant the internal man who is in poverty and need, and who is to be benefited.  In this sense by ”the poor and needy“ are meant those who are in lack and ignorance of good and truth, and yet long for good and truth. The Word also teaches in the letter how these are to be aided, especially the Word which the Lord Himself taught when He was in the world; for the Lord then disclosed such things as belong to the internal man, as is plain in the Evangelists throughout. But still He spoke in such a manner that every word had an internal sense for the angels, and at the same time for the man of the internal church. For the internal sense contains such things as the genuine doctrine of the church teaches.

[4] Take for example what the Lord said to the disciples sent by John the Baptist to inquire whether He was the Lord who should come; to whom He replied:--

Go ye and tell John what thing ye have seen and heard: the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are cleansed, the deaf hear, to the poor the gospel is preached (Luke 7:20-22);

these words were spoken for the external man, and at the same time for the internal man; for the external man that such miracles were wrought; for the internal, that the church is being set up among such as in the spiritual sense are blind, lame, leprous, deaf, and poor, thus among the Gentiles who are in ignorance of good and truth, and yet long for them. For those are called ”blind“ who are in ignorance of truth (n. 6990); ”lame,“ those who are in good, but on account of their ignorance of truth, not in genuine good (n. 4302); ”leprous,“ those who are unclean and yet long to be made clean; ”deaf,“ those who are not in the faith of truth, because not in the perception of it; and ”poor,“ those who have not the Word, and thus know nothing of the Lord, and yet long to be instructed. Consequently it is said that ”to these the gospel shall be preached.“

[5] That by ”the poor and needy“ in the internal sense are meant those outside the church who are in ignorance of truth, because they have not the Word, and yet long to be instructed, and who by means of that which they know are nevertheless in a little good; and also those within the church who from various causes are ignorant of truth, but nevertheless by virtue of some good long for it, is evident from passages where ”the poor and needy“ are mentioned in the Word, as in David:--

I am needy and poor; make haste unto me, O God; my help and my deliverer, O Jehovah (Ps. 70:5);

these words were spoken by David, who was not poor and needy, from which it is evident that spiritual poverty and need are meant. In like manner elsewhere:--

I am needy and poor; O Lord, remember me, my help and my deliverer (Ps. 40:17).

God shall judge His people in righteousness, and His needy in judgment. The mountains shall bring peace to the people, and the hills in righteousness. He shall judge the needy of the people. He shall save the sons of the poor, and shall break: in pieces the oppressor (Ps. 72:2-4);

”the needy“ here denote those who are in spiritual need, and thus in the hunger, that is, in the longing to be willing to be instructed in truths.

[6] In the same:--

All my bones shall say, O Jehovah, who is like unto Thee, who deliverest the needy from him that is stronger than he; yea, the needy‘ and the poor from them that plunder him? (Ps. 35:10);

the ”bones“ denote memory-truths (n. 8005); ”the needy,“ those who are in but little truth; and ”the poor“ those who are in but little good, and are infested by evils and falsities. From these infestations the needy are also called in the original tongue ”the afflicted,“ for ”to be afflicted“ denotes to be infested by falsities (n. 9196).  Again in the following passages:--

The wicked lieth in wait in the tent to catch the needy; he doth catch the needy, and draweth him into his net (Ps. 10:9).

Is not this the fast, to break bread to the hungry? and to bring into the house the needy that are cast out? (Isa. 58:6, 7).

Jehovah hath comforted His people, and will have mercy upon His needy ones (Isa. 49:13).

I will leave in the midst of thee a people needy and feeble, who hope in the name of Jehovah (Zeph. 3:12).

In these passages ”the needy“ denote those who are in ignorance of truth and long to be instructed.

AC 9210. Thou shalt not be to him as an usurer.  That this signifies that this must be done from charity, is evident from the signification of ”a usurer,“ as being one who does what is good for the sake of self-advantage; for a usurer intrusts money to another for the sake of usury, and assists another for the sake of recompense.  And because genuine charity does not regard profit or recompense as the end, but the good of the neighbor, therefore by ”thou shalt not be as a usurer“ is signified that it must be done from charity.  He who does not know what Christian charity is, may believe that it consists not only in giving to the needy and the poor, but also in doing good to a fellow citizen, to our country, and to the church, for any cause whatever, or for any end whatever.  But be it known that it is the end that determines the quality of all a man’s deeds.  If his end or intention is to do good for the sake of reputation, or to acquire honors or profit, then the good which he does is not good, because it is done for the sake of himself, and thus also from himself.  But if his end is to do good for the sake of a fellow citizen, his country, or the church, thus for the sake of the neighbor, then the good which the man does is good, for it is done for the sake of good itself, which, in general, is the neighbor itself (n. 5025, 6706, 6711, 6712, 8123); thus also it is done for the sake of the Lord, for such good is not from man, but from the Lord, and that which is from the Lord is the Lords.  It is this good which is meant by the Lord in Matthew:--

As much as ye did to one of the least of these My brethren, ye did to Me (Matt. 25:40).

[2] As it is with good, so also it is with truth. Those who do truth for the sake of truth, do it also for the sake of the Lord, because they do it from the Lord.  To do truth for the sake of truth, is to do good; for truth becomes good when it passes from the understanding into the will, and from the will goes forth into act.  To do good in this manner is Christian charity.  Sometimes those who do good from Christian charity have regard to reputation from it, for the sake of honor, or for the sake of profit; yet they do so very differently from those who regard these things as the end; for they regard what is good and just as the essential and only thing, thus as being in the highest place; and thereafter they regard profit and honor, and reputation for the sake of these, as being relatively not essential, thus in the lowest place.  When persons of such a character have in view what is just and good, they are like those who fight in battle for their country, and who then have no regard for their life, nor for their rank and possessions in the world, which are then relatively of no account.  But those who have regard to themselves and the world in the first place, are of such a character that they do not even see what is just and good, because they have in view themselves and their own profit.

[3] From all this it is evident what it is to do good for the sake of self or the world, and what it is to do good for the sake of the Lord or the neighbor, and what is the difference between them.  The difference is as great as that between two opposites, thus as great as between heaven and hell Moreover those who do good for the sake of the neighbor or the Lord are in heaven; but those who do good for the sake of self and the world are in hell.  For those who do good for the sake of the neighbor and the Lord, love the Lord above all things and the neighbor as themselves, in accordance with the chief of all the commandments (Mark 12:28-31).  But those who do all things for the sake of themselves and the world, love themselves above all things, thus more than God, and not only do they despise the neighbor, but even hold him in hatred if he does not make one with themselves, and be theirs.  This is meant by what the Lord teaches in Matthew:--

No man call serve two masters, for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon (Matt. 6:24).

There are those who serve both; but these are they who are called ”lukewarm, neither cold nor hot,“ who are ”spewed out“ (Rev.  3:15, 16) From all this it is now plain what was represented by usurers who took usury, namely, those who do good for the sake of profit.

[4] From this it is clear why it is said that one ”should not he as a usurer, and should not put usury upon a brother;“ as also in other passages in Moses:--

Thou shalt not put on thy brother usury of silver, usury of food, usury of anything on which it is put. Upon a foreigner thou mayest put usury; but upon thy brother thou shalt not put usury; that Jehovah thy God may bless thee in all that thou puttest thine hand into, in the land whither thou goest to possess it (Deut. 23:19, 20; Lev. 25:36-38);

”to put on a brother the usury of silver“ denotes to lend truths, or to instruct, for the sake of profit; ”to put the usury of food on him“ denotes to lend the goods of truth for the sake of profit; for ”silver“ denotes truth (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6914, 6917); and ”food,“ the good of truth (n. 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5410, 5426, 5487, 5576, 5582, 5588, 5655, 5915, 8562). That ”Jehovah will bless those who do not so, in all that they put their hand unto in the land“ is because they are in the affection of good and truth, thus in the happiness the angels have in heaven, for a man has heaven in this affection, that is, in the good of this love (n. 6478, 9174).  The reason why it was allowable to put usury on foreigners, was that by ”foreigners“ are signified those who do not acknowledge and receive anything of good and truth (n. 7996).  Thus they who do good only for the sake of profit are to serve man, because they are relatively servants (n. 1097).  In David:--

He that walketh perfect, and that doeth righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart; He that giveth not his silver to usury, and taketh not a gift against the innocent. He that doeth this shall never be moved (Ps 15:2, 5);

”to give one‘s silver into usury“ denotes to teach merely for the sake of profit, thus to do good for the sake of the recompense.  In like manner in Ezekiel:--

A righteous man who doeth judgment and righteousness, giveth not into usury, and taketh not interest (Ezek. 18:5, 8).

He that withholdeth his hand from the needy, that taketh not usury or interest, that doeth My judgments, that walketh in My statutes, living he shall live (Ezek. 18:17).

In thee have they taken a gift to shed blood; thou hast taken usury and interest, and thou hast taken gain of thy companions by violence (Ezek. 22:12).

This is said of the ”city of bloods,“ by which is signified the falsity that destroys truth and good (n. 9127); ”taking usury and interest“ denotes doing good for the sake of profit and recompense, thus not from charity. That genuine charity is devoid of all claim to merit, (n. 2371, 2373, 2400, 4007, 4174, 4943, 6388-6390, 6392, 6478).

AC 9211. Ye shall not put usury upon him.  That this signifies thus not for the sake of the consequent profit, is evident from the signification of ”putting usury upon“ anyone, as being to do good for the sake of profit (n. 9210), here not for the sake of profit, because it is said ”ye shall not put usury upon him.“ From this law concerning interest and usury it can be seen how the case is with the laws called ”judgments“ among the Israelitish people, namely, that they ceased, together with the sacrifices and all other rituals, when the Lord came into the world and opened the interior things of worship, and in general the interior things of the Word.  The interior things of this law are that good ought to be done to the neighbor from the heart, and that it ought to be believed that there is nothing of merit in deeds done from self, but only in those done from the Lord in self.  For the Lord Himself alone has merited, and He alone is righteousness; and when a man believes this, he places nothing of merit and reward in what is done by himself, but ascribes all goods to the Lord; and as the Lord does it from Divine mercy, the man ascribes all things to mercy alone.  From this also it is that he who is led by the Lord thinks absolutely nothing about reward, and yet does good to the neighbor from the heart.

[2] These are the interior things from which descended the law of usuries among the Israelitish and Jewish nation, and therefore when a man is in the interior things, this law ceases, together with other similar laws, which were called ”judgments.“  For the Israelitish and Jewish nation was solely in external things which were representative of internal things. Consequently this law was binding upon that nation at that time; but it is not binding upon Christians, to whom interior things have been revealed by the Lord.  That this is so is known to the man of the church at this day, and therefore at this day the laws of usury are quite different.  Nevertheless the sanctity of this law does not cease on this account, that is, this Word has not been abrogated, for its sanctity remains by virtue of the interior things which are in it.  These holy interior things still affect the angels when this Word is read. Therefore beware of believing that the laws of life, such as are in the decalogue, and everywhere in the Old Testament, have been abrogated, for these laws have been confirmed in the internal as well as in the external form, because the two cannot he separated.

AC 9212. If taking a pledge thou shalt take in pledge thy companion’s garment.  That hereby is signified, if memory-truths be separated through fallacies derived from the things of sense, is evident from the signification of ”taking a pledge,“ as being to receive a token for goods that have been communicated; for a pledge is a token for goods that are lent.  When spiritual things are understood in the place of these, to communicate goods means to instruct in truths, and a token or pledge then means sensuous truth; for by the ”garment“ mentioned here as given in pledge, is signified the ultimate of the natural, which is the sensuous.  As this abounds in fallacies, and fallacies extinguish truths, therefore by ”taking thy companion‘s garment in pledge“ is signified the separation of truths by fallacies derived from the things of sense.  That these things are signified, is evident from the series of the things as they follow in the internal sense.

[2] By a ”garment“ in general is signified all that which clothes something else, thus whatever is relatively exterior.  Consequently the external or natural man is called a ”garment“ relatively to the internal or spiritual man.  In like manner truth is called a ”garment“ relatively to good, because truth clothes good; so likewise is memory-truth relatively to the truth of faith, which is of the internal man.  The sensuous, which is the ultimate of life with man, is a ”garment“ relatively to memory-truth. That ”garments“ denote lower things which cover higher ones, or what is the same, exterior things which cover interior ones, (n. 2576, 5248); in general that they denote truths, (n. 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6917, 9093); that they denote memory-truths, (n. 6918); also sensuous truths, (n. 9158); and that the sensuous is the ultimate of life with man, (n. 4009, 5077, 5125, 5128, 5767, 5774, 6201, 6313, 7442, 7693), and is in fallacies, (n. 5084, 5089, 6201, 6948, 6949, 7442).

[3] That ”garments“ denote truths, originates from the representatives in the other life, where angels and spirits appear clothed in garments according to the states of faith or of truth in which they are; and their garments vary according to the changes of this state.  Those who are in genuine truth appear clothed in white garments, and those who are in truths derived from good in shining garments; but those who are solely in good, as are the angels of the inmost heaven, who are called celestial, appear without clothing.  From this then it is that garments denote truths, and that by ”garments“ in the Word are signified truths, as can be seen from the passages before quoted, to which may be added the following from the Evangelists.

[4] In Matthew:--

When Jesus was transfigured, His face did shine as the sun, and His garments became as the light (Matt. 17:2);

by ”the face“ in the Word are signified the interiors, especially the affections (n. 358, 1999, 2434, 3527, 3573, 4066, 4796, 4797, 5102, 5695, 6604, 6848, 6849); and by ”the face of God,“ good itself (n. 222, 223, 5585); by ”the sun“ is signified the Divine love (n. 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696, 7083, 8644). From this it is evident what is signified by ”the face of the Lord shining as the sun,“ namely, that His interiors were the good of the Divine love.  That ”His garments became as the light“ signifies the Divine truth proceeding from Him, which in heaven also appears as light (n. 1521, 1619-1632, 3195, 3222, 3485, 3636, 3643, 4415, 5400, 8644).

[5] Again:--

When Jesus drew nigh unto Jerusalem they brought the ass, and the colt, and put on them their garments, and set Him thereon.  And a very great multitude spread their garments in the way; but others cut branches from the trees, and strewed them in the way (Matt. 21:1, 7, 8);

to ride on an ass and her colt was a representative of the highest judge and king (n. 2781), as is also evident from what goes before in (Matt. 21:5):--

Tell ye the daughter of Zion, Behold thy King cometh unto thee, meek, and sitting upon an ass and upon a colt the son of a beast of burden (Mark 11:1-11; Luke 19:28-40; John 12:12-15).

In (Zechariah 9:9), it is said of the Lord that He ”was riding upon an ass, even upon a young ass, the son of she-asses,“ and He is there called a ”King;“ and it is added that ”His dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth.“ That the highest judge rode upon a she-ass, and his sons upon young asses, may be seen in (Judges 5:9, 10; 10:3, 4; 12:14); and that the king rode upon a she-mule, and the sons of the king upon mules, in (1 Kings 1:33, 38, 44, 45; 2 Samuel 13:29).

[6] By the disciples putting their garments on the ass and her colt, was represented that truths in the whole complex were submitted to the Lord as the Highest Judge and King; for the disciples represented the church of the Lord in respect to its truths and goods (n. 2129, 3488, 3858, 6397), and their garments represented the truths themselves (n. 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6917, 9093) The like was represented by the multitude strewing their garments in the way, and also branches of trees.  The reason why they strewed them in the way was that by ”a way“ is signified the truth whereby the man of the church is led (n. 627, 2333, 3477) The reason why they strewed branches of trees, was that trees signified the perceptions and also the knowledges of truth and good (n. 2682, 2722, 2972, 4552, 7692), consequently ”the branches“ denote the truths themselves.  This was done also in conformity with a customary rite; for when the highest judges and kings rode in their solemn procession, the princes of the people then put their garments on the asses and mules, and the people themselves strewed their garments on the way, or in their place the branches of trees; for the judicial function in heaven is the Divine truth from the Divine good, and the regal one is the Divine truth (n. 1728, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).

[7] In Luke:--

No man addeth a piece of a new garment to an old garment; for so be rendeth the new, and the piece from the new doth not agree with the old (Luke 5:36);

the Lord used this similitude to describe the truth of the new church and the truth of the old church, for the ”garment“ denotes truth.  To ”sew“ or ”add“ one to the other denotes to destroy both; for the truth of the new church is interior truth, thus is truth for the internal man; but the truth of the old church is exterior truth, thus is for the external man. In the latter truth was the Jewish Church, for by means of external things this church represented internal ones; whereas the church at this day is in the internal truths which had been represented; for the Lord revealed these truths.  That these truths do not agree with external truths so as to be together with them, is signified by the above words of the Lord.  From this also it is evident that a ”garment“ signifies the truth of the church.

[8] In John:--

Jesus said unto Peter, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, When thou wast a boy, thou girdedst thy loins, and walkedst whither thou wouldest; but when thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hand, and another shall gird thy loins, and lead thee whither thou wouldest not (John 21:18);

he who does not know the internal sense of the Word, cannot know what these words involve.  That they contain  arcana is very evident.  In the internal sense by ”Peter“ is signified the faith of the church (n. 2135a, 2760), also (n. 3750, 6000, 6073, 6344).  Thus by ”Peter when a boy“ is signified the faith of the church such as it is in its beginning; and by ”Peter when old,“ the faith of the church such as it is at its end.  From this it is evident what is signified by the words, ”when thou wast a boy, thou girdedst thy loins, and walkedst whither thou wouldest,“ namely, that the faith of the church in its beginning is the faith of truth from good, thus the faith of charity toward the neighbor and of love to the Lord, and that then the man of the church does good from freedom, because from the Lord; for ”the loins“ denote the goods of love (n. 3021, 3294, 4280, 4575, 5050-5062), consequently ”to gird the loins“ denotes to clothe good with truths; ”walking“ denotes living (n. 519, 1794, 8417, 8420); thus ”walking whither one would“ denotes living in freedom, for those live in freedom, or act from freedom, who are in faith from love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, because they are led by the Lord (n. 892, 905, 2870, 9593, 6325, 9096).  ”When thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thy loins, and lead thee whither thou wouldest not,“ signifies that at the end of the church there will be no faith, and then falsities of evil from the loves of self and the world will take its place, and will reduce it to bondage.  This is the secret which lies hidden in these words of the Lord, and which can be seen only from their internal sense.  From this it is again evident in what manner the Lord spoke, namely, that in every detail there was an internal sense, to the intent that by means of the Word heaven might be conjoined with the world; for without the Word there is no conjunction, that is, without revealed Divine truth; and if there is no conjunction, the human race perishes.

AC 9213. Even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him.  That this signifies that it must be restored before there is a state of shade from the delights of external loves, is evident from the signification of the ”going in,“ or setting, ”of the sun,“ as being a state of shade from the delights of external loves. The case herein is this. In heaven there are alternations of heat in respect to those things which are of the good of love; and there are alternations of light in respect to those things which are of the truth of faith; thus there are alternations of love and of faith. In hell also there are alternations, but such as are opposite to those in heaven, because there they are alternations of the love of evil and of the faith of falsity.  These alternations correspond to the changes of the seasons on the earth, which are spring, summer, autumn, and winter, and again spring; and so on.  But in the spiritual world instead of times there are states; for there are no changes of heat and light there, but of love and faith. But he it known that these alternations are not the same with one as with another, but differ with each person according to the state of life acquired by him in the world.  Sunset in heaven corresponds to a state of shade as to the truths of faith, and to a state of cold as to the good of love to the Lord and toward the neighbor; for those who are there then come into the delights of external loves, which are attended with shade as to faith. For when an angel or spirit is in external things, he is also in shade; but when he is in internal things, he is in the delights and blessednesses of heavenly loves, and at the same time is in the pleasant things of faith, that is, in the light of truth.  These are the states to which correspond the spring and summer seasons on the earth.  From all this then it can now be seen why the ”going in,“ or setting, ”of the sun,“ signifies a state of shade from the delights of external loves. Concerning these alternations, (n. 5097, 5672, 5962, 6110, 7083, 8426, 8615, 8644, 8812).

[2] From what has been said above it can be seen what is meant by saying that the memory-truths which have been separated through fallacies derived from the things of sense must be restored before there is a state of shade from the delights of external loves, which is signified by the words, ”if thou take thy companion’s garment in pledge, even at the going in of the sun thou shalt restore it to him.“ For hereby is meant that truths taken away through fallacies must be restored while the man is still in the light of truth; for he is then able to recover them, and also to dispel the falsities induced by fallacies; but this he cannot do when he is in a state of shade arising from the delights of external loves, because these delights reject those truths; and the shade does not receive them; and thus the fallacies cling to the man, and are appropriated by him.  The reason why external delights, that is, those of the external man, are of such a nature, is that they are closely connected with the world, and are also excited and as it were vivified by its heat.  It is otherwise with internal delights and blessednesses, or those of the internal man.  These are closely connected with heaven, and are also excited and vivified by its heat, which is love from the Lord.

[3] This judgment, or law, is thus delivered in another passage in Moses:--

Thou shalt not take in pledge the mill or millstone; for he taketh the soul in pledge (Deut. 24:6);

by ”a mill“ are signified such things as serve for procuring faith, and afterward charity (n. 7780); and by ”the soul“ is signified the life of faith from charity (n. 9050).  From this it is evident what is meant by ”not taking in pledge a mill, for he taketh the soul in pledge.“ Again:--

Thou shalt not turn back the right of the sojourner and the orphan; nor shalt thou take a widow‘s garment in pledge (Deut.  24:17);

”to take a widow’s garment in pledge“ denotes to take away in any manner the truths that long for good; for a ”garment“ denotes truth (n. 9212); and ”a widow,“ one who is in good and longs for truths, or in the abstract sense, good longing for truths (n. 9198); for if truth is taken away, good perishes together with its longing.

[4] And again:--

If thou lend thy companion anything, thou shalt not enter into his house to take a pledge. Thou shalt stand outside, and the man to whom thou hast lent shall bring forth the pledge outside. And if he be a needy man, thou shalt not lie down in his pledge; restoring thou shalt restore to him the pledge at the setting of the sun, that he may lie in his garment, and may bless thee; and it shall be righteousness before thy God (Deut. 24:10-13);

that the creditor should ”stand outside, and the pledge he brought forth to him,“ signifies how the communicated truths are to be responded to; for by ”lending“ is signified the communication of truth, and by ”taking a pledge,“ the response.  No one can know that these things are signified except from what happens in the other life; thus unless he knows what is meant by ”entering into the house,“ and what by ”standing outside,“ thus what is meant by ”bringing forth outside.“

[5] In the other life those who enter the house of another, and converse together in one room, so communicate their thoughts with all who are there, that the latter absolutely know no otherwise than that they themselves are thinking these thoughts from themselves.  But if they stand outside, the thoughts are indeed perceived, but as coming from another, and not from themselves.  This happens every day in the other life; and therefore those who are of one opinion, or of one sentiment, appear together in one house; and this is still more the case if they appear in one room of the house; and when these same persons disagree, those who do so disappear.  In the other life such appearances are everywhere, and are continually happening.  The reason is that parity of thoughts conjoins and causes presence, for thought is internal sight, and distances of places there, are not as in the world.

[6] From this it is plain what is meant by ”not entering into the house, but standing outside and taking a pledge,“ namely, that one should not bind or incite another to confirm one‘s own truths, but should hear him and take his answers as they are in himself.  For he who binds and incites another to confirm his own truths, causes the other anyone thinks and speaks from another, the truths he has are not to think and speak from himself, but from him. And when thrown into disorder, and yet he is not amended, except in the case of one who is as yet ignorant of these truths.  From all this it is again clear that in every detail of the Word there are things which correspond to such as are in the spiritual world.

AC 9214. For it is his only covering.  That this signifies because the things of sense underlie interior things, is evident from the signification of a ”covering“ or garment, as being the sensuous (n. 9212), as also that the sensuous underlies interior things, because it is the ultimate of man’s life.

AC 9215. It is his garment for his skin.  That this signifies that they also clothe exterior things, is evident from the signification of a ”garment,“ as being the sensuous in general, or the things of sense, as above; and from the signification of the ”skin,“ as being what is exterior, which also clothes interior things, but still within the sensuous. The signification of ”the skin,“ and who in the other life correspond to the skin, (n. 3540, 5552-5559, 8977, 8980). The natural of man is interior, exterior or middle, and outermost.  The interior natural communicates with heaven; the middle or exterior natural communicates on the one side with the interior, and through it with heaven, and on the other with the outermost, and through it with the world (n. 4009, 4570, 5118, 5126, 5497, 5649, 5707).  The outermost natural is the sensuous, which is here signified by the ”garment.“ This receives the objects belonging to the world, and thus is of service to interior things. It is called the ”only covering,“ because it is the ultimate, and thus is common to all.  The exterior or middle natural is what is signified by the ”skin.“ From this it is evident that by ”it is his garment for his skin,“ is signified that the sensuous also clothes exterior things. That the sensuous is the ultimate of man‘s life, and thus the general covering, (n. 4009, 5077, 5125, 5128, 5767, 5774, 6201, 6313, 7442, 7693).

AC 9216. Wherein he may sleep.  That this signifies rest upon them, is evident from the signification of ”sleeping,“ as being to rest, here upon the external sensuous which is signified by the ”garment“ (n. 9212); for it is said, ”the garment wherein he may sleep.“ How it is to be understood that interior things have rest upon the sensuous, shall be told.  The sensuous is the ultimate of man’s life, as was shown above. This contains all the interior things, and is common to them, for they terminate in it, and thus rest upon it; as for example the skin, which is the ultimate covering of the body; for in this the interior things of the body terminate, because it contains them, wherefore also they rest upon it.  The case is the same with the peritoneum in the body; as this membrane contains the viscera of the abdomen, they rest upon it, and also have a general connection with it.  It is the same with the pleura relatively to the viscera of the chest.

[2] It is the same with all things that belong to man‘s very life, as with those which relate to his understanding, and those which relate to his will.  These also follow in order from interior to exterior things.  Exterior things are memory-knowledges with their pleasant feelings; and outermost things are those of the senses, which communicate with the world by the sight, the hearing, the taste, the smell, and the touch.  Upon these the interior things rest, for in these they terminate.  These are the things which are signified in the spiritual sense by the ”covering“ or ”garment wherein he may sleep.“ That sensuous things are a ”garment“ or ”covering,“ is from correspondences; for, as before said (n. 9212), spirits and angels appear clothed in garments according to their truths of faith; in shining garments those who are in truths from good, as were the angels at the Lord’s sepulchre (Luke 24:4; Matt. 28:3); others in white garments of fine linen; as those spoken of in (Rev. 19:14); and others in garments of various colors.

[3] Be it known moreover that each and all things advance from the first or inmost successively to their ultimates, and there rest; also that prior or interior things have a connection with ultimates in successive order.  Wherefore if the ultimates are removed, the interior things also are dispersed.  From this also there are three heavens; the inmost or third heaven flows into the middle or second heaven; the middle or second heaven flows into the first or ultimate heaven; and this again flows in with man.  Consequently the human race is the last in order, in which heaven terminates, and upon which it rests.  Wherefore the Lord always provides from His Divine that there shall be a church among the human race, in which there shall be revealed truth Divine, which on our earth is the Word. By means of this, there is a continuous connection of the human race with the heavens.  Therefore it is that in every detail of the Word there is an internal sense which is for heaven, and which is of such a nature that it conjoins angelic minds with human minds by a bond so close that they act as a one. From this it is again evident how the case is with the resting of interior things upon ultimates.

AC 9217. And it shall be, when he shall cry unto Me.  That this signifies supplication to the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”crying unto Jehovah,“ as being supplication to the Lord (n. 9202).

AC 9218. That I will hear.  This signifies aid (n. 9203).

AC 9219. For I am merciful.  That this signifies that from Him is everything of aid, from mercy, is evident from the signification of ”being merciful,“ when said of the Lord, as being that from Him is everything of aid. That it is said to be from mercy is because all things which are from the Lord are from mercy, for the very being of the Lord is Divine love, and love is called ”mercy“ when it is shown toward those who are in miseries, thus relatively to the whole human race, for this is set fast in miseries, because its own is nothing but evil (n. 210, 215, 874-876, 987, 1581, 5660, 5786, 8480).

AC 9220. Verses 27-30.  Thou shalt not curse God, and a prince in thy people thou shalt not execrate.  The firstfruits of thy grain, and the firstfruits of thy wine, thou shalt not delay.  The firstborn of thy sons thou shalt give to Me.  So shalt thou do with thine ox, and with thy flock; seven days it shall be with its mother; on the eighth day thou shalt give it to Me.  And ye shall be men of holiness to Me; and flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat; ye shall cast it to the dog.  ”Thou shalt not curse God,“ signifies that truths Divine must not be blasphemed; ”and a prince in thy people thou shalt not execrate,“ signifies that neither are the doctrines of truth to be blasphemed; ”the firstfruits of thy grain, and the firstfruits of thy wine, thou shalt not delay,“ signifies that as all the good and truths of faith are from the Lord, they are to be ascribed to Him, and not to self; ”the firstborn of thy sons thou shalt give to Me,“ signifies all the things of faith which are procured through these; ”so shalt thou do with thine ox, and with thy flock,“ signifies even to exterior and interior good; ” seven days it shall be with its mother,“ signifies their first state when they are in truths; ”on the eighth day thou shalt give it to Me,“ signifies that at the beginning of the following state, when the man lives from good, he is with the Lord; ”and ye shall be men of holiness to Me,“ signifies the state of life then from good; ”and flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat,“ signifies that the falsified good of faith shall not he conjoined; ”ye shall cast it to the dog,“ signifies that it is unclean.

AC 9221. Thou shalt not curse God.  That this signifies that truths Divine must not he blasphemed, is evident from the signification of ”cursing,“ as being to blaspheme, for those curse who blaspheme. That these words signify that truths Divine are not to be blasphemed, is because in the internal sense ”God“ denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; and therefore when truth is treated of in the Word, the Lord is called ”God,“ and when good is treated of, He is called ”Jehovah“ (n. 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4287, 4402, 7010, 7268, 8988, 9160). Consequently ”angels“ denote truths, because they are receptions of truth Divine from the Lord (n. 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8192, 8301, 8867); and so also do ”judges“ (n. 9160).

AC 9222. And a prince in thy people thou shall not execrate. That this signifies that neither are the doctrines of truth to be blasphemed, is evident from the signification of ”a prince,“ as being the primary truths of the church (n. 5044); from the signification of ”a people,“ as being those who are in truths of doctrine (n. 1259, 1260, 2928, 3295, 3581, 7207); and from the signification of ”execrating,“ as being to blaspheme. How closely‘ these things are connected, is evident from the internal sense; for by ”not to curse God“ is signified not to blaspheme truth Divine, and by ”not to execrate a prince“ is signified not to blaspheme the doctrine of truth.  Truth Divine is the Word, and the doctrine of the church is the truth thence derived.  A few words may be said about the blaspheming of truth Divine.  Truth Divine is the Word, and is doctrine from the Word.  Those blaspheme who at heart deny these, even though with the mouth they may praise the Word, and preach it. The blasphemy is hidden in the denial, and it emerges when they are left by themselves, especially in the other life; for there hearts speak, after outward things have been removed.

[2] Those who blaspheme, that is, deny the Word, are unable to receive anything of the truth and good of faith; for the Word teaches the existence of the Lord, of heaven and hell, of the life after death, of faith and charity, and of many other things, which without the Word, that is, without revelation, would he quite unknown (n. 8944); and therefore those who deny the Word cannot receive anything of what the Word teaches; for when they either read or hear it, a negative attitude presents itself, which either extinguishes the truth, or turns it into falsity.

[3] Wherefore the very first thing with the man of the church is to believe the Word; and this is the chief thing with him who is in the truth of faith and the good of charity. but with those who are in the evils of the love of self and of the world, the chief thing is not to believe the Word, for they reject it the moment they think about it, and likewise blaspheme it. If a man were to see the magnitude and the nature of the blasphemies against the Word that exist with those who are in the evils of these loves, he would be horrified. While the man himself is in the world he is not aware of this, because these blasphemies are hidden behind the ideas of that active thought which with men passes into speech. Nevertheless they are revealed in the other life, and appear horrible.

[4] Blasphemies are of two kinds there are those which come forth from the understanding and not at the same time from the will; and those which come forth from the will through the understanding.  It is these latter blasphemies which are so horrible; but not the former.  Those which come forth from the will through the understanding are from evil of life; but those which come forth from the understanding only, and not at the same time from the will, are from falsity of doctrine, or from the fallacies of the external senses, which deceive a man who is held fast in ignorance.  These things have been said in order that it may be known how the case is with the blaspheming of truth Divine, that is, of the Word and its derivative doctrine, which is signified by ” cursing God and execrating a prince of the people.“

AC 9223. The firstfruits of thy grain, and the firstfruits of thy wine, thou shalt not delay.  That this signifies that as all the goods and truths of faith are from the Laid, they are to be ascribed to Him and not to self, is evident from the signification of ”the firstfruits,“ as being those things which must be in the first place, thus those which are to be chief of all; from the signification of ”grain,“ as being the good of the truth of faith (n. 5295, 5410, 5959); from the signification of ”wine,“ as being the truth of good, thus, the truth of the good of faith (n. 1798, 6377); and from the signification of not delaying,” when said of the good and truth of faith, as being to ascribe from affection; for that which is not done tardily, but quickly, is done from the affection of love (n. 7695, 7866).  That ascription to the Lord is meant, is because the firstfruits, as well as the firstborn, were given to Jehovah, and by Jehovah to Aaron and his seed; and by “Jehovah” in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6303, 6945, 6956, 8274, 8864). Wherefore, as “the first fruits of the grain and wine” denote the goods and truths of faith, it is meant that these are to be ascribed to the Lord, because they are from Him. That everything of thought and of will with man flows in, and that all good and truth are from the Lord, (n. 2886-2888, 3142, 3147, 4151, 4249, 5119, 5147, 5150, 5259, 5482, 5649, 5779, 5854, 5893, 6027, 6982, 6985, 6996, 7004, 7055, 7056, 7058, 7270, 7343, 8321, 8685, 8701, 8717, 8728, 8823, 8863, 9110); and the same from experience, (n. 6053-6058, 6189-6215, 6307-6327, 6466-6495, 6598-6626).

[2] The firstfruits which were to be offered to the Lord, were the firstfruits of the harvest and the firstfruits of the vintage, also the firstfruits of shearing, and likewise the firstfruits of fruit.  The firstfruits of the harvest were ears of corn, parched and green, also the sheaf which was to be waved, and afterward the firstfruits from the threshing floor, which were cakes; but the firstfruits of the vintage were the firstfruits of wine, of must, and of oil; and besides these there were the firstfruits of the sheep-shearing and also the firstfruits of fruit, which were offered in a basket. Moreover all the firstborn also were offered to the Lord, of which were redeemed the firstborn of men, and also the firstborn of those animals which were not offered in the sacrifices, as the firstborn of asses, of mules, of horses, and the like.  The firstfruits and the firstborn were offered to Jehovah, and by Jehovah were given to Aaron and his seed, for the reason that Aaron and his sons, who administered the office of the high-priesthood, represented the Lord. By “the firstfruits of grain and wine” in this verse are meant all the firstfruits of the harvest and the vintage, just now spoken of; for the expressions used in the original tongue are “the fulness of the grain,” and “the tear of the wine;” “ fulness” denoting a harvest ripe and gathered in, and “tears” denoting what is made to drop.

[3] What the firstfruits specifically represented (for all the statutes and rituals enjoined upon the sons of Israel by the Lord represented internal things of the church), can be seen from the several kinds of produce the firstfruits of which were given, when viewed in the internal sense.  That“ grain” denotes the good of faith, and “wine” the truth of faith, may be seen in the passages above cited. That the firstfruits were to be given to Jehovah, signified that it is the first of the church to ascribe all the goods and truths of faith to the Lord, and not to self.  To ascribe to the Lord is to know, to acknowledge, and to believe that these things are from the Lord, and nothing of them from self; for as above shown, everything of faith is from the Lord.  The “firstfruits” have this signification because they were offerings and gifts, which were thanksgivings for the produce of the earth, and an acknowledgment of blessings from Jehovah, that is, from the Lord; and consequently were an acknowledgment that all things are from Him; and in the internal sense, an acknowledgment of the goods and truths of faith, which are signified by “harvest,” by “grain,” “oil,” “must,” “wine,” “wool,” and “fruits,” of which the firstfruits were given.  Concerning these firstfruits, (Exod. 23:19; 34:26; Lev. 23:10, 11, 20; Num. 15:19-21; 18:12, 13; Deut. 18:4; 26:1-11). The like is signified by the “firstfruits” in (Ezekiel 20:40; Micah 7:1, 2).

AC 9224. The firstborn of thy sons thou shalt give to Me.  That this signifies that also all the things of faith which are procured through these are to be ascribed to the Lord, and not to self, is evident from the signification of “the firstborn of the sons,” as being all things of the faith of the church (n. 2435, 6344, 7035, 7039, 7778, 8042); and from the signification of “giving unto He,” as being to ascribe to the Lord, for by “Jehovah” in the Word is meant the Lord. All the things of faith, which are signified by “the firstborn of the soils,” are those which are from the good of charity, for faith comes forth from this good, because whether truths are taken from the Word or from the doctrine of the church, they cannot possibly become truths of faith unless there is good in which they may be implanted. The reason is that it is the understanding which first receives truths, because it sees them and introduces them to the will; and when they are in the will, then they are in the man, for the will is the man himself.  Wherefore he who supposes that faith is faith with man before he wills these truths, and from willing does them, is very much mistaken. Previous to this the very truths of faith have no life. Everything that belongs to the will is called “good,” because it is loved.  Thus truth becomes good, or faith becomes charity, in the will.

[2] There are two controversies which have infested the church from the earliest times; the one is whether faith or charity is the firstborn of the church; the other, whether faith separate from charity is saving. These controversies have arisen because, before a man has been regenerated, he perceives the truths which must be of faith; but not the good which is of charity. For the truths of faith enter by an external way, namely, by the hearing, and are stored up in the memory, and from this appear in the understanding. But the good of charity flows in by an internal way, namely, through the internal man out of heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord, and therefore does not become a matter of perception until the truths which are called the truths of faith begin to be loved for the sake of a good use, and for the sake of life; and this takes place when they become of the will. From this then it is that faith was said to be the firstborn of the church, and also had attributed to it the right of primogeniture, that is, the right of priority and superiority over the good of charity; when yet the good of charity is actually prior and superior, and the truth of faith only apparently so (n. 3325, 3494, 3539, 3548, 3556, 3563, 3570, 3576, 3603, 3701, 4925, 4926, 4928, 4930, 4977, 5351, 6256, 6269, 6272, 6273).

[3] The reason why the man of the church has been in obscurity on these subjects, is that he did not perceive that all things in the universe bear relation to truth and to good, and that they must hear relation to both in order to be anything. Neither did he perceive that there are two faculties in man, called the understanding and the will, and that truth bears relation to the understanding, and good to the will; and that unless there is this relation to both, nothing is appropriated to the man.  As these things have been in obscurity, and yet the ideas of man’s thought are founded upon such things, the error could not be made plain to the natural man; although if it had once been made plain, the man of the church would have seen, as in clear light from the Word, that the Lord Himself has said countless things about the good of charity; and that this good is the chief thing of the church; and that faith is not anywhere except in this good.  The good of charity is to do what is good from the will of what is good.  He would also have seen the errors that have been brought in by the doctrine of faith separate from charity; as, that a man can will evil and believe truth, consequently that truth can agree with evil; also that faith can make the life of heaven with a man whose life is infernal, and consequently that the one life can he transferred into the other; thus that those who are in hell can he raised into heaven, and live among the angels a life contrary to their former life; not considering that to live a life contrary to that with which the man has imbued himself in the world, is to be deprived of life, and that those who attempt this are like men in the death agony, who end their life in dreadful suffering.  Such errors, and very many others, are brought in by the doctrine of faith separate from charity.

AC 9225. So shalt thou do with thine ox, and with thy flock. That this signifies (that the ascription to the Lord extends) even to exterior and interior good, is evident from the signification of an “ox,” as being exterior good; and from the signification of a “flock,” as being interior good (n. 5913, 8937, 9135).

AC 9226. Seven days it shall be with its mother.  That this signifies their first state, when they are in truths, is evident from the signification of “seven days,” as being the first state of those who are being regenerated, for “days” denote states (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850, 5672, 5962, 8426, 9213), and “seven” denotes from the beginning to the end, thus what is full (n. 728, 6508); and from the signification of “mother,” as being the church as to truth, thus also the truth of the church (n. 289, 2691, 2717, 3703, 4257, 5581, 8897). From this it follows that by “seven days it shall be with its mother” is signified the first state to the full, that is, an entire state from beginning to end, while they are in truths.  How the case herein is will be told in the following article.

AC 9227. On the eighth day thou shalt give it to Me.  That this signifies that at the beginning of the following state, when the man lives from good, he is with the Lord, is evident from the signification of “the eighth day,” as being the beginning of the following state (n. 2044, 8400); and from the signification of “giving to Jehovah,” as being to the Lord, for by “Jehovah” in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 1736, 2921, 3023, 3035, 5663, 6303, 6945, 6956, 8274, 8864).  The reason why these words signify that when a man lives from good he is with the Lord, is that in the internal sense the subject treated of is the two states of the man who is being regenerated; and the first state is when he is being led through the truths of faith to the good of charity; and the second is when he is in this good. And as he is then with the Lord, this is signified by “thou shalt give it to Me.” That there are two states with man when being regenerated; the first when he is being led through the truths of faith to the good of charity, and the second when he is in the good of charity, (n. 7923, 7992, 8505, 5506, 5510, 8512, 5516, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 5690, 8701); and that the man is in heaven, thus with the Lord, when he is in the good of charity, (n. 8516, 5539, 5722, 5772, 9139).

[2] A few words more shall be said about these two states with the man who is being regenerated.  It has been already shown (n. 9224) that the truths called the truths of faith enter into man by an external way, and that the good which is of charity and love enters by an internal way.  The external way is through the hearing into the memory, and from the memory into the understanding; for the understanding is man‘s internal sight.  The truths which must be of faith enter by this way, to the end that they may be brought into the will, and thus be appropriated to the man. The good which flows in from the Lord by the internal way, flows into the will, for the will is the internal of man.  The good which is from the Lord meets there at the common boundary the truths which have entered by the external way, and through conjunction with them causes the truths to become good.  In so far as this is effected, so far the order is inverted, that is, so far the man is not led by truths, but by good; and consequently in so far he is led by the Lord.

[3] From this it can be seen how during his regeneration a man is raised from the world into heaven.  For all things that enter through the hearing, enter from the world; and those which are stored up in the memory, and appear there before the understanding, appear in the light of the world, which is called natural light. But those things which enter the will, or which become of the will,  are in the light of heaven, which light is the truth of good from the Lord.  When these things come forth from the will into act, they return into the light of the world; but they then appear in this light under a totally different form; for previously the world was within everything; whereas afterward. heaven is so.  That has here been said shows also why a man is not in heaven until he does truths from willing them, thus from the affection of charity.

AC 9228. That “seven” signifies an entire period from beginning to end, thus what is full, is evident from many passages in the Word.  In Isaiah:--

The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that Jehovah shall bind up the breach of His people (Isa. 30:26);

the subject here treated of is the salvation of the faithful, and their intelligence and wisdom in the Lord’s kingdom.  The “moon” denotes faith from the Lord, thus faith in the Lord; and the “sun,” love from the Lord, thus love to the Lord (n. 30-38, 1521, 1529, 1531, 2441, 2495, 3636, 3643, 4060, 4321, 4696, 5377, 7078, 7083, 7171, 8644); “the light of the sun being sevenfold, as the light of seven days” denotes a full state of intelligence and wisdom from love and faith in the Lord.

[2] In Ezekiel:--

They that dwell in the cities of Israel shall go forth, and shall set on fire and burn the weapons, both the shield and the buckler, with the bow and with the arrows, and with the handstaff and with the spear; they shall kindle fire with them seven years; so that they shall bring no wood out of the field, neither cut down any out of the forests; and they shall cleanse the land seven months (Ezek. 39:9, 12);

the subject here treated of is the destruction of falsity.  The “weapons” here enumerated denote the falsities by means of which the evil fight against the truths of the church; “to kindle fire with them seven years” signifies complete destruction through the cupidities of the loves of self and of the world; that “they shall bring no wood out of the field, neither cut down any out of the forests” signifies until nothing of good remains, either in the interior or in the exterior man; “to cleanse the land seven months” signifies the complete restoration of good and truth in the church.  It has already been shown in many places that “weapons” denote truths fighting against falsities, and in the opposite sense falsities fighting against truths; that “bows with arrows” denote doctrinal things of truth, and in the opposite sense doctrinal things of falsity; that a “handstaff” denotes the power of truth, and in the opposite sense the power of falsity; that “to set on fire and burn” denotes to lay waste through the cupidities of the loves of self and of the world; that “wood out of the field” denotes the interior goods of the church, and “wood out of the forests” the memory-knowledges of good and truth; and that “the land” denotes the church.  Everyone can see that other things are here signified than those which appear in the letter, as that they should burn the weapons and kindle a fire with them seven years, and that they should bring no wood out of the field, neither cut down any out of the forests.  Yet we bow that holy and Divine things must be signified, because the Word is holy and from the Divine; but what holy and Divine things are contained in these words cannot possibly be known, unless it is known what is signified by “weapons,” what by “seven years” and by “seven months,” and what by “wood out of the field and wood out of the forests.” It is clear therefore that these prophetic words cannot in the least be apprehended without some acquaintance with the internal sense.

[3] In David:--

Seven times a day do I praise Thee, because of the judgments of Thy righteousness (Ps. 119:164).

Render unto our neighbors sevenfold into their bosom (Ps.  119:12).

“Sevenfold” denotes to the full.  In like manner in Moses, that they should be “punished sevenfold if they transgressed the commandments and the statutes” (Lev. 26:18, 21, 24, 28). He who does not know that“ seven” signifies an entire period from beginning to end, consequently what is full, must believe that “seven weeks” signify seven periods of time in the following passage in Daniel:--

Know thou and perceive that from the going forth of the Word even unto the restoring and building of Jerusalem, even to Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks (Daniel 9:25);

but the “seven weeks even to Messiah the Prince,” signify that which is said of the Lord, that He will come “in the fullness of the times,” thus they signify an entire period.  From this it is evident that “the seven spirits before the throne of God” (Rev.  1:4); the “book sealed with seven seals” (Rev. 5:1); and the “seven angels having seven vials which are the seven last plagues” (Rev. 15:1, 6, 7; 21:9), do not mean seven spirits, nor seven seals, nor seven angels, nor seven vials, nor seven plagues; but all things in fullness.  So by “the barren one bearing seven” (1 Sam. 2:5) is not meant seven, but much, even to fullness.

[4] Because “seven” had such a signification, it was therefore ordained that a priest, at his initiation, should “put on the garments seven days” (Exod. 29:30); that “his hands should be filled seven days” (Exod. 29:24, 35); that “the altar should be sanctified seven days” (Exod. 29:37); and that “those who were initiated into the priesthood should not go out from the tent for seven days” (Lev. 8:33).  In like manner, “when the unclean spirit goeth out of a man and returneth with seven others” (Matt. 12:43-45; Luke 11:24-26); “if a brother sin seven times in the day, and seven times turn again, he should be forgiven” (Luke 17:4); and that “the heart of Nebuchadnezzar should be changed from a man‘s, and a beast’s heart be given to him, until seven times had passed over him” (Dan. 4:16, 23, 25). From this also it was that Job‘s friends “sat down with him upon the earth seven days and seven nights, and spake nothing unto him” (Job 2:13). (That “seventy” in like manner signifies what is full, see (n. 6508); and also a “week,” that is, seven days, (n. 2044, 3845). From all this it can now be seen that by “the eighth day” is signified the beginning of the following state.

AC 9229. And ye shall be men of holiness to Me.  That this signifies the state of life then from good, is evident from the signification of “men of holiness,” as being those who are led by the Lord; for the Divine which proceeds from the Lord is holiness itself (n. 6788, 7499, 8127, 8302, 8806), consequently those who receive it in faith and also in love are called “holy.” He who believes that a man is holy from any other source, and that anything else with him is holy than that which is from the Lord and is received, is very much mistaken. For that which is of man and is called his own, is evil.  That man’s own is nothing but evil, (n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1047, 4328, 5660, 5786, 8480, 8944); and that in so far as a man can he withheld from his own, so far the Lord can he present, thus that so far the man has holiness, (n. 1023, 1044, 1581, 2256, 2388, 2406, 2411, 8206, 8393, 8988, 9014).

[2] That the Lord alone is holy, and that that alone is holy which proceeds from the Lord, thus that which man receives from the Lord, is plain from the Word throughout; as in John:--

I sanctify Myself that they also may be sanctified in the truth (John 17:19);

“to sanctify Himself ” denotes to make Himself Divine by His own power; and those are said to be “sanctified in the truth” who in faith and life receive the Divine truth proceeding from Him.

[3] Therefore also the Lord after His resurrection, speaking with the disciples, “breathed on their‘, and said unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit” (John 20:22); the breathing upon them was representative of making them alive by faith and love, as also in the second chapter of Genesis: “Jehovah breathed into his nostrils the breath of lives, and man become a living soul” (Gen. 2:7; Ps. 33:6; 104:20, 30; Job 32:8; 33:4; John 3:8). From this also the Word is said to be inspired, because it is from the Lord, and they who wrote the Word are said to have been inspired. That breathing, and thus inspiration, corresponds to the life of faith, (n. 97, 1119, 1120, 3883-3896). From this it is that in the Word “spirit” is so called from “wind” or “breath,” and that what is holy from the Lord is called “the wind or breath of Jehovah” (n. 8286); also that the Holy Spirit is the holy proceeding from the Lord (n. 3704, 4673, 5307, 6788, 6982, 6993, 8127, 8302, 9199).

[4] So also it is said in John that the Lord “baptizeth with the Holy Spirit” (John 1:33); and in Luke that “He baptizeth with the Holy Spirit and with fire” (Luke 3:16). In the internal sense “to baptize” signifies to regenerate (n. 4255, 5120, 9088); “to baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire” signifies to regenerate by the good of love. That “fire” denotes the good of love, (n. 934, 4906, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324) In John:--

Who shall not fear Thee, O Lord, and glorify Thy name? for Thou only art holy (Rev. 15:4).

In Luke it is said by the angel concerning the Lord:

“The holy thing that shall be born of thee” (Luke 1:35);

and in Daniel,

“I saw in the visions of my head upon my bed, and, behold a watcher and a holy one came down from heaven (Daniel 4:13).

In these passages ”the holy thing“ and ”the holy one“ denote the Lord.

[5] As the Lord alone is holy, He is called in the Old Testament the ”Holy One of Israel,“ the ”Redeemer,“ the ”Preserver,“ the ”Regenerator“ (Isa. 1:4; 5:19, 24; 10:20; 12:6; 17:7; 29:19; 30:11, 12, 15; 31:1; 37:23; 41:14, 16, 20; 43:3, 14; 45:11; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7; 54:5; 55:5; 60:9, 14; Jer. 50:29; 51:5; Ezek. 39:7; Ps. 31:22; 78:41; 89:18). And therefore the Lord in heaven, and consequently heaven itself, is called ”the habitation of holiness“ (Jer. 31:23; Isa. 63:15; Jer. 25:30); also a ”sanctuary“ (Ezek. 11:16; 24:21); and ”the mountain of holiness“ (Ps. 48:1). For the same reason the middle of the tent, where was the ark containing the Law, was called the ”Holy of Holies“ (Exod. 26:33, 34); for by the Law in the ark in the middle of the tent was represented the Lord as to the Word, because ”the Law“ denotes the Word (n. 6752, 7463).

[6] All this shows why the angels are called ”holy“ (Matt 25:31; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Ps 149:1; Dan. 8:13); also the prophets (Luke 1:70); and likewise the apostles (Rev. 18:20); not that they are holy from themselves, but from the Lord, who alone is holy, and from whom alone proceeds what is holy; for by ”angels“ are signified truths, because they are receptions of truth from the Lord (n. 1925, 4085, 4295, 4402, 7268, 7873, 8192, 8301); by ”prophets“ is signified the doctrine of truth which comes through the Word from the Lord (n. 2534, 7269); and by apostles” are signified in their complex all the truths and goods of faith which are from the Lord (n. 3488, 3858, 6397).

[7] The sanctifications among the Israelitish and Jewish people were for the purpose of representing the Lord who alone is holy, and the holiness which is from Him alone.  This was the purpose of the sanctification of Aaron and his sons (Exod. 29:1; Lev.  8:10, 11, 13, 30); of the sanctification of their garments (Exod. 29:21); of the sanctification of the altar, that it might he a holy of holies (Exod. 29:37); of the sanctification of the tent of the assembly, of the ark of the testimony, of the table, of all the vessels, of the altar of incense, of the altar of burnt-offering, and of the vessels thereof, and of the laver and the base thereof (Exod. 30:26).

[8] That the Lord is the holiness itself that was represented, is also plain from His words in Matthew, as viewed in the internal sense:--

Ye fools and blind! Whether is greater, the gold, or the temple that sanctifieth the gold? and whether is greater, the gift, or the altar that sanctifieth the gift? (Matt. 23:17, 19);

by the temple was represented the Lord Himself, and also by the altar; and by the “gold” was signified the good which is from the Lord; and by the “gift” or sacrifice, were signified the things that belong to faith and charity from the Lord. That the Lord was represented by the temple, (n. 2777, 3720); also that He was represented by the altar, (n. 2777, 2811, 4489 8935, 8940); and that by “gold” was signified good from the Lord, (n. 1551, 1552, 5658); and by a “sacrifice” worship from the faith and charity which are from the Lord, (n. 922, 923, 2805, 2807, 2830, 6905, 8680, 8682, 8936).

[9] In view of all this it is evident why the sons of Israel were called a “holy people” (Deut. 26:19); and in the words before us “men of holiness;” namely, from the fact that in every detail of their worship were represented the Divine things of the Lord, and the celestial and spiritual things of His kingdom and church. They were therefore called “holy” in a representative sense. They themselves were not holy on this account, because the representatives had regard to the holy things that were represented, and not to the person who represented them (n. 665, 1097, 1361, 3147, 3881, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4292, 4307, 4444, 4500, 6304, 7048, 7439, 8588, 8788, 8806).

[10] Hence also it is that Jerusalem was called “holy;” and Zion, “the mountain of holiness” (Zech. 8:3).  Also in Matthew:--

And the tombs were opened; and many bodies of the saints that were dead were raised; and coming forth out of their tombs after the lord’s resurrection, they entered into the holy city, and appeared unto many (Matt. 27:52, 53);

Jerusalem is here called “the holy city,¯ although it was rather profane than holy, for the Lord had then been crucified in it, and it is therefore called ”Sodom and Egypt“ in John:--

Their bodies shall lie on the street of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified (Rev. 11:8).

But it is called ”holy“ from the fact that it signifies the Lord‘s kingdom and church (n. 402, 2117, 3654).  The ”saints that were dead“ appearing there, which happened to some in vision, signified the salvation of those who were of the spiritual church, and the elevation into the Holy Jerusalem, which is heaven, of those who until that time had been detained in the lower earth (n. 6854, 6914, 7090, 7828, 7932, 8049, 8054, 8159, 8321).

AC 9230. And flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat. That this signifies that the falsified good of faith shall not he conjoined, is evident from the signification of ”flesh,“ as being good (n. 7850, 9127); from the signification of a ”field,“ as being the church in respect to good, thus the good of the church (n. 2971, 3766, 7502, 7571, 9139, 9141); from the signification of ”what is torn,“ as being that which is destroyed through falsities, thus also what is falsified (n. 5828); and from the signification of ”eating,“ as being to appropriate and conjoin (n. 2187, 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745, 5643, 8001). From this it is evident that by ”flesh that is torn in the field ye shall not eat“ is signified that the good of the church, or the falsified good of faith, is not to be appropriated or conjoined.

[2] A few words shall be said about what the good of faith is, and what the truth of faith.  Everything of the church is called the ”good of faith,“ that has to do with life and use from what the doctrine of faith of the church teaches; in a word everything that has to do with willing it and doing it from obedience; for the truths of faith of the church become goods by willing and doing them.  But everything is called the ”truth of faith,“ which as yet has not any use as its end, or which as yet is not for the sake of’ life, consequently which is merely known and kept in the memory, and from this is laid hold of by the understanding, and is taught from it For so long as the truths of the church go no further, they are merely knowledges, and relatively to goods are outside the man himself; for man‘s memory and understanding are like entries, and his will is like an inner chamber, because the will is the man himself. This shows what the truth of faith is, and what the good of faith. But the good which a man does in his first state during his regeneration is called the ”good of faith,“ whereas the good which he does in the second state, namely, after he has been regenerated, is called the ”good of charity.“ And therefore when a man does good from the good of faith, he does good from obedience; but when he does good from the good of charity, he does good from affection. Concerning these two states with a man who is being regenerated, (n. 7923, 7992, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701, 9224, 9227).

AC 9231. Ye shall cast it to the dog.  That this signifies that it is unclean, is evident from the signification of ”dogs,“ as being those who render the good of faith unclean through falsifications. For in the Word all beasts signify affections and inclinations such as are in man, the gentle and useful beasts signify good affections and inclinations, but the fierce and useless ones signify evil affections and inclinations.  The reason why such things are signified by beasts is that the external or natural man takes pleasure in affections and inclinations, and also appetites and senses, similar to those of beasts. But the difference is that man has an internal, called the internal man, which is so distinct from the external that it can see the things that exist in it, and can direct and restrain them, and can also he raised into heaven even to the Lord, and thus be conjoined with Him in thought and affection, and consequently in faith and love.  This internal is also so distinct from the external that after death it can he separated from it, and can then live to eternity.  By these things man is distinguished from the beasts.  But those who are merely natural and sensuous men do not see these things, because their internal man is closed toward heaven; and therefore they do not know how to make any distinction between a man and a beast other than that a man is able to speak, which merely sensuous men make but little account of.

[2] The reason why ”dogs“ signify those who render the good of faith unclean through falsifications, is that dogs eat unclean things, and also bark at men and bite them.  From this also it was that the nations outside the church who were in falsities from evil, were called ”dogs“ by the Jews, and were accounted most vile.  That they were called ”dogs“ is manifest from the Lord’s words to the Greek woman, the Syrophenician, whose daughter was grievously troubled with a demon:--

It is not good to take the children‘s bread, and cast it to the dogs. But she said, Certainly, Lord; but even the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their master’s table (Matt. 15:26, 27; Mark 7:27, 28);

that ”dogs“ here signify those who were outside the church, and ”children“ those who were within the church, is plain.

[3] In like manner in Luke:--

There was a certain rich man who was clothed in purple and fine linen, and lived in good cheer and splendor every day.  But there was a poor man named Lazarus, who was cast at his door, full of sores, and desiring to be filled with the crumbs that fell from the rich man‘s table; yet even the dogs came, and licked his sores (Luke 16:19-21);

by ”the rich man clothed in purple and fine linen¯ are signified those who are within the church; “the purple and fine linen” with which he was clothed denoting the knowledges of good and truth from the Word; by “the poor man” are signified those within the church who are in but little good by reason of their ignorance of truth, and yet long to be instructed (n. 9209); that he was called “Lazarus was from the Lazarus who was raised by the Lord, of whom it is said that the Lord ”loved him“ (John 11:1-3, 5, 36), that he was the Lord’s ”friend“ (John 11:11), and that he ”reclined at table with the Lord“ (John 12:2); his ”desiring to be filled with the crumbs that fell from the rich man‘s table“ signified his longing to learn a few truths from those within the church who had abundance of them; ”the dogs which licked his sores“ denote those outside the church who are in good, although not in the genuine good of faith; ”licking sores“ denotes healing them by such means as are within their power.

[4] In John:--Without are dogs, sorcerers, and warmongers (Rev. 22:15); ”dogs, sorcerers, and whoremongers“ denote those who falsify the good and truth of faith, and who are said to be ”without,“ because they are outside heaven, or the church.  That good falsified, and thus made unclean, is signified by ”dogs,“ is also evident in Matthew:--

Give not that which is holy unto the dogs, neither cast your pearls before swine (Matt. 7:6).

In Moses:--

Thou shalt not bring the hire of a harlot, or the price of a dog, into the house of Jehovah, for any vow; for both these are an abomination unto thy God (Deut. 23:18);

”the hire of a harlot“ denotes falsified truths of faith. That ”whoredom“ denotes the falsification of the truth of faith, (n. 2466, 2729, 4865, 8904).

[5] In David:--

Dogs have compassed me; the assemblages of evildoers have surrounded me, piercing my hands and my feet. Deliver my soul from the sword; and mine only one from the hand of the dog (Ps.  22:16, 20);

”dogs“ here denote those who destroy the goods of faith, and who are therefore called ”the assemblages of evil-doers;“ ”to deliver the soul from the sword“ denotes from the falsity that lays waste the truth of faith. That a ”sword“ denotes falsity laying waste the truth of faith, (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); and ”the soul,“ the life of faith, (n. 9050).  From this also it is evident that ”delivering the only one from the hand of the dog“ denotes to deliver from the falsity that lays waste the good of faith.  That some were to be carried off and ”eaten by dogs“ (1 Kings 14:11; 16:4; 21:23, 24; 2 Kings 9:10, 36; Jer. 15:3), signified that they would perish by unclean things.  That some compared themselves to ”dead dogs“ (1 Sam. 24:14; 2 Sam.  3:8; 9:8; 16:9), signified that they were to be accounted as utterly worthless, and as such were to be cast out.  What is further signified by ”dogs“ may be seen above (n. 7784).

ON THE SPIRITS OF THE MOON

AC 9232. Certain spirits appeared overhead, and voices were heard thence like thunders; for their voices made a loud thundering noise just like thundering from the clouds after flashes of lightning.  I supposed that it was a vast multitude of spirits who had learned to utter their voice with such a sound.  The more simple spirits who were with me laughed at them, at which I was much surprised.  The reason why they laughed at them was soon disclosed, and it was’ that the spirits who thundered were not many, but few; and also were little men, like children; and moreover had previously excited terror by such sounds, and yet could not do any harm.

AC 9233. That I might know their character, some were sent down from on high where they were thundering, and strange to say, one carried another on his back, and two of them approached me in this attitude.  In their faces they appeared not unbeautiful, but their faces were longer than those of other spirits.  In stature they were like boys of seven years of age, but they had stouter bodies.  Thus they were dwarfs.  I was told by the angels that they were from the Moon.

AC 9234. The one who was borne by the other, upon being set down, came to me, applying himself to my left side below my elbow.  From that position he spoke, saying that when they utter their voice, they thunder in this manner, and thereby terrify those spirits who wish to do them harm; and some they put to flight; thus being able to go in safety wherever they wish.  That I might know of a certainty that they made such a sound, he went away from me to some others, but not quite out of sight, and thundered in the same way. And they further showed to me how their voice, sent forth from the abdomen like a belching forth, made this loud thundering noise.

AC 9235. It was perceived that this arose from the fact that the inhabitants of the Moon do not speak from the lungs, like the inhabitants of other earths, but from the abdomen, thus from some air that has collected there; for the reason that the Moon is not encompassed with an atmosphere like that of other earths.

AC 9236. I have been instructed that the inhabitants of the Moon bear relation in the Grand Man to the ensiform or xiphoid cartilage, to which the ribs are joined in front, and from which descends the fascia alba, which is the point of attachment for the muscles of the abdomen.

AC 9237. That there are inhabitants in the Moon also, is known to spirits and angels, for they often speak with them; and in like manner that there are inhabitants in the moons or satellites which revolve about the planet Jupiter and the planet Saturn.  Those who have not seen and spoken with them nevertheless have no doubt that there are men in them, for they too are earths; and where there is an earth, there is man; for man is the end for the sake of which every earth was created; and nothing has been made by the Supreme Creator without a purpose.  That the end of creation is the human race, that there may be a heaven from it, can be seen by everyone one who thinks from reason.  The angels also say that an earth cannot subsist apart from the human race, because the Divine provides all things on an earth for the sake of man.

AC 9238. At the end of the following chapter it shall be told why the Lord willed to be born on our earth, and not on another.


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