HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

Back | Next | Index | Home


AC EXODUS Chapter 28

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH

AC 9796. When it is known what the internal man is, and what the external man, the source of the Understanding of Truth, and of the Will of Good, can then he known.

AC 9797. In proportion as the internal man has been opened toward heaven, thus to the Lord, in the same proportion a man is in the light of heaven, thus in the same proportion he is in the understanding of truth. The light of heaven is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord; to be enlightened by this light is to understand truth.

AC 9798. In proportion as the internal man has been opened to the Lord, and the external man subordinated to it, in the same proportion a man is in the fire of heaven; thus in the same proportion he is in the will of good. The fire of heaven is the Divine love that proceeds from the Lord; to be kindled by this fire is to will good.

AC 9799. Therefore the understanding of truth is to see truths from the Word by virtue of enlightenment from the Lord; and the will of good is to will these truths from affection.

AC 9800. They who are in love and faith in the Lord, and in charity toward the neighbor, are in the understanding of truth and in the will of good, for with them there is a reception of the good and truth which are from the Lord.

AC 9801. On the other hand, in proportion as the interval man has been closed toward heaven and to the Lord, in the same proportion a man is in cold and thick darkness in respect to the things of heaven. And then in proportion as the external man has been opened toward the world, in the same proportion the man thinks what is false, and wills what is evil, and thus is insane; for the light of the world extinguishes in him the light of heaven; and the fire of the life of the world extinguishes the fire of the life of heaven.

AC 9802. They who are in the love of self, and in the persuasion of self-derived intelligence and wisdom, are in such cold and thick darkness.

AC 9803. From this it is evident that to be intelligent and wise does not consist in understanding and being wise about many things of the world; but in understanding and willing the things of heaven. For there are those who understand and are wise about many things of the world, and yet do not believe or will the things of heaven; thus are insane. These are they of whom the Lord says:--

I speak by parables; because seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand (Matt. 13:13).

The world cannot receive the Spirit of truth, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him (John 14:17).

EXODUS 28:1-43

1. And thou shalt cause to draw near unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from the midst of the sons of Israel, that he may minister in the priest’s office to Me, Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron‘s sons.

2. And thou shalt make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, for glory and for comeliness.

3. And thou shalt speak unto all the wise in heart, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, and they shall make Aaron’s garments to sanctify him, that he may minister to Me in the priest‘s office.

4. And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a tunic of checker work, a miter, and a belt; and they shall make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons, that he may minister to Me in the priest’s office.

5. And they shall take the gold, and the blue, and the crimson, and the scarlet double-dyed, and the fine linen.

6. And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue and crimson, of scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen, with the work of a thinker.

7. It shall have two shoulders joined at the two extremities thereof; and it shall be joined together.

8. And the girdle of his ephod, which is upon it, according to the work thereof, shall be from it; of gold, of blue and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen.

9. And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel:

10. Six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their generations.

11. With the work of a worker in stone, with the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones, according to the names of the sons of Israel; encompassed with settings of gold shalt thou make them.

12. And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod, to be stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel; and Aaron shall bear their names before Jehovah upon his two shoulders for a remembrance.

13. And thou shalt make settings of gold:

14. And two chains of pure gold; from their borders shalt thou make them, with cord-work; and thou shalt put the chains of cords on the settings.

15. And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, with the work of a thinker; like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen, shalt thou make it.

16. Foursquare it shall be, doubled; a span the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof.

17. And thou shalt fill it with a filling of stone, four rows of stone; a row, a ruby, a topaz, and a carbuncle, row one;

18. And the second row, a chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond;

19. And the third row, a cyanus, an agate, and an amethyst;

20. And the fourth row, a tarshish, and an onyx, and a jasper; they shall be enclosed in gold in their fillings.

21. And the stones shall be upon the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, upon their names; with the engravings of a signet, for everyone upon his name, they shall be for the twelve tribes.

22. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains of the border with cord-work, of pure gold.

23. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two extremities of the breastplate.

24. And thou shalt put the two cords of gold on the two rings at the extremities of the breastplate.

25. And the two extremities of the two cords thou shalt put on the two settings, and shalt put them on the shoulders of the ephod over against the faces thereof.

26. And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two extremities of the breastplate, upon the edge thereof, which is toward the side of the ephod inward.

27. And thou shalt make two rings of gold; and shalt put them on the two shoulders of the ephod underneath, over against its faces, opposite to the joining thereof, above the girdle of the ephod.

28. And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a thread of blue, that it may be upon the girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate withdraw not from upon the ephod.

29. And Aaron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when be goeth in unto the holiness, for a remembrance before Jehovah continually.

30. And thou shalt put unto the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron‘s heart, when he goeth in before Jehovah; and Aaron shall carry the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continually.

31. And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.

32. And there shall be a mouth of the head of it in the midst thereof; there shall be a lip for the mouth of it round about, the work of the weaver, as the mouth of a coat of mail it shall be, that it be not rent.

33. And upon the skirts of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed, upon the skirts thereof round about; and bells of gold in the midst of them round about:

34. A bell of gold and a pomegranate, a bell of gold and a pomegranate, upon the skirts of the robe round about.

35. And it shall be upon Aaron to minister; and the voice thereof shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holiness before Jehovah, and when he goeth out, that he die not.

36. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and engrave upon it with the engravings of a signet, Holiness to Jehovah

37. And thou shalt put it upon a thread of blue, and it shall be upon the miter; over against the faces of the miter it shall be.

38. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the sons of Israel shall sanctify in respect to all the gifts of their holy things; and it shall be upon his forehead continually, to make them well-pleasing before Jehovah.

39. And thou shalt checker the tunic of fine linen, and thou shalt make a miter of fine linen, and a belt thou shalt make with the work of the embroiderer.

40. And for Aaron‘s sons thou shalt make tunics, and thou shalt make for them belts; and tiaras shalt thou make for them, for glory and for comeliness.

41. And thou shalt put them on Aaron thy brother, and on his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and fill their hand, and shalt sanctify them, and they shall minister to Me in the priest’s office.

42. And thou shalt make for them breeches of linen to cover the flesh of nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall be.

43. And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they go in unto the Tent of meeting, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in the holiness; lest they bear iniquity, and die: it is a statute of an age to him and to his seed after him.

THE CONTENTS

AC 9804. The subject here treated of is the garments of holiness which Aaron and his sons were to put on when they ministered. By the priesthood which Aaron with his sons was to administer was represented the Lord in respect to the Divine celestial, which is the Divine good in heaven; and by Aaron‘s garments was represented the Divine spiritual, which is the Divine truth thence proceeding.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 9805. Verses 1, 2. And thou shalt cause to draw near unto thee Aaron thy brother, and his sons with him, from the midst of the sons of Israel, that he may minister in the priest’s office to Me; Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron‘s sons.  And thou shalt make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, for glory and for comeliness.  “And thou shalt cause to draw near unto thee Aaron thy brother,” signifies the conjunction of Divine truth with Divine good in the Lord’s Divine Human; “and his sons with him,” signifies the Divine truth that proceeds from the Divine good; “from the midst of the sons of Israel,” signifies in heaven and in the church; “that he may minister in the priest‘s office to Me,” signifies a representative of the Lord; “Aaron,” signifies in respect to the Divine celestial; “Nadab and Abihu,” signifies in respect to the Divine spiritual thence derived; “Eleazar and Ithamar,” signifies in respect to the Divine natural; “Aaron’s sons,” signifies which proceed from the Divine celestial; “and thou shalt make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother,” signifies a representative of the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom; “for glory and for comeliness,” signifies in order to present, in the internal and the external form, Divine truth such as it is in the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom.

AC 9806. And thou shalt cause to draw near unto thee Aaron thy brother.  That this signifies the conjunction of Divine truth with Divine good in the Lord‘s Divine Human, is evident from the representation of Moses, who here causes Aaron to draw near to himself, as being the Lord in respect to Divine truth (n. 6752, 6771, 7014, 9372); from the signification of “drawing near,” as being conjunction and presence (n. 9378); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to Divine good; and from the signification of “brother,” as being good (n. 3303, 3803, 3815, 4121, 4191, 5686, 5692, 6756).  From all this it is plain that by “Moses causing Aaron his brother to draw near unto him” is signified the conjunction of Divine truth with Divine good in the Lord.  That it signifies in His Divine Human, is because this was the very thing in which this conjunction was effected; for the Lord first made His Human Divine truth, and afterward Divine good (n. 9199, 9315). That Aaron was chosen to minister in the priesthood, was because he was the brother of Moses; for in this way there was at the same time represented the brotherhood of Divine truth and Divine good in heaven, because as before said, Moses represented Divine truth, and Aaron Divine good.

[2] All things in the universe, both in heaven and in the world, bear relation to good and to truth in order to be anything; for good is the being of truth, and truth is the coming-forth of good; and therefore good without truth does not come-forth, and truth without good has no being; from which it is evident that they must be conjoined.  Their conjunction is represented in the Word by two married partners, and also by two brothers; by two married partners, when the subject treated of is the heavenly marriage, which is that of good and truth, and successive derivation from it; and by two brothers, when the subject treated of is the double ministry of judgment and of worship.  Those who ministered in judgment were called “judges,” and afterward “kings;” and those who ministered in worship were called “priests.” And because all judgement is effected by means of truth, and all worship is effected from good, therefore by “judges” in the Word, in a sense abstracted from person, is signified truth from good; but by “kings,” truth from which is good; and by “priests” is signified good itself.  It is from this that in the Word the Lord is called a “Judge,” also a “Prophet,” and likewise a “King,” when truth is treated of; but a “Priest” when good is treated of.  In like manner He is called “the Christ,” “the Anointed,” or “the Messiah,” when truth is treated of; but “Jesus,” or “Saviour,” when good is treated of.

[3] On account of this brotherhood, which is that of the truth which is of judgment and the good which is of worship, Aaron the brother of Moses was chosen to minister in the priesthood. That by “Aaron and his house” is therefore signified good, is evident in the following passages

0 Israel, trust thou in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield. O house of Aaron, trust ye in Jehovah; He is their help and their shield. Jehovah hath remembered us, He will bless the house of Israel, He will bless the house of Aaron (Ps. 115:9, 10, 12).

Let Israel now say, that His mercy is forever. Let the house of Aaron now say, that His mercy is forever (Ps. 118:2, 3).

0 house of Israel, bless ye Jehovah; O house of Aaron, bless ye Jehovah (Ps. 135:19);

“the house of Israel” denotes those who are in truths; “the house of Aaron,” those who are in goods; for in the Word, where truth is treated of, good is also treated of, because of the heavenly marriage (n. 9263, 9314); that “the house of Israel” denotes those who are in truths, (n. 5414, 5879, 5951, 7956, 8234).

[4] Again:--

Jehovah sent Moses His servant, Aaron whom He had chosen (Ps. 105:26);

where Moses is called a “servant” because a “servant” is predicated of truths (n. 3409); and a “chosen one” is predicated of good (n. 3755).  Again:--

Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity. It is like the good oil upon the head, that went down upon the beard, even Aaron’s beard; that went down upon the mouth of his garments (Ps. 133:1, 2);

he who does not know what is signified by a “brother,” what by “oil,” what by “the head,” what by “the beard,” what by “garments,” and likewise what Aaron represents, cannot apprehend why these things are compared to the dwelling together of brethren, for how can the oil that went down from the head upon Aaron‘s beard, and from thence upon his garments, be like the concord of brethren? But the likeness in the comparison is plain from the internal sense, in which the subject treated of is the influx of good into truths, and the brotherhood of these is described in this way.  For “oil” denotes good; “the head of Aaron,” the inmost of good; “the beard,” the most external of it; “garments” denote truths; and “to go down” denotes influx.  From the it is clear that by these words is signified the influx of good from interiors to exteriors into truths, and conjunction there. Without the internal sense, who can see that these heavenly things are contained in these words?  That “oil” denotes the good of love, (n. 886, 4582, 4638, 9780); that “the head” denotes what is inmost, (n. 5328, 6436, 7859, 9656); that “the beard” denotes what is most external, is evident in (Isaiah 7:20; 15:2; Jeremiah 48:37; Ezekiel 5:1); that “garments” denote truths, (n. 2576, 4545, 4763, 5319, 5954, 6914, 6917, 9093, 9212, 9216); and that “Aaron” denotes celestial good, may be seen above).

[5] From the fact that Aaron was chosen to minister in the priest’s office, thus to administer the most holy things, it may be comprehended how the case was with the representations in the Jewish Church, namely, that they did not regard the person who represented, but the thing that was represented; thus that a holy thing, nay, a most holy one, could be represented by persons whose interiors were unclean, and even idolatrous, provided that while they were in worship their externals were disposed to holiness.  The quality of Aaron can be seen from the following words in Moses:--

Aaron took the gold from the hand of the sons of Israel, and fashioned it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf. And Aaron built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation and said, Tomorrow shall be a feast to Jehovah (Exod. 32:4, 5, 25).

Jehovah was moved with anger exceedingly against Aaron, to destroy him; but I prayed for Aaron also in that time (Deut.  9:20).

That the representatives of the church with the Israelitish and Jewish nation did not regard persons, but the things themselves, (n. 9229).

AC 9807. And his sons. That this signifies the Divine truth that proceeds from the Divine good, is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704), here the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine good, because they were the sons of Aaron, and by Aaron as high-priest was represented the Lord as to Divine good. That “sons” denote truths, is because all things in the internal sense of the Word are spiritual; and in the spiritual sense “sons” denote those who are born anew from the Lord, thus who are in truths from good, consequently abstractedly from persons, the truths themselves which are from good.  These therefore are what are meant in the Word by “the sons of God,” “the sons of a king,” and “the sons of the kingdom.” They are also “the sons of the new birth,” or regeneration.  Moreover the truths and goods with a regenerated man, or one born anew from the Lord, are exactly like families in a large and long series from one father.  There are those which bear relation to sons and daughters, to grandsons and granddaughters, to sons-in-law and daughters-in-law, and thus to relationships of many degrees, and therefore of many kinds.  Truths and goods thus arranged are what in the spiritual sense are “sons,” “daughters,” “grandsons,” “granddaughters,” “sons-in-law,” “daughters-in-law,” in a word, relations of various degrees, and consequently of various kinds.  That spiritual generations are in such an order has been shown by living experience, and at the same time it was said that the truths and goods with a regenerate man are in such an order for the reason that the angelic societies in heaven are in the same, and the truths and goods with man correspond to these societies; wherefore also the man whose truths and goods are in such a correspondence is a heaven in the least form.

[2] Anyone who knows that by “sons” are signified truths, and by “daughters” goods, can see many  arcana in the Word, especially in the prophetic Word, that otherwise would be hidden; as also what is meant in particular by “the Son of man,” which the Lord often calls Himself in the Word. That the Divine truth which proceeds from His Divine Human is meant, is evident from the passages in which He is so named, and which may be here cited for the purpose of confirming at the same time that a “son” denotes truth; as in John:--

The crowd said unto Jesus, How sayest Thou, the Son of man must be exalted? Who is this Son of man? Jesus answered them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness take you. While ye have the light, believe in the light, that ye may be sons of light (John 12:34-36);

from these words it is evident that by “the Son of man” is signified the like as by “the light,” for when they inquired, Who is this Son of man? the Lord answered that He was the light in which they should believe (that this “light” denotes the Divine truth, (n. 9548, 9684); thus it also denotes the Son of man.

[3] In Luke:--

Blessed are ye when men shall hate you for the Son of man’s sake (Luke 6:22);

where “for the Son of man‘s sake” denotes for the sake of the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord; Divine truth is everything of faith in, and of love to, the Lord, and “being hated for the sake of this” is “blessedness.” Again:--

The days will come when ye shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of man, but ye shall not see it. Then they shall say unto you, Lo here! or Lo there! go not away, nor make search (Luke 17:22, 23);

“to desire to see one of the days of the Son of man” denotes to see one of the states of Divine truth which is genuine. The subject here treated of is the end of the church, when there is no longer any faith, because no charity; at which time all genuine truth Divine will perish; and because truth Divine is signified by “the Son of man,” therefore it is said, “then they shall say, Lo here! or Lo there! search not,” which can be said of truth Divine from the Lord, but not of the Lord Himself.

[4] Again:--

When the Son of man cometh, shall He find faith on the earth? (Luke 18:8);

that is, when truth Divine shall be revealed from heaven, it will not be believed.  “The Son of man” here also denotes the Lord as to truth Divine, that is, the truth Divine which proceeds from the Lord.  “The coming of the Lord” denotes the revelation of truth Divine at the end of the church.

[5] In Matthew:--

As the lightning goeth forth from the east, and appeareth even unto the west, so shall be the coming of the Son of man.  Then shall appear the sign, and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matt. 24:27, 30);

“the coming of the Son of man” denotes the revelation of truth Divine in the consummation of the age, that is, at the end of the church; “all the tribes of the earth which shall then wail,” denote all the truths and goods of faith and of love from the Lord, and thus to the Lord, in the complex; “the clouds of heaven in which He will come,” denote the literal sense of the Word; “power and glory” denote the internal sense, in the inmost of which the subject treated of is the Lord alone (n. 4060).

[6] In like manner elsewhere:--

I say unto you, Henceforth ye shall see the Son of man sitting at the right hand of power, and coming upon the clouds of heaven (Matt 26:64).

From henceforth shall the Son of man he sitting at the right hand of the power of God (Luke 22:69);

“the Son of man” denotes the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord; “sitting at the right hand of power” denotes that He has omnipotence, for Divine good has omnipotence by means of Divine truth; its being said that “from henceforth they shall see it” signifies that Divine truth was in its omnipotence after the Lord in the world had conquered the hells, and had reduced all things therein and in the heavens into order, and that in this way those could be saved who would receive Him in faith and love (n. 9715).  That “sitting at the right hand” denotes omnipotence, (n. 3387, 4592, 4933, 7518, 8281, 9133); that good has all power through truth, (n. 6344, 6423, 8304, 9327, 9410, 9639, 9643); that the Divine power itself is Divine truth, (n. 6948); that “the clouds in which the Son of man,” that is, Divine truth, “will come,” denote the Word in the letter, (n. 2135a, 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8443, 8781); and that “glory” denotes the Divine truth itself, such as it is in the internal sense of the Word, (n. 2135a, 4809, 5922, 8267, 9429).

[7] From all this it can now be seen what is signified by these words:--

I saw and behold a white cloud; and on the cloud one sitting like, unto the Son of man, having on His head a golden crop (Rev. 14:14).

I saw in the night visions, and behold there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto the Son of man (Dan. 7:13).

The Father gave Him to execute judgment, because He is the Son of man (John 5:27).

As all judgment is effected from truth, it is said that it was “given to the Lord to execute judgment, because He is the Son of man;” “the Son of man,” as before said, denotes the Divine truth; the Father from whom it proceeds, denotes the Divine good (n. 2803, 3704, 7499, 8328, 8897).  As it pertains to Divine truth to execute judgment, therefore it is said that “when He shall come, the Son of man shall sit upon the throne of His glory” (Matt.  19:28; 25:31); and that “the Son of man shall render to everyone according to his deeds” (Matt. 16:27).

[8] Further:--

He that soweth the good seed is the Son of man; the field is the world; the seed are the sons of the kingdom; the tares are the sons of the evil one (Matt. 13:37, 38);

“the good seed” denotes truth Divine, therefore it is said that “the Son of man soweth it;” “the sons of the kingdom” denote truths Divine in heaven and in the church, for a “son” denotes truth (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623), and in the opposite sense, falsity, which also is “the son of the evil one;” “the kingdom” denotes heaven, and likewise the church.

[9] In John:--

No man hath ascended into heaven, but He that came down from heaven, the Son of man who is in the heavens (John 3:13);

from this it is evident that “the Son of man” denotes the Divine truth in the heavens; for this comes down, and therefore ascends, because no one can ascend into heaven unless Divine truth comes down into him from heaven, because the influx is Divine, and not the other way about.  And because the Lord is this truth, therefore He calls Himself “the Son of man who is in the heavens.” In Matthew:--

The Son of man hath not where to lay His head (Matt. 8:20);

here “the Son of man” denotes the Divine truth; “not having where to lay His head,” means that Divine truth had no place anywhere, or with any man, at that time.

[10] That “the Son of man was to suffer, and to be put to death” (Matt. 17:12, 23; 20:18; 26:2, 24, 45; Mark 8:31; 9:12, 31), involves that such was the treatment of Divine truth, and consequently of the Lord, who was the Divine truth itself, as also He Himself teaches in the following passages:--

I am the way, and the truth, and the life (John 14:6).

No man shall dwell there, neither shall any son of man stay therein (Jer. 49:18, 33).

In the cities shall no man dwell, neither shall any son of man pass throw them (Jer. 51:43);

anyone not acquainted with the spiritual sense of the Word will believe that by “cities” are here meant cities, and that by “man” and “the son of man” are meant a man and a son; and that the cities would be so desolated that no one would dwell there; but it is the state of the church in respect to the doctrine of truth which is described by these words; for “cities” denote the doctrinal things of the church (n. 402, 2449, 3216, 4492, 4493); “a man,” the truth itself of the church conjoined with good (n. 3134, 7716, 9007); therefore “the son of man” denotes truth.

[11] As by “the Son of man” was signified the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, therefore also the prophets, through whom it was revealed, were called “sons of man,” as in (Daniel 8:17; Ezekiel 2:1, 3, 6, 8; 3:1, 3, 4, 10, 17, 25; 4:1, 16; 8:5, 6, 8, 12, 15; 12:2, 3, 9, 18, 22, 27); and in many other passages.

[12] As most expressions in the Word have also an opposite sense, it is the same with the signification of “the son of man,” which in this sense denotes the falsity that is opposite to truth, as in Isaiah:--

Who art thou, that thou art afraid of man that dieth, and of the son of man who is given as grass? (Isa. 51:12);

where “the son of man given as grass” denotes the memory-knowledge through which falsity arises.  In David:--

Put not your trust in princes, in the son of man, in whom there is no salvation (Ps. 146:3);

where “princes” denote primary truths (n. 2089, 5044), thus in the opposite sense, primary falsities; and “the son of man” denotes the falsity itself.

AC 9808. From the midst of the sons of Israel.  That this signifies in heaven and in the church, is evident from the signification of “Israel,” as being those who are of the church, thus abstractedly the church itself (n. 4286, 6426, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 8805, 9340); and as “Israel” denotes the church, it also denotes heaven, for heaven and the church make one, and the church is the heaven of the Lord on earth. Moreover heaven is within every member of the church when he is in truth and at the same time in good from the Lord.

AC 9809. That he may minister in the priest’s office to Me. That this signifies a representative of the Lord, is evident from the representation of “the priest‘s office,” as being in the supreme sense every office which the Lord discharges as the Saviour; and whatever He does as the Saviour is from Divine love, thus from Divine good, for all good is of love.  For this reason also by “the priest’s office” in the supreme sense is signified the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love.  There is Divine good, and there is Divine truth; Divine good is in the Lord, and therefore it is His being, which in the Word is called “Jehovah;” but Divine truth is from the Lord, and therefore it is the coming-forth from this being, which in the Word is meant by “ God;” and as that which comes forth from Him is also Himself, therefore also the Lord is Divine truth, which is His Divine in the heavens.  For the heavens come forth from Him, because the angels who are there are receptions of His Divine; the celestial angels being receptions of the Divine good which is from Him, and the spiritual angels being receptions of the Divine truth which is thence derived. From all this it can be seen what of the Lord was represented by the priestly office, and what of the Lord was represented by the kingly office; namely, by the priestly office the Divine good of His Divine love, and by the kingly office the Divine truth thence derived.

[2] That by the priestly office was represented the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love, thus every office which the Lord discharges as the Saviour, is evident from the following passages in the Word:--

The saying of Jehovah unto my Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool. Jehovah shall send forth the scepter of strength out of Zion; rule Thou in the midst of Thine enemies. Thy people is one of readinesses in the day of Thy strength, in the honors of holiness from the womb of the dawn, Thou hast the dew of thy birth. Jehovah hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest forever, according to My word, Melchizedek. The Lord at Thy right hand hath smitten kings in the day of His anger; He hath judged among the nations; He hath filled with dead bodies; He hath smitten the head over much land.  He shall drink of the stream in the way: therefore shall He lift up the head (Ps. 110:1-7);

from this it is plain what the Lord is as a priest, consequently what the priestly office represented in the Lord, namely, all the work of the salvation of the human race; for in this passage the subject treated of is the Lord‘s combats with the hells, while He was in the world, through which He acquired for Himself Divine omnipotence over the hells, by virtue of which He saved the human race, and also saves at this day all those who receive Him. It is this salvation itself, because it is from the Divine good of the Divine love, by virtue of which it is said of the Lord, “Thou art a priest forever, according to My word, Melchizedek.”  “Melchizedek” means “the king of righteousness;” and the Lord was so called from the fact that He became righteousness, and thereby salvation (n. 9715).

[3] But as each particular expression in the above Psalm contains  arcana concerning the Lord’s combats while He was in the world, and these cannot be revealed without the internal sense, therefore they may here be briefly unfolded.  “The saying of Jehovah unto my Lord” signifies that it is said of the Lord while He was in the world. That by “the Lord” here is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human, is evident in (Matthew 22:41-43; Mark 12:35, 36; Luke 20:41-44). “Sit Thou at My right hand” signifies the omnipotence of Divine good through the Divine truth which the Lord then was, and from which He fought and conquered.  That “sitting at the right hand” denotes a state of power, and that when said of the Divine it denotes omnipotence, (n. 3387, 4592, 4933, 7518, 7673, 8281, 9133); and that all the power of good is through truth, (n. 6344, 6423, 8304, 9327, 9410, 9639, 9643).

[4] “Until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool” signifies until the evils which are in the hells shall be subjugated and made subject to His Divine power. “Jehovah shall send forth the scepter of strength out of Zion” signifies power then from celestial good.  That “Zion” denotes this good, (n. 2362, 9055).  “Rule Thou in the midst of Thine enemies” signifies that this good has dominion over evils; evils are meant by “ enemies” because they are opposed to the Divine, and specifically to the Lord. “Thy people is one of readinesses in the day of Thy strength” signifies the Divine truths then fighting.  “In the honors of holiness” signifies which are from the Divine good.  “From the womb of the dawn, Thou hast the dew of Thy birth,” signifies conception from the Divine good itself from which He had Divine truth. “Jehovah hath sworn and will not repent” signifies what is stable and certain.

[5] “Thou art a priest forever” signifies the Divine good of the Divine love in Him. “According to My word, Melchizedek,” signifies that His Divine Human is the like; “Melchizedek” means “king of righteousness,” thus that Jehovah became righteous through combats and victories (n. 9715).  “The Lord at Thy right hand” signifies the Divine truth which is then from Him, through which He has omnipotence, as above.  “Hath smitten kings in the day of His anger” signifies the destruction then of falsities; “the day of anger” was when He fought against evils and destroyed them; “kings” denote truths, and in the opposite sense falsities (n. 2015, 2069, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148). “He hath judged among the nations” signifies the dispersion of evils; for “nations” denote goods, and in the opposite sense evils (n. 1259, 1260, 1849, 6005). “He hath filled with dead bodies” signifies thus spiritual death, which is the total deprivation of truth and good. “He hath smitten the head over much land” signifies the casting down of the infernal love of self into the hells, and its damnation.  “He shall drink of the stream in the way, therefore shall He lift up the head,” signifies the endeavor to emerge by means of reasonings about truths.  This is the sense of the above words which is perceived in heaven when this Psalm is read by man.

[6] As the priestly office was representative of the Lord in respect to all the work of salvation from Divine love, therefore also all Divine worship belonged to the office of the priest; which worship at that time consisted chiefly in offering burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and meat-offerings, and in arranging the breads of faces upon the table, in lighting the lamps every day, and in burning incense; consequently in making expiation for the people and in remitting sins.  More over, when the priests were at the same time prophets, it also consisted in unfolding the Divine law, and in teaching.  That Aaron with his sons performed all these things is evident from the institution of the priest‘s office in Moses.  That all these things were representative of the Lord’s works of salvation, is  manifest; wherefore also that part of the sacrifices and meat-offerings which was for Jehovah, that is, for the Lord, was given to Aaron; in like manner the firstfruits of various kinds, and also the tithes (Exod. 29:1-36; Lev. 7:35, 36; 23:15-21; 27:21; Num. 5:6-10; 18:8-20, 25-32; Deut. 18:1-5), and the firstborn; but instead of all the firstborn of men were the Levites, who were given as a gift to Aaron (Num. 1:47; 3:9), for the reason that they belonged to Jehovah (Num. 3:12, 13, 40-45).

[7] As the Lord in respect to the whole work of salvation was represented by the high-priest, and the work of salvation itself by his office, which is called the priesthood, therefore no inheritance and portion with the people was given to Aaron and his sons, for it is declared that Jehovah God is their inheritance and portion (Num. 18:20); neither was any portion given to the Levites, because they belonged to Aaron (Num. 26:62; Deut. 10:9; 18:1, 2). For the people represented heaven and the church, but Aaron with his sons and with the Levites represented the good of love and of faith which makes heaven and the church, thus they represented the Lord from whom is this good.  For this reason the land was granted to the people for an inheritance, but not to the priests, for the Lord is in them, but not among them as one of them and distinct from them.

[8] The like is involved in these words from Isaiah:--

Ye shall be called the priests of Jehovah, the ministers of our God; ye shall eat the wealth of the nations, and in their glory ye shall boast yourselves (Isa. 61:6);

where “eating the wealth of the nations” denotes to appropriate goods to themselves; “boasting themselves in their glory” denotes to enjoy truths, thus to have joy and happiness from both. That “nations” denote goods, (n. 1259, 1260, 4574, 6005); and that “glory” denotes truth from the Divine, (n. 9429).

[9] In the Word throughout “kings” and “priests” are mentioned in a series, also “kings,” “princes,” “priests,” and “prophets;” and in the internal sense by “kings” are there signified truths in the complex; by “princes,” primary truths; by “priests,” goods in the complex; and by “prophets,” doctrines, as in the following passages:--

Jesus Christ hath made us kings and priests (Rev. 1:6; 5:10).

The house of Israel were ashamed, they, their kings, their princes, and their priests, and their prophets (Jer. 2:26).

In that day the heart of the king shall perish, and the heart of the princes; and the priests shall be amazed, and the prophets shall marvel (Jer. 4:9).

At that time they shall draw out the bones of the kings of Judah, and the bones of his princes, and the bones of the priests, and the bones of the prophets (Jer. 8:1).

That by “kings” in the sense abstracted from persons are signified truths in the complex, (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 4581, 4966, 5044, 6148); that by “princes” are signified primary truths, (n. 1482, 2089, 5044); that “priests” denote goods, (n. 1728, 2015, 3670, 6148); and that “prophets” denote doctrines derived from these things and concerning them, (n. 2534, 7269). The kingly office of the Lord is also signified by His name “Christ,” “Anointed,” “Messiah;” and His priestly office by His name “Jesus,” for “Jesus” means “Saviour” or “salvation,” concerning which it is thus written in Matthew:--

The angel appeared unto Joseph in a dream, and said, Thou shalt call His name Jesus, for He shall save His people from their sins (Matt. 1:21).

As this belonged to the priest‘s office, therefore the like was represented by the office of the high-priest who made expiation for the people for sins (Lev. 4:26, 31, 35; 5:6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 9:7; 15:15, 30).

[10] Seeing that evil cannot possibly be joined to good, because they have aversion for each other, therefore purifications of various kinds were commanded for Aaron and his sons when they ministered in the priest’s office, whether at the altar, or in the Tent of meeting; and it was also commanded that the high-priest was not to marry any but a virgin; not a widow, nor one divorced, nor a harlot (Lev. 21:13-15); that those of the sons of Aaron who were unclean “if they should eat of the sanctified things, were to be cut off” (Lev. 22:2-9); that “no one of the seed of Aaron in whom was a blemish should offer bread” (Lev. 21:17-21); that “the highpriest was not to shave his head, to rend his garments, to defile himself with any dead body, not even of his father and his mother, and that he was not to go out of the sanctuary” (Lev. 21:10-12). As before said, these and many other laws were enacted for the reason that the high-priest represented the Lord as to Divine good; and good is of such a nature that Evil cannot be joined to it, for good shuns evil, and evil dreads good as hell dreads heaven; and therefore no conjunction of them is possible.

[11] But as for truth, it is of such a character that falsity can be joined to it; yet not the falsity in which there is evil; but that in which there is good, such as there is with little children, and with boys and girls while they are as yet in innocence, and with well-disposed Gentiles who are in ignorance; and such as there is with all who are in the literal sense of the Word, and who remain in the doctrine thence derived, and who nevertheless have the good of life as their end; for this good, as the end, drives away all the malevolence of falsity, and by applying itself forms the falsity into a certain likeness of truth.

AC 9810. Aaron. That this signifies a representative of the Lord in respect to the Divine celestial, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good (n. 9806). The Divine celestial is the Divine of the Lord in the inmost heaven; for the angels of this heaven are called celestial angels, and are receptions of Divine truth in their will part. When the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord is received in this part, it is called celestial good; but when received in the intellectual part it is called spiritual good.  The quality of these two goods; that is, of celestial good and of spiritual good, and the nature of the difference between them, (n. 9277, 9543).

AC 9811. Nadab and Abihu. That this signifies in respect to the Divine spiritual thence derived, is evident from the representation of the sons of Aaron, as being the Divine truth that proceeds from the Divine good (n. 9807). The Divine spiritual is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Divine celestial; thus is the Divine of the Lord received in the middle or second heaven. This is represented by the two first born sons of Aaron, because it proceeds, and thus is as it were born, as a son from a father, from the celestial good which is in the inmost heaven. But by the two younger sons of Aaron, who are Eleazar and Ithamar (so long as the firstborn, Nadab and Abihu, lived), is represented the Divine in the ultimate heaven, which heaven follows next after the former or middle heaven; and which is the Divine natural.

AC 9812. Eleazar and Ithamar. That this signifies in respect to the Divine natural, is evident from the fact that these were the younger sons of Aaron, and that by Aaron is represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial; wherefore by his sons is represented the Lord as to the Divine which succeeds in order; thus by the elder sons is represented the Lord as to the Divine spiritual; and by the younger sons the Lord as to the Divine natural; for the Divine goods in the heavens succeed in this order; nay, the heavens themselves which are in these goods do so.  Moreover one good comes forth, and also subsists, through another.

[2] Divine celestial good, which makes the third or inmost heaven, is the good of love to the Lord; Divine spiritual good, which makes the middle or second heaven, is the good of charity toward the neighbor; and Divine natural good, which makes the first or ultimate heaven, is the good of faith and of obedience. To Divine natural good pertains also civil good, which is called what is just among citizens; and also moral good, which is that of all the virtues that belong to what is honorable.

[3] These three goods follow in order, like end, cause, and effect; and as the end is the soul of the cause, and the cause is all that is efficient in the effect, so celestial good is the soul of spiritual good, and spiritual good is everything in natural good.  That which is the soul, and that which is everything, in something else, is within it, as endeavor is in motion, or as will is in action. That will is the soul and everything in action, is plain, for when will ceases, action ceases.  From all this it can be seen how the case is with the celestial, the spiritual, and the natural; namely, that inmostly in natural good there must be celestial good, that is, the good of love to the Lord, which also is the good of innocence.

AC 9813. Aaron‘s sons. That this signifies the things which proceed from the Divine celestial, is evident from the signification of “sons,” as being those things which are born from another thing as from a father, thus which proceed; and from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to the Divine celestial (n. 9810). From this it is evident that by “the sons of Aaron” are signified those things which proceed from the Divine celestial.

AC 9814. And thou shalt make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother. That this signifies a representative of the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom, is evident from the signification of “garments,” as being truths in general, and indeed truths which clothe good (n. 5954, 9212, 9216). That “garments” denote truths, originates in heaven, where angels appear clothed in garments in accordance with their truths from good (n. 165, 5248, 5954, 9212); from which it can be seen that by the garments of Aaron was represented the spiritual kingdom of the Lord joined to His celestial kingdom. For Aaron represented the Lord as to the Divine celestial (n. 9810); whence the garments joined to him represented the Divine spiritual joined to the celestial kingdom, as a garment is to the body. The Divine spiritual is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine good; this appears in heaven as light, and moreover is the light which illumines the external as well as the internal sight of the angels. The modification of this light according to the recipient subjects, which are angels, presents to the sight various phenomena, such as clouds, rainbows, colors, and splendors, of various kinds; and it also presents shining garments about the angels. From this it can be seen that the spiritual kingdom of the Lord was represented by Aaron‘s garments of holiness. For there are two kingdoms into which the heavens have been divided, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom (n. 9277); they who are in the celestial kingdoms naked, but they who are in the spiritual kingdom appear clothed. From this it is again evident that it is Divine truth, or the Divine spiritual, and which appears as light, that invests or clothes.

[2] But who could possibly believe that within the church, where there is the Word, and the consequent enlightenment about Divine and heavenly things, ignorance so great should reign that it is not known that angels and spirits are in the human form, and appear to themselves as men; and also that they see and hear each other, and converse together; and that it is known still less that they appear clothed in garments. That this is the case falls not only into doubt, but also into total denial, with those who are so much immersed in outward things as to believe that the body alone lives, and that all is nothing which they do not see with the bodily eyes, and touch with the bodily hands (n. 1881); when yet the heavens are full of men, who are angels, and who are clothed in garments of varied resplendence.  But nothing of these things can be seen by a man on earth through the eyes of his body; but through the eyes of his spirit, when these are opened by the Lord.  The angels who were seen by the ancients, as by Abraham, Sarah, Lot, Jacob, Joshua, Gideon, and also the prophets, were not seen with the eyes of the body, but with the eyes of the spirit, which were then opened.  That these angels appeared clothed in garments, is evident from the angels who sat at the Lord’s sepulchre, and were seen in shining white garments by Mary Magdalene and Mary the mother of James (Matt. 28:3; Mark 16:5; Luke 24:4); and especially is the same thing evident from the Lord Himself when seen in His glory by Peter, James, and John, in that His raiment was then white and glistering, and was like the light (Matt. 17:2; Luke 9:29; by which raiment there was also represented the Divine spiritual, that is, the Divine truth which is from Him.

[3] From this it can be seen what is signified by “white garments” in the Apocalypse:--

Thou hast a few names in Sardis which have not defiled their garments, and they shall walk with Me in white, for they are worthy. He that overcometh, the same shall be clothed in white garments (Rev. 3:4, 5);

here “garments” denote spiritual truths, which are truths from good; and “ white” denotes genuine truth (n. 3301, 4007, 5319).  In like manner elsewhere:--

I saw heaven open, and behold a white horse, and He that sat upon him was called Faithful and True; and in righteousness He doth judge and fight.  His armies in heaven followed Him clothed in fine linen, white and clean (Rev. 19:11, 14).

Upon the thrones I saw four and twenty elders, clothed in white garments (Rev. 4:4).

AC 9815. For glory and for comeliness. That this signifies in order to present, in the internal and the external form, Divine truth such as it is in the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom, is evident from the signification of “glory,” as being Divine truth (n. 2135a, 5922, 9429); and from the signification of“ comeliness,” as also being Divine truth, but in the external form, for the brightness and beauty of Divine truth as it appears in externals is meant by “comeliness.” From this it is that the Word in the internal sense is called “glory,” but in the internal sense relatively to the brightness and beauty thence derived, it is called “comeliness.”  Consequently the spiritual heaven, which is meant here by“the garments of holiness,” which serve “for glory and for comeliness,” is “glory” so far as Divine truth there is in an internal form, and is also “comeliness.”

[2] The like is signified by “comeliness” in the following passages. In Jeremiah:--

The Lord in His anger doth cloud over the daughter of Zion; He hath cast forth from the heavens unto the earth the comeliness of Israel, neither doth He remember His footstool (Lam. 2:1);

where “the daughter of Zion” denotes the celestial church; and “the comeliness of Israel,” the spiritual church, which is called “comeliness” from the brightness and beauty of truth. In like manner in Isaiah:--

I have made My righteousness to draw nigh; it is not far off, and My salvation shall not tarry; I will give salvation in Zion, unto Israel My comeliness (Isa. 46:13).

Look forth from the heavens, from the habitation of Thy holiness and of Thy comeliness (Isa. 63:15);

where “the habitation of holiness” denotes the celestial kingdom; and “the habitation of comeliness” the spiritual kingdom. And in Daniel:--

And there came forth one horn from a little one, and grew exceedingly, toward the south, and toward the east, and toward comeliness (Daniel 8:9).

The king of the north shall stand in the land of comeliness, and there is consummation by his hand, and when he shall come into the land of comeliness, many shall be overthrown (Daniel 11:16, 41);

where “the land of comeliness” denotes the church of the Lord, in which is truth Divine, or the Word.

AC 9816. Verses 3, 4. And thou shalt speak unto all the wise in heart, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, and they shall make Aaron‘s garments to sanctify him, that he may minister to Me in the priests office.  And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a tunic of checker work, a miter, and a belt; and they shall make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons, that he may minister to Me in the priests office.  “And thou shalt speak unto all the wise in heart,” signifies the influx of the Lord through the Word into all who are in the good of love; “whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom,” signifies in whom Divine truth has been inscribed; “and they shall make Aaron’s garments,” signifies through whom is the spiritual kingdom; “to sanctify him,” signifies thereby a representation of the Divine truth in this kingdom; “that he may minister to Me in the priest‘s office,” signifies a representative of the Lord; “and these are the garments which they shall make,” signifies Divine truths in the spiritual kingdom, in their order; “a breastplate,” signifies Divine truth shining forth from Divine good; “and an ephod,” signifies Divine truth there in the external form in which interior things cease; “and a robe,” signifies Divine truth there in the internal form; “and a tunic of checker work,” signifies Divine truth there inmostly proceeding immediately from the Divine celestial; “a miter,” signifies intelligence and wisdom; “and a belt,” signifies a general bond, in order that all things may look to one end; “and they shall make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons,” signifies thereby a representative of the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom; “that he may minister to Me in the priest’s office,” signifies a representative of the Lord.

AC 9817. And thou shalt speak unto all the wise in heart. That this signifies the influx of the Lord through the Word into all who are in the good of love, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” as being influx (n. 2951, 5481, 5743, 5797, 7270); and from the signification of “the wise in heart,” as being those who are in the good of love. That the influx of the Lord through the Word is signified, is because the Lord flows in with the man of the church chiefly through the Word.  The reason is that the Word is of such a nature that each and all things therein correspond to the Divine spiritual and Divine celestial things that are in the heavens; whence there is a communication of the affections and thoughts of man with the angels, insomuch that they are as it were a one.  From this it is that the world is conjoined with heaven through the Word; but only with those who are in the good of faith and of love.  From all this it can be seen that the influx of the Lord with the man of the church is through the Word; for in the heavens the Lord is everything, because the Divine which proceeds from Him and is received by the angels, makes heaven.

[2] The reason why “the wise in heart” denote those who are in the good of love, is that wisdom is predicated of the life of heaven in man, and also that by “the heart” is signified the good of love. The life of heaven in man is expressed in the Word by “spirit” and by “heart;” by “spirit” is meant the life of man‘s intellectual part, and by “heart” the life of his will part.  To the intellectual part belongs truth, and to the will part belongs good.  Truth belongs to faith, and good to love; for the understanding receives the truths which are of faith, and the will the goods which are of love. From this it is plain that by “the wise in heart” are signified those who are in the good of love from the Lord.  The good of love is celestial good, through which is spiritual good; and spiritual good is that which covers celestial good, as garments cover the body.  And as by the garments of Aaron was represented the spiritual kingdom of the Lord joined to His celestial kingdom, and the former comes forth through the latter, therefore it is here said that “the wise in heart,” that is, they who are in the good of love from the Lord, “shall make the garments for Aaron and his sons”. That “the heart” denotes the good of love, or celestial good, (n. 3635, 3880, 3883-3896, 9050); and that on this account it denotes the will, (n. 2930, 3888, 7542, 8910, 9113, 9300, 9495).

AC 9818. Whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom. That this signifies in whom Divine truth has been inscribed, is evident from the signification of “the spirit of wisdom,” when said of those who are in celestial good, as being Divine truth; they are said to be “filled with it” when what has been inscribed remains. The case herein is that those who are in the celestial kingdom of the Lord do not know truths from memory-knowledge, and the consequent faith; but from internal perception; for they are in the good of love from the Lord, and all truths have been ingrafted in this good.  The good itself has been implanted in their will part, and the derivative truth in their intellectual part.  With them the will part and the intellectual part act absolutely as a one, differently from those who are in the spiritual kingdom. From this it is that those who are in the celestial kingdom of the Lord do not from their intellectual part know truths, but perceive them; for the good that has been implanted in the will is presented in its quality and in its form in the understanding, and is there in a light as it were flaming.  With them, truth is the form of good, and the quality of it, which is not seen but perceived, is from good.  From this it is that they never dispute about truths, insomuch that when they discourse about truths, they say that it is so, or is not so, nothing further; for anything further is not from good.  These are they who are meant in Matthew:--

Let your discourse be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay; whatsoever is more than these is from evil (Matt. 5:37).

That they who are in the celestial kingdom of the Lord are of this character, (n. 2715, 2718, 3246, 4448, 5113, 6367, 7877, 9166, 9543); what the difference is between those who are in the celestial kingdom, and those who are in the spiritual kingdom, (n. 9276).

[2] From all this it can now be seen what is meant by Divine truths being “inscribed.” The word “spirit” is used in many passages in the Word, and when said of man, by his “spirit” is signified the good and truth that have been inscribed on his intellectual part, consequently there is signified the life of this part.  That when predicated of man, “spirit” has this signification, is because in respect to his interiors man is a spirit, and in respect to these is also in company with spirits.  On this subject see what has been abundantly shown above, namely, that there are spirits and angels with man, and man is directed by the Lord by means of them (n. 50, 697, 986, 2796, 2886, 2887, 4047, 4048, 5846-5866, 5976-5993); that man is among spirits and angels such as he is himself (n. 4067, 4073, 4077, 4111); and that every man has a spirit through which his body has life (n. 4622).

[3] From this it can be known what is meant by “Spirit” when said of the Lord, namely, the Divine truth that proceeds from His Divine good, and that when this Divine truth flows in with man, and is received by him, it is “the Spirit of Truth,” “the Spirit of God,” and “the Holy Spirit;” for it flows in immediately from the Lord, and also mediately through angels and spirits (n. 9682); that “the Spirit of Truth,” “the Spirit of God,” and “the Holy Spirit,” denote this, will be seen in what follows.  For it must first be shown that in the Word, “spirit,” when said of man, denotes the good and truth that has been inscribed on his intellectual part, consequently that it denotes the life of this.  For there is the life of the intellectual part, and the life of the will part; the life of the intellectual part is to know, to see, and to understand, that truth is true, and that good is good; whereas the life of the will part is to will and to love truth for the sake of truth, and good for the sake of good. This latter life is called in the Word “heart;” but the former is called “spirit.”

[4] That such is the case is evident from the following passages in the Word:--

Make for you a new heart and a new spirit; why will ye die, O house of Israel? (Ezek. 18:31).

I will give you a new heart, and I will put a new spirit in the midst of you (Ezek. 36:26);

“a new heart” denotes a new will; and “a new spirit,” a new understanding.  In Zechariah:--

Jehovah stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man in the midst of him (Zech. 12:1);

where “stretching forth the heavens, and laying the foundation of the earth” denotes a new church. That the church is meant by “heaven and earth,” (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535); “to form the spirit of man in the midst of him” denotes to regenerate him in respect to the understanding of truth and good.

[5] In David:--

Create in me a clean heart, O God; and renew a steadfast spirit in the midst of me. Cast me not away from before Thee, and take not the Spirit of Thy holiness from me. Restore unto me the joy of Thy salvation; and let an ingenuous spirit uphold me. The sacrifices of God are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart God doth not despise (Ps. 51:10-12, 17);

“a clean heart” denotes a will that is averse to evils, which are unclean; “a steadfast spirit” denotes the understanding and faith of truth; “a broken spirit,” and “a broken heart,” denote a state of temptation and the consequent humiliation of the life of both of these. That “spirit” denotes life, is plain from each of the above expressions.  The Divine truth, from which is this life, is “the Spirit of holiness.” Again:--

A generation that maketh not its heart right, and whose spirit is not constant with God (Ps. 78:8);

“a heart not right” denotes that the will is not right; “a spirit not constant with God,” denotes that the understanding and faith are not constant.

[6] In Moses:--

Jehovah God made worse the spirit of Sihon king of Heshbon, and hardened his heart (Deut. 2:30);

in this passage also “spirit” and “heart” denote the two lives, which are said to be “hardened” when there is no will of understanding truth and good, nor of doing them. In Ezekiel:--

Every heart shall melt, and all hands shall be let down, and every spirit shall be contracted (Ezek. 21:7);

where the meaning is similar.  In Isaiah:--

Jehovah, that giveth soul unto the people upon the earth, and spirit to them that walk therein (Isa. 42:5);

“giving soul to the people” denotes the life of faith. That “soul” denotes the life of faith, (n. 9050); and “giving spirit” denotes the understanding of truth.  Again:--

With my soul have I dared Thee in the night; yea, with my spirit in the midst of me have I awaited Thee in the morning (Isa. 26:9);

where the meaning is similar.

[7] Again:--

Conceive ye refuse, bring forth stubble; your spirit the fire shall devour (Isa. 33:11)

“the spirit which the fire shall devour,” denotes the understanding of truth, thus intelligence; “fire” denotes evil affection, which being from evil destroys.

[8] Again in the following passages:--

Woe to the foolish prophets that go away after their own spirit (Ezek. 13:3).

That which cometh up upon your spirit shall never come to pass (Ezek. 20:32).

Not one hath done so, and the rest who have the spirit: what therefore the one, seeking the seed of God? Therefore take heed by your spirit, that he may not deal treacherously against the wife of thy youth (Malachi 2:15).

Blessed is the man to whom Jehovah imputeth not iniquity, provided in his spirit there is no deceit (Ps. 32:2).

Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 5:3).

Jesus said unto His disciples, Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation; the spirit indeed is ready, but the flesh is weak (Matt. 26:41).

It is very evident that in these passages by “spirit” is meant the very life of man; that it denotes the intellectual life, or the life of truth, can be seen from the fact that by “spirit” in the natural sense is meant the life of man’s respiration; and that the respiration of the lungs corresponds to the life of truth, which is the life of faith and from this of the understanding; while the beating of the heart corresponds to the life of the will, thus of the love.  That there is this correspondence of the lungs and of the heart, see (n. 3883-3896, 9300, 9495); from which it can be seen what life is meant in the spiritual sense by “spirit.”

[9] That in a general sense “spirit” denotes the life of man‘s respiration, is very plain in the following passages:--

Thou hidest Thy face, they are troubled; Thou gatherest their spirit, they expire. Thou sendest forth Thy spirit, they are created (Ps. 104:29, 30).

Answer me, O Jehovah, my spirit hath been consumed; hide not Thy faces from me (Ps. 143:7).

My spirit hath been consumed, my days extinguished (Job.  17:1).

Jesus, taking the hand of the maid that was dead, said, Maid arise. And so her spirit returned, and straightway she rose up (Luke 8:54, 55).

Every man is become foolish with knowledge, a graven image is a lie, and there is no spirit in it (Jer. 10:14; 51:17).

He carried me forth in the spirit of Jehovah, and set me in the midst of the valley. And there the Lord Jehovih said to the dry bones, Behold I bring spirit into you, that ye may live.  Thus said the Lord Jehovah, Come from the four winds, O spirit, and breathe into these slain; and the spirit came into them, and they lived again (Ezek. 36:1, 5, 9, 10).

The two witnesses were slain by the beast that came up out of the abyss; but after three days and a half the spirit of life from God entered into them, that they should stand upon their feet (Rev. 11:7, 11).

[10] From these passages it is very manifest that “spirit” denotes the life of man.  That specifically it denotes the life of truth, which is the life of man’s intellectual part, and is called intelligence, is clear in these passages:--

The hour cometh, and now is, when the true worshipers shall worship the Father in spirit and in truth. God is a spirit, therefore those who worship Him must worship in spirit and in truth (John 4:23, 24).

Forasmuch as an excellent spirit, both of knowledge and of understanding, was in him (Dan. 5:12, 14).

John grew, and waxed strong in spirit (Luke 1:80).

The child Jesus grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was filled with wisdom (Luke 2:40).

He whom the Father hath sent speaketh the words of God; for God hath not given the spirit by measure to him (John 3:34);

“spirit” here denotes intelligence and wisdom; “speaking the words of God” denotes to speak Divine truths.

[11] From all this it is now evident what is signified by “spirit” in John:--

Jesus said to Nicodemus, Except a man be born of water and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which hath been begotten of the flesh is flesh; and that which hath been begotten of the spirit (John 3:5, 6);

where “to be begotten of water” denotes by means of truth; and “to be begotten of the spirit” denotes the consequent life from the Lord, which is called spiritual life. That “water” denotes the truth through which is regeneration, (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 9323); but “the flesh” denotes what is man‘s own, in which there is nothing of spiritual life, (n. 3813, 8409).

[12] The like is signified by “spirit” and “flesh” in the same:--

It is the spirit that maketh alive; the flesh profiteth nothing; the words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life (John 6:63);

“the words which the Lord spake” are Divine truths, the life thence derived is “the spirit.” In Isaiah:--

Egypt is man and not God; and his horses are flesh, and not spirit (Isa. 31:3);

“Egypt” denotes memory-knowledge in general; “his horses” denote memory-knowledge from the intellectual, which is called “flesh, and not spirit” when there is nothing of spiritual life therein.  That “Egypt”denotes memory-knowledge, (n. 9340, 9391); that “horses” denote the intellectual, (n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321); and that “the horses of Egypt” denote memory-knowledges from the intellectual, (n. 6125, 8146, 8148). He who does not know what is signified by “Egypt,” by “horses,” and also by “flesh” and “spirit,” cannot possibly know what these words involve.

[13] When it is known what is signified by “spirit” in regard to man, it can be known what is signified by “Spirit” when it is said of Jehovah or the Lord, to whom are attributed all things belonging to man;as face, eyes, ears, arms, hands, and also a heart and a soul; thus also a Spirit, which in the Word is called “the Spirit of God,” “the Spirit of Jehovah,” “the Spirit of His mouth,” “the Spirit of holiness,” or “the Holy Spirit.”  That by the “Spirit” is meant the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, is evident from many passages in the Word. The reason why the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord is signified by “the Spirit of God,” is that the whole life of man is thence, and those have heavenly life who receive this Divine truth in faith and love.  That this is “the Spirit of God,” the Lord Himself teaches in John:--

The words that I speak to you are spirit, and are life (John 6:63);

“the words which the Lord spake” are Divine truths.

[14] Again:--

Jesus cried with a great voice, saying, If anyone thirst, let him come unto Me, and drink. Whosoever believeth in Me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow streams of living water. This said He of the Spirit, which they that believe in Him should receive; for the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified (John 7:37-39);

that by “the Spirit which they that believe in the Lord were to receive” is meant the life which is from the Lord, and which is the life of faith and of love, is plain from the details of this passage; for “thirsting and drinking” signify a longing to know and perceive truth; “streams of living water which shall flow from the belly” denote truths Divine. From this it is evident that “the Spirit which they should receive,” which is also called “the Holy Spirit,” denotes life from the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord, which life is called “the life of faith and of love,” and is the very spiritual and celestial life with man.  The reason why it is said that “the Holy Spirit was not yet, because Jesus was not yet glorified,” is that while the Lord was in the world He Himself taught Divine truth; but when He was glorified, which was after the resurrection, He taught it through angels and spirits. This holy thing which proceeds from the Lord, and flows into man through angels and spirits, whether manifestly or not manifestly, is “the Holy Spirit” there mentioned; for it is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord that is called “holy” in the Word (n. 9680).

[15] From this it is that the Holy Spirit is called “the Spirit of Truth,” and that it is said that “He will lead into all truth;” and that “He shall not speak of Himself, but what things soever He shall hear from the Lord;” and that “He shall receive from the Lord the things that He will proclaim” (John 16:13, 14); and also that when the Lord departed from the disciples, “He breathed into them, and said, Receive ye the Holy Spirit” (John 20:21, 22).  The respiration signifies the life of faith (n. 9229, 9281); consequently the inspiration [or breathing] of the Lord signifies a capability imparted to men to perceive Divine truths, and thus to receive the life of faith; whence also comes the word “spirit” from “blowing” and from “wind,” because from the respiration; and therefore spirit is sometimes called “wind.”  That the respiration of the lungs corresponds to the life of faith, and the beating of the heart to the life of love, see n. 3883-3896, 9300, 9495).

[16] The like is signified by “inspiration” (or “breathing into”) in the book of Genesis:--

And Jehovah breathed into man’s nostrils the soul of lives (Gen. 2:7).

From this the Lord is called “the spirit of our nostrils” (Lam.  4:20).  And as Divine truth consumes and vastates the evil, it is said in the following passages:--

The foundations of the world were revealed at the blast of the spirit of Thy nostrils (Ps. 18:15).

By the breath of God they perish, and by the spirit of His nostrils are they consumed (Job 4:9).

By the word of Jehovah were the heavens made, and all the army of them by the spirit of His mouth (Ps. 33:6);

“the word of Jehovah” denotes Divine truth; in like manner “the spirit of His mouth.” That this denotes the Lord is evident in John:--

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. All things were made by Him. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us (John 1:1, 3, 14).

[17] That Divine truth, from which is the heavenly life of man, is signified by “the Holy Spirit,” is plain also from the following passages.  In Isaiah

There shall go forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse; and the spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon Him, the spirit of wisdom and intelligence, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Jehovah (Isa. 11:1, 2);

these words are said of the Lord, in whom Divine truth, consequently Divine wisdom and intelligence, are called “the Spirit of Jehovah;” and this Spirit is called “the spirit of wisdom and intelligence, of counsel, of might, and of knowledge.”  Again:--

I have put My spirit upon Him; He shall bring forth judgment to the nations (Isa. 42:1);

speaking here also of the Lord; “the Spirit of Jehovah upon Him,” denotes Divine truth, consequently Divine wisdom and intelligence. Divine truth is also called “judgment” (n. 2235).

[18] Again:--

When the enemy shall come as a pent-up stream, the spirit of Jehovah shall lift up a standard against him (Isa. 59:19).

The spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon Me; therefore Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach glad tidings to the poor (Isa. 61:1);

speaking here also of the Lord; the Divine truth which was in the Lord while He was in the world, and which He Himself then was, is “the Spirit of Jehovah.”

[19] That “the Spirit of Jehovah” denotes Divine truth, and that the man who receives it has heavenly life therefrom is still more evident from the following passages.  In Isaiah:--

Until the spirit be poured upon you from on high, then shall the wilderness become a fruitful field; then judgment shall dwell in the wilderness (Isa. 32:15, 16);

the subject here treated of is regeneration; “the spirit from on high” denotes life from the Divine; for “the wilderness becoming a fruitful field,” and “judgment dwelling in the wilderness,” signifies intelligence where there was none before, thus new life.

[20] In like manner in these passages:--

That ye may know that I will give My spirit in you, that ye may live (Ezek. 37:13, 14).

Then I will not hide My faces any more from them; for I will pour out My spirit upon the house of Israel (Ezek. 39:29).

I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh, and upon the manservants and upon the maidservants in those days will I pour out My spirit (Joel 2:28, 29).

I am full of might with the spirit of Jehovah, and with judgment and strength to declare to Jacob his transgression, and to Israel his sin (Micah 3:8).

The horses that go forth into the land of the north have quieted my spirit in the land of the north (Zech. 6:8).

I will pour waters upon him that is thirsty, and streams upon the dry land; I will pour out My spirit upon thy seed (Isa. 44:3).

That in these passages “the Spirit of Jehovah” denotes the Divine truth, and through this the life of faith and of love, is evident; that it flows in immediately from the Lord and also mediately from Him through spirits and angels, may be seen above (n. 9682).

[21] In like manner in another passage in Isaiah:--

In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a crown of ornament and for a diadem of beauty to the remains of His people; and for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth upon judgment, and for strength to them (Isa. 28:5, 6);

where “a crown of ornament” denotes the wisdom which is of good; “a diadem of beauty,” the intelligence which is of truth; and “a spirit of judgment,” Divine truth, for judgment is predicated of truth (n. 2235, 6397, 7206, 8685, 8695, 9260, 9383).

[22] Again:--

The Angel of the faces of Jehovah delivered them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; yet they rebelled, and embittered the Spirit of His Holiness; whereby He was turned to be their enemy. He put the Spirit of His Holiness in the midst of him; the Spirit of Jehovah led him (Isa. 63:9-11, 14);

here “the Spirit of holiness” denotes the Lord as to Divine truth, thus the Divine truth which is from the Lord; “the Angel of His faces” denotes the Lord as to Divine good, for “the face of Jehovah” denotes love, mercy, and good.  In the Revelation:--

The testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy (Rev.  19:10);

“the testimony of Jesus” denotes the Divine truth which is from Him and concerning Him (n. 9503).

[23] In David:--

Jehovah God maketh His angels spirits; and His ministers a flaming fire (Ps. 104:4);

where “making the angels spirits” denotes receptions of Divine truth; and “making them a flaming fire” denotes receptions of Divine good, that is, of Divine love.  In Matthew:--

John said, I baptize you with water unto repentance;but He that cometh after me shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matt. 3:11);

where “to baptize” denotes to regenerate; “with the Holy Spirit” denotes by means of Divine truth; and “with fire” denotes from the Divine good of the Divine love. That “to baptize” denotes to regenerate, (n. 5120, 9088); and that “fire” denotes the Divine good of the Divine love, (n. 4906, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 4849, 7324).

[24] In Luke:--

If ye, being evil, know how to give good things to your children; how much more shall the Father who is in Heaven give the Holy Spirit to them that ask Him? (Luke 11:13);

“to give the Holy Spirit” denotes to enlighten with Divine truth, and to endow with the life thence derived, which is the life of intelligence and wisdom.  In the Revelation:--

The seven lamps of fire burning before the throne are the seven Spirits of God (Rev. 4:5).

In the midst of the elders a Lamb standing, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6).

That in these passages “Spirits” do not mean spirits, is evident from the fact that the lamps and the eyes of the Lamb are called “the Spirits of God;” for “lamps” denote Divine truths (n. 4638, 7072), and “eyes” denote the understanding of truth, and when said of the Lord, the Divine intelligence and wisdom (n. 2701, 4403-4421, 4523-4534, 9051); from which it is evident that “the Spirits of God” signify Divine truths.

[25] When therefore it is known that “the Holy Spirit” denotes the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, which is holiness itself, the Divine meaning of the Word can be known wherever mention is made of “the Spirit of God,” and “the Holy Spirit;” as in the following passages:--

I will ask the Father that He may give you another Paraclete, that He may abide with you forever; the Spirit of Truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him; but ye know Him, for He abideth with you, and shall be in you.  I will not leave you orphans. The Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He shall teach you all things, and put you in mind of all things that I have said unto you (John 14:16-18, 26).

When the Paraclete shall come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, the Spirit of Truth, who goeth forth from the Father, He shall bear witness of Me; and ye shall bear witness (John 15:26, 27).

I tell you the truth; it is expedient for you that I go away; if I go not away, the Paraclete will not come unto you; but if I go away, I will send Him unto you (John 16:7).

[26] From these passages it is again evident that the Divine truth proceeding from the Divine good which is “the Father,” is “the Paraclete,” and “the Holy Spirit ” and therefore also He is called “the Spirit of Truth;” and it is said of Him that “He shall abide in them,” that “He shall teach all things,” that “He shall bear witness of the Lord.” In the spiritual sense “to bear witness of the Lord” denotes to teach about Him. Its being said that “the Paraclete who is the Holy Spirit is sent from the Father in the name of the Lord,” and again that “the Lord will send Him from the Father,” and afterward that “the Lord Himself will send Him,” is because the Father signifies the Divine Itself which is in the Lord, and consequently that the Father and He are one, as the Lord plainly declares in (John 10:30; 14:9-11).

[27] Again:--

All sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy of the Spirit shall not be forgiven unto men If anyone shall say a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this age, nor in that which is to come (Matt. 12:31, 32);

“to say a word against the Son of man” denotes against truth Divine not yet implanted or inscribed in the life of man. That “the Son of man” denotes the Divine truth, (n. 9807); but “to speak against the Holy Spirit” denotes against the Divine truth that has been implanted or inscribed in the life of man, especially against the Divine truth about the Lord Himself. To speak against this, that is, to deny it after it has once been acknowledged, is profanation; and the profanation is of such a nature that it utterly destroys the interiors of man; and from this it is said that this sin cannot be forgiven. What profanation is, (n. 3398, 3898, 4289, 4601, 6348, 6959, 6963, 6971, 8394, 8882, 9298).

[28] And again:--

Jesus said unto the disciples, Go ye, and baptize in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit (Matt. 28:19);

“the Father” here denotes the Divine Itself; “the Son” denotes this Divine Itself in a human form; and “the Holy Spirit” denotes the Divine which proceeds.  Thus there is one Divine, and yet a Trinity.  That the Lord is the Divine Itself under a human form, He Himself teaches in John:--

From henceforth ye have known the Father, and have seen Him; he that seeth Me seeth the Father; I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:7, 9, 10).

AC 9819. And they shall make Aaron‘s garments. That this signifies through whom is the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of “Aaron’s garments,” as being a representative of the spiritual kingdom of the Lord joined to His celestial kingdom (n. 9814).  That the wise in heart, filled with the spirit of wisdom, were to make the garments, was because by them are meant those who are in the celestial kingdom; and the spiritual kingdom is that which is from the celestial, and thus covers it, as a garment covers the body (n. 9818).

AC 9820. To sanctify him. That this signifies thereby a representative of the Divine truth in this kingdom, is evident from the signification of “to be sanctified,” as being to be imbued with Divine truth from the Lord; for the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord is what is called “holy” in the Word, for the reason that the Lord alone is holy, thus whatever proceeds from Him (n. 9680). From this it is that the holiness which proceeds from Him is called “the Holy Spirit” (n. 9818, n. 9229).

[2] From this it is plain how it is to be understood that angels, prophets, and apostles are called “holy”. “Holy angels” in (Matt. 25:31; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26); “holy prophets” in (Rev. 16:6; 18:20); and “holy apostles” in (Rev. 18:20). It is to be understood, not that they were holy from themselves, but from the Lord. “Holy angels” because these are receptions of the Divine truth which is from the Lord, and therefore by them in the Word are signified truths Divine, and in general something of the Lord (n. 1925, 2821, 4085, 4295); “holy prophets” because by these is signified the Word which is Divine truth, and specifically doctrines derived from the Word (n. 2534, 3652, 7269); and “holy apostles” because by these is signified all the truth of faith and all the good of love in the complex (n. 3488, 3858, 6397).

[3] That the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord is holiness itself, thus the Lord, from whom is this holiness, is evident from many passages in the Word, of which may now be adduced only the words of the Lord in John:--

Father, sanctify them in Thy truth; Thy Word is truth. For their sakes I sanctify Myself, that they also may be sanctified in the truth (John 17:17, 19);

from this it is evident that it is the Lord who sanctifies man, spirit, and angel, because He alone is holy (Rev. 15:4), and that they are holy only in so far as they receive of the Lord, that is, in so far as they receive from Him of faith and love to Him.

AC 9821. To his ministering in the priest‘s office to Me.  That this signifies a representative of the Lord, is evident from what was shown above (n. 9809).

AC 9822. And these are the garments which they shall make. That this signifies Divine truths in the spiritual kingdom in their order, is evident from the signification of “Aaron’s garments,” as being the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom (n. 9814).  That these garments denote Divine truths in this kingdom, is because “garments” signify truths (n. 5954, 9212, 9216), and because this kingdom is called the spiritual kingdom from the Divine truths which are there.  For there are two kingdoms into which heaven is distinguished, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom: in the celestial kingdom good reigns, and in the spirit kingdom truth, both from the Lord; and because the garments of Aaron represented the latter kingdom, and these garments were an ephod, a robe, and a tunic, therefore by these are signified Divine truths in this kingdom in their order.

AC 9823. A breastplate. That this signifies Divine truth shining forth from Divine good, is evident from the signification of “the breastplate,” as being Divine truth shining forth from Divine good, here in ultimates progressively from the inmost things in the heavens.  For the ephod, on which was this breastplate, represented the ultimates of the spiritual kingdom, and consequently the ultimates of heaven. “The breast plate” had this signification because it was fastened upon the breast where the heart is, and was filled with precious stones, and the heart corresponds to celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord from the Lord, and the twelve precious stones correspond to Divine truths thence derived. Hence by “the breastplate” in the supreme sense is signified Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good of the Lord. That the heart corresponds to celestial good, that is, to the good of love to the Lord from the Lord, (n. 170, 172, 176, 3635, 3883-3896, 7542, 9050, 9300, 9495); and that the twelve precious stones correspond to Divine truths which are from the Divine good, will be seen in what follows in this chapter, where this breastplate is fully described, and is called “the breastplate of judgment,” and “the Urim and Thummim,” from the twelve precious stones with which it was filled. That it was fastened upon the breast where is the heart, is evident from the description given of it below, where this is plainly stated in these words, “Aaron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart” (verse 29); and again, “They shall be upon Aaron‘s heart, when he goeth in before Jehovah; and Aaron shall carry the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continually” (verse 30). That “judgment” also denotes the Divine truth which proceeds from the Divine good of the Lord, will be seen in what follows.

AC 9824. And an ephod. That this signifies Divine truth in this kingdom in the external form in which interior things  cease, is evident from the signification of “the ephod,” as being Divine truth in an external form.  The reason why this is signified by “the ephod” is that by Aaron’s garments of holiness were represented Divine truths in the spiritual kingdom in their order (n. 9822); and the ephod was the outermost of three garments; Aaron‘s garments for the priest’s office being the ephod, the robe, and the checkered tunic.  That which is outermost not only contains the interior things, but the interior things also cease in it.  This is the case in the human body, and consequently also in the heavens, to which the things of the human body correspond.  The case is similar with truths and goods, for these make the heavens.

[2] As the ephod represented the outermost of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, it was more holy than the rest of the garments, and on it Was the breastplate, in which were the Urim and Thummim, through which answers were given by the Divine. That what is most external is more holy than the internal things, is because the external holds all the interior things in their order, and in their form and connection, insomuch that if the external were removed, the internal things would be dispersed; for internal things not only cease in the external, but they are also together in it.  That this is so can be known to those who know how it is with things successive and things simultaneous; namely, that successive things, which proceed and follow one another in their order, are nevertheless presented together in the ultimate things.  Take for example, end, cause, and effect; the end is the first in order, the cause is the second, and the effect is the ultimate.  So also do they advance in succession.  Nevertheless the cause is presented simultaneously in the effect, which is the ultimate; and the end is so presented in the cause.  Consequently the effect is the completion, in which the interior or prior things are collected together and are lodged.

[3] The case is similar in man, with will, thought, and action.  To will comes first, to think second, and to do is the ultimate, and this is also the effect in which the prior or interior things come forth in simultaneous order.  For in so far as the act contains within itself that which the man is thinking, and that which he is willing, so far the interior things are held together in their form and in their connection. It is from this that it is said in the Word, that man will be judged according to his deeds, or according to his works, which means that he will be judged according to his thought and will, for these are in his deeds as the soul is in his body. As then the interior things are presented simultaneously in the ultimate, it follows that, as already said, if the order is perfect, the ultimate is accounted more holy than the interior things, for therein is complete the holiness of the interior things.

[4] As the interior things are together in the ultimate ones (as for instance, as just said, man’s thought and will are together in his deeds or works; or in regard to spiritual things, his faith and love are so), therefore John was beloved by the Lord more than the rest of the disciples, and lay on His breast (John 13:23; 21:20, 22), for the reason that this disciple represented the works of charity. (n. 2135a, 2760, 3934). From this it is also evident why the external or ultimate which is in perfect order, is more holy than the internal things regarded singly; for when the Lord is in the ultimate, He is simultaneously in all things, and when He is in this, the interior things are held together in their order, connection, and form; and under super-vision and guidance at His good pleasure.  This is the secret which is meant in (n. 9360), which see.

[5] This then is the reason why the ephod, being a representative of the ultimate in the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, was accounted more holy than the rest of the garments of the priesthood.  Wherefore the ephod was the chief priestly vestment, and was made of threads of gold in the midst of blue, of crimson, of scarlet double-dyed, and of fine twined linen (Exod. 39:3); but the rest of the priests had ephods of linen (1 Sam. 2:18; 22:18).  On this account also the ephod stood for all the vestments of a priest, and he was said “to wear the ephod,” whereby was signified that he was a priest (1 Sam. 2:28; 14:3).  On this account also the breastplate was fastened to the ephod, and answers were given by means of the Urim and Thummim thereon, for the reason that this vestment was a representative of the ultimate in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom; and Divine answers are presented in ultimates, for they pass through all the interior things in succession, and are there dictated,  cause there they cease.  That answers were given when the priests were clothed with the ephod, is evident from (1 Samuel 23:6-13; 30:7, 8); and also Hosea:--

The sons of Israel tarried many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without pillar, and without ephod, and teraphim (Hosea 3:4);

where “teraphim” signify Divine answers, for answers were formerly given by means of these (Zech. 10:2).  Moreover in the original tongue the word “ephod” comes from “to enclose all the interior things,” as is evident from the meaning of the word in (Exodus 29:5; Leviticus 8:7).

AC 9825. And a robe.  That this signifies Divine truth there in the internal form, is evident from the signification of “the robe,” as being the middle of the spiritual kingdom, thus the truth itself which is there; for by Aaron‘s garments was represented the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 9814), thus the truths which are there, in their order (n. 9822) and as this kingdom has been distinguished into three degrees, the inmost, the middle, and the external, therefore by “the robe” was signified that which is in the middle of this kingdom.  The reason why this kingdom has been distinguished into three degrees, is that the inmost there communicates with the celestial, and the external with the natural, and therefore the middle partakes equally of both.  Moreover, in order that anything may be perfect, it must be distinguished into three degrees.  This is the case with heaven, and with the goods and the truths in it. That there are three heavens is known; consequently there are three degrees of goods and truths there.  Each heaven also is distinguished into three degrees; for its inmost must communicate immediately with what is higher, and its external with what is lower, and so, through these, its middle must communicate with both, whence comes its perfection.  The case is the same with the interiors of man, which in general have been distinguished into three degrees, namely, into the celestial, the spiritual, and the natural; in like manner each of these into its own three degrees; for a man who is in the good of faith and of love to the Lord is a heaven in the least form corresponding to the greatest (n. 9279).  Such also is the case in all things of nature. That the natural of man has been distinguished into three degrees, (n. 4570), and in general all his interior and exterior things, (n. 4154). The reason of its being so, is that everywhere there must be end, cause, and effect; the end must be the inmost, the cause the middle, and the effect the ultimate, in order that the thing may be perfect. It is from this that in the Word “three” signifies what is complete from beginning to end (n. 2788, 4495, 7715, 9198, 9488, 9489). From all this it can be known why Aaron‘s garments of holiness were an ephod, a robe, and a tunic; and that the ephod represented the external, the robe the middle, and the tunic the inmost, of the spiritual kingdom.

[2] As the robe represented the middle in the spiritual kingdom, and the middle partakes of both the others, it is taken representatively for that kingdom itself, as in the first book of Samuel:--

Samuel turned about to go away, but Saul laid hold upon the skirt of his robe, and it was rent; wherefore Samuel said, Jehovah shall rend the kingdom of Israel from upon thee this day, and shall give it to thy companion who is better than thou (1 Samuel. 15:27, 28);

from these words it is evident that “the rending of the skirt of Samuel’s robe” signified the rending of the kingdom of Israel from Saul, for “the kingdom of Israel” signifies the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom (n. 4286, 4598, 6424, 6637, 6862, 6868, 7035, 7062, 7198, 7201, 7215, 7223, 8805).  In like manner in the same:--

David cut off the skirt of Saul’s robe privily; and when he showed it to Saul, Saul said, Now I know that reigning thou shalt reign, and the kingdom of Israel shall continue in thine hand (1 Samuel 24:4, 5, 11, 20).

When Jonathan made a covenant with David, he stripped himself of his robe, and gave it to David, even to his sword, to his bow, and to his girdle (1 Sam. 18:3, 4);

by which was represented that Jonathan, who was the heir, abdicated the kingdom of Israel and transferred it to David.

[3] As a robe represented the spiritual kingdom, so likewise it represented the truths of this kingdom in general.  The truths of this kingdom are what are called spiritual truths, which are in the intellectual part of man.  These are signified by “robes” in Ezekiel:--

All the princes of the sea shall come down from upon their thrones, and shall cast away their robes, and put off the garments of their embroidery (Ezek. 26:16);

this is said of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201); the vastation of these in the church is here described; “the robes which they shall cast away” denote the truths of faith which are in the intellectual part; but “the garments of embroidery” denote the memory-knowledges which are in the natural (n. 9688).  The reason why these truths are signified, is that the truth which belongs to the understanding reigns in the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom; but in the celestial kingdom the good which belongs to the will.  In Matthew:--

The scribes and Pharisees do all their works to be seen of men, and enlarge the borders of their robes (Matt. 23:5);

where “enlarging the borders of the robes” denotes to speak truths grandiloquently, merely to be heard and seen by men. That such things are signified by “the robe,” will be seen still better from the description of it below in this chapter (verses 31-35).

AC 9826. And a tunic of checker work.  That this signifies Divine truth there inmostly proceeding immediately from the Divine celestial, is evident from the signification of “a tunic,” as being natural truth; but when said concerning Aaron, whose garments represented the truths of the Lord’s spiritual kingdom (n. 9814, 9822), “the tunic” denotes the inmost Divine truth in this kingdom, thus that which proceeds most nearly from the Divine celestial, which is the Lord‘s Divine good in the inmost heaven. That such things are signified by “tunics,” (n. 4677). For there are three heavens-the inmost which is called celestial, the middle which is called spiritual, and the ultimate which approaches what is natural.  In the inmost heaven reigns the good of love to the Lord, in the middle heaven the good of charity toward the neighbor, and in the ultimate heaven the good of faith.  These heavens are most distinct one from another, insomuch that he who is in one heaven cannot possibly pass into another; and yet they are one heaven, being joined together by means of intermediate angelic societies; and in this way one heaven proceeds from another. As therefore the garments of Aaron represent the spiritual heaven, and thus the truths of this heaven in their order, it is evident that by the inmost garment, which is called “a tunic of checker work,” is represented the inmost truth there which proceeds immediately from the Divine celestial.  It is said to be “of checker work,” because it was woven, as is evident from what follows in the book of Exodus:--

They made tunics of fine linen, the work of the weaver, for Aaron, and for his sons (Exod. 39:27);

that the tunics were of fine linen was in order that truth from a celestial origin might be represented. That such truth is signified by “fine linen,” (n. 9469).

AC 9827. And a miter.  That this signifies intelligence and wisdom, is evident from the signification of “a miter,” as being intelligence and wisdom.  A “miter” has this signification because it is a covering for the head, and by “the head” are signified the interior things of man that belong to intelligence and wisdom (n. 9656).  All articles of clothing derive their signification from the part of the body which they cover; as for instance that which covers the breast, like the breastplate; that which covers the loins, like the breeches; that which covers the feet, like the stockings; that which covers the soles of the feet, like the shoes; and so likewise that which covers the head, like the miter, the tiara, the cap.

[2] That such is the case is evident from the representatives in the other life. When wisdom and intelligence are taken away from spirits, as is the case when angelic societies are removed from them, the covering of the head appears to be taken away from them; and as soon as this is done they become stupid, and have no perception of truth and good; but afterward, as intelligence and wisdom return, the head is again covered.  But in that life the coverings of the head do not so much signify the wisdom which is of good, as the intelligence which is of truth.  The miter which belonged to Aaron, however, signifies wisdom also, because it was of fine linen, and the crown of holiness was placed upon it, which was a plate of pure gold, on which was engraven “Holiness to Jehovah” (verses 36-38); and in (Exod. 29:6; 39:28).  But “the miter of linen,” and the other garments of linen, which also were for Aaron, signified the intelligence that is of truth; but not the wisdom that is of good. Concerning these garments and this miter, (Lev. 16:4; Ezek. 44:18). For “linen” signifies truth in man’s natural (n. 7601); thus a “miter of linen” denotes natural intelligence.

[3] They who do not know how the case is with representatives and correspondences, can with difficulty be led to believe that such things are signified.  But let them consider that in heaven spiritual things are perceived in the place of natural things; thus that in place of the miter, and in general in place of garments, such things are perceived as belong to intelligence and wisdom, and also to faith and love; in general such things as belong to truth and good; for all these are spiritual things, because heaven is a spiritual world. Let them consider also that the garments of Aaron were described and commanded by Jehovah on Mount Sinai, and that therefore within every detail there is the Divine celestial, and this is unfolded solely by means of knowledges about correspondences and representatives.

AC 9828. And a belt. That this signifies a general bend, in order that all things may look to one end, is evident from the signification of a “belt,” or “girdle,” as being a general bond; for it gathers up, encloses, holds in connection, and secures all the interior things, which without it would be set loose, and would be scattered. That “the belt” denotes a general bond to the intent that all things may look to one end, is because in the spiritual world the end reigns, insomuch that all things there may be called “ends;” for the Lord‘s kingdom, which is a spiritual world, is a kingdom of uses, and uses there are ends: thus it is a kingdom of ends. But the ends there follow one another and are also associated together in a varied order; the ends which follow one another being called “intermediate ends,” but the ends which are associated together being called “consociate ends.” All these ends have been so mutually conjoined and subordinated that they look to one end, which is the universal end of them all. This end is the Lord; and in heaven with those who are receptive, it is love and faith in Him. Love is there the end of all their wills, and faith is the end of all their thoughts, these being of the understanding.

[2] When each and all things look to one end, they are then kept in an unbroken connection, and make a one; for they are under the view, the government, and the providence of One who bends all to Himself in accordance with the laws of subordination and consociation, and thus conjoins them with Himself; and also at the same time bends them to their companions in a reciprocal manner, and in this way conjoins them with each other.  From this it is that the faces of all in heaven are kept turned to the Lord, who is the Sun there, and is thus the center to which all look; and this, wonderful to say, in whatever direction the angels may turn (n. 3638). And as the Lord is in the good of mutual love, and in the good of charity toward the neighbor-for He loves all, and through love conjoins all-therefore the angels are also turned to the Lord by regarding their companions from this love.

[3] For this reason those things which are in ultimates, and which gather up and enclose, in order that each and all things may be kept together in such a connection, were represented by belts or girdles; which in the spiritual world are nothing else than goods and truths in the ultimates, or in the extremes, and which enclose the interior things. By the girdles around the loins were represented celestial goods, and by the girdles around the thighs, and also around the breast, were represented spiritual goods and truths in the ultimates or extremes.

[4] Such things are signified by “the girdles of the loins in the following passages:--

Jehovah said unto the prophet, Buy thee a linen girdle, and put it upon thy loins; but thou shalt not draw it through water.  So I bought a girdle, and put it upon my loins. Then the word of Jehovah was made unto me, saying, Take the girdle, and go to Euphrates, and hide it in a hole of the rock. At the end of many days I went to Euphrates, and took again the girdle, and behold it was corrupt, it was profitable for nothing. Then said Jehovah, This evil people, who refuse to hear My words, and are gone after other gods, shall be even as this girdle, which is profitable for nothing (Jer. 13:1-10);

in the spiritual sense by ”the linen girdle“ is here meant the good of the church, which encloses and holds together in connection the truths in it.  Because the good of the church was at that time non-existent, and the truths were consequently dispersed, it is said that it should ”not be drawn through water;“ for ”water“ denotes the truth which purifies and thus restores. ”The hole of the rock in which the girdle was hid“ truth falsified; ”the Euphrates“ denotes the extension and boundary of the celestial things of good in their ultimate. He who does not know the nature of the Word, may suppose that this is only a comparison of the people and their corruption with the girdle and its corruption; but in the Word all comparisons and metaphorical sayings are real correspondences (n. 3579, 8959). Unless everything in this passage had a correspondence, it would never have been commanded that the girdle should not be drawn through water, that it should be put upon the loins, and that the prophet should go to the Euphrates, and should hide it there in a hole of the rock.  It is said that the girdle should be ”put upon the loins,“ because from correspondence ”the loins“ signify the good of celestial love (n. 3021, 4280, 5050-5062); thus the placing of the girdle upon the loins denotes conjunction with the Lord through the good of love by the mediation of the Word.

[5] That a ”girdle“ denotes good bounding and conjoining is plain also in Isaiah:--

There shall go forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse; righteousness shall be the girdle of His loins, and truth the girdle of His thighs (Isa 11:1, 5);

this is said of the Lord; ”the righteousness that shall be the girdle of the loins“ denotes the good of His love which protects heaven and the church.  It is said of the sons of Israel that when they ate the passover, ”their loins were to be girded“ (Exod. 12:11); which signifies that thus all things were in order, and prepared to receive good from the Lord, and were ready for action (n. 7863).  It is from this that those who are ready are said to be ”girded,“ as is said also of the seven angels in the Apocalypse:--

There went forth from the temple the seven angels that had the seven plagues, clothed in linen white and shining, and girt about the breast with golden girdles (Rev. 15:6).

[6] It is said of Elijah:--

He was a hairy man, and girt with a girdle of leather about his loins (2 Kings 1:8);

and in like manner of John:--

John had clothing of camel’s hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins (Matt. 3:4).

Elijah and John were so clothed and girded because they both represented the Word; and therefore their garments denote the Word in the external sense which is natural; for ”the hair“ denotes the natural (n. 3301, 5247, 5569-5573). ”Camels“ denote general memory-knowledges in the natural (n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145) ”leather“ and ”skin“ signify what is external (n. 3540); thus a ”leathern girdle“ signifies that which gathers up, encloses, and holds together in connection, the interior things.  That Elijah represented the Word, (n. 2135a, 2762, 5247); and in like manner John the Baptist, (n. 9372).

[7] As truths and goods are set loose and are dispersed by evil deeds, it is said of Joab after he had slain Abner with deceit, that ”he put the bloods of war in his girdle that was on his loins“ (1 Kings 2:5), by which is signified that he had dispersed and destroyed these things; and therefore when truths have been dispersed and destroyed, it is said that ”instead of a girdle there shall be a rent, and instead of a work of entwining, baldness“ (Isa. 3:24); speaking of the daughters of Zion, by whom are signified the goods that belong to the celestial church; ”a rent instead of a girdle“ denotes the dispersion of celestial good.

[8] It is also said of Oholibah, which is Jerusalem, in Ezekiel:--

When she saw men portrayed upon the wall, the images of the Chaldeans portrayed with vermilion, girded with girdles on their loins, she doted upon them (Ezek. 23:14-16);

by which are signified truths profaned; for ”the Chaldeans“ denote those who profess truths outwardly, but inwardly deny them, and thus profane them; ”men portrayed upon the wall“ denote appearances of truth in outward things; and in like manner ”images portrayed with vermilion;“ ”the girdles with which they were girt on the loins“ denote the goods which they feign in order that their truths may be believed.

[9] From all this it can now be seen what was signified in the representative church by the ”girdles,“ which gather together the garments into one.  But that such things were signified can with difficulty be brought to the belief of the natural man, for the reason that he can with difficulty cast away the natural idea about girdles, and about garments in general; and in its place take to himself the spiritual idea, which is that of good holding this together in connection; for the natural thing, which appears before the sight, keeps the mind bed on itself, and is not removed unless the intellectual sight can be raised even into the light of heaven, and the man thus be able to think almost abstractedly from natural things.  When this is done, there enter the spiritual things of the truth of faith and the good of love, which are imperceptible to the merely natural man.

AC 9829. And they shall make garments of holiness for Aaron thy brother, and for his sons.  That this signifies thereby a representative of the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom, is evident from what was shown above (n. 9814).

AC 9830. That he may minister to Me in the priest‘s office, signifies a representative of the Lord (n. 9809, 9810).

AC 9831. Verses 5-8. And they shall take the gold, and the blue, and the crimson, and the scarlet double-dyed, and the fine linen.  And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue and crimson, of scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen, with the work of a thinker. It shall have two shoulders joined at the two extremities thereof; and it shall be joined together.  And the girdle of his ephod, which is noon it, according to the work thereof shall be from it; of gold, of blue and crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen.  ”And they shall take the gold,“ signifies good reigning universally; ”and the blue, and the crimson, and the scarlet double-dyed, and the fine linen,“ signifies the good of charity and of faith; ”and they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue and crimson, of scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen,“ signifies the external of the spiritual kingdom from this good; ”with the work of a thinker,“ signifies from the understanding; ”it shall have two shoulders joined at the two extremities thereof, and it shall be joined together,“ signifies the preservation by a complete unition of good and truth on all sides and forever, with all exertion and power; ”and the girdle of his ephod, which is upon it,“ signifies an external binding together; ”according to the work thereof, shall be from it,“ signifies what is like and continuous from the external of the spiritual kingdom; ”of gold, of blue and crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen,“ signifies thus from the good of faith and of charity, in external things.

AC 9832. And they shall take the gold.  That this signifies good reigning universally, is evident from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9490, 9510); that this reigns universally, is signified by the gold being interwoven everywhere in the ephod, as is evident from what follows in this book:--

They spread out plates of gold, and he cut them into threads, to work them in the midst of the blue, and in the midst of the crimson, and in the midst of the scarlet double-dyed, and in the midst of the fine twined linen (Exod. 39:3).

That which reigns universally is that which rules, thus is in each and all things (n. 5949, 6159, 7648, 8067, 8853-8858, 8865). The reason why gold was interwoven everywhere, was that by the garments of Aaron was represented the spiritual heaven (n. 9814), and good reigns in this heaven, as it does in the other heavens also.  In the inmost heaven reigns the good of love to the Lord; in the middle heaven, the good of charity toward the neighbor; and in the ultimate heaven, the good of faith.  But the truth which is of faith leads men in unto good, and afterward is produced from good.  From this it is evident that a man is not in heaven until he is in good.  If he is only in the truths which are called matters of faith, he merely stands before the door; and if from these truths he looks to good, he enters into the vestibule; but if from these truths he does not look to good, he does not see heaven, not even from afar.  It is said that a man is not in heaven until he is in good, because while a man is in the world he ought to have heaven in himself, in order that he may enter into it after death.  For heaven is in man, and is in mercy given to those who, while they live in the world, suffer themselves to be brought through the truths of faith into charity toward the neighbor and into love to the Lord; that is, into good. That a man is not in heaven until he is in the state of being led by the Lord by means of good, (n. 8516, 8539, 8722, 8772, 9139). By ”good“ is meant the good of life, and the good of life is to do what is good from willing it, and to will good is from love; for that which a man loves he wills.

AC 9833. And the blue, and the crimson, and the scarlet double dyed, and the fine linen.  That this signifies the good of charity and of faith, is evident from the signification of ”blue,“ as being the celestial love of truth (n. 9466); from the signification of ”crimson,“ as being the celestial love of good (n. 9467); from the signification of ”scarlet double-dyed,“ as being spiritual good (n. 4922, 9468); and from the signification of ”fine linen,“ as being truth from a celestial origin (n. 5319, 9469). Thus taken together these words signify the good of love and of faith; but here the good of charity and of faith, because they are predicated of the spiritual kingdom (n. 9814).  This signification of ”blue, crimson, scarlet double-dyed, and fine linen,“ as being the things of love or charity, and of faith, arises from the colors themselves.  For the colors which appear in heaven originate from the light of heaven, which light is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, from which is all intelligence and wisdom.  Hence the variegations of this light, which before the external sight in heaven appear as colors, are variegations of intelligence and wisdom from the truths and goods of faith, of charity, and of love (n. 1042, 1053, 1624, 3993, 4530, 4677, 4741, 4742, 4922, 9466). That in so far as the colors in heaven partake of red they signify good, and in so far as they partake of white they signify truth, (n. 9467).

AC 9834. And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue and crimson, of scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen.  That this signifies the external of the spiritual kingdom from this good, is evident from the signification of ”the ephod,“ as being the external of the spiritual kingdom (n. 9824); from the signification of ”gold,“ as being good, here good universally reigning (n. 9832); and from the signification of ”blue, crimson, scarlet double-dyed, and fine twined linen,“ as being the good of charity and of faith (n. 9833); wherefore the external of the spiritual kingdom is derived from this good.

AC 9835. With the work of a thinker.  That this signifies from the understanding, is evident from the signification of ”a thinker,“ as being the understanding (n. 9598, 9688); and therefore ”the work of a thinker“ denotes that which is from this.  That ”a thinker“ denotes the understanding, is because thought belongs to the understanding, just as the affection of love belongs to the will  in the internal sense ”a thinker“ signified the like as ”thought;“ for in the internal sense the person is not attended to, but only the thing itself, and a thinker implies a person (n. 5225, 5287, 5434, 8343, 8985, 9007). What is meant by being derived from the understanding must be briefly stated. The subject here treated of is the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, and in respect to all the truths and goods which are therein, this kingdom belongs to the intellectual part; while the truths and goods in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom belong to the will part.  For there are two things to which all things in the universe bear relation, namely, good and truth; for which reason there are in man two faculties, the will and the understanding; the will being for the sake of good, and the understanding for the sake of truth; for the will receives good, and the understanding truth.

[2] The case is similar in the heavens, where there are two kingdoms, the celestial and the spiritual; the celestial kingdom is for the sake of the reception of good, and the spiritual kingdom is for the sake of the reception of truth. And because the universal heaven corresponds to all things that are in man, therefore before the Lord heaven is like one man, who accordingly also has two faculties, a will and an understanding; his will being in the celestial kingdom, and his understanding in the spiritual kingdom. Now because the spiritual kingdom was represented by the garments of Aaron, and the intellectual part of heaven is in this kingdom, therefore by ”the work of a thinker“ is signified the intellectual part. That from its correspondence with each and all things in man, the universal heaven is like one man, and is called the Grand Man, (n. 9276); and that with those who are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom goods and truths have been inscribed on their intellectual part; but with those who are in the celestial kingdom on their will part, (n. 9277, 9596).

AC 9836. It shall have two shoulders joined at the two extremities thereof; and it shall be joined together.  That this signifies the preservation, by a complete unition, of good and truth on all sides and forever, with all exertion and power, is evident from the signification of ”the shoulders,“ as being all force and power (n. 1085, 4931-4937); but by ”putting on the shoulders,“ and by ”carrying“ upon them (as is said in what follows of the two onyx stones on which were graven the names of the sons of Israel), is meant the preservation of good and truth forever (for by ”the names of the sons of Israel“ are signified all goods and truths in the complex, on which subject see below); from the signification of ”being joined together,“ and ”being conjoined,“ as being a complete unition; and from the signification of ”the two extremities,“ that is, at the right and at the left, as being on all sides (n. 8613).

[2] The case herein is this.  By the ephod was represented the external of the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, and therefore by its shoulderpieces, on which were placed the two onyx stones with the names of the sons of Israel, was represented the perpetual preservation of good and truth; and by the joining together of the ephod on the shoulders, and also before the breast and behind the back, there was represented a complete unition.  From this it can be seen what is signified by what is said below about the shoulderpieces and the engravings upon them; namely, the preservation of good and truth forever with all exertion and power; thus the preservation of the heavens.  These stones with the names of the sons of Israel were placed on the shoulderpieces of the ephod, by which was represented the external of the spiritual kingdom, for the reason that all preservation depends on the state of the ultimates, for all the interior things cease there, and form a plane there in which they may subsist.  Ultimates are like the soles and the feet, on which the whole body stands, and are also like the hands and the arms by means of which the body exerts its powers, and into which the body transfers its forces.  It is also from this that the hands and the arms, as well as the soles and the feet, correspond to the ultimates of heaven.  That power and strength reside in ultimates was represented in the Ancient Church by the hair with the Nazirites, in which resided their strength, as is plain from Samson (Judges 14-16)., and also their sanctity (n. 3301). That the hair, which with them was the Naziriteship, corresponds to the ultimates of good and truth, or to good and truth in ultimates, (n. 3301, 5247, 6437).

[3] That power resides in ultimates, and also the conservation of the interiors in their state, can be understood by those who know how the case in nature with things successive and thence simultaneous; namely, that successive things at last form in ultimates what is simultaneous, in which these successive things are in a like order side by side. Wherefore simultaneous things, which are ultimate, serve successive things, which are prior, as corresponding supports on which they may lean, and thus by means of which they may be preserved.

[4] That ”shoulders“ signify all force and power in resisting, in breaking, and in acting, is evident in these passages:--

Ye push with side and with shoulder, and thrust all the feeble sheep with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:21).

Egypt is a staff of reed to the house of Israel.  When they took hold of thee by the hand, thou didst break, and didst pierce throw all their shoulder (Ezek. 29:6, 7);

”to pierce through all the shoulder“ denotes to deprive of all power to comprehend truths; ”Egypt“ denotes the perverted memory-knowledge which deprives.

[5] In Zechariah:--

They refused to hearken, and turned a stubborn shoulder (Zech. 7:11);

”to turn a stubborn shoulder“ denotes to resist.  In David:--

They thought a wicked device, they did not prevail, for thou shalt offer to them the shoulder (Ps. 21:11, 12);

”to offer to them the shoulder“ also denotes to resist; thus it denotes power.  That ”the shoulder“ denotes power, is plain from the representatives in the other life, where they who resist seem to oppose the shoulder.

[6] That ”to put upon the shoulders and carry“ denotes to preserve in a state of good and truth forever with all exertion and power, is evident in Isaiah:--

The nations shall bring thy sons in their bosom, and they shall carry thy daughters upon the shoulder (Isa. 49:22);

the subject here treated of is the New Church; by ”the sons“ are signified truths, and by ”the daughters,“ goods; ”to carry upon the shoulder“ denotes to preserve them.  The preservation of good in its state was also represented by the sons of Israel, when they went forth out of Egypt, carrying the dough on the shoulder (Exod. 12:34); and by the sons of Kohath carrying the works of what is holy upon the shoulder (Numbers 7:9). From this it is that the Lord, who spoke by correspondences, said of the lost sheep when it was found, that ”be laid it on his shoulder rejoicing“ (Luke 15:5); ”the sheep that was lost and was found“ denotes the good with the man who repents.

[7] As this was signified by ”carrying on the shoulder,“ therefore also it is said of the gold and silver which they love and preserve, that ”they carry them on their shoulder“ (Isa. 46:7). That ”to carry“ denotes also to hold together in its state, (n. 9500). From all this it is evident what was signified by the names of the sons of Israel engraved on two onyx stones being placed upon the shoulderpieces of the ephod, and by its being said that Aaron should boar or carry them upon his two shoulders for a remembrance (verse 12).  That ”carrying upon the shoulder,“ when said of subjection, signifies servitude, (Gen. 49:15; Ps. 81:6; Isa. 9:4; 10:27; Matt. 23:4; Zeph. 3:9); but that when said of command, it signifies supreme power, (Isa. 9:6; 22:22).

AC 9837. And the girdle of his ephod, which is upon it.  That this signifies an external binding-together, is evident from the signification of ”the girdle,“ as being a general bond by which the interior things are held in connection (n. 9828), thus it signifies a binding-together.  That it denotes an external binding-together, is because by ”the ephod“ is signified the external of the spiritual kingdom (n. 9824)

AC 9838. According to the work thereof shall be from it.  That this signifies what is like and continuous from the external of the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”according to the work,“ as being what is like, for that which is according to the work of another thing is like it; and from the signification of ”being from it,“ as being what is continuous, for that which is from another thing is not only like it, but is also continuous with it.  That what is continuous with the external of the spiritual kingdom is signified, is because what is continuous with the ephod is meant, and by ”the ephod“ is signified the external of the spiritual kingdom (n. 9824).

AC 9839. Of gold, of blue and crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen.  That this signifies thus from the good of faith and of charity in external things, is evident from the signification of all these things taken together, as being the good of faith and of charity (n. 9687, 9833). That it denotes in external things, is because by the bend which was to be woven of gold, of blue, of crimson, of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, is signified an external bond or binding-together (n. 9837).

AC 9840. Verses 9-14. And thou shalt take two onyx stones, and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel; six of their names on the one stone, and the names of the six that remain on the other stone, according to their generations.  With the work of a worker in stone, with the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones, according to the names of the sons of Israel: encompassed with settings of gold shalt thou make them.  And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod, to be stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel; and Aaron shall bear their names before Jehovah upon his two shoulders for a remembrance. And thou shalt make settings of gold, and two chains of pure gold; from their borders shalt thou make then, with cord-work; and thou shalt put the chains of cords on the settings. ”And thou shalt take two onyx stones,“ signifies the interior memory which is from the truths of faith that are from love; ”and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel,“ signifies on which have been impressed the truths and goods of the spiritual kingdom in respect to all their quality; ”six of their names on the one stone,“ signifies the whole quality of truths from good; ”and the names of the six that remain on the other stone,“ signifies all the quality of truths through which is good; ”according to their generations,“ signifies each in that order in which the one is generated and proceeds from the other; ”with the work of a worker in stone, with the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones, according to the names of the sons of Israel,“ signifies the heavenly form of all truths in their order in the memory from the good of love, thus intellectual things therein with the regenerate according to their arrangement in order by the will; ”encompassed with settings of gold shalt thou make them,“ signifies coming-forth and subsistence from good; ”and thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod,“ signifies the preservation of good and truth with all exertion and power; ”to be stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel,“ signifies from mercy forever for the spiritual kingdom; ”and Aaron shall bear their names before Jehovah upon his two shoulders for a remembrance,“ signifies a representative of the Divine preservation of good and truth forever, from mercy; ”and thou shalt make settings of gold,“ signifies a continual coming-forth and subsistence from good; ”and two chains of pure gold,“ signifies a coherence with the good of the whole kingdom; ”from their borders shalt thou make them,“ signifies from the extremes through which there is influx; ”with cord-work,“ signifies the method of the conjunction; ”and thou shalt put the chains of cords upon the settings,“ signifies conjunction with the good from which are truths, and in this way the preservation of the spiritual kingdom, with all exertion and power.

AC 9841. And thou shalt take two onyx stones. That this signifies the interior memory which is from the truths of faith that are from love, is evident from the signification of ”stones,“ as being truths (n. 114, 643, 1298, 3720, 6426, 8609), and of ”onyx stones,“ as being truths of faith from love (n. 9476). That these denote the memory, is because there was engraved on them the names of the sons of Israel, and by ”engraving on stones“ is signified the memory of things that are to permanently remain; as in the engraving or writing of the Law on the tables of stone, by which are signified things impressed on the memory and life, thus which are to remain permanently (n. 9416). That ”engraving“ or ”writing on stones“ has this signification, is because truths have been impressed on man’s memory, and also things which have the appearance of truth, insomuch that it is even composed of these things; and ”stones“ signify truths; and when there is engraving on them, they signify the memory where the truths are; like ”the engraving upon the hands“ in Isaiah:--

Though these may forget, yet will I not forget thee. Behold I have even thee upon the hands (Isa. 49:15, 16).

It is from this that the onyx stones are called ”stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel“ (verse 12).

[2] That ”the onyx stones,“ from the engraving on them, signify the interior memory, is because the things that were engraved, which were the names of the sons of Israel, signify spiritual truths; ”the onyx stones“ signify such truths, moreover the interior memory of man must consist of such. That man has two memories, an exterior and an interior one, and that the exterior memory is natural, thus composed of such things as come forth in the world; but the interior memory is spiritual, thus composed of such things as are in heaven, (n. 2469-2494, 5212, 8067).

[3] That stones on which there is engraving denote the memory on which truths are inscribed, has its origin from the representatives in heaven. When men go forth who after their decease come into the other life, and bring with them the truths of faith in the natural or exterior memory only, and not in the spiritual or interior memory, they seem to themselves to wander about among rocks and in forests.  But when men go forth who bring with them the truths of faith in the spiritual memory also, they seem to themselves to walk among cultivated hills, and also in gardens.  The reason is that the truths of faith of the exterior or natural memory (which are memory-knowledges) have no life unless they are at the same time in the interior or spiritual memory; for the things which are in this latter memory have been made of life, because the interior or spiritual memory is man‘s book of life (n. 2474); and the things which are of life are represented in heaven by gardens, oliveyards, vineyards, and by flower-beds and shrubberies; and the things of charity, by hills where such things are (n. 6435); but those things which are not of life are represented by rocky places and thickets which are bare and rough.

[4] It shall be briefly told what are truths of faith from love. Truths of faith from love are truths which love dictates, thus which derive their being from love.  These truths are living, because the things which are from love are living.  Consequently the truths of faith from love are those which treat of love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor, for these are the truths which love dictates.  The whole Word is the doctrine of such truths; for in its spiritual sense the Word treats solely of things which belong to the Lord and the neighbor, thus which belong to love to the Lord and toward the neighbor. It is from this that the Word is living.  This is meant by the  statement that ”on these two commandments hang the Law and the Prophets“ (Matt. 22:34-40); ”the Law and the Prophets“ denote the Word in its whole complex.  But truths of faith from love are not bare knowledges of such things with man in the memory, and from this in the understanding; but they are affections of life with him; for the things which a man loves and therefore does, are of his life.  There are also truths of faith which do not, like the former, treat of love; but which merely confirm these truths more nearly, or more remotely.  These truths of faith are called secondary truths. For the truths of faith are like families and their generations in succession from one father.  The father of these truths is the good of love from the Lord and consequently to Him, thus it is the Lord; for whether we say the Lord, or love from Him and consequently to Him, it is the same thing; because love is spiritual conjunction, and causes Him to be where the love is; for love causes him who is loved to be present in itself.

AC 9842. And engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel. That this signifies on which are impressed the truths and goods of the spiritual kingdom in respect to all their quality, is evident from the signification of ”engraving on stones,“ as being to impress on the memory (n. 9841); from the signification of ”names,“ as being quality (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 6674); and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being all the truths and goods of the spiritual kingdom.  By ”the sons of Israel“ are here meant the twelve tribes, because the names of these were engraved on these stones; and by ”the twelve tribes“ are signified all truths and goods in the complex (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335, 6337); and as the church or heaven is from these, therefore by ”the sons of Israel“ is signified the Lord’s spiritual church and kingdom (n. 4286, 6637, 7836, 7891, 7996, 7997, 9340).  From this it is evident that by ”engraving on them the names of the sons of Israel“ is signified to impress on the memory the whole quality of the truths and goods of the spiritual kingdom; that is, the truths and goods of this kingdom in respect to all their quality.

AC 9843. Six of their names on the one stone.  That this signifies all the quality of truths from good, is evident from the signification of the number ”six,“ as being all (n. 3960, 7973, 8148), here all truths from good; from the signification of ”names,“ as being quality (n. 9842); and from the signification of ”on a stone,“ as being an impressing on the memory (n. 9841). That all truths from good are meant, is because there were two stones on which were engraved the names of the sons of Israel, and the one stone was on the right shoulder, and the other on the left shoulder; and those things with man which are on his right, correspond to the good from which are truths, that is, to truths from good; while those things which are on his left, correspond to the truths through which is good (n. 9604, 9736).  Thus the names of the sons of Israel engraved on the stone which was on the right shoulder, signified truths from good; and those on the left shoulder, signified truths through which is good.

AC 9844. And the names of the six that remain, on the other stone.  That this signifies all the quality of the truths through which is good, is evident from what was said just above (n. 9843).

AC 9845. According to their generations.  That this signifies each in that order in which the one is generated and proceeds from the other, is evident from the signification of ”generations“  as being the things which are of faith and charity; that is, those which belong to truth and good in the spiritual world (n. 613, 2020, 2584, 6239, 9042, 9079); whence ”according to the generations,“ denotes according to the order in which the one is generated and proceeds from the other; namely, good from truth, and truth from good.  For the man who is being generated anew by the Lord has two states; the first is a state of truth, and the second is a state of good.  So long as the man is in the first state, he is led by means of truths to good; but when he is in the second state, he is led by means of good. This latter state is the state of heaven with the man, for he is not in heaven until he is in good (n. 9832).  From all this it is evident what is signified by ”according to the generations of the sons of Israel.“ It is said ”in that order in which the one is generated and proceeds from the other,“ because just as good is generated by means of truths, so afterward it proceeds; and in like manner just as truths are generated from good, so afterward they proceed For they are generated successively, and proceed afterward in that order in which they have successively been born.  But these things are said for those who know how series of things are produced successively.

AC 9846. With the work of a worker in stone, with the engravings of a signet, shalt thou engrave the two stones, according to the names of the sons of Israel.  That this signifies the heavenly form of all truths in their order in the memory from the good of love, thus intellectual things therein with the regenerate, according to their arrangement in order by the will, is evident from the signification of ”a worker in stone,“ as being the good of love, thus the will of one who is regenerate, for this is from the good of love, because the will of one who is regenerate receives the good of love, and his understanding receives the truths of faith; from the signification of ”the engravings of a signet,“ as being the heavenly form of all truths, such as it is in the understanding of a regenerated person, because the truths of faith have been disposed therein into a heavenly form.  It is from this that a regenerated man is a heaven in a little image (n. 9279); and that the understanding of a regenerated man corresponds to the spiritual kingdom in heaven, and his will to the celestial kingdom (n. 9835). From this it is plain what is the heavenly form of truths with a man.  From the signification of ”to engrave stones,“ as being to impress on the memory (n. 9842), here to impress such a form on the truths which are therein.  And from the signification of ”the names of the sons of Israel,“ as being truths and goods in respect to all their quality in their order (n. 9842-9845).

[2] That by ”a worker in stone“ is signified the good of love, or the will of one who is regenerate, is because the good of love works in a man while he is being regenerated, and disposes the truths with him into order; and afterward, when he has been regenerated, it keeps them in their order.  For truths are created according to the whole likeness of good, and according to its every command, thus according to everything of love; for good is of love. That this is so, is evident from the fact that a man acknowledges as truths the things that he loves, and that in this way he apprehends and acknowledges truths according to his love.  It is from this that truths constitute the form of good. From this it can be known how the Lord leads man by means of the truths of faith, that is, by means of faith; namely, that He leads him by means of the good of love that is in him; and further, how the Lord also directs a man mediately through heaven; for a regenerated man is a heaven in a little image; wherefore, as the Lord directs heaven, He also together with it directs such a man.

AC 9847. Encompassed with settings of gold shalt thou make them. That this signifies a coming-forth and subsistence from good, is evident from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9490); hence ”to be encompassed with settings of gold,“ denotes to be continued from good, and to derive its coming-forth or rise from it; and because it denotes to derive its coming-forth, it also denotes to derive its subsistence; for a thing subsists from the same source as that from which it comes forth; because subsistence is a perpetual coming-forth. The case with good and truth is similar as with the gold with which a jewel is encompassed; for good is like ground, and truths are like the seeds therein, because truths are born in good, and nowhere else, and they also flourish in accordance with the quality of the good.

AC 9848. And thou shalt put the two stones upon the shoulders of the ephod. That this signifies the preservation of good and truth with all exertion and power, is evident from what was shown above (n. 9836).

AC 9849. To be stones of remembrance for the sons of Israel. That this signifies from mercy forever for the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”the stones of remembrance upon the shoulders of the ephod,“ as being the preservation of good and truth from mercy forever. That ”the stones upon the shoulders“ denote the preservation of good and truth, (n. 9836); and that ”remembrance,“ when said of the Lord, denotes mercy, will be evident from what follows; and from the signification of ”the sons of Israel,“ as being the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom (n. 9842). It is said of Jehovah in the Word, that is, of the Lord that He ”remembers,“ and that He ”does not remember,“ and by this is signified that it is then done from mercy, whether it is preservation or deliverance.  In like manner it is said that He ”sees,“ ”hears,“ and ”knows,“ and that He ”does not see,“ ”hear,“ and ”know;“ by which expressions also is signified having compassion, or not having compassion.  That it is so said is from the likeness and appearance with man; for when a man turns away from the Lord, as is the case when he does evil, then, because the Lord is at his back, it appears to him as if the Lord does not see him, does not hear him, and does not know him, and also does not remember him; when yet this is with the man, and therefore from the appearance it is so said in the Word.  Very different is it when a man turns toward the Lord, as is the case when he acts well (n. 9306). Everyone can know that calling to mind, or remembering, cannot be predicated of the Lord, because things past and future are in Him eternal, that is, are present from eternity to eternity.

[2] That ”remembering,“ when said of the Lord, denotes to have compassion, and thus from mercy to preserve or deliver, is evident from the following passages:--

Jehovah hath made known His salvation; His righteousness hath He revealed before the eyes of the nations.  He hath remembered His mercy and His truth toward the house of Israel (Ps. 98:2, 3).

Jehovah hath remembered us in our humility, for His mercy is forever (Ps. 136:23).

Remember not the sins of my youth, and my transgressions; according to Thy mercy remember Thou me, for Thy goodness’ sake, O Jehovah (Ps. 25:7).

He remembered for them His covenant, and repented in the multitude of His mercies (Ps. 106:45).

He hath made His wonderful works to be remembered; Jehovah is gracious and merciful.  He hath given food unto them that fear Him; He hath remembered His covenant forever (Ps. 111:4, 5).

Remember not former iniquities; let Thy compassions anticipate us (Ps. 79:8).

God hath accepted his servant Israel, that He might remember His mercy; to do mercy with our fathers, and to remember His holy covenant (Luke 1:54, 72).

What is man that Thou dost remember him? (Ps. 8:4).

Remember me, O Jehovah, in the good pleasure of Thy people (Ps.  106:4).

Jehovah hath remembered us; He blesseth (Ps. 115:12).

If looking Thou wilt look on the misery of Thine handmaid, and wilt remember me, and not forget Thine handmaid (1 Sam. 1:11);

being the prayer of Hannah the mother of Samuel; and when she bare him, it is said that ”Jehovah remembered her“ (1 Sam. 1:19), that is, looked upon her misery, and performed mercy. In like manner in many other passages, as (Lev. 26:41, 42, 45; Num. 10:9; Isa. 49:25; 49:1; 64:9; Jer. 31:34).

AC 9850. And Aaron shall bear their names before Jehovah upon his two shoulders for a remembrance. That this signifies a representative of the Divine preservation of good and truth forever, from mercy, is evident from the signification of ”bearing,“ or ”carrying, upon the two shoulders,“ as being the Divine preservation of good and truth (n. 9836); from the signification of ”the names of the sons of Israel,“ as being goods and truths in all their quality (n. 9842); and from the signification of ”remembrance,“ when said of the Lord, as being mercy (n. 9849). That it denotes a representative of such things is evident.

AC 9851. And thou shalt make settings of gold. That this signifies a continual coming-forth and subsistence from good, is evident from what was said above (n. 9847). That it denotes what is continual, is because ”settings“ are here mentioned a second time.

AC 9852. And two chains of pure gold. That this signifies a coherence with the good of the whole kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”chains,“ as being a coherence; that ”chains“ have this signification is because joinings together are effected by means of them, and when effected they cohere, here with the spiritual kingdom, because the chains were made for the sake of coherence with the ephod, by which was represented the spiritual kingdom in general (n. 9824); and from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9490). The gold is said to be ”pure,“ because good from the Divine is signified, for this is pure, and it holds together all things in heaven in their connection and form. That ”chains“ denote coherence is evident also in Isaiah:--

The workman foundeth a graven image, and the metal-caster spreadeth it over with gold, and casteth with silver chains (Isa. 40:19);

”a graven image“ denotes the doctrine of what is false, which is from self-intelligence, thus is devoid of life from the Divine (n. 8869, 8941): the hatching of such doctrine is signified by ”the workman foundeth a graven image;“ and that this may appear to be from good, is signified by ”the metal-caster spreading it over with gold;“ and that the falsities may have a coherence is signified by his ”casting for it silver chains.“ That ”silver“ denotes truth, and in the opposite sense, falsity, (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 8932).

AC 9853. From their borders shalt thou make them.  That this signifies from the extremes through which there is influx, is evident from the signification of ”the borders,“ as being the extremes.  That through these there is influx, namely, of good, is because by the ”chains“ is signified coherence (n. 9852), and in the spiritual world all coherence is effected by influx.

AC 9854. With cord-work.  That this signifies the method of the conjunction, is evident from the signification of ”cord,“ as being that which conjoins. That ”cord“ denotes that which conjoins, is because by means of it conjunction is effected; but here it signifies the method of the conjunction, because it is said that the chains of gold were to be made with cord-work.  In the original tongue there is meant a cord made of twisted and entwined work, by which in the internal sense is signified conjunction such as is that of truths in memory-knowledges and among memory-knowledges, thus of those which are in the natural or external memory. The reason why such conjunction is signified, is that the subject here treated of is the conjunction of truths by means of good in the ultimates of the spiritual kingdom; for by ”the ephod“ and ”the breastplate,“ with which by means of the chains made with a work of cords there was conjunction, is signified the spiritual kingdom in ultimates (n. 9824); that what is entwined denotes memory-knowledge, (n. 2831).

[2] Moreover in the other life there appear cords of various twist and thickness, and by them are represented various methods of conjunction. It is from this that by ”ropes“ or ”cords“ in the Word also are signified things which conjoin, as in the following passages:--

Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and sin as it were with a cart rope (Isa. 5:18);

where ”cords of vanity“ denote conjunctions of falsities through which there is iniquity or evil of life.  Again:--

Look upon Zion, the city of our set feast; thine eyes shall see Jerusalem a quiet habitation, a tent that shall not be scattered; the stakes thereof shall never be removed, neither shall any of the cords thereof be plucked out. Thy cords have been slackened; they shall not make firm their pole (Isa.  33:20, 23);

here ”stakes“ and ”cords“ denote the things which conjoin the truths and goods of heaven, for the Habitation and the Tent, of which ”the cords“ are here predicated, denote heaven (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9615, 9784).

[3] Again:--

Enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of thy habitations; forbid not, make long thy cords and make firm thy stakes (Isa. 54:2).

My tent is laid waste, and all My cords plucked out (Jer.  10:20);

here also ”cords“ denote things which conjoin and make firm; ”tent“ denotes the church, which is the heaven of the Lord. In Hosea:--

I drew them with cords of a man, with thick cords of love (Hosea 11:4);

where ”cords“ manifestly denote the things which conjoin, for love is spiritual conjunction.  In Ezekiel:--

Asshur and Chilmad were thy traders in chests of garments tied with cords (Ezek. 27:23, 24);

speaking of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201); the external conjunctions of these are meant by ”garments tied with cords.“ Moreover in the Word ”cords“ also signify portions of inheritance and of land, for the reason that measurements were made with cords (Deut. 32:9; Amos 7:17; Micah 2:4, 5; Zech. 2:1; Ps. 16:6; 78:55; 105:11; 140:5)

AC 9855. And thou shalt put the chains of cords upon the settings.  That this signifies conjunction with the good from which are truths, and in this way the preservation of the spiritual kingdom with all exertion and power, is evident from the signification of ”the chains which were a work of cords,“ as being coherence and conjunction with good (n. 9852, 9854); and from the signification of ”settings of gold,“ as being the coming-forth and subsistence of truths from good (n. 9847).  The preservation of good and truth in the spiritual kingdom, or what is the same thing, the preservation of the spiritual kingdom, with all exertion and power, is signified by the two onyx stones being put upon the shoulderpieces of the ephod, on which stones were engraved the names of the sons of Israel (n. 9836, 9845, 9849).

AC 9856. Verses 15-30. And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment, with the work of a thinker; like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen, shalt thou make it. Foursquare it shall be, doubled; a span the length thereof and a span the breadth thereof And thou shalt fill it with a filling of stone, four rows of stone; a row, a ruby, a topaz, and a carbuncle, row one; and the second row, a chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond; the third row, a cyanus, an agate, and an amethyst; and the fourth row, a tarshish, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be enclosed in gold in their fillings.  And the stones shall be upon the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, upon their names, with the engravings of a signet, for everyone upon his name, they shall be for the twelve tribes.  And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains of the border with cord-work, of pure gold.  And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two extremities of the breastplate.  And thou shalt put the two cords of gold on the two rings at the extremities of the breastplate. And the two extremities of the two cords thou shalt put on the two settings, and shalt put them on the shoulders of the ephod over against the faces thereof And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two extremities of the breastplate, upon the edge thereof which is toward the side of the ephod inward.  And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and shalt put them on the shoulders of the ephod underneath, its faces opposite to the joining thereof above the girdle of the ephod. And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a thread of blue, that it may be upon the girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate withdraw not from upon the ephod.  And Aaron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart when he goeth in unto the holiness, for a remembrance before Jehovah continually. And thou shalt put unto the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron‘s heart when he goeth in before Jehovah: and Aaron shall carry the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continually.  ”And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment,“ signifies that which has regard to Divine truth shining forth from Divine good; ”with the work of a thinker,“ signifies from the intellectual part; ”like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it,“ signifies what is continuous with the external of the spiritual kingdom; ”of gold, of blue and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen, shalt thou make it,“ signifies the good of charity and of faith; ”foursquare it shall be, doubled,“ signifies what is righteous and perfect; ”a span the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof,“ signifies equally as to good and as to truth; ”and thou shalt fill it with a filling of stone,“ signifies truths themselves in their order from one good; ”four rows of stone, a row,“ signifies the conjunction of all; ”a ruby, a topaz, and a carbuncle,“ signifies the celestial love of good; ”row one,“ signifies a trine therein as a one; ”and the second row,“ signifies this trine also as a one; ”a chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond,“ signifies the celestial love of truth; ”and the third row,“ signifies a trine also here as a one; ”a cyanus, an agate, and an amethyst,“ signifies the spiritual love of good; ”and the fourth row,“ signifies the last trine as a one; ”a tarshish, and an onyx, and a jasper,“ signifies the spiritual love of truth; ”they shall be enclosed in gold in their fillings,“ signifies that each and all things in general and in particular shall proceed from the good which is of love from the Lord to the Lord; ”and the stones shall be upon the names of the sons of Israel,“ signifies the goods and truths distinctively in respect to every quality; ”twelve, upon their names,“ signifies each and all things in the complex; ”with the engravings of a signet,“ signifies according to the heavenly form; ”for everyone upon his name,“ signifies for each in particular; ”they shall be for the twelve tribes,“ signifies for all in general; ”and thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains of the harder,“ signifies the conjunction of the whole heaven in the extremes; ”with cord-work,“ signifies indissoluble; ”of pure gold,“ signifies through celestial good; ”and thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold,“ signifies the sphere of Divine good from the higher part of heaven, through which there is conjunction; ”and shalt put the two rings on the two extremities of the breastplate,“ signifies in the extremes; ”and thou shalt put the two cords of gold on the two rings,“ signifies the method of the indissoluble conjunction; ”at the two extremities of the breast plate,“ signifies in the extremes; ”and the two extremities of the two cords thou shalt put on the two settings,“ signifies the method of conjunction with the supports In the extremes; ”and shalt put them on the shoulders of the ephod,“ signifies In this way the support of heaven and the preservation of good and truth there with all exertion and power; ”over against the faces thereof,“ signifies eternally; ”and thou shalt make two rings of gold,“ signifies the sphere of Divine good; ”and thou shalt put them upon the two extremities of the breastplate,“ signifies in the extremes; ”upon the edge thereof which is toward the side of the ephod inward,“ signifies the conjunction and preservation of the middle part; ”and thou shalt make two rings of gold,“ signifies the sphere of Divine good; ”and shalt put them on the two shoulders of the ephod underneath,“ signifies the preservation of good and truth In the lowest part of heaven; ”over against its faces,“ signifies eternally; ”opposite to the joining thereof, above the girdle of the ephod,“ signifies where there is a conjunction of all things most nearly within the external bond, by means of which all things are held there In connection and in form; ”and they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod,“ signifies the conjunction and preservation of all things of heaven by means of the sphere of Divine good in the externals of the spiritual kingdom; ”with a thread of blue,“ signifies by means of the celestial love of truth; ”that it may be upon the girdle of the ephod,“ signifies that it may be preserved forever in its connection and its form; ”and that the breastplate withdraw not from upon the ephod,“ signifies that all things of heaven are inseparable from the externals of the spiritual kingdom; ”and iron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel,“ signifies the preservation by the Lord of good and truth in respect to all their quality; ”In the breastplate of judgment,“ signifies a representative of heaven as to Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good of the Lord; ”upon his heart,“ signifies from the Divine love to eternity; ”when he goeth in unto the holiness,“ signifies in all worship; ”for a remembrance before Jehovah continually,“ signifies from mercy eternally; ”and thou shall put unto the breastplate of judgment the Urim and Thummim,“ signifies the shining forth of Divine truth from the Lord in ultimates; ”and they shall be upon Aaron’s heart,“ signifies from the Divine good of His Divine love; ”when he goeth in before Jehovah,“ signifies in all worship; ”and Aaron shall carry the judgment of the sons of Israel,“ signifies the Divine truth of heaven and of the church; ”upon his heart before Jehovah continually,“ signifies perpetually shining forth from good.

AC 9857. And thou shalt make a breastplate of judgment.  That this signifies that which has regard to Divine truth shining forth from Divine good, is evident from the signification of ”the breastplate,“ as being Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good of the Lord in ultimates (n. 9823).  It is called ”a breastplate of judgment,“ because it gave answers, and thereby revealed Divine truth.  Moreover by ”judgment“ in the Word is signified Divine truth, consequently doctrine and life according to doctrine.  From this then it is that this breastplate is called ”a breastplate of judgment,“ and also ”judgment,“ in what follows in this chapter - ”Aaron shall carry the judgment of the sons of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continually“ (verse 30). And when Joshua was chosen to be leader over the people, it is said, ”he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of Urim before Jehovah“ (Num.  27:21).

[2] That ”judgment“ denotes Divine truth and the intelligence thence derived, consequently that it denotes doctrine and life according to doctrine, is evident from many passages in the Word; as from the following:--

The vineyard of Jehovah Zebaoth is the house of Israel. He looked for judgment but behold an abscess; for righteousness, but behold a cry (Isa. 5:7);

”To look for judgment“ denotes intelligence from Divine truth, and a life according to the commandments.  Again:--

He sat upon a throne in truth, in the tabernacle of David, judging, and seeking judgment (Isa. 16:5);

speaking of the coming of the Lord; ”the throne upon which He was to sit“ denotes the Divine truth proceeding from Him, and hence the spiritual kingdom (n. 2129, 5313, 6397, 8625, 9039); ”to judge judgment“ denotes to teach Divine truth, and ”to seek judgment“ denotes its reception with man.

[3] Again:--

In that day shall Jehovah be for a diadem of ornament to the remains of the people; and for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth upon judgment (Isa. 28:5, 6);

”a diadem of ornament,“ when said of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, denotes Divine intelligence (n. 9828); and ”the spirit of judgment“ denotes wisdom from Divine truth (n. 9818); ”he that sitteth upon judgment“ denotes one who instructs about Divine truth, that is, teaches it.  Again:--

Jehovah hath filled Zion with judgment and righteousness (Isa. 33:5);

”Zion“ denotes the celestial church; ”being filled with judgment“ denotes intelligence from Divine truth, and ”being filled with righteousness“ denotes wisdom from Divine good.

[4] Again:--

Who hath directed the Spirit of Jehovah? With whom took He counsel, that he might make Him intelligent, and instruct Him in the way of judgment, and teach Him knowledge, and shew Him the way of intelligence? (Isa. 40:13, 14);

”the Spirit of Jehovah“ denotes the Divine truth (n. 9818); that ”instructing Him in the way of judgment“ denotes to render Him knowing, intelligent, and wise, is plain. In Jeremiah:--

The stork in heaven knoweth her appointed times, but the people of Jehovah know not the judgment of Jehovah. How say ye, We are wise, and the law of Jehovah is with us? (Jer. 8:7, 8);

here ”not to know the judgment of Jehovah“ denotes not to know Divine truth, from which is wisdom; therefore it is said, ”how say ye, We are wise?“

[5] Again:--

Woe to him that buildeth his house without righteousness, and his chambers without judgment (Jer. 22:13);

”to build chambers without judgment“ denotes to be imbued with things not true.  In Hosea:--

I will betroth thee to Me forever in righteousness and in judgment, and I will betroth thee to Me in truth (Hosea 2:19, 20);

”to betroth in judgment“ denotes to conjoin by means of Divine truth, thus by means of faith and a life of faith.  In Amos:--

Let judgment flow like water, and righteousness as a mighty torrent (Amos 5:24).

Ye turn judgment into gall, and the fruit of righteousness into wormwood (Amos 6:12);

where also ”judgment“ denotes intelligence from Divine truth, and the consequent life.

[6] In Zephaniah:

In the morning will Jehovah give His judgment for light (Zeph. 3:5);

”to give judgment for light“ denotes to reveal Divine truth.  Again:--

All the ways of Jehovah are judgment (Deut. 32:4).

Thy truth, O Jehovah, reacheth unto the skies; Thy righteousness is like the mountains of God; Thy judgments are a great deep (Ps. 36:5, 6).

Jehovah shall bring forth thy righteousness as the light, and thy judgment as the noonday (Ps. 37:6).

Hear my voice according to Thy mercy; ). O Jehovah, quicken me according to Thy judgments (Ps. 119:149).

In these passages ”judgment,“ and ”judgments,“ denote Divine truth.

[7] In Luke:--

Woe unto you Pharisees, ye pass by judgment and the love of God; these ought ye to do (Luke 11:42);

”to pass by the judgment of God“ denotes to pass by Divine truth; and ”to pass by the love of God“ denotes to pass by Divine good, and the life from both.  As life also is meant, it is said ”these things ought ye to do.“ In Isaiah:--

Jehovah Zebaoth shall be exalted in judgment, and God shall be sanctified in righteousness (Isa. 5:16).

Upon the throne of David, to establish the kingdom in judgment and in righteousness, from henceforth and even forever (Isa. 9:7).

Bring forth counsel, do ye judgment; make thy shadow like the night in the midst of the noonday (Isa. 16:3);

”to do judgment“ denotes to act according to Divine truth.

[8] Again:--

I will raise unto David a righteous branch, and He shall do judgment and righteousness in the earth (Jer. 23:5; 33:15).

If a man be righteous, and do judgment and righteousness, and walk in My statutes, and keep My judgments, to do the truth; he is righteous, he shall surely live (Ezek. 18:5, 9).

Seek ye Jehovah, all ye meek of the earth, who have done His judgment (Zeph. 2:3);

”to do the judgment of God“ denotes to do the Divine truth, that is, to do according to it.  In Isaiah:--

I have put My Spirit upon Him, He shall bring forth judgment to the nations.  He shall not extinguish, nor break, till He have set Judgment in the earth (Isa. 42:1, 4);

speaking of the Lord; ”to bring forth judgment to the nations,“ and ”to set judgment In the earth,“ denotes to teach Divine truth, and set it up In the church.

[9] Again:--

A law shall go forth from Me, and I will raise up My judgment for a light of the peoples (Isa. 51:4);

”where judgment“ denotes Divine truth, ”for a light of the peoples“ denotes for enlightenment.  In John:--

For judgment I am come into this world, that those who see not may see; and that those who see may become blind (John 9:39);

”to come into the world for judgment“ denotes to reveal Divine truth, which causes those to see who are wise from the Lord, and those to be blind who are wise from themselves, thus who pass for being learned.

[10] Again:--

Swear by the living Jehovah in truth, in judgment, and righteousness (Jer. 4:2).

There is none that judgeth judgment for health; thou hast no medicines for recovery (Jer. 30:13).

Righteousness and judgment are the support of Thy throne; mercy and truth are before Thy faces (Ps. 89:14);

where ”righteousness“ denotes the good which is of mercy; and ”judgment“ the truth which is of faith; wherefore it is said, ”mercy and truth.“ In Ezekiel:--

Jerusalem hath changed My judgments into wickedness more than the nations, and My statutes more than the lands; therefore I will do judgments on thee in the eyes of the nations, and I will scatter all thy remains (Ezek. 5:6-8, 10, 15);

”to change judgments“ denotes the truths which are of the civil state (that these are signified by ”judgments,“ when ”statutes“ also are mentioned, (n. 8972); but ”doing judgments“ denotes to judge either to death, which is damnation; or to life, which is salvation.  Salvation or damnation is also signified by ”judgment,“ where ”the day of judgment,“ or ”hour of judgment,“ is mentioned (Matt. 11:22, 24; 12:36, 41, 42; Luke 10:14; 11:31, 32; John 5:28, 29; Rev. 14:7; 18:10); the same is also signified by ”judgment,“ where the office of a judge is treated of (Matt. 5:21, 22; 7:1, 2; 23:14, 33; John 5:24, 26, 27; 7:24; 8:15, 16; 12:31, 47, 48; Luke 6:37; 12:13, 14, 56, 57; 19:21, 22, 27; 20:47; 22:30; Mark 12:40; Isa. 41:1; 3:14; Jer. 25:31; 48:21; Joel 3:12; Ps.  7:8, 9; 9:4, 7, 8; Lev. 19:15; Deut. 1:16, 17; 25:1; Rev.  17:1; 18:10; 20:12, 13).

AC 9858. With the work of a thinker.  That this signifies from the intellectual part, is evident from the signification of ”a thinker,“ as being the understanding (n. 9598, 9688). It is said from the intellectual part, because the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, which is represented by Aaron’s garments, is the intellectual part of heaven, even as the celestial kingdom is its will part.  That the intellectual and will parts with man correspond to these heavens, (n. 9835).

AC 9859. Like the work of the ephod thou shalt make it.  That this signifies what is continuous with the external of the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the representation of the ephod, as being Divine truth in the spiritual kingdom in an external form, in which the interior things cease (n. 9824); consequently it denotes the external of this kingdom; its continuity is signified by ”like the work of the ephod“ (n. 9838).

AC 9860. Of gold, of blue and crimson, and scarlet double-dyed and fine twined linen, shalt thou make it, signifies the good of charity and of faith (n. 9687, 9832, 9833).

AC 9861. Foursquare it shall be, doubled.  That this signifies what is righteous and perfect, is evident from the signification of ”foursquare,“as being what is righteous (n. 9717). That it also means what is perfect, is because it was doubled, and that which is doubled involves all things of good and all things of truth.  That which is on the right side involves the good from which is truth, and that which is on the left side involves the truth which is from good (n. 9495, 9604, 9736), thus the perfect conjunction of both is Involved.  It is also from this that ”two“ signifies conjunction (n. 8423), and also each and all things (n. 9166), as likewise what is full (n. 9103).

AC 9862. A span the length thereof, and a span the breadth thereof.  That this signifies equally as to good and as to truth, is evident from the signification of ”length,“ as being good (n. 1613, 9487); and from the signification of ”breadth“ as being truth (n. 1613, 3433, 3434, 4482, 9487); equally from both is signified by the length and the breadth being equal.

AC 9863. And thou shalt fill it with a filling of stone.  That this signifies the truths themselves in their order from one good, is evident from the signification of ”the breastplate,“ which is what was to be filled, as being Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good of the Lord (n. 9823); and from the signification of ”a filling of stone,“ as being truths in their order; for the breastplate was filled with stones according to the names of the sons of Israel; and by ”stones“ in a general sense are signified truths in the ultimate of order (n. 114, 643, 1298, 3720, 6426, 8609); and by ”precious stones,“ such as were in the breastplate, are signified truths shining from good (n. 9476).  It is said ”from one good,“ because there is one good from which are all truths. This good is the good of love with in the Lord, thus the Lord Himself; and consequently it is the good of love from the Lord, which is the good of love within the Lord; for the good which flows in from the Lord into man, spirit, or angel, appears as if it were theirs; consequently love within the Lord is love from the Lord. This good is the one only good from which are all truths, and from which is the order among truths, for truths are forms of good.

[2] That the precious stones which were in the breastplate signified Divine truths from Divine good, is evident from the passages in the Word where precious stones are mentioned; as with John in the Apocalypse:--

The foundations of the wall of the city New Jerusalem were adorned with every precious stone. The first foundation was jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald; the fifth, sardonyx;‘ the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprase; the eleventh, jacinth; the twelfth, amethyst (Rev.  21:19, 20);

that these precious stones signify the truths of the church, which are truths Divine, is evident from the signification of ”the city New Jerusalem,“ of its ”wall,“ and ”the foundations of the wall.“ ”The New Jerusalem“ signifies the New Church which will succeed our present church; for the book of the Apocalypse treats of the state of the church as it is now, even to its end; and then of the New Church, which is the holy Jerusalem coming down out of heaven; its ”walls“ denote the truths of faith which defend; and its ”foundations“ denote truths from good; these truths themselves in their order are designated by the precious stones there named. Everyone can see that Jerusalem is not to come down out of heaven, and that the rest of what is said about it will not happen as described; but that in each particular of the description such things are signified as pertain to the church. That the truths of faith are meant by ”the foundations of its wall,“ is evident from the fact that these truths are what protect the church from every attack, even as walls protect a city. That ”Jerusalem“ denotes the church, (n. 2117, 9166); and that ”walls“ denote the truths of faith that protect the church, (n. 6419); and that ”foundations“ denote truths from good, (n. 9643).

[3] In Ezekiel:--

Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyre, and say to him, Thus said the Lord Jehovih, Thou art full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty. Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the ruby, the topaz, and the diamond, the tarshish, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the chrysoprase, and the carbuncle, and gold. Thou hast been in the mountain of holiness of God; thou hast walked in the midst of the stones of fire (Ezek. 28:12-14);

here also by ”the precious stones“ are signified truths from good; for in the internal representative sense ”Tyre“ denotes one who is in intelligence and wisdom from the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201) therefore it is said of its king that he is ”full of wisdom and perfect in beauty,“ ”wisdom“ being predicated of good, and ”beauty“ of truth; for all the wisdom in the heavens is from good, and all the beauty there is from the truths thence derived.  ”Eden the garden“ signifies intelligence from good (n. 100); ”the garden,“ intelligence itself (n. 100, 108, 2702). From this it is evident that by the ”stones“ there mentioned are signified truths from good.

[4] But what truths from good are signified by each of the stones in the breastplate, will be seen from what follows.  That all truths and goods in the complex are signified, is evident from the fact that there were twelve stones, and that on them were inscribed the names of the sons of Israel, that is, of the tribes; for by ”the twelve tribes“ are signified the goods and truths of heaven and of the church in the whole complex (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335, 6337, 6397); and that from this they signified heaven with all the societies there (n. 7836, 7891, 7996, 7997); also that they signified various things according to the order in which they are mentioned in the Word (n. 3862, 3926, 3939, 4603, 6337, 6640); and that ”twelve“ denotes all things (n. 3272, 3858, 7973).

AC 9864. Four rows of stones, a row.  That this signifies the conjunction of all, namely, of truths from good, is evident from the signification of ”four,“ as being conjunction (n. 1686, 9601, 9674); and from the signification of ”rows of stones,“ as being truths from good in their order.  That there were four rows, and in each row three stones, was in order that there might be represented the conjunction of all truths from one good, and thereby perfection; for by ”four“ is signified conjunction, and by ”three,“ perfection (n. 9825); for when there is one good from which all truths proceed (n. 9863), and to which therefore all look, then this one good is the conjunction of all.

[2] That it is so may be illustrated by what exists In the heavens.  All in the heavens without exception turn their faces to the Lord, and wonderful to say, this is the case to whatsoever quarter they may turn.  It is from this that all who are in the heavens are conjoined as a one. But those who are outside heaven turn their faces backward from the Lord, and the more so the more remote from heaven they are; consequently with them there is disjunction, because with them there is no love toward God and toward the neighbor; but love toward self and the world.  But this secret is incredible to those who think according to the fallacies of the senses; for these cannot comprehend how in every change of position the direction of all faces In heaven can possibly be constantly to the Lord, who is the Sun there. See what was adduced above on this subject, (n. 9828).

AC 9865. A ruby, a topaz, and a carbuncle.  That hereby is signified the celestial love of good, is evident from the signification of these stones, as being the good of celestial love. Celestial love is love to the Lord from the Lord.  That these stones signify this love is on account of their red and flaming color, and ”red“ signifies love (n. 3300), in like manner what is ”flaming“ (n. 3222, 6832, 7620, 7622, 9570); here celestial love is signified, because they are in the first row; and those which are in the first row correspond to things in the inmost heaven, where reigns celestial love, that is, love to the Lord. As the twelve stones in the breastplate represented all truths from good, they consequently also represented the whole heaven; for heaven is heaven from the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine good.  The angels who constitute heaven are receptions of this. Hence it is that the three stones which were in the first row represent the inmost heaven, consequently the love which is there, which is called the celestial love of good, and the celestial love of truth; the stones that were in the first row representing the celestial love of good, and those in the second row the celestial love of truth. That these stones represent this love is due to their color, as before said; for precious stones have a representation according to their colors.

[2] In the heavens appear colors of unspeakable beauty, because they are modifications of heavenly light, and heavenly light is the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord. From this it is evident that colors are presented to view there according to the variations of good and truth; thus they are modifications of the light that proceeds from the Lord through the angels.  The light that proceeds from the Lord appears in the inmost heaven like flame; and therefore the colors which come from it are red and flashing. But the same light appears in the middle heaven like a bright white light; and therefore the colors which come from it are of a bright white color, and in so far as they have good in them they sparkle. It is from this that there are two fundamental colors, to which all the rest bear relation; namely, the color red, and the color white; and that a red color is representative of good, and a white one of truth (n. 9467).

[3] This shows why stones of so many colors were set in rows in the breastplate; namely, in order that they might represent in their order all the goods and truths which are in the heavens; consequently the universal heaven. The stones of the first row, which were a ruby, a topaz, and a carbuncle, represented the celestial love of good, because they partake of red. Moreover the ruby, which is in the first place, derives its name in the original tongue from a word which signifies redness; and the carbuncle, which is in the third place, in the same tongue is derived from a term which signifies a flashing as from fire.  But from what word the topaz, which is in the middle place, is derived, is not known; that it was from flaming red color is probable.  Accordingly in Job the like is said of it as of gold:--

The topaz of Ethiopia shall not vie with wisdom, neither shall it he valued with pure gold (Job 28:19);

”gold“ also denotes the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932, 9490, 9510).

AC 9866. Row one.  That this signifies a trine therein as a one, is evident from the signification of a ”row,“ as being a trine, for three stones constituted it, and ”three“ signifies what is complete from beginning to end (n. 2788, 4495, 7715, 9198, 9488).  It is said, ”as a one,“ because a one comes forth from three in successive order, for the consequent simultaneous order that comes-forth from these three when In order side by side, corresponds to the successive things from which they have come-forth, and from which they subsist (n. 9825).  It is from this that the three heavens are a one in ultimates, and in like manner each heaven.  This has its origin in the Divine Itself, In which is a Trine; namely, the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Divine which proceeds; and these are a One. This Trine itself, and the One Divine, is the Lord.  From all this it can be seen why In each row there were three stones, and that by each row is signified a trine as a one.  There were four rows for the reason that there are two kingdoms in the heavens, the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom, and in each an internal and an external.  The internal and the external of the celestial kingdom were represented by the two rows on the right side of the breastplate; and the internal and the external of the spiritual kingdom, by the two rows on its left side; for the breastplate was a doubled square.

AC 9867. And the second row.  That this signifies this trine also as a one, is evident from what has just been shown. In general, that everyone comes-forth from the harmony and agreement of many, (n. 457).

AC 9868. A chrysoprase, a sapphire, and a diamond.  That hereby is signified the celestial love of truth, from which are the things which follow, is evident from the signification of these stones, as being the celestial love of truth. It is said that from this are the things which follow, because all the goods and truths that follow proceed in order from those which go before, for there cannot possibly be anything that is unconnected with the things that are prior to itself. The first in order is the celestial love of good; the second is the celestial love of truth; the third is the spiritual love of good; and the fourth is the spiritual love of truth. This order is what was represented in the rows of stones in the breastplate of judgment, and this is the very order of the goods and truths in the heavens. In the inmost heaven is the celestial love of good, and the celestial love of truth. The celestial love of good is its internal, and the celestial love of truth is its external.  But in the second heaven is the spiritual love of good, which is its internal; and the spiritual love of truth, which is its external. The one also flows into the other in the same order, and they constitute as it were a one. From this it is evident what is meant by ”from which are the things which follow“

[2] As regards the stones of this row, these, like the preceding stones, and also all the rest, derive their signification from their colors. That precious stones have a signification according to their colors, (n. 9865); and that in the heavens colors are modifications of the light and shade there, thus that they are variegations of the intelligence and wisdom with the angels, (n. 3993, 4530, 4677, 4742, 4922, 9466); for the light of heaven is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, whence come all intelligence and wisdom. The stones of the first row signified the celestial love of good, from their redness; but the stones of this row partake of a blue which is from red. For there is a blue from red, and a blue from white; the blue from red inwardly glows from Same; and it is this blue which signifies the celestial love of truth; while the blue from white, such as is in the stones of the next row, which signifies the spiritual love of good, does not inwardly glow from flame, but from light.

[3] Whether the chrysoprase, which is the first stone of this row, was of a blue color, cannot be known from its derivation in the original tongue; but that it signifies the celestial love of truth is plain in Ezekiel:--

Syria was thy trader by reason of the multitude of thy works; with chrysoprase, crimson, and broidered work (Ezek.  27:16);

speaking of Tyre, by which is signified wisdom and intelligence from the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201).  The chrysoprase is here joined with crimson, and as ”crimson“ signifies the celestial love of good (n. 9467), it follows that ”the chrysoprase“ signifies the celestial love of truth; for In the prophetic Word wherever good is treated of, truth of the same kind is also treated of, on account of the heavenly marriage in everything therein (n. 9263, 9314). Moreover ”Syria,“ which is ”the trader,“ signifies the knowledges of good (n. 1232, 1234, 3249, 4112); and the knowledges of good are the truths of celestial love.

[4] That the sapphire, which is the second stone of this row, is of a blue color, such as is that of the sky, is known; wherefore it is said in the book of Exodus:--

Seventy of the elders saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet as a work of sapphire, and as the substance of heaven in respect to cleanness (Exod. 24:10).

That this stone signifies what is translucent from interior truths, which are the truths of celestial love, (n. 9407).

[5] But that ”the diamond,“ which is the third stone of this row, denotes the truth of celestial love, is from its transparency, which verges toward an inward blueness; for In this way the colors of the stones of this row, and also those of the former one, shine through this stone, because it is the last one, and communicate with those which are in the following row.  The case is the same with the good and truths in the inmost heaven, in regard to the good and truths in the following heavens; for these derive their life of charity and of faith from the former by communication, as it were by a shining through.

AC 9869. And the third row, signifies a trine also in this case as a one (n. 9866).

AC 9870. A cyanus, an agate, and an amethyst.  That this signifies the spiritual love of good, is evident in like manner from their color; for a blue color that is derived from white signifies spiritual good, or what is the same, the spiritual love of good (n. 9868). The spiritual love of good is charity toward the neighbor, and the spiritual love of truth is faith from charity; of that good and this truth the second heaven consists; its internal being the good of charity, and its external the good of faith. That the cyanus, as well as the amethyst, is of a blue color, is known; that the agate is so likewise, is not so well known, for in the original tongue it is not known of what species this stone is, whether an agate, a turquois, or some other stone.

AC 9871. And the fourth row.  That this signifies the last trine as a one, is evident from what has been adduced above (n. 9866).

AC 9872. A tarshish, and an onyx, and a jasper.  That this signifies the spiritual love of truth, in which the higher things cease, is evident from the signification of these stones, which they derive from their colors; for the color of all the stones of this row verges toward a shining white that is from blue. That the tarshish signifies the spiritual love of truth, is evident from the passages in the Word where it is mentioned, as in Ezekiel:--

Behold four wheels beside the cherubs; and the appearance of the wheels was like a tarshish stone (Ezek. 1:16; 10:9);

”the wheels of the cherubs“ signify the like as the arms and the feet with man; namely, the power of acting and of advancing, which belongs to truth from good (n. 8215); it is from this that their appearance was like the tarshish stone, for ”the tarshish“ denotes truth from spiritual good, to which belongs power.

[2] In Daniel:--

I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold a man clothed in linen, and his loins were girded with gold of Uphaz; his body also was like the tarshish, his face as of lightning, and his eyes as torches of fire (Daniel 10:5, 6);

”the man clothed in linen“ was an angel from heaven; ”linen“ signifies truth which clothes good (n. 7601); ”the loins“ signify conjugial love, which belongs to good and truth (n. 3021, 4280, 5050-5062); hence the loins are said ”to be girded with the gold of Uphaz,“ for ”gold“ denotes the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 9490, 9510).  But from its correspondence ”the body“ signifies the good of celestial love, and also the good of spiritual love (n. 6135); and its external signifies truth from this good; for which reason the angel‘s body appeared like a tarshish; thus it is evident that a ”tarshish“ denotes the truth of spiritual love.

[3] That ”the onyx,“ which is the second stone In this row, signifies the truths of faith from love, (n. 9476, 9841). That ”the jasper,“ which is the third and last stone of this row, signifies the truth of faith, is evident from John In the Apocalypse:--

The light of the holy city Jerusalem was like unto a stone most precious, like a jasper stone, like unto a shining crystal (Rev. 21:11);

by ”the holy Jerusalem“ is signified the church which is to succeed this one of ours; by its ”light“ is signified the truth of faith and the intelligence thence derived (n. 9548, 9551, 9555, 9558, 9561, 9684); and therefore it is likened to ”a jasper stone like unto a shining crystal;“ moreover a ”crystal“ denotes the truth of faith from good.  Again:--

The building of the wall of the holy Jerusalem was jasper; and the city was pure gold, like unto pure glass (Rev. 21:18);

the wall of the city is called ”jasper,“ because by ”the wall“ is signified the truth of faith protecting the church (n. 6419); and as this is signified by ”the wall,“ therefore the first stone of its foundations is said to be jasper (Rev. 21:19); for ”the foundation“ denotes the truth of faith from good (n. 9643).

AC 9873. From all this it can now be seen what was signified by ”the twelve precious stones“ in the breastplate of judgment, namely, all the goods and truths of heaven in their order. Heaven is divided into two kingdoms, the celestial and the spiritual.  The good of the celestial kingdom was represented by the first two rows, which were on the right side of the breastplate; and the good of the spiritual kingdom by the following two rows, which were on the left side.  The internal good of the celestial kingdom is the good of love to the Lord, and this good is what is meant by ”the celestial love of good;“ and the external good of the celestial kingdom is the good of mutual love, and this good is what is meant by ”the celestial love of truth“ The internal good of the spiritual kingdom is the good of charity toward the neighbor, and this good is what is meant by ”the spiritual love of good;“ and the external good of the spiritual kingdom is the good of faith, and this good is what is meant by ”the spiritual love of truth“. That goods and truths in this order constitute the heavens, (n. 9468, 9473, 9680, 9683, 9780).

[2] From this it is now evident what was represented by the twelve stones, which were called ”the Urim and Thummim.“ But in what manner Divine truths, which were answers, were shown by them, will be told below (n. 9905). That the good of love was in the first place among them, and the truth of faith in the last place, is evident from the first stone, which was a ruby, and the last, which was a jasper; thus from the color of the first stone which was red, and of the last stone which was white, both of them being translucent. That ”red“ signifies the good of love, (n. 3300, 9467); and that ”white“ signifies the truth of faith, (n. 3301, 3993, 4007, 5319).

[3] The like that was signified by the stones in the breastplate was also signified by the materials interwoven in the ephod.  The ephod was woven of blue, of crimson, of scarlet double-dyed, and of fine linen, as appears from the sixth verse of the present chapter; and by ”the blue“ was signified the truth of celestial love, by ”the crimson,“ the good of celestial love, by ”the scarlet double-dyed,“ the good of spiritual love, and by ”the fine linen,“ the truth of spiritual love (n. 9833). The reason was that ”the ephod“ signified heaven in ultimates, in like manner as ”the breastplate“ (n. 9824); but the goods and truths are there enumerated in a different order, because ”the ephod“ signified the spiritual heaven, while ”the breastplate“ signified the whole heaven from first to last.  And as the Habitation with the Tent also represented heaven (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9615), therefore the materials of which the curtains and the veils were interwoven consisted in like manner of blue, of crimson, of scarlet double-dyed, and of fine linen (Exod.  26:1, 31, 36; 27:16); (n. 9466-9469).

[4] Be it known further that in a general sense ”the SAPPHIRE“ signifies the external of the celestial kingdom, and ”the ONYX“ the external of the spiritual kingdom; and as these two stones had this signification, they were the middle stones of the last rows; namely, the sapphire was the middle stone of the second row, and the onyx the middle stone of the fourth row.  The stones of the second row signified the external good of the celestial kingdom, which is called ”the celestial love of truth,“ and the stones of the fourth row signified the external good of the spiritual kingdom, which is called ”the spiritual love of truth;“ as may be seen from what has been said about them in this article above.

[5] That ”the sapphire“ signifies the external of the celestial kingdom, is evident from the passages In the Word where it is mentioned, as in the book of Exodus:--

Seventy of the elders saw the God of Israel; and there was under His feet as it were a work of sapphire, and as the substance of heaven in respect to cleanness (Exod. 24:10);

thus is described the external of the celestial kingdom, for it is said ”under His feet,“ by which is meant what is external; and where ”the God of Israel“ is, that is, the Lord, there is heaven.  In Isaiah:--

O thou afflicted, and tossed with tempests, and not comforted, behold I set thy stones with antimony, and lay thy foundations in sapphires (Isa. 54:11);

in this chapter the subject treated of is the celestial kingdom; ”the foundations which are laid in sapphires“ denote the external things of this kingdom, for the foundations are laid underneath.

[6] In Jeremiah:--

Her Nazirites were whiter than snow; they were brighter than milk, their bones were more ruddy than pearls, a sapphire was their polishing (Lam. 4:7);

the Nazirites represented the celestial man; therefore it is said that ”a sapphire was their polishing;“ the ”polishing“ denotes what is external.  In Ezekiel:--

Above the expanse that was over the head of the cherubs was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone; and upon the likeness of the throne was as it were the appearance of a man sitting upon it (Ezek. 1:26; 10:1);

here also the external of the celestial kingdom is described by ”a sapphire;“ for that which is above the expanse, or round about it, denotes what is without; the inmost being denoted by ”him that sitteth upon the throne.“

[7] As ”the sapphire stone“ signifies the external of the celestial kingdom, so ”the onyx stone“ signifies the external of the spiritual kingdom. Therefore this was the stone that was put on the two shoulderpieces of the ephod with the names or the sons of Israel engraved upon it (verses 9-14); for by the ephod was represented the external of the spiritual kingdom (n. 9824).  As in a general sense ”the onyx“ and ”the sapphire“ signified the external things of the two heavens, they were placed, as before said, in the middle of the three stones of the second and fourth rows; for the middle involves the whole, as was shown above in connection with the robe, by which in a general sense was represented the spiritual kingdom, because it was in the middle, (n. 9825). As these two stones involve all that is signified by the rest in these rows, therefore it is said in Job:--

Wisdom cannot be compared to the gold of Ophir, to the precious onyx, and the sapphire (Job 28:16).

AC 9874. They shall be enclosed in gold in their fillings. That this signifies that each and all things, in general and in particular, shall proceed from the good which is of love from the Lord to the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932, 9490, 9510); and from the signification of their being ”enclosed in their fillings,“ as being to proceed from it. For each and all of the stones were encompassed and thus enclosed in gold; and as ”gold“ signifies the good of love, so the enclosing signifies that which is thence derived, or that which proceeds from it; in like manner as is signified by the settings of gold with which the two onyx stones were encompassed, and which were put upon the shoulderpieces of the ephod (verse 11).

[2] The case herein in this. As before shown, the breastplate with the twelve stones represented all the good and truth in the heavens, thus the whole heaven; and not only the heavens, but also all the societies which are in the heavens, and likewise every angel in a society, are encompassed by the Divine sphere, which is the Divine good and truth that proceeds from the Lord (n. 9490-9492, 9498, 9499, 9534). As the good and truth of this sphere are received by the angels, so also do each and all things with them proceed thence; for every angel is a heaven in the least form. This good itself proceeding from the Lord is what is represented by the gold around the stones, and enclosing them.

[3] That this good is the good of love from the Lord to the Lord, can be seen from the fact that all good is of love; for that which a man loves he calls good, and also feels to be good. From this it is evident that celestial good is the good of love to the Lord, for an angel and a man are conjoined with the Lord by means of this love, and thus are brought to Him, and enjoy all the good of heaven. That this good is from the Lord is known In the church, for its doctrine teaches that all good is from the Divine, and nothing from self. From this it is evident that the good of love to the Lord must be from the Lord, and that good from any other source is not good.

AC 9875. And the stones shall be upon the names of the sons of Israel.  That this signifies the goods and truths distinctively in respect to every quality, is evident from the signification of ”the stones,“ as being the goods and truths distinctively, for each stone signifies some good and truth distinctively, (n. 9865-9872); and from the signification of ”the names of the sons of Israel,“ as being the same goods and truths in respect to every quality (n. 9842, 9843).

AC 9876. Twelve, upon their names.  That this signifies each and all things in the complex, is evident from the signification of ”twelve,“ as being all (n. 3272, 3858, 3913, 7973); and from the signification of ”the names of the sons of Israel,“ as being goods and truths in the complex in respect to every quality (n. 9875).

AC 9877. With the engravings of a signet.  That this signifies according to the heavenly form, is evident from the signification of ”the engravings of a signet,“ as being the heavenly form (n. 9846). As regards the heavenly form, it is according to this form that all the societies in the heavens, and thus all truths from good, have been set in order; for the angels In the heavens are receptions of truths from good. The Divine good that proceeds from the Lord creates this form. According to this form flow all the affections which are of love, and consequently all the thoughts which are of faith; for according to it these diffuse themselves into the angelic societies, and make a communion. From this it is that those who are in the good of love to the Lord, and from this in the truths of faith, are in a very free state of willing and thinking. But those who are not in this good, and consequently not in the truths thence derived, are in a state of slavery; for they will and think from themselves, and not from the Lord, from whom is this heavenly form. But the nature of this form cannot be comprehended in detail, for the reason that it transcends all understanding.

AC 9878. Everyone upon his name.  That this signifies for each in particular, and that they shall be for the twelve tribes, signifies for all in general, is evident from the signification of ”the names of the sons of Israel,“ as being goods and truths in respect to every quality (n. 9842, 9843), and as each stone had its name from the tribes, there is also signified that so it shall be for each in particular; and from the signification of ”the twelve tribes,“ as being all goods and truths in the complex, ”twelve“ signifying all (n. 3272, 3858, 3913, 7973), and ”the tribes“ signifying the goods of love and truths of faith in the whole complex (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335, 6397, 7836, 7891, 7996, 7997), thus all in general.

AC 9879. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains of the border.  That this signifies the conjunction of the whole heaven in the extremes, is evident from the signification of ”the breastplate,“ as being the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine good (n. 9823), thus also heaven; from the signification of ”the chains,“ as being coherence (n. 9852), thus also conjunction; and from the signification of ”the border,“ as being what is outermost or extreme (n. 9853).  That ”the breastplate“ also denotes heaven, is because all goods and truths in the complex were there represented by the twelve stones, and by the names of the twelve tribes; and goods and truths In the complex constitute heaven, insomuch that whether we say heaven, or these goods and truths, it is the same thing. For the angels who constitute heaven are receptions of good and truth from the Lord; and as they are receptions of these, they are also forms of them, which forms are those of love and charity. The truths of faith make beauty, but a beauty that is according to truths from good; that is, according to truths through which good shines. The forms of love and charity, such as are those of the angels In the heavens, are human forms, for the reason that the goods and truths which proceed from the Lord, and of which the angels are receptions, are likenesses and images of the Lord.

AC 9880. With cord-work.  That this signifies indissoluble, is evident from the signification of a ”cord,“ as being conjunction (n. 9854). That indissoluble conjunction is here signified, is because the cord was of twisted and entwined work, as is plain from the original tongue in which such a cord is mentioned. In the spiritual sense that which consists of twisted and entwined work denotes that which is indissoluble.

AC 9881. Of pure gold.  That this signifies through celestial good, is evident from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932, 9490, 9510); and as it is called ”pure gold,“ it is celestial good which is meant; for there is celestial good, and there is spiritual good, and each both internal and external. Celestial good is the good of love to the Lord, and spiritual good is the good of love toward the neighbor. In the Word all these goods are called ”gold,“ and are distinguished as ”the gold from Uphaz,“ ”from Ophir,“ ”from Sheba“ and ”Havilah,“ and also ”from Tarshish“ - by ”the gold from Uphaz“ in (Jeremiah 10:9; Daniel 10:5), which denotes celestial good; by ”the gold from Ophir“ in (Isaiah 13:12; Psalms 45:9; Job 22:24; 28:16), which denotes spiritual good; by ”the gold from Sheba“. In (Isaiah 60:6; Ezekiel 27:22; Psalms 72:15), which denotes the good of knowledges; as also by ”the gold from Havilah“ in (Genesis 2:11, 12); and by ”the silver and gold from Tarshish“. In (Isaiah 60:9), which denote the truth and good of memory-knowledge.

AC 9882. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold.  That this signifies the sphere of Divine good from the higher part of heaven through which there is conjunction, is evident from the signification of ”the breastplate,“ as being a representative of heaven (n. 9879); and from the signification of ”the two rings of gold,“ as being the sphere of Divine good through which there is conjunction (n. 9498, 9501). That this is from the higher part of heaven, is signified by the rings being at the upper part of the breastplate, for the chains were led from this part to the settings of gold on the shoulderpieces of the ephod.

AC 9883. And thou shalt put the two rings on the two extremities of the breastplate.  That this signifies in the extremes, is evident from the signification of ”the two rings,“ as being the sphere of Divine good through which there is conjunction (n. 9882); from the signification of ”the two extremities,“ as being the ultimates or extremes; and from the signification of ”the breastplate,“ as being a representative of heaven (n. 9879). From all this it is evident that by ”putting the two rings on the two extremities of the breastplate“ is signified the conjunction of the sphere of Divine good In the extremes of heaven.

AC 9884. And thou shalt put the two cords of gold on the two rings.  That this signifies the method of the indissoluble conjunction, is evident from the signification of ”the cords,“ as being an indissoluble conjunction (n. 9880); from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love (n. 9881). But the method of the conjunction is signified by ”putting them on the two rings.“ From this it is evident that by ”putting the two cords of gold on the two rings“ is signified the method of the indissoluble conjunction of good with the Divine sphere.

AC 9885. At the extremities of the breastplate.  That this signifies In the extremes, is evident from what was said above (n. 9883).

AC 9886. And the two extremities of the two cords thou shalt put on the two settings.  That this signifies the method of the conjunction with the supports in the extremes, is evident from the signification of ”the extremities,“ as being the ultimates or extremes (n. 9883); from the signification of ”the cords,“ as being an indissoluble conjunction (n. 9880); the method of the conjunction is signified by ”putting them on the settings.“ And from the signification of ”the settings which were upon the shoulders,“ as being a coming-forth and substance (n. 9847, 9851). That they also denote support, is because they were upon the shoulders, and by ”the shoulders“ are signified things that support, because these support and carry.

AC 9887. And shalt put them on the shoulders of the ephod. That this signifies In this way the support of heaven, and the preservation of good and truth there with all exertion and power, is evident from the signification of ”putting on the shoulders of the ephod,“ as being the support and preservation of good and truth in the heavens. That it denotes support, (n. 9886); and that it denotes preservation with all exertion and power, (n. 9836). That it denotes the support of heaven by means of the Divine that proceeds from the Lord, and also the preservation of good and truth there, is because by ”the breastplate,“ which was fastened by the cords to the shoulderpieces of the ephod, and thereby supported, is signified the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine good (n. 9823), thus all the goods and truths in the complex which make heaven (n. 9879).

AC 9888. Over against the faces thereof.  That this signifies to eternity, is evident from the signification of ”over against the faces,“ as being to eternity; for by the ”breastplate“ is signified heaven and every good and truth that constitutes it (n. 9879).  That which is over against the faces there is in the Lord’s perpetual view, thus is preserved to eternity.

AC 9889. And thou shalt make two rings of gold.  That this signifies the sphere of the Divine good, is evident from the signification of ”the rings,“ as being the sphere of Divine good through which there is conjunction (n. 9882); and from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love (n. 9881).

AC 9890. And thou shalt put thee upon the too extremities of the breastplate.  That this signifies in the extremes, is evident from the signification of ”the extremities,“ as being the ultimates or extremes; and from the signification of ”the breast plate,“ as being a representative of heaven (n. 9882).)

AC 9891. Upon the edge thereof which is toward the side of the ephod inward.  That this signifies the conjunction and preservation of the middle part, is evident from the signification of ”the edge of the breastplate which is toward the side of the ephod Inward,“ as being conjunction with the middle part of heaven, and thus preservation; for by ”the ephod“ is signified the Divine truth in the spiritual heaven In the external form (n. 9824), thus heaven in externals; and ”the edge which is toward the side of the ephod inward“ denotes the middle part; for the subject treated of is the conjunction of all the goods and truths of heaven with the ultimates there, and from this it treats of the preservation of the whole and of all its parts.

[2] All goods and truths are represented by the twelve stones of the breastplate, and the names of the twelve tribes upon them. The conjunction of these with the ultimates of heaven is represented by the binding of it to the ephod in six places; in two places at the shoulderpieces above; in two at the middle part; and in two at the shoulderpieces underneath above the girdle.  By this is representatively exhibited the preservation of the whole of heaven and of all things there.

[3] The conjunction of the breastplate at the shoulderpieces above, represents the preservation there of celestial goods and truths; the conjunction at the edge toward the side of the ephod inward (that is, at the middle part), represents the preservation of spiritual goods and truths; and the conjunction at the shoulderpieces underneath over against the joining above the girdle, represents the preservation of the natural goods and truths which proceed from the two former. For the goods and truths of heaven are In a threefold order; those which are in the highest parts are called ”celestial;“ those which are in the middle parts are called ”spiritual;“ and those which are in the lower parts, which proceed from the former, are called ”natural“.

AC 9892. And thou shalt make two rings of gold, signifies the sphere of Divine good (n. 9882, 9889).

AC 9893. And shalt put them on the two shoulders of the ephod underneath.  That this signifies the preservation of good and truth in the lowest part of heaven, is evident from the signification of ”putting on the shoulders,“ as being preservation with all exertion and power (n. 9887); by ”underneath“ there, is signified the lowest part of heaven, where good and truth are in a natural form (n. 9891).

AC 9894. Over against its faces, signifies to eternity (n. 9888).

AC 9895. Opposite to the joining thereof, above the girdle of the ephod.  That this signifies where there is a conjunction of all things most nearly within the external bond, by which all things are held together in connection and in form, is evident from the signification of ”opposite to the joining of the ephod,“ as being where there is a conjunction of all the things signified by ”the ephod,“ which are the goods and truths In the spiritual kingdom in the external form (n. 9824); and from the signification of ”above the girdle of the ephod,“ as being most nearly within the external bond, by which all things are held together in connection and inform; for by ”above“ is signified within, because by higher things are signified interior things (n. 2148, 3084, 4599, 5146, 8325); and by ”the girdle of the ephod“ is signified the external bond by which all things are held together in connection and in form (n. 9828, 9837). How the case herein is, shall be briefly stated.

[2] That by the binding of the breastplate to the shoulderpieces above, inward, and underneath, is signified the conjunction of all things of heaven, has been shown above (n. 9891); also that by this last binding, which was above the girdle, is signified their preservation in the lowest part, where good and truth are presented in a natural form (n. 9893). That the things which are lowest, or ultimate, hold the higher or interior things together in their connection and form, may be seen above (n. 9828). This lowest or ultimate is represented by the girdle of the ephod (n. 9828, 9837); but that which is most nearly within or above was represented by that which was opposite to the joining above the girdle, where the breastplate was bound to the ephod underneath.

AC 9896. And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod.  That this signifies the conjunction and preservation of all things of heaven by means of the sphere of Divine good in the externals of the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”binding,“ as being conjunction and preservation (of which above, where the binding of the breastplate to the ephod was treated of); from the signification of ”the breastplate,“ as being a representative of all things of heaven (n. 9879, 9887); from the signification of ”the rings,“ as being the sphere of Divine good through which there is conjunction (n. 9498, 9501, 9882); and from the signification of ”the ephod,“ as being Divine truth In the spiritual kingdom in the external form, in which the interior things cease (n. 9824), thus the whole external of this kingdom.

AC 9897. With a thread of blue.  That this signifies by means of the celestial love of truth, is evident from the signification of ”a thread of blue,“ as being the celestial love of truth (n. 9466, 9687, 9833).

AC 9898. That it may be upon the girdle of the ephod.  That this signifies that it may be preserved forever in its connection and in its form, is evident from what was said above (n. 9895).

AC 9899. And that the breastplate withdraw not from upon the ephod.  That this signifies that all things of heaven are inseparable from the externals of the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”not to withdraw,“ as being not to be separated; from the signification of ”the breastplate,“ as being a representative of all things of heaven (n. 9879, 9887); and from the signification of ”the ephod,“ as being all the external of the spiritual kingdom (n. 9824, 9896).

AC 9900. And Aaron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel. That this signifies the preservation by the Lord of good and truth in respect to all their quality, is evident from the signification of ”carrying,“ when said of the breastplate, by which are signified all the goods and truths of heaven (n. 9879, 9887), as being to preserve, for that which is carried upon the breast is preserved (that ”to carry“ also, when said of the Divine, denotes to hold together in a state of good and truth, (n. 9500, 9737); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to Divine good (n. 9806); and from the signification of ”the names of the sons of Israel,“ as being the goods and truths of heaven and of the church in respect to all their quality (n. 9842).

AC 9901. In the breastplate of judgment.  That this signifies a representative of heaven in respect to Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good of the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”the breastplate of judgment,“ as being Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good of the Lord (n. 9857); and as being a representative of heaven (n. 9879, 9882).

AC 9902. Upon his heart.  That this signifies from the Divine love to eternity, is evident from the signification of ”the heart,“ as being the good of love (n. 3313, 3635, 3883-3896, 7542, 9050); consequently, when said of the Lord, who is here represented by Aaron, it denotes the Divine love. Consequently ”to carry upon the heart“ denotes to preserve to eternity from the Divine love.

AC 9903. When he goeth in unto the holiness.  That this signifies in all worship, is evident from the signification of ”going in unto the holiness,“ as being worship; for all Aaron‘s ministration at the altar and in the Tent of meeting was called ”holiness,“ and this ministration was worship.

AC 9904. For a remembrance before Jehovah continually.  That this signifies from mercy to eternity, is evident from the signification of ”remembrance,“ when said of the Divine, as being to preserve or deliver, from mercy (n. 9849); and from the signification of ”continually,“ as being to eternity.

AC 9905. And thou shalt put unto the breastplate of judgment the Urim and Thummim.  That this signifies the shining forth of Divine truth from the Lord in ultimates, is evident from the signification of ”the breastplate of judgment,“ as being Divine truth shining forth from the Divine good of the Lord (n. 9857); and from the signification of ”the Urim and Thummim,“ as being light and the shining forth therefrom.  That ”the Urim and Thummim“ denote light shining forth, is because through the stones in the breastplate the light of heaven shone forth with variety according to the answers that were being given through them. For this reason they were of different colors. For the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine good appears before the angels as light, and from it is all the light of heaven. The colors derived from it, which are modifications of this light with the angels, are variegations of intelligence and wisdom with them; for all wisdom and intelligence are from this Divine truth or light. From this it can be seen that by the shining forth of various colors from this light, Divine truths, which are answers, are presented to view in the heavens. In like manner there was a shining forth through the Urim and Thummim, when inquiry was made of the Divine. But be it known that when the shining forth appeared, then at the same time an answer to the subject of inquiry was given In an audible voice. This was done through angels, to whom this answer was revealed by the Lord by means of such a shining forth; for, as before said, Divine truths which are answers appear in this manner in the heavens.

[2] That the light of heaven is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine good, (n. 1053, 1521-1533, 1619-1632, 2776, 3094, 3138, 3167, 3190, 3195, 3222, 3223, 3337, 3339, 3341, 3636, 3643, 3862, 3993, 4060, 4180, 4302, 4408, 4414, 4415, 4419, 4527, 4598, 5400, 6032, 6313, 6315, 6608, 6907, 7174, 8644, 8707, 8861, 9399, 9407, 9570, 9571); and that colors appear in the heavens, and that they are modifications of this light with the angels, thus are variegations of intelligence and wisdom with them, (n. 3993, 4530, 4677, 4742, 4922, 9466, 9467, 9865).

[3] That this is the case, is also evident from the signification of ”the Urim and Thummim;“ for ”Urim“ means a shining fire; and ”Thummim,“ the shining forth therefrom; the ”shining fire“ denotes the Divine truth from the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love, and the ”shining forth“ denotes this same truth in ultimates, thus in the effect. But be it known that in the Hebrew tongue ”Thummim“ means ”Integrity;“ but in the angelic tongue a ”shining forth.“ It is said ”in the angelic tongue“ because the angels converse with one another from the very essence of the subject perceived inwardly within themselves, thus according to its quality. From this the speech flows forth into a conformable sound that is audible to the angels only. The shining forth of the Divine truth is, in sound, ”thummim,“ whence comes its name. The like is perceived by the angels when thum is read in the Hebrew tongue, by which is signified what is entire, or integrity. It is from this that by ”integrity,“   in the internal sense of the Word, is signified Divine truth in the effect, which is a life according to the Divine commandments, as can be seen from many passages in the Word, as (Josh. 24:14; Judges 9:16, 19; Ps. 25:21; 37:37; 84:11; 101:2; 119:1)

[4] From this also it is that the Urim and Thummim are called ”the judgment of the sons of Israel,“ also ”the breastplate of judgment,“ and likewise ”the judgment of Urim;“ for ”judgment“ signifies Divine truth in doctrine and in life, as may be seen above (n. 9857). From all this it can now be seen that through the Urim and Thummim, that is to say, through the shining forth of the light of heaven, the breastplate revealed Divine truths in the natural sphere, thus in ultimates. There is also a similar shining forth inwardly with those who are in truths from good, which dictates, and as it were gives answers, when truth is sought from the affection of the heart, and when it is loved as good. That there is such a shining forth, whereby Divine truth is revealed from heaven in the natural man, with those who are enlightened from the Word, is not perceived in the world, for the reason that it is not known that any light from heaven enlightens man‘s understanding.  But that such is the case has been given me to perceive, and also to see.  Be it known further that this shining forth appears in ultimates, because all things that belong to light from the Divine descend even to the ultimate bounds; and because they descend to these, they also shine forth there, and from thence.  This then is the reason why the breastplate was put upon the ephod, and above its girdle; for the ephod represented Divine truth In ultimates (n. 9824); and its girdle represented a general bond, that all things might be held in connection (n. 9828, 9837).  Therefore it is said, ”and they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod, that it may be upon the girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate withdraw not from upon the ephod“ (verse 28). The reason why the names of the sons of Israel were also engraved on it, was that the twelve tribes likewise represented all things of Divine good and truth in the heavens, consequently heaven together with all the societies there; and that they represented various things according to the order In which they are mentioned In the Word (n. 3858, 3862, 3926, 3939, 4060, 4603, 6335, 6337, 6397, 6640, 7836, 7891, 7973, 7996, 7997).

AC 9906. And they shall be upon Aaron’s heart.  That this signifies from the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love, may be seen above (n. 9902).

AC 9907. When he goeth in before Jehovah.  That this signifies in all worship, is evident from the signification of ”going in before Jehovah,“ or what is the same thing, ”to the holiness,“ as being worship (n. 9903).

AC 9908. And Aaron shall carry the judgment of the sons of Israel.  That this signifies the Divine truth of heaven and of the church, is evident from the signification of ”judgment,“ as being Divine truth in doctrine and in life (n. 9857). As it was the Urim and Thummim which are here called ”judgment,“ it is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord, and that shines forth in ultimates, which is here meant by ”judgment,“ for the Urim and Thummim have this signification (n. 9905).

AC 9909. Upon his heart before Jehovah continually.  That this signifies perpetually shining forth from good, is evident from the signification of ”the heart,“ as being the good of love (n. 3313, 3635, 3883-3896, 7542, 9050); and from the signification of ”continually,“ as being perpetually. The reason why it means shining forth, is that the breastplate was upon the heart, and by ”the breastplate“ is signified Divine truth shining forth from the Lord’s Divine good (n. 9823).

AC 9910. Verses 31-35. And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue. And there shall be a mouth of the head of it in the midst thereof; there shall be a lip for the mouth of it round about, the work of the weaver, as the mouth of a coat of mail it shall be, that it be not rent. And upon the skirts of it thou shalt make pomegranates of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed, upon the skirts thereof round about; and bells of gold in the midst of them round about; a bell of gold and a pomegranate, a bell of gold and a pomegranate, upon the skirts of the robe round about. And it shall be upon Aaron to minister; and the voice thereof shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holiness before Jehovah, and when he goeth out; that he die not.  ”And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod,“ signifies Divine truth in the Internal form in the spiritual kingdom; ”all of blue,“ signifies by means of influx from the good of the celestial kingdom; ”and there shall be a mouth of the head of it in the midst thereof,“ signifies the method of the influx from what is above; ”there shall be a lip for the mouth of it round about,“ signifies bounded and closed on every side; ”the work of the weaver,“ signifies from the celestial; ”as the mouth of a coat of mail it shall be, that it be not rent,“ signifies thus strong and safe from injury; ”and upon the skirts of it thou shalt make,“ signifies in the extremes where is what is natural; ”pomegranates,“ signifies memory-knowledges of good; ”of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed,“ signifies from the good of charity and of faith; ”upon the skirts thereof round about,“ signifies in the extremes where the natural is, on every side; ”and bells of gold,“ signifies all things of doctrine and of worship from good passing over to those who are of the church; ”in the midst of them round about,“ signifies from what is within the memory-knowledges of good on every side; ”a bell of gold and a pomegranate, a bell of gold and a pomegranate, upon the skirts of the robe round about,“ signifies thus everywhere; ”and it shall be upon Aaron,“ signifies a representative of the Lord; ”to minister,“ signifies when engaged in worship and in evangelization; ”and the voice thereof shall be heard,“ signifies the influx of truth with those who are in the heavens and who are on earth; ”when he goeth in unto the holiness before Jehovah, and when he goeth out,“ signifies in every state of good and truth in worship; ”that he die not,“ signifies that the representative do not perish, and therewith the conjunction with the heavens.

AC 9911. And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod.  That this signifies Divine truth in the internal form in the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”the robe,“ as being the spiritual kingdom in general, and specifically Divine truth there in the internal form (n. 9895).

AC 9912. All of blue.  That this signifies by means of influx from the good of the celestial kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”blue“ (hyacinthinum), as being the celestial love of truth (n. 9466), which is the good of mutual love; and the good of mutual love is the external good of the celestial kingdom; for the goods in the heavens proceed in order from the inmosts to the extremes, and they inflow in the same order as they proceed; for to proceed is to flow in. In what order goods proceed, (n. 9873). It is this external good of the celestial kingdom that flows into the internal good of the spiritual kingdom, which is signified by ”the robe.“ From this comes-forth the good of the spiritual kingdom, which is the good of charity toward the neighbor.  This is the reason why the robe was all of blue.  With regard to the influx of goods, the case is this. There is no good which is good unless it has within it an interior good from which it is; the interior good from which it is makes its essence; whence it is that this interior good exists in the good which follows, almost as the soul exists in its body.  It is this following good of which it is said that it proceeds from another good, which is more interior. That the good of charity toward the neighbor proceeds from the good of mutual love, which is a prior or interior good, has been shown several times.  The good of mutual love is the external good of innocence, and unless the good of charity has within it the good of innocence, it is not the good of charity (n. 2526, 2780, 3183, 4797, 6765, 7840, 9262), consequently not unless it has within it the good of mutual love. This is the reason why the robe was to be all of blue; for ”blue“ denotes the good of mutual love, or what is the same thing, the external good of Innocence; and ”the robe“ denotes Divine truth in the internal form in the spiritual kingdom, which is the same thing as the good of charity (n. 9825).

AC 9913. And there shall be a mouth of the head of it in the midst thereof.  That this signifies the method of the influx from what is above, is evident from the signification of ”the mouth of the head of the robe in the midst thereof,“ as being where there is influx from what is above; or what is the same thing, from what is within, thus from the celestial kingdom into the spiritual kingdom. That the external good of the celestial kingdom flows Into the internal good of the spiritual kingdom, may be seen just above (n. 9912). That ”the mouth of the head of the robe in the midst thereof“ has this signification, is because by ”the robe“ is signified the spiritual kingdom, and specifically its internal (n. 9825); and by ”the neck,“ where was the mouth of the head of the robe, is signified the Influx, communication, and conjunction of celestial with spiritual things (n. 3542, 5320, 5328); for the head with man corresponds to the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, and the body to His spiritual kingdom; consequently the intervening neck, which is encompassed and clothed by the mouth of the head of the robe, corresponds to the intermediation or influx of the celestial kingdom into the spiritual kingdom.

[2] That such things are signified by ”the mouth of the head of the robe in the midst thereof,“ may seem like an absurdity, especially to those who know nothing of heaven, and of the spirits and angels there, consequently nothing of correspondence. That there is a correspondence of all things in man with all things In the heavens, has been shown at the end of many chapters (n. 9280); and also that in general the head corresponds to celestial things, the body to spiritual things, and the feet to natural things (n. 4938, 4939). From this it is plain that by virtue of its correspondence, the neck signifies the influx, communication, and conjunction of celestial with spiritual things. Consequently ”the mouth of the head of the robe,“ which was made to encompass the neck, signifies the method of this influx; for by Aaron’s garments were represented in general the things that belong to the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom (n. 9814). From this it is evident that by the description of its mouth or circuit is described the influx itself. Be it known moreover that angels and spirits appear clothed in garments; and that each of their garments is representative; as is well known to all who are in the heavens.  It is from this that each of Aaron’s garments also was representative of such things as are in the heavens; for the Word that is from the Lord has been so written that there is conjunction by its means. That the man of the church does not know this, in spite of his having such a Word, is because he turns his interiors toward the world, insomuch that he cannot be raised toward heaven, and be instructed (n. 9706, 9707, 9709).

AC 9914. And there shall be a lip for the mouth of it round about.  That this signifies that it is bounded and closed on every side, is evident from the signification of ”a lip,“ or border, round about the mouth or upper opening of the robe, as being that which is bounded and closed on every side; for this ”lip,“ or border, which was round about, bounded and closed the robe. By this and what presently follows is described the method of the influx of celestial good Into spiritual good. That this influx takes place by a method like that with man of the influx of forces from the head through the neck, is evident from what was said in the foregoing article about correspondence.

[2] What the nature of this influx is, shall also be briefly told. All the first things, that belong to the head that is, to the cerebrum and cerebellum, are gathered together there into little bundles of fibers, and into little nerves, and after being gathered together they are passed down through the neck into the body, and are there diffused in all directions, and move the organs in complete compliance with the will, which begins in the brains.  Similar also is the downflow and inflow of powers and forces from the celestial kingdom (which is the head in the Grand Man, that is, in heaven) into the spiritual kingdom (which is like the body there).  This influx is also what is meant and described by ”the mouth of the head of the robe in the midst,“ and its bounding termination by ”the lip round about.“ It is for this reason that by ”the lip of its mouth“ is signified what is bounded and closed on every side. The bounding itself is now described.

AC 9915. The work of the weaver.  That this signifies from the celestial, is evident from the signification of ”the work of the weaver,“ as being from the celestial.  By ”work“ is signified that which is done, or which comes-forth, thus that which is from something else; and ”the weaver“ denotes one who causes the thing to be, or to come-forth; thus he denotes the celestial, because the spiritual comes-forth from and through the celestial. That the good of the celestial kingdom flows into the good of the spiritual kingdom, and causes this good to comb forth, was shown above, (n. 9913, 9914). Whether we say ”the good of the celestial kingdom,“ or ”the celestial,“ it is the same thing; for the celestial is the good of the celestial kingdom. The case is similar with ”the good of the spiritual kingdom,“ and ”the spiritual.“ What the good of the celestial kingdom, or the celestial, is; and what the good of the spiritual kingdom, or the spiritual, may be seen from the passages cited in (n. 9277).

[2] There are three things in the heavens which follow on in order; namely, the celestial, the spiritual, and the natural; the celestial makes the inmost heaven, the spiritual the middle heaven, and the natural which proceeds from the spiritual makes the ultimate heaven.  These same three things are in man, and in him they follow on in the same order as in the heavens; for a regenerated man is a heaven in the least form, corresponding to the Grand Man (n. 9279).  But the faculties which receive these three things are called the will, the understanding, and the memory-knowledge by virtue of which is the thought or imagination of the external or natural man. The will receives the celestial, or good; the intellectual receives the spiritual, or truth from this good; and the memory-knowledge which makes the understanding of the natural man, brings the two former to a close. These three are signified in the Word by ”the embroiderer,“ ”the thinker,“ and ”the weaver.“ That ”the embroiderer,“ or ”the embroidered work,“ denotes memory-knowledge, (n. 9688); also that ”the thinker,“ or that which is thought, denotes the understanding, (n. 9598, 9688). Thus ”the weaver“ denotes the will.  The reason why ”the weaver“ denotes the will is that the will flows into the understanding, and weaves it, insomuch that the things which are In the understanding are woven fabrics from the will; for that which the will wills, it forms so as to appear to the sight In the understanding. This sight is thought, consequently by ”the thinker“ is signified the understanding.

[3] As by Aaron‘s garments was represented the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom (n. 9814); and as the celestial kingdom corresponds to the will in man, and the spiritual kingdom to the understanding In him (n. 9835), therefore in application to garments mention is made of ”the work of the embroiderer,“ of ”the thinker,“ and of ”the weaver,“ and by these are signified things which are from the faculty of memory-knowledge, from the understanding, and from the will; or what is the same, from the natural, the spiritual, and the celestial.

[4] That such things are signified, can be seen by all who believe that the Word is Divine, and that it therefore contains within it things that belong to the Lord, to heaven, and to the church; for these things are Divine. Apart from these, what purpose would be served by Jehovah Himself declaring of what, and by what work, the garments of Aaron should be made? and which of them should be the work of the embroiderer, which the work of the thinker, and which the work of the weaver? all which particulars are distinctly mentioned in what follows in the book of Exodus in these words:--Them hath He filled with wisdom of heart, to do all the work of the workman, and of the thinker, and of the embroiderer; in blue, and in crimson, and in scarlet double-dyed; and of the weaver, even of them that do all work, and of those who think thought (Exod. 35:35);  ”the workman“ here denotes Divine celestial good, from which is the will of the regenerated man (n. 9846); his ”work“ is mentioned in the first place, because it is immediately from the Divine; and from celestial good all things are mediately born and proceed.

AC 9916. As the mouth of a coat of mail it shall be, that it be not rent.  That this signifies thus strong and safe from injury, is evident from the signification of ”a coat of mail,“ as being what is strongly woven together; wherefore it is said, ”that it be not rent,“ that is, that it be safe from injury.  Something thus woven together is signified by this term in the original tongue.  An idea of what is thus woven together can be had from correspondence; for in the internal sense there is here treated of the influx of celestial good Into spiritual good.  It is this influx which is signified by ”the mouth of the head of the robe,“ and is described by ”the work of the weaver,“ and ”of a coat of mail;“ and to this influx from the heavens corresponds in man the influx of life from the head through the neck into the body (n. 9913, 9914).  And because to this influx corresponds the woven fabric of the neck which is of strong sinews; and lower down a kind of interwoven circle of bones; through both of which the influx is rendered safe from all injury, therefore, as before said, an idea can be had of the several expressions in this verse, namely, of what is signified by ”the mouth of the head of the robe in the midst,“ by ”the lip which is round about“ it, by ”the work of the weaver,“ and by ”the mouth of the coat of mail“ which it had, lest it should be rent. Be it known that all the representatives in nature bear relation to the human form, and have their signification according to this relation (n. 9496); and that all clothing derives its signification from that part of the body which it covers (n. 9827); consequently so also does this upper part of the robe which encompasses and covers the neck.

AC 9917. And upon the skirts of it thou shalt make.  That this signifies in the extremes where is what is natural, is evident from the signification of ”the skirts of the robe,“ as being the extremes where is what is natural. For by ”the robe“ is specifically signified Divine truth in the spiritual kingdom in its internal form, and in general the spiritual kingdom (n. 9825); and by ”the skirts“ which are round about below, are signified the extremes of this kingdom; and the extremes of the spiritual kingdom are natural. For the goods and truths in the heavens follow or’ in this order: in the highest or inmost heavens are celestial goods and truths; in the middle heavens are spiritual goods and truths; and in the ultimate heavens are natural goods and truths, concerning which succession in the heavens and with man, (n. 9915). And because the memory-knowledges of truth and good are in the external or natural man, therefore also pomegranates were placed In the skirts, for by ”pomegranates“ are signified the memory-knowledges of good; and also among the pomegranates were bells of gold, because by ”bells“ are signified such things as are from memory-knowledges.

[2] That ”the skirts of the robe“ denote the extremes where is what is natural, is evident from the passages of the Word where ”skirts“ are mentioned, as in Isaiah:--

I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and His skirts filled the temple (Isa. 6:1);

by ”the throne upon which the Lord was sitting“ is signified heaven, and specifically the spiritual heaven (n. 5313, 8625); by ”skirts“ here are signified Divine truths in the ultimates or extremes, such as are the truths of the Word in the sense of the letter; which are said to ”fill the temple“ when they fill the church. The like is signified by ”the skirts filling the temple“ as by ”the smoke and cloud filling the tabernacle,“ and also the temple, as repeatedly mentioned in the Word. That by ”smoke“ is there signified Divine truth in ultimates, such as is the sense of the letter of the Word, (n. 8916, 8918); as also by a ”cloud,“ (n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343).

[3] That a woman laboring with an issue of blood was made whole when she touched the skirt of the Lord‘s garment (Matt. 9:20, 22); and in general that as many as touched the skirt of His garment were made whole (Matt.  14:36; Mark. 6:56), signified that health went forth from the Divine extremes or ultimates; for that there are strength and power in the ultimates of good and truth which are from the Divine may be seen above (n. 9836); and also that answers are given there (n. 9905).  In Matthew:--

Jesus said of the Scribes and Pharisees that they do all their works to be seen of men, that they make broad their phylacteries, and enlarge the skirts of their robes (Matt.  23:5);

it is here very evident that ”the skirts of the robe“ denote the external things which stand forth to view, and that ” enlarging“ them denotes to do works outwardly, so that they may appear, or be seen.

[4] In Jeremiah:--

Jerusalem hath sinned a sin, her uncleanness was in her skirts (Lam. 1:8, 9);

”uncleanness in the skirts“ denotes in the deeds and words, thus in the extremes; for the extremes or outermost things derive their essence from the Interior ones; and therefore when the interiors are unclean, the extremes also are unclean, although the uncleannesses may not appear before men; for the reason that men look at the outward form, and therefore do not see the Interiors. Nevertheless these uncleannesses that are in the interiors appear before the angels, and in the other life are also uncovered with everyone, because external things are there taken away; consequently it becomes manifest what has been the quality of the works in their essence.

[5] In Nahum:--

I will uncover thy skirts upon thy faces, and I will show the nations thy nakedness (Nahum 3:5)

”to uncover the skirts upon the faces“ denotes to remove external things so that internal ones may appear; for in various ways the external things of the natural man hide the internal things, which are hypocrisies, deceits, lies, hatreds, revenges, adulteries, and other like things; and therefore when the external things are taken away, the internal ones appear in their uncleanness and filthiness.

[6] In Jeremiah:--

If thou say in thine heart, Wherefore have these things covered me up? For the multitude of thine iniquity have thy skirts been unveiled, thy heels have suffered violence. I will lay bare thy skirts upon thy faces, that thy disgraces may be seen, even thine adulteries (Jer. 13:22, 26, 27);

speaking of the abominations of Jerusalem; ”to unveil the skirts, and lay them bare“ denotes to take away the external things which cover, so that the interiors may be seen; for a man learns to counterfeit what is good, honorable, and sincere, for the sake of reputation, honor, and gain, when yet he has evils and falsities of various kinds hidden within. As by ”skirts“ are signified external things, therefore mention is also made of ”heels,“ because ”the heels“ denote the lowest things of the natural (n. 259, 4938, 4940-4951). From all this it can now be seen that by ”the skirts of the robe“ are signified goods and truths In the ultimates or extremes, which are in the natural world.

AC 9918. Pomegranates.  That hereby are signified memory-knowledges of good, is evident from the signification of ”pomegranates,“ as being the memory-knowledges of good (n. 9552). That pomegranates were put upon the skirts of the robe, was because ”the skirts“ signified the ultimates or extremes of heaven and the church, and the ultimates or extremes of the church are memory-knowledges, as is evident from what was said above (n. 9915, 9917), about the successive order of goods and truths in the heavens and with man. The memory-knowledges of good and truth which are signified by ”the pomegranates,“ are doctrinal things from the Word, which are memory-knowledges in so far as they are in the memory which is in the external or natural man. But when they enter into the memory which is in the Internal or spiritual man, as is the case when the man lives according to them, then doctrinal things as to truth become of faith, and doctrinal things as to good become of charity, and are called spiritual. When this is done, they almost vanish out of the external or natural memory, and appear as it were innate, because they are then implanted In the man’s life, like all those things which through daily use have become as it were of his nature.  From this it is evident what memory-knowledges are, and what purpose they serve; consequently what purpose the doctrinal things of the church serve so long as they are kept solely in the memory; for so long as they are kept in the memory only, they have a place beneath intelligence and wisdom; and they do not ascend, or enter into the life, until they become of faith and charity In the internal man.

AC 9919. Of blue, and of crimson, and of scarlet double-dyed. That this signifies from the good of charity and of faith, is evident from the signification of these things in (n. 9687, 9833). The reason why fine linen was not interwoven, as in the ephod, is that the tunic, which was the inmost garment, was of fine linen; and this for the reason that ”fine linen“ signifies truth from a celestial origin (n. 5319, 9469), which is spiritual good itself proceeding from celestial good.

AC 9920. Upon the skirts thereof, round about.  That this signifies in the extremes where there is what is natural, on every side, is evident from the signification of ”the skirts,“ as being the extremes where there is what is natural (n. 9917); and from the signification of ”round about,“ as being on every side; for where ”the skirts“ signify the extremes, the whole circumference which consists of the skirts, signifies the whole extreme, consequently, everywhere, or on every side.

AC 9921. And bells of gold.  That this signifies all things of doctrine and of worship from good passing over to those who are of the church, is evident from the signification of ”bells,“ as being all things of doctrine and of worship passing over to those who are of the church; that they are from good is signified by their being of gold, for ”gold“ signifies good (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932, 9490, 9510, 9874, 9881, 9884).  That ”the bells“ denote all things of doctrine and of worship passing over to those who are of the church, is because by means of the bells the people heard and perceived the presence of Aaron in his ministration, for by ”the people“ are signified those who are of the church, and by ”Aaron‘s ministry“ are signified all things of doctrine and of worship; and therefore it is said in what follows:--And they shall be upon Aaron to minister; and the voice thereof shall be heard when he goeth in unto the holiness before Jehovah, and when be cometh out; from which it is plain what is signified by ”the bells.“ The reason why these bells were put in the skirts, was that the holy things of doctrine are in the extremes, and the hearing and perception are there, and are from thence (n. 9824, 9905).

AC 9922. In the midst of them round about. That this signifies from what is within the memory-knowledges of good on every side, is evident from the signification of ”in the midst,“ as  being that which is within (n. 1074, 2940, 2973, 5897); thus ”in the midst,“ when said of the hearing and perception of doctrine and of worship, which are signified by ”the bells,“ denotes from what is within; from the signification of ”the pomegranates,“ in the midst of which were the bells, as being the memory-knowledges of good (n. 9918); and from the signification of ”round about,“ as being on every side (n. 9920).  The reason why the bells were placed in the midst of the pomegranates, was that the memory-knowledges which are signified by ”the pomegranates,“ are recipients, and are as it were vessels, of truth and good (n. 1469, 1496, 3068, 5373, 5489, 7770); and the doctrine and worship which are signified by ”the bells,“ must be from the good and truth which are within the memory-Knowledges, as in their vessels; if the doctrine and the worship are not from good and truth, but only from memory-knowledges, they have nothing of life.  It is said that the doctrine and worship must be from the good and truth which are within the memory-knowledges; but not from the memory-knowledges apart from the good and truth.

[2] But as few can apprehend how the case herein is, it shall be unfolded to the apprehension in so far as this can be done.  All things of the external or natural memory are called ”memory-knowledges;“ for there is an external memory, which is the memory of things in the natural world; and there is an internal memory, which is the memory of things in the spiritual world (n. 2469-2494, 2831, 5212, 9394, 9723, 9841).  The things which have been inscribed on the internal memory are not called memory-knowledges, because they are things of the man’s life; but they are called truths of faith and goods of love. These are the things which must be within memory-knowledges.  For there is in man an external, which is called the external man; and an internal, which is called the internal man.  The internal must be in the external, as the soul is in its body; thus the things which are in the internal man must be in those which are in the external man, for then there is a soul or life in the latter.  Wherefore if there are no internal things, that is, things of the internal man, in the external things, there is no soul, and consequently no life, in them. And as the good of love and of faith is internal, it follows that this good must be in the external things, thus in the memory-knowledges; for as before said, the memory-knowledges are recipients and as it were vessels of internal things.  Consequently the doctrine and the worship must be from what is within the recipients or vessels, and they are not in recipients and vessels which are empty or void of what is internal. From all this it is evident how it is to be understood that all things of doctrine and of worship must be from the interior things of the memory-knowledges of good, which is signified by the bells of gold being in the midst of the pomegranates.

[3] Be it known further that there are memory-knowledges of good, and memory-knowledges of truth; and that the truths in them are again vessels recipient of good, for the truths of faith are vessels of the good of love.  For the illustration of this subject see what has been already said and shown about memory-knowledges, namely: That memory-knowledges are things of the memory in the natural man (n. 3293, 3309, 3310, 4967, 5212, 5774, 5874, 5886, 5889, 5934): That the internal man is opened by means of memory-knowledges (n. 1495, 1548, 1563, 1895, 1940, 3085, 3086, 5276, 5871, 5874, 5901): That memory-knowledges are means for growing wise, and also means for becoming insane (n. 4156, 4760, 8628, 8629): That memory-knowledges are vessels of truth, and truths are vessels of good (n. 1469, 1496, 3068, 3079, 3318, 5489, 5881, 6023, 6071, 6077, 6750, 7770, 8005, 9394, 9724): That memory-knowledges are of service to the internal man (n. 1486, 1616, 2576, 3019, 3020, 3665, 5201, 5213, 6052, 6068, 6084, 9394): That when memory-knowledges, which are things of the external memory, become of the life, they vanish out of the external memory; but remain inscribed on the internal memory (n. 9394, 9723, 9841): That the man who is in the truths of faith from the good of charity, can be raised above memory-knowledges (n. 6383, 6384): That this is called being raised above the things of the senses (n. 5089, 5094, 6183, 6313, 6315, 9730): That when a man dies he carries with him into the other life the memory-knowledges, that is, the things of the external memory; but that they are then quiescent; and in what manner (n. 2475-2486, 6931).

AC 9923. A bell of gold and a pomegranate, a bell of gold and a pomegranate, upon the skirts of the robe round about.  That this signifies thus everywhere and wholly, namely, that the doctrine and the worship must be from what is within the memory-knowledges, is evident from what has been shown just above concerning the bells and the pomegranates. The repetition involves that it must be thus everywhere

AC 9924. And it shall be upon Aaron. That this signifies a representative of the Lord, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being a representative of the Lord in respect to the good of love (n. 9806, 9809); here in respect to those things which concern evangelization and worship; because such things are signified by ”the bells in the midst of the pomegranates,“ and by ”the voice to be heard therefrom when Aaron went in unto the holiness.“

AC 9925. To minister. That this signifies when engaged in worship and in evangelization, is evident from the signification of ”ministering,“ when said of Aaron, by whom is represented the Lord, as being worship and evangelization. By ”worship“ is signified everything that is representative of worship from the good of love and the truths of faith; for the worship that is from these is truly worship, whereas worship without these is like a shell without a kernel, and like a body without a soul.  And yet such was the worship with the Jewish and Israelitish nation, for this worship merely represented internal things, which, as has been said, are of love and faith. Nevertheless the Lord provided that such worship should be perceived in the heavens, and that thus by means of it there should be effected the conjunction of heaven with man; not indeed through internal things, but through correspondences with external things (n. 9320, 9380). This is the worship that is signified by ”the ministry of Aaron.“

[2] That evangelization is also signified is because by evangelization are meant all things in the Word which treat of the Lord, and all things in worship which represented Him. For evangelization is annunciation about the Lord, His coming, and the things that are from Him which belong to salvation and eternal life. And as all things of the Word in its inmost sense treat solely of the Lord, and all things of worship represented Him, therefore the whole Word is the Evangel, in like manner all worship that was done according to the things commanded in the Word.  And because the priests presided over the worship, and likewise taught, therefore by their ”ministry“ were signified worship and evangelization.

AC 9926. And the voice thereof shall be heard.  That this signifies the influx of truth with those who are in the heavens and who are on earth, is evident from the signification of ”being heard,“ as being reception and perception (n. 5017, 5471, 5475, 7216, 8361, 9311), consequently also influx, because the things which are received and perceived must flow in; and from the signification of ”the voice,“ when said of Aaron, by whom is represented the Lord, as being Divine truth (n. 8813); for ”the voice“ denotes the annunciation of this truth, and because it denotes its annunciation, it exists with those who are in the heavens and on earth.  For Divine truth fills all things of heaven, and makes all things of the church.  Such an annunciation was represented by the voice from the bells of gold, when Aaron went in unto the holiness before Jehovah, and when he came out, as is said in what now follows in this verse.

[2] That in the Word a ”voice“ signifies the Divine truth which is heard and perceived in the heavens and on earth, is evident from the following passages.  In David:--

The voice of Jehovah is upon the Waters; the voice of Jehovah is in power; the voice of Jehovah is with honor; the voice of Jehovah breaketh the cedars; the voice of Jehovah cleaveth as a flame of fire; the voice of Jehovah maketh the wilderness to tremble; the voice of Jehovah maketh the hinds to calve; but in His temple everyone saith, Glory (Ps. 29:3-9)

In this psalm Divine truth is treated of, in that it destroys falsities and evils; this Divine truth is ”the voice of Jehovah;“ but the ”glory“ which is spoken of denotes the Divine truth in heaven and in the church.  That ”glory“ denotes the Divine truth, (n. 9429); and that the ”temple“ denotes heaven and the church, (n. 3720).

[3] In John:--

To Him who is the Shepherd of the sheep the doorkeeper openeth; and the sheep hear His voice. The sheep follow Him, because they know His voice.  A stranger they follow not, because they know not the voice of strangers. And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold; them also I must bring, and they shall hear My voice. But ye are not of My sheep, for My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me (John 10:2-5, 16, 26, 27);

that the ”voice“ here denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, thus the Word, is very evident; ”the voice of strangers“ denotes falsity.

[4] In Isaiah:--

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah, for the glory of Jehovah shall be revealed. The voice saith, Cry. O Zion, that tellest good tidings, get thee up upon the high mountain! O Jerusalem, that tellest good tidings, lift up thy voice with strength! lift it up. Behold the Lord Jehovih cometh in strength (Isa. 40:3, 5, 6, 9, 10; John 1:23);

”the voice“ here denotes annunciation from the Word about the coming of the Lord, thus it also denotes the Divine truth which the Word announces; ”the wilderness“ denotes the state of the church at that time, which was as it were in the wilderness because the Word was no longer understood; ”the glory which shall be revealed“ denotes the Word as to its interiors. That this is meant by ”glory,“ (n. 9429). That ”Jehovah, for whom a way was to be prepared,“ and ”the Lord Jehovih, who should come in strength,“ denote the Lord, is plain, for this is clearly stated

[5] In Isaiah:--

The voice of thy watchmen; they shall lift up the voice when they shall see eye to eye that Jehovah will return to Zion (Isa. 52:8);

”the watchmen“ denote those who search the Scriptures concerning the coming of the Lord, their ”voice“ denotes the Word, which is the Divine truth that is the source. In Jeremiah:--

The Maker of the earth by His understanding hath stretched out the heavens. At the voice which He uttereth there is a multitude of waters in the heavens (Jer. 5:12, 13; 51:16);

”the voice“ here denotes Divine truth; ”waters“ denote truths which are in the heavens and from the heavens. That ”waters“ in the Word denote truths, (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 9323).

[6] So also in the following passages:--

The voice of the Son of man was like the sound of many waters (Rev. 1:15).

I heard a voice from heaven, as the voice of many waters (Rev. 14:2).

The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters, Jehovah is upon great waters (Ps. 29:3).

Jehovah hath uttered His voice before His army, for without number is he that doeth His word (Joel  2:11).

In this passage also ”voice“ denotes Divine truth, and likewise the Word which they do.  Again:--

Jehovah shall utter His voice from Jerusalem, so that the heavens and the earth shall shake (Joel 3:16).

Sing psalms unto the Lord, ye kingdoms of the earth, to Him that rideth upon the heaven of heaven of old; lo, He shall utter in a voice a voice of strength (Ps. 68:32, 33).

I say unto you, The hour cometh when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God; and they that hear shall live (John 5:25);

that ”the voice“ in this passage denotes Divine truth, consequently the Word of the Lord, is manifest.

[7] In Ezekiel:--

The spirit lifted me up, and I heard behind me the voice of a great earthquake, saying, Blessed be the glory of Jehovah.  And I heard the voice of the wings of the living creatures, and the voice of the wheels, even the voice of a great earthquake (Ezek. 3:12, 13).

The voice of the wings of the cherubs was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of God Shaddai when He speaketh (Ezek. 10:5);

here also ”the voice“ denotes Divine truth; for ”the cherubs“ signify the providence and guard of the Lord that there be no approach to Himself and to heaven except through the good of love (n. 9277, 9509); ”the voice of the wings,“ and ”the voice of the wheels,“ denote spiritual truths.

[8] In the present verse, in which Aaron is treated of, it is the sound or ringing from the bells which is called a ”voice.“ In other passages of the Word also sounds and blarings from trumpets, and sounds and peals from thunders, are called ”voices;“ and thereby in like manner are signified Divine truths (n. 7573).  Moreover the sounds of musical instruments of various kinds have also a like signification; but those which give out a stridulous and a discrete sound signify Divine spiritual truths; while those which give out a continuous sound signify Divine celestial truths (n. 418-420, 4138, 8337).  From this it is evident that by the sounds or ”voices“ of the bells are signified Divine spiritual truths; for the garments of Aaron, and specifically the robe, in the skirts of which were the bells, round about, represented the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom or heaven (n. 9814, 9825).

AC 9927 When he goeth in unto the holiness before Jehovah, and when he goeth out.  That this signifies in every state of good and truth in worship, is evident from the signification of ”going in unto the holiness,“ and of ”going in before Jehovah,“ as being worship (n. 9903, 9907). That it is the state of good and truth in worship which is signified, is because all things of worship with the Israelitish and Jewish nation were representative of internal worship; and internal worship is from good and truth; that is, from the affection of good and from the faith of truth. That it is every state of these which is signified, is because it is said, ”when he goeth in, and when he goeth out,“ and by ”going in and going out“ are signified all the things of the state. For whatever belongs to motion, as ”walking,“ ”going,“ ”advancing,“ signifies a state of life.  That ”walking“ has this signification, (n. 519, 1794, 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605, 8417, 8420); in like manner ”advancing,“ and ”journeying,“ (n. 8103, 8181, 8397, 8557); and that motions and progressions in the other life signify states, (n. 1273-1277, 1376-1381, 2873, 3356, 9440). From this it is evident that ”going in and going out“ denote everything of the state or thing that is being treated of; and as the subject here treated of is worship from good and truth, it is every state of good and truth in worship that is signified by ”going in and going out.“

[2] This signification of ”going in and going out“ is from the representatives in the other life; for there they go, walk, advance, go in and out, just as in the world; but all these acts are done according to the state of the life of their thoughts and affections. That these acts also originate from their thoughts and affections, and are correspondences, and thus real appearances, they do not notice.  From this it is evident that all things of motion signify those which belong to the state of life; consequently that ”going in and going out“ signify every state of life, thus the state of the thing that is being treated of, from beginning to end. It is from this that among the ancients it was a customary form of speaking to say that they knew a person’s coming in and his going out, or his entrance and his departure, when they meant that they knew every state of his life. And as this form of speaking originates from the correspondences in the other life, as has been already said, therefore in the Word also a like expression is made use of, and where this is done the like is signified; as in the following passages. In the first book of Samuel:--

Achish called David, and said unto him, Thou art upright, and good in mine eyes is thy going out and thy coming in with me in the camp; for I have not found evil in thee (1 Samuel 29:6);

”good in the eyes is thy going out and thy coming in“ denotes that every state of his life was well-pleasing to him.

[3] In the second book of Samuel:--

Thou knowest Abner, that he came to persuade thee, and to know thy going out and thy coming in, and to know all that thou doest (2 Samuel 3:25);

”to know the going out and the coming in“ denotes to know all the thoughts and all the acts of the life; and therefore it is also said, ”and to know all that thou doest.“ In the second book of Kings:--

I know thy sitting down, and thy going out and thy coming in, and that thou hast set thyself in motion against Me (2 Kings 19:27; Isa. 37:28);

where Sennacherib the king of Assyria is spoken of; ”knowing his going out and his coming in“ denotes all things of his counsel.  In David:--

Jehovah shall keep thee from all evil, He shall keep thy soul. Jehovah shall keep thy going out and thy coming in, from this time forth and even for evermore (Ps. 121:7, 8);

”to keep the going out and the coming in“ denotes everything of the life according to the state of good and truth.

[4] In Moses:--

Let Jehovah, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the assembly, who may go out before them, and who may come in before them, that the assembly of Jehovah be not as a flock that hath no shepherd (Num. 27:16, 17);

”who may go out before them, and who may come in before them,“ denotes one who may lead them; thus one whom they may look to and follow in every state of life.  In John:--

He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is a thief and a robber.  But he that entereth by the door is the shepherd of the sheep.  I am the shepherd of the sheep; by Me if anyone enter in, he shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and shall find pasture (John 10:1, 2, 9);

”to enter in“ (that is, into heaven), denotes into the good of love and faith, for this good makes heaven; and therefore ”to go in and to go out,“ denotes to be led by the Lord in respect to every state of life; consequently it denotes to think and will what is good from freedom, that is, from love and faith which are from the Lord, for these make freedom.

[5] In Luke:--

Jesus sent the twelve disciples to preach the kingdom of God. And He said unto them, Into whatsoever house ye enter, there abide, and thence go out (Luke 9:2-4);

”to enter into a house,“ ”to abide there,“ and ”to go out thence,“ denote to enjoy heavenly consociation with those who receive the Lord in faith and love; for in heaven those who are together in one society are also in one ”house,“ and they come in and go out there, because they are in a like good; but those who are in an unlike good cannot do so; and if they do enter in, they do not enter by the doors, but by some other way. He who does not know that such things are signified, cannot know what is involved in the words, that ”into whatsoever house they should enter, they should there abide, and thence go out.“

[6] In Ezekiel:--

When the prince shall go in, he shall go in by the way of the porch of the gate, and he shall go out by the way thereof.  When the people of the land shall go in before Jehovah in the appointed feasts, he that goeth in by the way of the north gate to worship shall go out by the way of the south gate; and he that goeth in by the way of the south gate shall go out by the way of the north gate; he shall not return by the way of the gate whereby he had gone in, but shall go straight before him. But when the prince goeth in in the midst of them, they shall go in; and when they shall go out, they shall go out (Ezek. 46:8-10);

in the internal sense a new heaven and a new church are here treated of; and by ”the prince“ is signified the truth of faith from the good of love.  In what manner this truth enters in with angels in the heavens and with men of the church on earth, and how it afterward progresses toward the interiors when it has entered in by an external way, and toward the exteriors when it has entered by an internal way, is described by the going in and going out of the prince and of the people of the land.  ”The south“ denotes the state of the truth of faith in the internal man; and ”the north,“ its state in the external man; ”the going in and going out“ denote the state of life as to good and truth, thus as to worship.

[7] From all this it can be known clearly enough that ”to go in and go out“ denote such things as belong to the state of life from good and truth; for otherwise what could it matter that the prince should go in by one way, or by another way? and also the people of the land?  For by ”the house“ or temple there mentioned, into which there was entrance, and out of which there was going out, is signified heaven and the church (n. 3720); by ”the prince“ is signified the truth of faith (n. 5044); by ”the people of the land,“ those who are in heaven, or who are of the church (n. 2928); by ”the way,“ that which leads to truth (n. 627, 2333); by a ”gate,“ doctrine (n. 2851, 3187); by ”the south,“ where truth is in light (n. 9642), thus truth in the internal man; and by ”the north,“ where truth is in obscurity (n. 3708), thus truth in the external man.

AC 9928. That he die not.  That this signifies that the representative do not perish, and therewith the conjunction with the heavens, is evident from the signification of ”dying,“ when said of Aaron and his office, as being the ceasing of the representatives, and consequently of conjunction with the heavens; for by Aaron was represented the Lord, and by his office the whole work of salvation, and on the part of man, worship.  That this worship was representative, and that by means of representative worship there was conjunction with the heavens, has been abundantly shown (n. 9320); also what was the representative of a church with the Israelitish and Jewish nation, (n. 9280, 9457, 9481, 9576, 9577); and that the conjunction of the Lord and of heaven with man at that time was by means of representatives, (n. 9481). From this also it was that when Aaron was performing holy things he was clothed with garments that represented heavenly things; and that if he had done otherwise he would have died; especially if he had gone in to perform holy things without the knowledge of the people; for with the people there was the representative of a church, and with Aaron the representative of the Lord, from whom and toward whom is everything of worship.

AC 9929. Verses 36-38.  And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and engrave upon it with the engraving of a signet, Holiness to Jehovah.  And thou shalt put it upon a thread of blue, and it shall be upon the miter; over against the faces of the miter shall it be.  And it shall be upon Aaron‘s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the sons of Israel shall sanctify, in respect to all the gifts of their holy things; and it shall be upon his forehead continually, to make them well-pleasing before Jehovah.  ”And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold,“ signifies enlightenment from the Lord’s Divine good; ”and engrave upon it with the engraving of a signet,“ signifies what is perpetual and impressed on hearts according to the heavenly sphere; ”Holiness to Jehovah,“ signifies the Divine Human of the Lord, and from this all celestial and spiritual good; ”and thou shalt put it upon a thread of blue,“ signifies influx into the truth of celestial love; ”and it shall be upon the miter,“ signifies from infinite wisdom; ”over against the faces of the miter it shall be,“ signifies to eternity; ”and it shall be upon Aaron‘s forehead,“ signifies from the Lord’s Divine love; ”and Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things,“ signifies the consequent removal of falsities and evils with those who are in good; ”which the sons of Israel shall sanctify, in respect to all the gifts of their holy things,“ signifies acts of worship representative of removal from sins; ”and it shall be upon Aaron‘s forehead continually,“ signifies a representative of the Lord’s love to eternity; ”to make them well-pleasing before Jehovah,“ signifies the Divine of the Lord in them.

AC 9930. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold.  That this signifies enlightenment from the Lord‘s Divine good, is evident from the signification of ”a plate,“ as being enlightenment; and from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the good of love, here the Lord’s Divine good, because there was inscribed upon it, ”Holiness to Jehovah.“ That ”gold“ denotes the good of love, (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932, 9490, 9510, 9874, 9881). That ”the plate“ denotes enlightenment, was from its brightness, for it was resplendent from gold upon Aaron‘s forehead, and all brightness signifies enlightenment such as is in the heavens from the Lord as the Sun.  Enlightenment in the heavens is wisdom and intelligence from the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord from that Sun, for this enlightens their interiors. Their interiors correspond to the understanding with man, which is enlightened by the Lord when the truth and good of the church and heaven are perceived; for the understanding is the recipient subject; because without a subject there is no reception.  That this ”plate“ denotes enlightenment from the Lord’s Divine good, is because upon it was inscribed ”Holiness to Jehovah,“ and it was placed upon the front of the miter, which was upon Aaron‘s head.  The ”holiness“ which is from Jehovah denotes the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine good (n. 6788, 8302, 8330, 9229, 9680, 9820).  In order that this plate might represent the shining forth, that is, the enlightenment, from which come wisdom and intelligence, it was bound on the forefront of the miter.

[2] As by ”the plate“ was signified enlightenment from the Lord‘s Divine good, it was also called ”the plate of the crown of holiness,“ and likewise ”the crown of holiness;“ for a crown is a representative of Divine good, and ”holiness“ denotes the Divine truth thence proceeding, as was said above. That it was called ”the plate of the crown of holiness,“ is plain in what follows in this book of Exodus:--

Lastly they made the plate of the crown of holiness of pure gold, and wrote upon it with the writing of the engravings of a signet, Holiness to Jehovah (Exod. 39:30).

That it was also called ”the crown of holiness,“ is evident from another passage in Exodus:--

Thou shalt set the miter upon his head, and put the crown of holiness upon the miter (Exod. 29:6).

He set the miter upon his head; and upon the miter, opposite the faces of it, did he set the plate of gold, the crown of holiness (Lev. 8:9).

[3] That a crown represented Divine good from which is Divine truth, is evident from the crowns of kings; for kings represented the Lord in respect to Divine truth (n. 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148); wherefore they had a crown on the head, and a scepter in the hand; for government from Divine good was represented by a crown, and government from Divine truth by a scepter.

[4]  That a ”crown“ has this signification is evident from the following passages.  In David:--

I will make a horn to bud unto David; I will set in order a lamp for Mine anointed. His enemies will I clothe with shame; but upon Himself shall His crown flourish (Ps. 132:17, 18);

”David“ here denotes the Lord (n. 1888), like the ”anointed“ (n. 3008, 3009); his ”horn“ denotes power (n. 2832, 9081); ”a lamp“ denotes the Divine truth from which is intelligence (n. 9548, 9783); the ”crown“ denotes the Divine good from which is wisdom, and from which is also His government; the crown, which denotes wisdom, is said ”to flourish“ because in respect to the Human He acquired wisdom in the world by means of combats against and victories over the hells (n. 9548, 9783), which are the ”enemies that shall be clothed with shame.“

[5] Again:--

Thou art angry with Thine anointed, Thou hast condemned His crown even to the earth (Ps. 89:38, 39);

where also ”the anointed“ denotes the Lord; ”anger“ denotes a state of temptations which existed when He was in combats with the hells; the lamentation at that time is described by ”anger“ and ”condemnation;“ as for instance the last lamentations of the Lord on the cross, that He was ”forsaken;“ for the cross was the last of the temptations, that is, of the combats with the hells; and after this last temptation He put on Divine good, and in this way united His Divine Human to the Divine Itself that was in Him.

[6] In Isaiah:--

In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a crown of adornment, and for a diadem of comeliness, to the remains of His people (Isa. 28:5);

where ”a crown of adornment“ denotes the wisdom which is of good from the Divine; ”a diadem of comeliness,“ the intelligence of truth from this good; this is predicated of Divine things with the people; the ”people“ here denote the church, because it was there.

[7] In the same:--

For Zion’s sake I will not be silent, and for Jerusalem‘s sake I will not rest, until her righteousness go forth as brightness, and her salvation burn as a lamp; and thou shalt be a crown of comeliness in the hand of Jehovah, and a miter of the kingdom in the hand of thy God (Isa. 62:1, 3);

by ”Zion“ and ”Jerusalem“ is meant the church, by ”Zion“ the celestial church, and by ”Jerusalem“ the spiritual church thence derived; ”a crown of comeliness“ denotes the wisdom which is of good, and ”a miter of the kingdom,“ the intelligence which is of truth; and as by ”a crown“ is signified the wisdom which is of good, therefore it is said to be ”in the hand of Jehovah;“ and as by ”a miter“ is signified the intelligence which is of truth, therefore it is said to be ”in the hand of God;“ for where good is treated of, the name ”Jehovah“ is used, and where truth is treated of, the name ” God“ (n. 2586, 2769, 6905).

[8] In Jeremiah:--

Say thou to the king and to the mistress, Renounce yourselves, sit down; for the adornment of your head is come down, even the crown of your comeliness (Jer. 13:18);

where ”the crown of comeliness“ denotes the wisdom which is of good from Divine truth, for ”comeliness“ denotes the Divine truth of the church (n. 9815).  In the same:--

The joy of our heart hath ceased; our dance is turned into mourning; the crown of our head is fallen (Lam. 5:15, 16);

”the crown of the head“ denotes the wisdom which those who are of the church have from Divine truth, by virtue of which they are more excellent than the rest of the peoples, and hence have a kind of government.

[9] In Ezekiel:--

He put a jewel upon thy nose, and earrings in thine ears, and a crown of adornment upon thine head (Ezek. 16:12);

the subject here treated of is the setting up of the church; ”a jewel upon the nose“ denotes the perception of good; ”earrings in the ears“ denote the perception of truth, and obedience; ”a crown upon the head“ denotes the wisdom thence derived.  In Job:--

He hath stripped me of my glory, and taken away the crown of my head (Job 19:9);

where ”glory“ denotes the intelligence which is of Divine truth (n. 9429); ”the crown of the head“ denotes the wisdom thence derived.

[10] In the Apocalypse:--

Upon the thrones I saw four and twenty elders, clothed in white garments; who had upon their heads golden crowns.  They fell down before Him that was sitting upon the throne, and worshiped Him that liveth forever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne (Rev. 4:4, 10);

the ”four and twenty elders“ signify all those who are in good from truths, and in the abstract sense all goods from truths (n. 6524, 9404); the ”thrones“ denote truths from the Divine (n. 5313, 6397, 8625, 9039); the ”golden crowns on their heads“ are representatives of wisdom from the Divine, and because this is from the Divine, therefore they cast them before Him that was sitting upon the throne.

[11] As the good of wisdom is acquired by means of temptation combats, which are carried on by means of the truths of faith, therefore crowns were assigned to those who fought against evils and falsities and overcame; and for this reason also the crowns of martyrdom were badges of command from the Lord over evils.  That ”crowns“ denote the rewards of victory over evils, and that for this reason they denote the goods of wisdom, because these are the rewards, is also evident from the Apocalypse:--

I saw, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon it had a bow; and there was given unto him a crown; and he went forth conquering, and to conquer (Rev 6:2);

the ”white horse and he that sat upon it“ signify the Lord as to the Word (n. 2760-2762); ”a bow“ denotes the doctrine of truth, by means of which the combat is waged (n. 2686, 2709); from this it is evident that the ”crown,“ because said of the Lord, denotes the Divine good, which is the reward of victory.

[12] And in another passage:--

Afterward I saw, and behold a white cloud; and upon the cloud one sitting like unto the Son of man, having upon his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle (Rev. 14:14);

”a white cloud“ denotes the literal sense of the Word (n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8781); ”the Son of man“ denotes the Divine truth which is from the Lord (n. 9807); ”a golden crown,“ the Divine good from which is the Divine truth; ”a sharp sickle“ denotes the dispersing of evil and falsity.  And again:--

Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee the crown of life (Rev. 2:10).

Behold I come quickly; hold fast that which thou hast, that no one take thy crown (Rev. 3:11);

the ”crown“ denotes good from truths, thus wisdom; for this belongs to the good of love from the truths of faith. From all this it can now be seen what is signified by a ”crown,“ and what by ”the crown of holiness,“ which was the plate of gold on which was engraved ”Holiness to Jehovah“

AC 9931. And grave upon it with the engraving of a signet. That this signifies what is perpetual and impressed on hearts according to the heavenly sphere, is evident from the signification of ”to engrave,“ as being to impress on the memory (n. 9841, 9842), thus also on the heart; for that which is impressed on the interior memory, which belongs to the life, is said to be ”impressed on the heart,“ and as this remains to eternity, it also signifies what is perpetual; and from the signification of ”the engraving of a signet,“ as being the heavenly sphere (n. 9846).  The reason why it is said to be ”impressed on hearts according to the heavenly sphere,“ is that the things which have been impressed on the memory, especially on the interior memory, which is the book of life (n. 2474), have been impressed according to the heavenly sphere; for a man who is in the good of love from the truths of faith resembles heaven, and moreover is a heaven in the least form (n. 9279, 9632); thus in him there is the heavenly form; for all the societies in heaven have been set in order in accordance with the heavenly form, because all the affections of good and the consequent thoughts of truth flow in accordance with this form (n. 9877). That when a man is in heavenly love all the memory-knowledges are arranged in the heavenly form, and that love so arranges them, (n. 6690).

AC 9932. Holiness to Jehovah.  That this signifies the Divine Human of the Lord, and from this all celestial and spiritual good, is evident from the signification of ”holiness,“ as being the Divine that proceeds from the Lord, thus as being the Lord Himself in respect to the Divine Human, from which is everything Divine in the heavens.  It is from this that celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord from the Lord; and spiritual good, which is the good of love toward the neighbor from the Lord, are holy. For the Lord alone is holy, and that which proceeds from Him is the only holiness in the heavens and on earth (n. 9229, 9680, 9820). That the holiness proceeding from the Lord is called ”the Holy Spirit,“ (n. 9818); and that angels, prophets, and apostles, are called ”holy“ from their reception of Divine truth from the Lord, (n. 9820); and also that ”the sanctuary“ denotes heaven from the Divine there, (n. 8330, 9479). It is said, ”Holiness to Jehovah,“ because ”Jehovah“ in the Word denotes the Lord (n. 9373).  The reason why ”Holiness to Jehovah“ was engraved on the plate of gold, and placed upon the miter upon Aaron’s forehead, was that in this way it was in the view of all the people, consequently there was holiness in their minds while they were in worship, and this holiness corresponded to the holiness that is in the universal heaven, which is the Divine Human of the Lord; for as before said this makes heaven.  That which is in the general view of all the people, and which thereby reigns universally in their minds, enters into everything of thought and of affection, and consequently into everything of worship, and affects it (n. 6159, 6571, 7648, 8067, 8865); and therefore when this very great holiness was constantly before their eyes, and from this reigned universally in their minds, it made holy all things of worship.

AC 9933. And thou shalt put it upon a thread of blue.  That this signifies influx into the truth of celestial love, is evident from the signification of ”blue,“ as being the truth of celestial love.  Influx into this truth is signified by the plate on which was engraved ”Holiness to Jehovah“ being put upon a thread of blue, for in this way it hung from it and was bound to it, and in the spiritual sense by ”being bound to,“ and ”hanging,“ is signified to inflow, because all conjunction whatever is effected by means of influx.  That the influx is into the truth of celestial love about the Lord‘s Divine Human, which is signified by ”Holiness to Jehovah,“ is because in that sphere of heaven where is the truth of celestial love, no other Divine is perceived than the Divine Human of the Lord.

[2] For the case herein is as follows. There are three heavens, which have been distinguished from one another by means of the degrees of good. In the inmost heaven is the good of celestial love, which is the good of love to the Lord; in the second or middle heaven is the good of spiritual love, which is the good of charity toward the neighbor; in the first or ultimate heaven is the good of natural love, from spiritual and from celestial love, which is the good of faith and obedience.  In each heaven there is an internal and an external. As just said, the internal in the inmost heaven is the good of love to the Lord, and the external there is the good of mutual love, which belongs to the love of good for the sake of good. This good is what is meant by the truth of celestial love, which is signified by ”the thread of blue.“ In the sphere where is this truth, the Lord’s Human is perceived as being the Divine Itself in the heavens, and therefore as soon as an angel is raised into this sphere, he comes into this light also.  This perception flows in from the Lord, because the Divine Human of the Lord makes heaven.  This is the influx which is here signified. That ”blue“ denotes the celestial love of truth, or what is the same thing, the truth of celestial love, (n. 9466, 9687, 9833).

AC 9934. And it shall be upon the miter.  That this signifies from infinite wisdom, is evident from the signification of ”the miter,“ as being intelligence (n. 9827); and when said with reference to the Lord, who was represented by Aaron, the ”miter“ denotes Divine or infinite wisdom.

AC 9935. Over against the faces of the miter shall it be.  That hereby is signified to eternity, is evident from the signification of ”over against the faces of the miter,“ when said of the Lord, who is represented by Aaron, as being to eternity (n. 9888).

AC 9936. And it shall be upon Aaron‘s forehead.  That this signifies from the Lord’s Divine love, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good, which is the good of His Divine love (n. 9806); and from the signification of ”the forehead,“ when it refers to the Lord, as being His Divine love; for by ”the face of the Lord,“ or what is the same, by ”the face of Jehovah,“ are signified all things of the Divine love; such as mercy, peace, good, wisdom (n. 222, 223, 5585, 6848, 6849, 9306, 9545, 9546).  That ”the face of Jehovah“ or ”the face of the Lord“ has this signification, is because by ”the face“ in general are signified the interior things of man, which are his affections and the consequent thoughts, thus the things that belong to his love and faith (n. 9546).  The reason why these things are signified by ”the face,“ is that they shine forth from the face as it were in their type or effigy; wherefore also the face is called the effigy of the mind.  Hence it is that by ”the face,“ when said of Jehovah or the Lord, are signified the things which are of His Divine love.  That by ”the forehead“ is specifically signified the Divine love itself, is because the interiors have been allotted their provinces in the face; those which are of love being in the province of the forehead; those which are of wisdom and intelligence being in the province of the eyes; those which are of perception being in the province of the nostrils; and those which are of utterance being in the province of the mouth.  From this it is evident why ”the forehead,“ when said of the Lord, who is represented by Aaron, signifies the Divine love.

[2] As the forehead with man corresponds to his love, therefore they who are in celestial love (that is, in love to the Lord from the Lord) are said to have ”a mark on their foreheads,“ by which is signified that they are under the Lord‘s protection, because they are in His love, as in the following passages:--

Jehovah said, Go through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that groan and sigh for all the abominations that are done in the midst thereof; and smite; let not your eye spare; but come not near against any man upon whom is the mark (Ezek. 9:4-6).

Behold the Lamb standing on the Mount Zion, and with Him a hundred and forty and four thousand, having the name of His Father written on their foreheads (Rev. 14:1).

They shall see the faces of God and of the Lamb, and His name shall be on their foreheads (Rev. 22:4).

It was said that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, nor any tree; but only the men that have not the mark of God on their foreheads (Rev. 9:4).

[3] ”Having the mark,“ or seal, ”of God,“ and ”the name of God,“ ”on their foreheads,“ denotes to be in safety from the infestation of evils which are from hell, because they are in the Lord through love; ”the grass and the green thing,“ which were not to be hurt, denote the memory-truth through which is the truth of faith (n. 7571, 7691); ”the tree,“ which also was not to be hurt, denotes the perception of truth from good (n. 103, 2163, 2722, 2972, 4552, 7692).

[4] In Moses:--

Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God from all thine heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy strengths. Thou shalt bind these words for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes (Deut. 6:5, 8);

”to be for frontlets“ denotes for a sign of love to Jehovah God.; it is said ”between the eyes,“ because ”the eyes“ signify the intelligence and wisdom which are from this love, and wisdom from this love is to have God continually before the eyes. That this is the meaning is evident, because love to Jehovah God is treated of. It is said that they should ”love Him from all the heart, from all the soul, and from all the strengths,“ by which is signified with all that is in man. ”From the heart“ denotes from the will in which is the good of love (n. 7542, 9050, 9300, 9495); ”from the soul“ denotes from the understanding in which is the truth of faith, thus from faith (n. 9050), which two are of the internal man; ”from all the strengths“ denotes from the things that belong to the understanding and the will in the external man. The strengths and power of the love of both the external and the internal man are signified by ”the hands“ (n. 4931-4937, 7518); and therefore it is said that ”these words shall be bound for a sign upon the hand.“

[5] As by virtue of its correspondence ”the forehead“ signifies heavenly love with the good; so with the evil it signifies infernal love, which is opposite to heavenly love. The forehead of the latter is called a ”brazen forehead“ in (Isaiah 48:4); and a ”hardened forehead“ in (Ezekiel 3:7, 8); and of those who are in infernal love it is said that ”they had the mark of the beast upon their foreheads“ (Rev. 13:16; 14:9; 20:4); and also ”the name of Babylon upon their foreheads“ (Rev. 17:5).

AC 9937. And Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things. That this signifies the consequent removal of falsities and evils with those who are in good from the Lord, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to the good of love (n. 9806); and from the representation of the priesthood which Aaron administered, as being the whole once which the Lord discharges as the Saviour (n. 9809); from the signification of ”bearing iniquity,“ as being the removal of falsities and evils with those who are in good; and from the signification of ”the holy things,“ as being the gifts which they brought to Jehovah or the Lord in order that their sins might be expiated, which gifts were burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and meat-offerings. That these things are meant by ”the holy things,“ is clear, for it is said, ”which the sons of Israel shall sanctify in respect to all the gifts of their holy things.“ That ”bearing iniquity“ denotes to remove falsities and evils, or sins, with those who are in good, is because it is said of the Lord, for the Lord was represented by Aaron, and the whole work of salvation was represented by the office, or priesthood, of Aaron. That it is said of the Lord that He ”bore sins“ for the human race, has been known in the church; but still it is not known what is meant by ”bearing iniquities and sins.“ It is believed by some that it denotes that He took on Himself the sins of the human race, and suffered Himself to be condemned even to the death of the cross; and that because the condemnation for sins was cast on Him, mortals were thus freed from damnation; and also that the damnation was taken away by the Lord through the fulfilling of the law, because the law would have condemned everyone who did not fulfil it.

[2] But these things are not meant by ”bearing iniquity,“ because every man’s deeds remain with him after death, and according to the quality of these he is then judged either to life or to death.  Their quality is from his love and his faith, for love and faith make the life of a deed; and therefore they cannot be taken away by transfer to another who would bear them. From this it is evident that something else is meant by ”bearing iniquities;“ but what is meant can be seen from the bearing itself of iniquities or sins by the Lord. For the Lord bears them when He fights for man against the hells, because man cannot fight against these from himself; but the Lord alone does this, and indeed continually for every man, but with a difference according to his reception of the Divine good and Divine truth.

[3] When the Lord was in the world, He fought against all the hells, and completely subjugated them.  From this He also became righteousness.  Thus He redeemed from damnation those who receive the Divine good and truth from Him. Unless this had been done by the Lord, no man could have been saved; for in so far as the Lord does not remove them, the hells are constantly with man, and have dominion over him; and He removes them in proportion as the man desists from evils.  He who once conquers the hells, conquers them to eternity; and in order that this might be done by the Lord, He made His Human Divine.  He, therefore, who alone fights for man against the hells (or what is the same thing, against evils and falsities, for these are from the hells) is said ”to bear sins,“ for He alone supports this burden.  That by ”bearing sins“ is also signified the removal of evils and falsities from those who are in good, is because this is the consequence; for in so far as the hells are removed from man, so far evils and falsities are removed, because as before said both of these are from the hells.  Evils and falsities are ”sins“ and ”iniquities.“ How the case herein is can be seen from what was shown above (n. 9715, 9809), where the Lord‘s merit and righteousness, and also the subjugation of the hells by Him are treated of.

[4] The reason why it is said of Aaron that he should ”bear iniquities,“ was that he represented the Lord, and his priesthood represented the Lord’s whole work of salvation (n. 9806, 9809); and the main work of salvation is to redeem and deliver man from the hells, and thus to remove evils and falsities.  It is said to remove evils and falsities, because deliverance from sins (that is, the forgiveness of them) is nothing else than their removal; for they remain with the man; but in so far as the good of love and the truth of faith are implanted, so far the evil and falsity are removed.  The case herein is like that with heaven and hell.  Heaven does not abolish hell; but removes from itself those who are there. For it is the good and truth from the Lord which make heaven; and these are what effect this removal.  The case is similar with man, who of himself is a hell; but when he is being regenerated, he becomes a heaven, and in so far as he becomes a heaven, so far hell is removed.  It is a common opinion that evils, that is, sins, are not removed in this way; but are absolutely separated.  But such persons are not aware that from himself the whole man is nothing but evil, and that in so far as he is kept in good by the Lord, the evils which belong to him appear as if they were rooted out; for when a man is kept in good, he is withheld from evil.  Nevertheless no one can be withheld from evil and kept in good unless he is in the good of faith and of charity from the Lord; that is, only in so far as he suffers himself to be regenerated by the Lord.  For as before said, heaven is implanted in man by regeneration, and thereby the hell which is with him is removed.

[5] From all this it can be seen again that ”bearing iniquities,“ when said of the Lord, denotes to continually fight for man against the hells, thus continually to remove them; for there is a perpetual removing, not only while man is in the world, but also in the other life to eternity.  It is impossible for any man to remove evils in this way; for from himself man cannot remove the least of evil, still less the hells, and least of all to eternity. But see what has been shown on this subject before, namely, that the evils with man are not absolutely separated; but are removed in so far as he is in this good from the Lord, (n. 8393, 9014, 9333-9336, 9444-9454). That while He was in the world the Lord conquered the hells by means of the combats of temptations, and thereby disposed all things into order; and also that He did this from Divine love, in order to save the human race; and that thus He also made His Human Divine, may be seen in the places cited in (n. 9528); and also that in temptations, which are spiritual combats against the evils which are from hell, the Lord fights for man, (n. 1692, 6574, 8159, 8172, 8175, 8176, 8273, 8969). How the Lord while in the world bore the iniquities of the human race, that is, fought with the hells and subjugated them, and thus acquired for Himself the Divine power of removing these things with all who are in good, and thus became merit and righteousness, is described in (Isaiah 59:16-20; 63:1-9), as has been already explained (n. 9715, 9809).

[6] When these things are understood, it can be known what is signified by all that is said in the fifty-third chapter of the same prophet concerning the Lord, in which from beginning to end the state of His temptations is treated of; thus the state in which He was while He fought with the hells, for temptations are nothing else than combats with these.  This state is thus described:--He bore our sicknesses, and carried our griefs; He was pierced for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities; Jehovah made to fall on Him the iniquity of us all; and thus He gave the wicked to their sepulchre; the will of Jehovah shall prosper by His hand; He shall see from the labor of His soul and be sated; and by His wisdom shall justify many, because He hath borne their iniquities, and thus hath carried the sin of many. He is also called there ”the Arm of Jehovah,“ by which is signified Divine power (n. 4932, 7205).  That by ”bearing sicknesses,“ ”sorrows,“ and ”iniquities,“ and by ”being pierced and bruised by them,“ is signified a state of temptations, is evident; for in such a state there are griefs of soul, distresses, and despairs, which in this way cause anguish.  Such things are induced by the hells, for in temptations they assault the very love of him against whom they fight; the love of everyone being the inmost of his life.  The Lord‘s love was the love of saving the human race, which love was the Esse of His life, for this love was the Divine in Him. In Isaiah also, where the subject treated of is the combats of the Lord, this is described in these words:--

He said, Surely they are My people, therefore He became their Saviour. In all their distress He was distressed; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; and He took them up, and carried them all the days of eternity (Isa. 63:8, 9).

[7] That while He was in the world the Lord endured such temptations, is only briefly described in the Gospels, but at great length in the prophets, and especially in the Psalms of David.  In the Gospels it is only said that He was led into the wilderness, and was afterward tempted by the devil, and that He was there forty days, and was with the beasts (Mark 1:12, 13; Matt. 4:1).  But that from His earliest childhood even to the end of His life in the world He was in temptations, that is, in combats with the hells, He did not reveal, in accordance with these words in Isaiah:--

He was oppressed, and was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth; He is led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, He opened not His mouth (Isa.  53:7).

His last temptation was in Gethsemane (Matt. xxvi; Mark xiv),

and then came the passion of the cross; that He thereby fully subjugated the hells, He Himself teaches in John:--

Father, rescue Me from this hour. But for this sake came I into this hour. Father, glorify Thy name. Then came there a voice out of heaven, saying, I have glorified it and will glorify it.  Then said Jesus, Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out (John 12:27, 28, 31);

”the prince of the world“ is the devil, thus all hell; ”to glorify“ denotes to make the human Divine.  The reason why mention is made only of the temptation after forty days in the wilderness, is that ”forty days“ signify and involve temptations to the full, thus the temptations of many years (n. 8098, 9437); ”the wilderness“ signifies hell, and ”the beasts with which He fought there“ signify the diabolical crew.

[8] The removal of sins with those who are in good, that is, those who have practised repentance, was represented in the Jewish Church by the he-goat called ”Asasel,“ upon the head of which Aaron was to lay his hands, and to confess the iniquities of the sons of Israel, and all their transgressions in respect to all their sins, and was then to send it into the wilderness, and that in this way the he-goat should bear upon him all their iniquities into a land of separation (Lev. 16:21, 22).  By Aaron is here represented the Lord; by ”the he-goat“ is signified faith; by ”the wilderness,“ and ”the land of separation,“ hell; and by ”bearing thither the iniquities of the sons of Israel“ is signified to remove them, and cast them into hell.  No one can know that such things were represented, except from the internal sense; for everyone can see that the iniquities of a whole congregation could not be borne into the wilderness by any he-goat; for what had the he-goat in common with iniquities?  But as at that time all representatives signified such things as belong to the Lord, to heaven and to the church, so also did these. The internal sense therefore teaches what these things involve, namely, that it is the truth of faith by means of which man is regenerated, consequently by means of which sins are removed; and because the faith of truth is from the Lord, it is the Lord Himself who effects this; (n. 2760, 3332, 3876, 3877, 4738). That Aaron represents the Lord, (n. 9806, 9810); also that a ”he-goat of the goats“ denotes the truth of faith, (n. 4169, 4769). That ”the wilderness“ denotes hell, is because the camp in which were the sons of Israel signified heaven (n. 4236); and therefore the wilderness is called a ”land of separation,“ or of ”cutting off.“  Thus by ”bearing iniquities into that land,“ that is into the wilderness, is signified to cast evils and falsities into hell, from which they are; and they are cast thither when they are removed so as not to appear, which is effected when a man is withheld from them by being kept in good by the Lord, according to what was said above.

[9] The like that was signified by the casting out of sins into the wilderness is signified by ”casting them forth into the depths of the sea,“ as in Micah:--

He will have compassion upon us; He will suppress our iniquities; and He will cast all their sins into the depths of the sea (Micah 7:19);

”the depth of the sea“ also denotes hell.

[10] From all this it is now evident that by ”Aaron bearing the iniquities of the holy things,“ is signified the removal of sins by the Lord from those who are in good; and that their removal is continually being effected by the Lord; and that this is meant by ”bearing iniquities.“ So also in another passage in Moses:--

Jehovah said unto Aaron, Thou and thy sons with thee shall hear the iniquity of the sanctuary; and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood. The sons of Israel shall no more come nigh the Tent of meeting, to bear sin, by dying. But the Levite shall do the work of the Tent, and they shall bear their iniquity (Num. 18:1, 22, 23).

The like is meant by ”bearing,“ in Isaiah:--

Attend unto Me O house of Israel that have been carried from the womb. Even to old age I am the same, and even to boar hairs will I carry; I have made, and I will carry; yea, I will bear, and will rescue (Isa. 46:3, 4).

[11] That”bearing iniquity“ denotes to expiate, thus to re move sins, is evident in Moses:--

Moses was indignant with Eleazar and with Ithamar because the he-goat of the sacrifice of sin had been burnt, saying, therefore did ye not eat it in the place of holiness, seeing that Jehovah hath given it you to bear the iniquities of the congregation, to expiate them before Jehovah (Lev. 10:16, 17).

That ”expiation“ means a cleansing from evils, thus removal from sins, (n. 9506); and that Aaron was enjoined to expiate the people, and to pardon their sins, (Leviticus 4:26, 31, 35; 5:6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 9:7; 15:15, 30). That ”to bear sins,“ when not said of the priesthood, denotes to be damned, thus to die, (Leviticus 5:1, 17; 7:18; 17:16; 19:8; 20:17, 19, 20; 22:9; 24:15; Numbers 9:13; 18:22; Ezekiel 18:19, 20; 23:49).

AC 9938. Which the sons of Israel shall sanctify in respect to all the gifts of their holy things.  That this signifies acts of worship representative of removal from sins, is evident from the signification of ”gifts“ or ”offerings,“ which among the Israelitish and Jewish nation were chiefly burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and meat-offerings, as being the interior things of worship, for these were what they represented. The interior things of worship are those which are of love and faith, and from this forgivenesses of sins, that is, removals from them, because sins are removed through faith and love from the Lord. For in so far as the good of love and of faith enters, or what is the same thing, so far as heaven enters, so far sins are removed, that is, so far hell is removed, both that which is within man, and that which is without him.  From this it is evident what is meant by ”the gifts which they sanctified,“ that is, offered. The gifts were called ”holy,“ and presenting or offering them was called ”sanctifying“ them, because they represented holy things; for they were offered for expiations, thus for removals from sins, which are effected through faith and love to the Lord from the Lord.

[2] They were called ”gifts and offerings made to Jehovah,“ although Jehovah, that is, the Lord, does not accept any gifts or offerings, but gives to everyone freely.  Nevertheless He wills that these things should come from man as from himself, provided he acknowledges that they are not from himself, but from the Lord. For the Lord imparts the affection of doing good from love, and the affection of speaking truth from faith; but the affection itself flows in from the Lord, and it appears as if it were in the man, thus from the man; for whatever a man does from the affection which is of love, he does from his life, because love is the life of everyone.  From this it is evident that what are called ”gifts and offerings made to the Lord“ by man are in their essence gifts and offerings made to man by the Lord; and their being called ”gifts and offerings“ is from the appearance. All who are wise in heart see this appearance; but not so the simple; and yet the gifts and offerings of the latter are grateful, in so far as they are offered from ignorance in which is innocence.  Innocence is the good of love to God, and dwells in ignorance, especially with the wise in heart; for they who are wise in heart know and perceive that there is nothing of wisdom in themselves from themselves; but that everything of wisdom is from the Lord, that is, everything of the good of love, and everything of the truth of faith; thus that even with the wise innocence dwells in ignorance.  From this it is evident that the acknowledgment of this fact, and especially the perception of it, is the innocence of wisdom.

[3] The gifts that were offered in the Jewish Church, and which were chiefly burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and meat-offerings, were also called ”expiations from sins,“ because they were offered for the sake of the forgivenesses of them, that is, removals from them.  Those who belonged to that church also believed that their sins were accordingly forgiven; nay, that they were entirely taken away; for it is said that after they had offered these things they would be ”forgiven“ (Lev. 4:26, 31, 35; 5:6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 9:7; 9:15, 18).  But they did not know that these offerings represented interior things, thus such things as are done by man from the love and faith that are from the Lord; and that these are the things which expiate, that is, remove sins, and that after they have been removed they appear as if they were quite removed or taken away, as has been shown above in this and in the preceding articles.  For that nation was in representative worship, thus in external worship without internal, by means of which there was at that time a conjunction of heaven with man. (n. 9320, 9380).

AC 9939. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead continually. That this signifies a representative of the Lord‘s love to eternity, is evident from the signification of ”the forehead,“ as being love (n. 9936); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord (n. 9806); and from the signification of ”continually,“ as being to eternity.  That ”continually“ denotes to eternity, is because all things that belong to time, when said of the Lord, signify eternal things; therefore also ”continually.“ For ”continually,“ ”daily,“ and ”always,“ are predicated of time.  From this also it is that ”yesterday,“ and ”today,“ when said of the Lord, likewise signify that which is eternal (n. 2838).

AC 9940. To make them well-pleasing before Jehovah.  That this signifies what is Divine of the Lord in them, is evident from the signification of ”well-pleasing,“ when said of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, as being from His Divine, for that which is well-pleasing to the Lord is that which is from Him with man, spirit, or angel; for it is then in another, in whom it is looked at, and thus is well-pleasing.  The things which are from the Lord are either nearer to, or more remote from Him; and they are said to be ”from His will,“ ”from good pleasure,“ ” from leave,“ and ”from permission.“ The things which are from will are most nearly from Him; those which are from good pleasure are somewhat more remotely from Him; those which are from leave still more remotely; and those which are from permission are most remotely from Him.  These are the degrees of the influx and reception of the Divine. But each degree contains innumerable things which are distinct from those which are in any other degree; and these innumerable things are  arcana of heaven, a few only of which fall into the human understanding.  For instance, to take only those things which take place from permission, which, although they are in the last place, nevertheless on account of the numberless  arcana therein cause a man to fall into confusion when he looks at them from the happenings of things in nature, and from appearances, and still more when from the fallacies of the senses.  Yet the  arcana of permission are comparatively few as compared with those of the higher degrees, which are the things that take place from leave, from good pleasure, and from will.

AC 9941. Verses 39, 40. And thou shalt checker the tunic of fine linen, and thou shalt make a miter of fine linen, and a belt thou shall make with the work of the embroiderer.  And for Aaron’s sons thou shall make tunics, and thou shalt make for them belts; and tiaras shall thou make for them, for glory and for comeliness.  ”And thou shalt checker the tunic of fine linen,“ signifies the inmost things of the spiritual kingdom that proceed from the truths of celestial love; ”and thou shalt make a miter of fine linen,“ signifies the wisdom there; ”and a belt,“ signifies a bond, and separation from the external things of this kingdom; ”thou shalt make with the work of the embroiderer,“ signifies by means of the knowledges of good and truth; ”and for Aaron‘s sons,“ signifies the Divine truths that proceed from the Lord’s Divine good in the heavens; ”thou shalt make tunics,“ signifies the things which are of faith there; ”and thou shalt make for them belts,“ signifies a holding together in connection; ”and tiaras shalt thou make for them,“ signifies the intelligence there; ”for glory and for comeliness,“ signifies the truth of the spiritual church

AC 9942. And thou shalt checker the tunic of fine linen.  That this signifies the inmost things of the spiritual kingdom that proceed from the truths of celestial love, is evident from the signification of Aaron‘s garments in general, as being the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom (n. 9814), and as the tunic was the inmost of these garments, therefore by it are signified the inmost things of this kingdom (that ”Aaron’s tunic“ denotes the Divine truth in the spiritual kingdom that proceeds immediately from the Divine celestial, (n. 9826); and from the signification of ”fine linen,“ as being truth from a celestial origin (n. 9469).  Of this tunic it is said that it was to be checkered, and by what is checkered is meant the work of a weaver, and by ”the work of a weaver“ is signified that which is from the celestial (n. 9915); the word by which ”checkering“ is expressed in the original tongue, means also ” weaving.“

[2] That this tunic was woven, or from the work of the weaver, is evident from what follows in the book of Exodus:--

They made tunics of fine linen, the work of the weaver, for Aaron and his sons (Exod. 39:27).

That it was checkered, that is, woven, of fine linen, was for the reason that there might be represented that which proceeds immediately from the celestial, which is relatively as it were continuous; for the things which proceed from the celestial are like those which with man proceed from his will; for all things with man that belong to the understanding proceed from his will.  Those things which proceed interiorly from the will are as it were continuous relatively to those which proceed exteriorly; and therefore among those things which proceed interiorly from the will there is especially the affection of truth; for all the affection of love in the understanding flows in from the man‘s will.  The case is similar in the heavens, where the celestial kingdom corresponds to the will of man, and the spiritual kingdom to his understanding (n. 9835); and because the garments of Aaron represented the Lord’s spiritual kingdom joined to His celestial kingdom (n. 9814), therefore the tunic represented that which is inmost there, thus that which proceeds most closely from the celestial kingdom, for the tunic was the inmost garment.  From this it is evident why the tunic was woven or checkered, and why it was of fine linen; for by ”that which is woven“ is signified that which is from the will, or from the celestial (n. 9915), and by ”fine linen“ is signified the truth which is from celestial love (n. 9469).

[3] The spiritual which is from the celestial is also signified in other parts of the Word by ”tunics,“ as by ”the tunics of skin“ which Jehovah God is said to have made for the man and his wife after they had eaten of the tree of knowledge (Gen. 3:20, 21). That by these ”tunics“ is signified truth from a celestial origin, cannot be known unless these things are unfolded according to the internal sense; and therefore this shall be unfolded.  By the man and his wife is there meant the celestial church, by the man himself as a husband is meant this church as to good, and by his wife this church as to truth.  This truth and that good were the truth and good of the celestial church. But when this church had fallen, which took place by means of reasonings from memory-knowledges about truths Divine, and which is signified in the internal sense by the persuasion of the serpent, this first state after the fall of that celestial church is what is there described, and its truth is described by ”the tunics of skin.“

[4] Be it known that by the creation of heaven and earth in the first chapter of Genesis, in the internal sense, is meant and described the new creation, or regeneration, of the man of the church at that time, thus the setting up of a celestial church; and that by the paradise are meant and described the wisdom and intelligence of that church, and by eating of the tree of knowledge its fall in consequence of reasoning from memory-knowledges about Divine things.  That such is the meaning may be seen from what has been shown on this subject in the explications at those chapters.  For all the things contained in the first chapters of Genesis are made up historical things, in the internal sense of which, as before said, are Divine things concerning the new creation or regeneration of the man of the celestial church.  This method of writing was customary in the most ancient times, not only among those who were of the church, but also among those who were outside the church, as among the Arabians, Syrians, and Greeks, as is evident from the books of those times, both sacred and profane.

[5] In imitation of these books, because derived from them, the Song of Songs was written by Solomon; for this book is not a holy book, because it does not contain within it heavenly and Divine things in a series, as do the holy books.  The book of Job also is a book of the Ancient Church.  Mention is also made of holy books of the Ancient Church which are now lost, as in Moses (Num. 21:14, 15, 27).  The historical parts of these books were called ”the Wars of Jehovah,“ and their prophetical parts were called ”the Enunciations“ (n. 2686, 2897).  That in the historical parts of the books called ”the Wars of Jehovah,“ the style was of this nature, is clear from what has been taken from them and quoted by Moses. In this way their historical things approached a certain prophetic style, of such a nature that the things might be retained in the memory by little children and also by the simple.  That the books named above were holy, is evident from what is quoted in (Num. 21:28, 29, and 30) of the same chapter, when compared with what is found in (Jeremiah 48:45, 46), where there are similar expressions.  That among people outside the church such a style was very much used at that time, and was almost the only style, is clear from the fables of those writers who were outside the church, in which they wrapped up moral things, or such as belong to the affections and life.

[6] In the historical things that were not made up, but were true, such as are those in the hooks of Moses after the first chapters of Genesis, and likewise in the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, ”tunics“ also signified spiritual truth, and the good of truth, that proceed from celestial truth and good. Be it known that spiritual truth and good are such as are the truth and good of the angels in the middle or second heaven; but that celestial truth and good are such as are the truth and good of the angels in the third or inmost heaven, (n. 9277). It is recorded in the books of Moses that Israel the father gave to Joseph his son a tunic of various colors, and that on account of this his brethren were indignant, and afterward stripped it off and dipped it in blood and sent it so to their father (Gen.  37:3, 23, 31-33).  These were true historicals, and as these in like manner contained within them, or in the internal sense, holy things of heaven and the church, thus Divine things, therefore by that ”tunic of various colors“ was signified the state of good and truth which Joseph represented, which was a state of spiritual truth and good that proceed from the, celestial (n. 3971, 4286, 4592, 4963, 5249, 5307, 5584, 5869, 5877, 6417, 6526, 9671).  For all the sons of Jacob represented in their order such things as belong to heaven and the church (n. 3858, 3926, 4060, 4603, 6335, 6337, 6397, 6640, 7836, 7891, 7996); but in this case they represented the opposite things.

[7] As all things contained in the books of the Word, both the historical and prophetical, are representative and significative of Divine celestial and spiritual things, therefore the affection of this truth is described by the ”king‘s daughter,“ and the truth itself by her ”garments,“ in David:--

The king’s daughter is among Thy precious ones; at Thy right hand doth stand the queen in the best gold of Ophir.  The daughter of Tyre shall bring an offering; the rich of the people shall entreat Thy faces. The king‘s daughter is all glorious within; thy   clothing (thy   tunic) is of weavings (or checkering) of gold. She shall be brought to the king in broidered work (Ps. 45:9, 12-14).

That a ”daughter“ in general signifies the affection of spiritual truth and good, thus also the church, (n. 2362, 3024, 3963, 9055); and that a ”king,“ when said of the Lord, signifies Divine truth, (n. 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5068, 6148). From this it is evident that all those things which are related in this psalm about the king’s daughter signify such things as belong to the affection of truth and good from the Lord in the church. Its being said that ”the daughter of Tyre shall bring an offering,“ signifies the knowledges of good and truth (that ”Tyre“ signifies these, (n. 1201); in like manner ”the rich of the people,“ for by ”riches“ in the spiritual sense nothing else is meant than the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1694, 4508). From this it is evident what is signified by ”the king‘s daughter being glorious within,“ and that ”her clothing was of the weavings of gold;“ for by her ”clothing“ is meant a tunic, as is evident from the signification of this word in the original tongue, where it signifies the garment next the body.  That it means a tunic is evident in (John 19:23, 24), where the Lord’s tunic is described, which in David (Ps. 22:18) is called, by the same word, ”clothing.“ So in the second book of Samuel (2 Samuel 13:18), it is said that the king‘s daughters were clad in tunics of divers colors. By ”the weavings of gold“ in David the like is meant as by ”the checkering of the tunic of Aaron,“ the same word being used in the original tongue.  What is meant by the ”broidered work“ in which she was to be brought to the king, (n. 9688).

[8] As such things were represented by the king’s daughter and by her garment, or tunic, therefore a king‘s daughters were at that time clothed in this manner, as is evident in the second book of Samuel:--

There was upon Tamar a tunic of divers colors; for with such wraps were the king’s daughters clothed (2 Sam. 13:18).

[9] Now as spiritual goods and truths were represented by tunics, it can be seen what is signified by ”Aaron‘s tunic,“ also what by ”the tunics of his sons,“ which are spoken of in the following verse of the present chapter, where it is said that ”for Aaron’s sons they should make tunics, belts, and tiaras, for glory and for comeliness.“ And as their tunics represented these holy things, it was said that Nadab and Abihu the sons of Aaron, who were burnt by fire from heaven, because they offered incense from strange fire, were brought forth outside the camp in their tunics (Lev. 10:1-5); for by ”strange fire“ is signified love from some other source than what is celestial, for in the Word ”holy fire“ denotes celestial or Divine love (n. 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324, 9434).  Consequently the spiritual goods and truths signified by their ”tunics“ were defiled, and therefore they were brought forth outside the camp in their tunics.

[10] The like is also signified by ”tunic“ in Micah:--

My people holds as an enemy by reason of a garment; ye strip the tunic from off them that pass by securely (Micah 2:8);

in this passage ”tunic“ is expressed in the original tongue by another word, which however signifies spiritual truth and good; ”stripping the tunic from off them that pass by securely“ denotes to deprive of their spiritual truths those who live in simple good; ”to hold anyone as an enemy by reason of a garment“ denotes to do evil to them on account of the truth which they think, when yet no one is to be injured on account of what he believes to be true, provided he is in good (n. 1798, 1799, 1834, 1844).

[11] From all this it can now be seen what is signified by a ”tunic“ in Matthew:--

Jesus said, Swear not at all; neither by the heaven, nor by the earth, nor by Jerusalem, nor by the head. Let your discourse be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay.  Whatsoever is beyond these is from evil.  If any man would drag thee to the law, and take away thy tunic, let him have thy cloak also (Matt. 5:34-37, 40);

be who does not know what is the state of the angels in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, cannot possibly know what these words of the Lord involve; for the subject here treated of is the state of good and truth with those who are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom, with whom all truth is imprinted on the heart.  For from the good of love to the Lord they know all truth, insomuch that they never reason about it, as is done in the spiritual kingdom; and therefore when truths are being spoken of, they only say, Yea, yea, or Nay, nay; and they do not even mention faith there.  Concerning their state (n. 9277). From this then it is evident what is signified by the injunction ”swear not at all;“ for by ”swearing“ is signified to confirm truths (n. 3375, 9166), which is done in the spiritual kingdom by means of the rational, and memory-knowledges from the Word.  By ”dragging to the law, and desiring to take away the tunic,“ is meant to debate about truths, and to wish to persuade that they are not true; a ”tunic“ denotes truth from what is celestial; for the celestial leave to everyone his truth without further reasoning.

[12] By a ”tunic“ is signified the truth from what is celestial in another passage also in Matthew:--

Jesus sent the twelve to preach the kingdom of the heavens, saying that they should not possess gold, nor silver, nor brass in their girdles; nor a scrip for the journey; neither two tunics, nor shoes, nor staves (Matt. 10:5, 7, 9, 10).

by these words was represented that those who are in goods and truths from the Lord possess nothing of good and truth from themselves, but that they have all truth and good from the Lord.  For by the twelve disciples were represented all who are in goods and truths from the Lord, and in the abstract sense all goods of love and truths of faith from the Lord (n. 3488, 3858, 6397). Goods and truths from self, and not from the Lord, are signified by ”possessing gold, silver, and brass in the girdles,“ and by a ”scrip;“ but truths and goods from the Lord are signified by ”a tunic, shoe, and staff;“ by ”the tunic,“ interior truth, or truth from the celestial; by ”the shoe,“ exterior truth, or truth in the natural (n. 1748, 6844); and by ”the staff,“ the power of truth (n. 4876, 4936, 6947, 7011, 7026).  But by ”two tunics,“ ”two pairs of shoes,“ and ”two staves,“ are signified truths and their powers from both the Lord and self.  That they were allowed to have one tunic, one pair of shoes, and one staff, is evident in (Mark 6:8, 9; Luke 9:2, 3).

[13] When it is known from these examples what is signified by a ”tunic,“ it is manifest what is signified by ”the Lord‘s tunic,“ of which we read in John:--

They took the garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and the tunic; and the tunic was without seam, woven from the top throughout.  They said, Let us not divide it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be; that the Scripture might be fulfilled which saith, They divided My garments among them, and upon My tunic did they cast a lot.  These things the soldiers did (John 19:23, 24; Ps. 22:18);

who cannot see, if he thinks from reason at all enlightened, that these proceedings signified Divine things, and that otherwise they would not have been foretold by David?  But what they signify cannot be known without the internal sense, thus without knowledge therefrom as to what is signified by ”garments;“ by ”casting lots“ upon, or ”dividing“ them; by a ”tunic;“ and by its being ”without seam,“ that is, woven throughout; and by ”soldiers.“ From the internal sense it is plain that by ”garments“ are signified truths, and by ”the Lord’s garments,“ Divine truths; by ”casting a lot,“ and ”dividing“ them is meant to pull these truths asunder and disperse them (n. 9093); by the ”tunic“ is signified Divine spiritual truth from the Divine celestial, the like as by ”Aaron‘s tunic,“ because Aaron represented the Lord; so also by its being ”without seam,“ and ”woven from the top throughout,“ the like is signified as by the ”checkered,“ or woven, ”work,“ in Aaron’s tunic. That the tunic was not divided signified that the Divine spiritual truth which proceeds most nearly from Divine celestial truth could not be dispersed, because this truth is the internal truth of the Word, such as is with the angels in heaven.

[14] Its being said that ”the soldiers did this,“ signifies that it was done by those who should fight for truths, thus by the Jews themselves, with whom was the Word, and who nevertheless were of such a nature that they dispersed it. For they had the Word, and yet they were not willing to know from it that the Lord was the Messiah and the Son of God who was to come, nor anything internal of the Word, but only what is external; which they also wrested to their loves, which were the loves of self and of the world, thus to favor the lusts which spring from these loves. These things were signified by ”the dividing of the Lord‘s garments;“ for whatever they did to the Lord represented the state of Divine truth and Divine good among them at that time; thus that they treated Divine truths in the same way as they treated Him. That the Lord while in the world was the Divine truth itself, (n. 9199, 9315).

AC 9943. And thou shalt make a miter of fine linen. That this signifies the wisdom there, is evident from the signification of ”a miter,“ as being intelligence, and when said of the Lord, who is here represented by Aaron, as being wisdom (n. 9827); and from the signification of” fine linen,“ as being truth from a celestial origin (n. 9469); for the wisdom which is here signified by ”the miter“ comes from this truth. For all wisdom and intelligence are from the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine good. There are no other wisdom and intelligence that really are such, because there are none from any other source.  Intelligence is to know and understand truths Divine, and afterward to have faith in them; and wisdom is to will and love these truths, and from this to live according to them.

AC 9944. And a belt. That this signifies a bond, and separation from the external things of this kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”a belt,“ as being the external bond that holds together all things of love and faith in their connection and form, so that they look to one end (n. 9341, 9828, 9837). That it also signifies separation from the external things, is because in this way it gathers up and holds together the internal things, and that which gathers up and holds together the internal things, also separates them from the external things.  The internal things of the spiritual kingdom are signified by ”the tunic,“ because this was the inmost clothing, and its external things are signified by ”the robe,“ and ”the ephod,“ because these were the outer garments. That by the garments of Aaron was represented the spiritual kingdom, (n. 9814); by the ephod its external, (n. 9824); by the robe its interior, (n. 9825); and by the tunic the inmost, (n. 9826).

AC 9945. Thou shalt make with the work of the embroiderer. That this signifies by means of the knowledges of good and truth, is evident from the signification of ”the work of the embroiderer,“ as being that which is from memory-knowledges (n. 9688).  It is said ”by means of the knowledges of good and truth,“ because by these knowledges are meant interior memory-knowledges such as are those of the church concerning faith and love.  That these memory-knowledges are here signified by ”the work of the embroiderer,“ is because by ”the belt“ of the tunic, which was of the work of the embroiderer, is signified the inmost bond of the spiritual kingdom; and because all things in the spiritual world are held together in connection by means of knowledges, and the affections thence derived.

AC 9946. And for Aaron‘s sons.  That this signifies the Divine truths that proceed from the Lord’s Divine good in the heavens, is evident from the representation of the sons of Aaron, as being the Divine truths that proceed from the Lord‘s Divine good (n. 9807).  That ”in the heavens“ is signified, is because what is Divine of the Lord in the heavens is that which is represented by the priesthood of Aaron and his sons; Divine good in the heavens by the priesthood of Aaron, and Divine truth from Divine good there by the priesthood of his sons.  It is said ”in the heavens,“ because the Lord Himself is above the heavens, for He is the Sun of heaven; and yet His presence is in the heavens, and is as if He Himself were there.  He Himself in the heavens, that is, His Divine good and His Divine truth there, can be represented; but not His Divine which is above the heavens, for the reason that the latter cannot fall into human minds, and not even into angelic minds, because it is infinite: but the Divine in the heavens which is from it, is accommodated to reception.

AC 9947. Thou shalt make tunics. That this signifies the things which are of faith there, is evident from the signification of a ”tunic,“ when said of Aaron, as being Divine truth inmostly in the spiritual kingdom, thus that which proceeds immediately from the celestial (n. 9826, 9942); but when it is said of Aaron’s sons, the ”tunic“ denotes that which is of faith, for it denotes that which proceeds from the spiritual which is from the celestial.  This proceeding is what is called ”the faith of truth.“

AC 9948. And thou shalt make for them belts.  That this signifies a holding together in connection, is evident from the signification of ”belts,“ as being external bonds which hold together in connection the truths and goods of faith and love (n. 9341, 9828, 9837, 9944).

AC 9949. And tiaras shalt thou make for them. That this signifies the intelligence there, is evident from the signification of a ”miter,“ and in general of a covering for the head, as being intelligence and wisdom (n. 9827); consequently also a ”tiara;“ for the covering of the head for the sons of Aaron was called ”a tiara.“

AC 9950. For glory and for comeliness. That this signifies the truth of the spiritual church, is evident from the signification of ”for glory and for comeliness,“ as being to present, in an internal and an external form, Divine truth such as it is in the spiritual kingdom joined to the celestial kingdom (n. 9815); but here it denotes the truth of the spiritual church which is thence derived; for by Aaron is represented Divine good in the heavens, and by his sons the Divine truth thence derived.  Moreover the Divine good there is as a father, and the Divine Truth from it is as a son; and because this is so by ”father“ in the Word is signified good, and by ”sons“ truths. And indeed truths are born from goods when the man is being born anew, that is, when he is being regenerated.

AC 9951. Verse 41.  And thou shall put them on Aaron thy brother, and on his sons with him; and shalt anoint them, and fill their hand, and shalt sanctify them, and they shall minister to Me in the priest‘s office.  ”And thou shalt put them on Aaron thy brother,“ signifies such a state of Divine good in the spiritual kingdom; ”and on his sons with him,“ signifies such a state there in the external things proceeding therefrom; ”and shalt anoint them,“ signifies a representative of the Lord as to the good of love; ”and fill their hand,“ signifies a representative of the Lord as to the truth of faith; ”and shalt sanctify them,“ signifies thus a representative of the Lord as to the Divine Human; ”and they shall minister to Me in the priest’s office,“ signifies a representative of the Lord in respect to the whole work of salvation from the Divine Human.

AC 9952. And thou shalt put them on Aaron thy brother.  That this signifies such a state of Divine good in the spiritual kingdom, is evident from the signification of ”to put on,“ as being to induce the state of the thing which is represented by the garments, here the state of Divine truth in the spiritual kingdom; for by Aaron is represented the Lord as to Divine good, and therefore also the Divine good which is from the Lord (n. 9806); and by his garments is represented the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom joined to His celestial kingdom (n. 9814). That by ”to put on“ is signified to induce the state which is represented by the garments that are put on, originates in the representatives in the other life.  The spirits there, and the angels, all appear clothed in garments, each one according to the state of truth in which he is, thus each one according to his understanding that corresponds to the will which is in him. The reason of this is that the understanding in man clothes his will; and the understanding is formed of truths, and the will of goods; and good is what is clothed (n. 5248).  It is from this that ”garments“ in the Word signify truths (n. 165, 1073, 4545, 4763, 5954, 6378, 6914, 6918, 9093, 9814); and that this has its origin from the representatives in the other life, see (n. 9212, 9216, 9814).

AC 9953. And on his sons with him.  That this signifies such a state there in the external things proceeding therefrom, is evident from the signification of ”putting on,“ as being to induce a state such as is represented by the garments (n. 9952); here such a state as is represented by the garments of the sons of Aaron, which is a state of the external things that proceed from Divine truth in the spiritual kingdom; for by ”sons,“ and so also by their ”garments,“ is signified that which proceeds (n. 9950).

AC 9954. And thou shalt anoint them.  That this signifies a representative of the Lord as to the good of love, is evident from the signification of ”anointing,“ as being inauguration to represent (n. 9474).  That it denotes inauguration to represent the Lord as to the good of love, or what is similar, to represent the good of love which is from the Lord, is because by the oil wherewith the anointing was done is signified the good of love (n. 886, 4582, 4638, 9780).  It is important to know about this, because anointing has remained in use from ancient time to the present day; for kings are anointed; and anointing is accounted holy at the present day in like manner as it was formerly.  Among the ancients, when all external worship was performed by means of representatives, that is, by such things as represented the interior things of faith and love from the Lord and to Him, thus such as are Divine, anointing was instituted for the reason that the oil with which the anointing was done, signified the good of love; for they knew that the good of love was that essential thing from which all things of the church and of worship live, because it is the being of life.  For the Divine flows in with a man through the good of love, and makes his life, indeed that heavenly life in which truths are received in good.  From this it is plain what anointing represented.  Wherefore the things which were anointed were called holy, and were also accounted as holy, and were of service to the church for representing Divine and heavenly things, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself who is good itself, thus for representing the good of love which is from Him, and also the truth of faith in so far as it lives from the good of love.  From this then it was that at that time they anointed stones that were set up for pillars; also weapons of war, such as shields and bucklers; and afterward the altar and all its vessels; likewise the Tent of meeting, and all things therein; and moreover those who administered the priesthood, and their garments; likewise prophets, and lastly kings, who from this were called ”the anointed of Jehovah.“ It also became customary to anoint themselves and others, in order to testify gladness of mind and goodwill.

[2] As regards the first point: That they anointed stones erected for pillars, this is evident in the book of Genesis:--

Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had placed for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the head of it (Gen. 28:18);

the reason why they anointed stones in this manner was that ”stones“ signified truths, and truths without good have no life of heaven within them, that is, no life from the Divine.  But when the stones were anointed with oil, they represented truths from good, and in the supreme sense the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord’s Divine good, thus the Lord Himself, who from this was called ”the Stone of Israel“ (n. 6426). That ”stones“ denote truths, (n. 643, 1298, 3720, 3769, 3771, 3773, 3789, 3798, 6426, 8941, 9476); in like manner ”pillars,“ (n. 3727, 4580, 9388, 9389); and that ”to anoint pillars“ denotes to cause truths to be from good, thus to be truths of good, consequently goods, (n. 3728, 4090, 4582). That stones erected for pillars were afterward accounted holy, is evident from the same chapter of Genesis, where it is said:--

Jacob called the name of that place Bethel, and said, If I return in peace to my father‘s house, this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall be God’s house (Genesis 28:19-22);

”Bethel“ means ”the house of God,“ and ”the house of God“ denotes the church, and also heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord Himself (n. 3720).

[3] Secondly: That they anointed the weapons of war, such as shields and bucklers, is evident in these passages:--

Rise up, ye Princes, anoint the shield (Isa. 11:5).

The shield of the heroes was defiled, the shield of Saul not anointed with oil (2 Sam. 1:21).

The reason why weapons of war were anointed, was that they signified truths fighting against falsities; and truths from good are what prevail against falsities; but not truths without good.  Wherefore weapons of war represented the truths that proceed from the good which is from the Lord, thus the truths by means of which the Lord Himself in men fights for them against falsities from evil, that is, against the hells. That ”weapons of war“ denote truths that fight against falsities, (n. 1788, 2686); for in the Word ”war“ signifies spiritual combat, (n. 1664, 2686, 8273, 8295); and ”enemies“ signify the hells, and in general, evils and falsities, (n. 2851, 8289, 9314).

[4] Thirdly: That they anointed the altar and all its vessels, also the Tent of meeting and all the things therein, is evident in the following passages:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, Thou shalt anoint the altar and sanctify it (Exod. 29:36).

Thou shalt make an anointing oil of holiness with which thou shalt anoint the Tent of meeting, and the ark of the Testimony, and the table and all the vessels thereof, and the lampstand and all the vessels thereof, and the altar of incense, and the altar of burnt-offering and all the vessels thereof, and the laver and the base thereof. Thus thou shalt sanctify them, that they may be holy of holies; whosoever toucheth them shall sanctify himself (Exod. 30:25-29).

Thou shalt take the anointing oil, and anoint the Habitation, and all that is therein, and thou shalt sanctify it, and all the vessels thereof, that they may be holy. And thou shalt anoint the altar of burnt-offering, and all its vessels, and thou shalt sanctify the altar, that the altar may be holy of holies. And thou shalt anoint the laver and its base, and shalt sanctify it (Exod. 40:9-11).

Moses anointed the Habitation and all that was therein; and he sprinkled of the oil upon the altar and all its vessels, and the laver and its base, to sanctify them (Lev. 8:10-12; Num. 7:1).

[5] The reason why the altar, and the Habitation with all things therein, were anointed, was that they might represent the Divine and holy things of heaven and of the church, consequently the holy things of worship; and they could not represent these things unless they had been inaugurated by means of something that represented the good of love; for the Divine enters through the good of love, and through this good is present in heaven and in the church, consequently also in worship.  Without this good the Divine does not enter, and is not present, but what is man‘s own, and with this, hell; and when hell is present, evil and falsity are present; for man’s own is nothing else.  From this it is evident why the anointing was done with oil; for in the representative sense ”oil“ denotes the good of love (n. 886, 4582, 4638, 9780); and the altar was the chief representative of the Lord, and from this of worship from the good of love (n. 2777, 2811, 4489, 4541, 8935, 8940, 9388, 9389, 9714); and the Habitation together with the ark was the chief representative of heaven where the Lord is (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9594, 9596, 9632, 9784). That what is man‘s own is nothing but evil and falsity, thus hell, (n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1047, 3812, 5660, 8480, 8941, 8944); also that in so far as what is man’s own is removed, so far the Lord can be present, (n. 1023, 1044, 4007).

[6] Fourthly: That they anointed those who administered the priesthood, and their garments, is evident in Moses:--

Take thou the anointing oil, and pour it upon the head of Aaron, and anoint him (Exod. 29:7; 30:30).

Thou shalt put on Aaron the holy garments; and thou shalt anoint him, and sanctify him, that he may minister to Me in the priest‘s office; and thou shalt anoint his sons, as thou didst anoint their father; and it shall be that their anointing shall be to them for the priesthood of an age in their generations (Exod. 40:13-15).

Moses poured of the oil upon Aaron’s head, and anointed him, to sanctify him. Then he took of the anointing oil, and of the blood which was upon the altar, and sprinkled it upon Aaron, upon his garments, upon his sons, and upon his sons‘ garments with him; and sanctified Aaron, his garments, and his sons, and his sons’ garments with him (Lev. 8:12, 30).

[7] The reason why Aaron was anointed, and why his sons were anointed, and even their garments, was that they might represent the Lord as to Divine good, and as to the Divine truth thence derived; Aaron, the Lord as to Divine good; and his sons, the Lord as to the Divine truth thence derived; and in general, that the priesthood might represent the Lord as to the whole work of salvation. The reason why they were anointed in his garments (Exod. 29:29), was that Aaron‘s garments represented the Lord’s spiritual kingdom joined to His celestial kingdom. The celestial kingdom is where the good of love to the Lord from the Lord reigns; so that the influx of the Divine into the spiritual kingdom is effected through the good of love. On this account the inauguration into representation was effected with oil, which in the spiritual sense denotes the good of love. That Aaron represented the Lord as to Divine good, (n. 9806); and that his sons represented the Lord as to Divine truth proceeding from Divine good, (n. 9807); also that the priesthood in general represented the Lord as to the whole work of salvation, (n. 9809); that Aaron‘s garments represented the Lord’s spiritual kingdom joined to His celestial kingdom, (n. 9814); that his sons‘ garments represented the things which proceed therefrom, (n. 9946, 9950); and that in the celestial kingdom the good of love to the Lord reigns, (n. 9277).

[8] As the inauguration into representation was effected by anointing, and as by Aaron and his sons were represented the Lord and that which is from Him, therefore to Aaron and his sons were given the holy things of the sons of Israel that were given to Jehovah as gifts, and were called ”heave-offerings;“ and it is said that they are an anointing, and likewise stand for an anointing; that is, that they are a representation, or stand for a representation, of the Lord; and that they are from Him; as is evident from these words in Moses:--

The wave-breast and the heave-shoulder have I taken from among the sons of Israel from the sacrifices of the peace-offerings, and have given them unto Aaron and unto his sons. This is the anointing of Aaron, and the anointing of his sons, from the offerings of Jehovah made by fire, which I have commanded to be given unto them in the day that he anointed them from among the sons of Israel (Lev. 7:34-36).

Jehovah spake unto Aaron, Behold I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings, in respect to all the holy things of the sons of Israel; unto thee have I given them by reason of the anointing, and to thy sons, in a statute of eternity. Every offering of theirs, in respect to all their meat-offering, in respect to all sacrifice for sin and for guilt, all the wave offering of the sons of Israel, all the fat of the pure oil, and all the fat of the new wine, and of the grain, the firstfruits of them which they shall give unto Jehovah; to thee have I given them; also everything devoted in Israel; everything that openeth the womb; thus all the heave-offering of the holy things. Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion in the midst of them. I am thy portion and thine inheritance in the midst of the sons of Israel (Num. 18:8-20).

From these words it is evident that ”anointing“ denotes representation, because they were inaugurated into representation by means of anointing; and that by it was signified that all inauguration into the holiness of heaven and of the church is through the good of love which is from the Lord, and that the good of love is the Lord with them.  Because it is so, it is said that ”Jehovah is his portion and inheritance.“

[9] Fifthly: That they anointed the prophets also, is evident from the following passages:--

Jehovah said unto Elijah, Anoint Hazael to be king over the Syrians; and anoint Jehu to be king over Israel; and anoint Elisha to be prophet in thy room (1 Kings 19:15, 16).

The Spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon Me; therefore Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach good tidings unto the poor; He hath sent Me to bind up the broken-hearted, to preach liberty to the captives (Isa. 61:1).

The reason why the prophets were anointed was that they represented the Lord in respect to the doctrine of Divine truth, consequently in respect to the Word, for this is the doctrine of Divine truth. That the prophets represented the Word, see (n. 3652, 7269), specifically Elijah and Elisha, (n. 2762, 5247, 9372). And that it is the Lord as to the Divine Human who is represented, and who is therefore meant by ”him whom Jehovah hath anointed,“ the Lord Himself teaches in (Luke 4:18-21).

[10] Sixthly: That afterward they anointed the kings, who were then called ”the anointed of Jehovah,“ is evident from many passages in the Word (1 Sam. 10:1; 15:1; 16:3, 6, 12; 24:6; 26:9, 11, 16; 2 Sam. 1:16; 2:4, 7; 5:3; 19:21; 1 Kings 1:34, 35; 19:15, 16; 2 Kings 9:3; 11:12; 23:30; Lam. 4:20; Hab. 3:13; Ps. 2:2, 6; 20:6; 28:8; 45:7; 84:9; 89:20, 38, 51; 132:17). The reason why they anointed the kings was that these might represent the Lord in respect to judgment from Divine truth; therefore in the Word by ”kings“ are signified truths Divine (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).

[11] The reason why the kings were called ”the anointed of Jehovah,“ and why it was therefore sacrilegious to injure them, was that by ”the anointed of Jehovah“ is meant the Lord as to the Divine Human; although according to the sense of the letter the term is applied to a king who was anointed with oil For when the Lord was in the world, He was, in respect to the Human, the Divine truth itself; and in respect to the very being of His life, He was the Divine good itself, which with man is called the soul from the father; for He was conceived from Jehovah, and in the Word ”Jehovah“ denotes the Divine good of the Divine love, which is the being of the life of all. From this it is that the Lord alone was ”the Anointed of Jehovah“ in very essence and in very performance, because the Divine good was in Him; and the Divine truth proceeding from this good was in His Human while He was in the world (n. 9194, 9315). The kings of the earth, however, were not ”the Anointed of Jehovah,“ but they represented the Lord, who alone is ”the Anointed of Jehovah;“ and therefore on account of this anointing it was sacrilegious to injure the kings of the earth.  But the anointing of the kings of the earth was done with oil, while the anointing of the Lord as to the Divine Human was done with the Divine good itself of the Divine love, which the oil represented. From this it is that He was called ”the Messiah,“ and ”the Christ,“ ”Messiah“ in the Hebrew tongue meaning ”the Anointed,“ in like manner as ”Christ“ in the Greek tongue (John 1:41; 4:25).

[12] From all this it can be seen that where mention is made in the Word of ”the anointed of Jehovah,“ the Lord is meant, as in Isaiah:--

The Spirit of the Lord Jehovih is upon Me; therefore Jehovah hath anointed Me to preach good tidings unto the poor; He hath sent Me to bind up the broken-hearted, to preach liberty to the captives (Isa. 61:1).

That the Lord as to the Divine Human is the one whom Jehovah anointed, is evident in Luke, where the Lord openly says so in these passages:--

There was delivered to Jesus the book of the prophet Isaiah. And He unrolled the book, and found the place where it was written, The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me; wherefore He hath anointed Me to preach good tidings to the poor; He hath sent Me to heal the broken-hearted, to preach release to the bound, and sight to the blind, to send away the wounded with deliverance, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord.  Afterward, rolling up the book, He gave it to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on Him. And He began to say unto them, This day hath this Scripture been fulfilled in your ears (Luke 4:17-21).

[13]

Know therefore and perceive, that from the going forth of the Word even to restore and to build Jerusalem, even unto the Messiah the Prince, shall be seven weeks (Dan. 9:25);

”to build Jerusalem“ denotes to set up the church, for ”Jerusalem“ denotes the church (n. 3654); ”Messiah the Prince,“ or ”the Anointed,“ denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human.  Again:--

Seventy weeks have been decreed, to seal up the vision and the prophet, and to anoint the Holy of holies (Dan. 9:24);

”sealing up the vision and the prophet“ denotes to close up the things that have been said in the Word about the Lord, and to fulfil them; ”to anoint the Holy of holies“ denotes the Divine Human of the Lord, in which was the Divine good of the Divine love, that is, Jehovah.

[14] By ”the anointed of Jehovah“ is also meant the Lord in the following passages:--

The kings of the earth have set themselves, and the rulers have consulted together, against Jehovah, and against His anointed. I have anointed My king upon Zion, the mountain of My holiness (Ps. 2:2, 6);

”the kings of the earth“ denote falsities, and ”the rulers,“ evils, which are from the hells, and against which the Lord fought when He was in the world, and which He conquered and subdued; ”the anointed of Jehovah“ denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human, for from this He fought; ”Zion the mountain of holiness,“ upon which He is said ”to be anointed as the king,“ denotes the celestial kingdom, which is in the good of love. This kingdom is the inmost of heaven, and the inmost of the church.

[15] Again:--

I have found David My servant, with the oil of holiness I have anointed him (Ps. 89:20);

where by ”David“ is meant the Lord (n. 1888); ”the oil of holiness with which Jehovah anointed him,“ denotes the Divine good of the Divine love (n. 886, 4582, 4638). That it is the Lord who is here meant by ”David,“ is plain from what precedes and from what follows in this Psalms, for it is said:--

Thou spakest in vision concerning Thy Holy One, I will set His hand in the sea, and His right hand in the rivers.  He shall call Me, My Father; I also will make Him the firstborn, high above the kings of the earth. I will set His seed to eternity, and His throne as the days of the heavens (Psalms 89:19, 25-27, 29);

besides many other passages.

[16] In like manner in the same:--

In Zion will I make a horn to bud unto David; I will set in order a lamp for Mine anointed. His enemies will I clothe with shame; and upon Himself shall His crown flourish (Ps. 132:17, 18);

that here also the Lord is meant by ”David,“ is plain from what precedes, where it is said:--

Lo, we heard of Him in Ephrathah, we found Him in the fields of the forest. We will go into His habitations, we will bow at His footstool. Thy priests shall be clothed with righteousness, and Thy saints shall shout for joy. For Thy servant David’s sake turn not away the faces of Thine anointed (Ps. 132:6, 7, 9, 10).

From these passages it can be seen that the Lord as to His Divine Human is here meant by ”David, the anointed of Jehovah.“

[17] In Jeremiah:--

They chased us upon the mountains; they laid wait for us in the wilderness. The breath of our nostrils, the anointed of Jehovah, was taken in their pits, of whom we had said, In His shadow we shall live among the nations (Lam. 4:19, 20);

where also by ”the anointed of Jehovah“ is meant the Lord, for the subject here treated of is the assault on Divine truth by falsities and evils, which is signified by ”being chased upon the mountains,“ and by ”being laid wait for in the wilderness;“ ”the breath of the nostrils“ denotes the heavenly life itself which is from the Lord (n. 9818).

[18] From all this it can now be known why it was so sacrilegious to injure the anointed of Jehovah, as also is plain from the Word; as in the following passages:--

David said, Jehovah forbid that I should do this word unto my lord, the anointed of Jehovah, to put forth my hand against him, seeing that the anointed of Jehovah is he (1 Sam. 24:6, 10).

David said unto Abishai, Destroy him not; for who shall put forth his hand against the anointed of Jehovah and be innocent? (1 Sam. 26:9).

David said unto him who said that he had slain Saul, Thy blood be upon thy head; because thou hast said, I have slain the anointed of Jehovah (2 Sam. 1:16).

Abishai said, Shall not Shimei be slain for this, because he cursed the anointed of Jehovah? (2 Sam. 19:21).

That Shimei was slain for this by order of Solomon, may be seen in (1 Kings 2:36-46).

[19] Seventhly: That it had become customary to anoint themselves and others in order to testify gladness of mind and good will, is evident from the following passages:--

I Daniel was mourning three weeks.  I ate no bread of desires, and flesh and wine came not to my mouth, and anointing I was not anointed, even until three weeks of days were fulfilled (Dan. 10:2, 3).

Thou, when thou fastest, anoint thy head, and wash thy face; that thou appear not to men to fast, but to thy Father in secret (Matt. 6:17, 18);

”to fast“ denotes to be in mourning.  Again:--

They who drink out of goblets of wine, and anoint themselves from the firstfruits of the oils; but they are not grieved over the breach of Joseph (Amos 6:6).

I washed thee with waters; yea, I washed away thy blood, and I anointed thee with oil (Ezek. 16:9);

speaking of Jerusalem, by which is signified the church.  Again:--

Thou shalt tread the olive, but shalt not anoint thee with oil (Micah 6:15).

Thou shalt have olive trees in all thy border, but thou shalt not anoint thyself with the oil; for thine olive shall be shaken off (Deut. 28:40).

To give unto them a miter for ashes, the oil of joy for mourning (Isa. 61:3).

Thy God hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness beyond thy fellows (Ps. 45:7)

Thou settest in order a table before me in the presence of mine enemies; Thou makest fat my head with oil (Ps. 23:5).

My horn shalt Thou exalt like the horn of the unicorn; I shall grow old with fresh oil (Ps. 92:10).

Wine maketh glad the heart of man, to cheer his faces with oil (Ps. 104:15).

The disciples going out anointed with oil many that were infirm, and healed them (Mark 6:12, 13).

Jesus said unto Simon, I entered into thine house, and My head with oil thou didst not anoint; but this woman hath anointed My feet with ointment (Luke 7:44, 46).

[20] From all this it is evident that it was customary to anoint themselves and others with oil; not with the oil of holiness with which the priests, the kings, the altar, and the tabernacle were anointed; but with common oil; for the reason that this oil signified the gladness and satisfaction that belong to the love of good; whereas the oil of holiness signified the Divine good, of which it is said:--

Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured, and in the quality thereof ye shall not make any like it. It shall be holy to you. Whosoever shall prepare any like it, or whosoever shall put any of it upon a stranger, he shall be cut off from his peoples (Exod. 30:32, 33, 38).

AC 9955. And thou shalt fill their hand.  That this signifies a representative of the Lord as to the truth of faith, is evident from the signification of ”filling the hand“ of Aaron and of his sons, as being to inaugurate into the representation of the Lord in respect to the Divine truth which is of faith; for by ”the hand“ is signified the power that belongs to truth from good; and therefore ”the hand“ is predicated of truth (n. 3091, 3387, 4931-4937, 7518, 8281, 9025).  From this then it is that just as anointing represented the Lord as to Divine good, so the filling of the hands represented the Lord as to Divine truth; for all things in the universe bear relation to good and truth, and to both, in order that they may be anything; and therefore in the Word where good is treated of, truth also is treated of (n. 9263, 9314).  In what manner the hands were filled, is described in the following chapter; and therefore of the Lord‘s Divine mercy the meaning of it shall be told there.

AC 9956. And shalt sanctify them.  That this signifies thus a representative of the Lord as to the Divine Human, is evident from the signification of ”sanctifying,“ as being to represent holiness itself, which is the Lord as to the Divine Human, for it is this alone which is holy, and from which is all holiness in the heavens and on earth.  Everyone is able to know that the oil did not sanctify; but that it induced a representative of holiness.  The case herein is this. The Lord Himself is above the heavens, for He is the Sun of the angelic heaven.  The Divine which thence proceeds from Him in the heavens is what is called ”holy.“ The Divine of the Lord above the heavens could not be represented, because it is infinite; but only the Divine of the Lord in the heavens, for this is accommodated to the reception of the angels there, who are finite.  In their perception this Divine is the Lord’s Divine Human, which alone is holy, and which was represented.  From this it is evident what is signified by being ”sanctified,“ and why after the anointing it was said, as in Moses, ”Thou shalt anoint the altar, and sanctify it“ (Exod. 29:36); ”thou shalt anoint the Tent of meeting, and all things therein, and shalt sanctify them“ (Exod. 30:26-29); ”thou shalt anoint Aaron and sanctify him“ (Exod. 40:13); ”Moses anointed Aaron and his garments, his sons and their garments, and sanctified them“ (Lev. 8:13, 30). That the Lord alone is holy, and that everything holy is from Him, and that all sanctification represented Him, (n. 9229, 9680); also that the Lord in the heavens is ”the sanctuary,“ and therefore also heaven, (n. 9479); and that the Holy Spirit is the Divine that proceeds from the Lord, (n. 9818, 9820).

AC 9957. And they shall minister to him in the priest‘s office. That this signifies a representative of the Lord in respect to the whole work of salvation from the Divine Human, is evident from the signification of ”the priest’s office,“ as being a representative of the Lord in respect to the whole work of salvation (n. 9809). This is said after the sanctification by anointing, because the work of salvation is from the Lord‘s Divine Human (n. 9956).

AC 9958. Verses 42, 43. And thou shalt make for them breeches of linen to cover the flesh of their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall be.  And they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they go in unto the Tent of meeting, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in what is holy; lest they bear iniquity, and die: it is a statute of an age to him and to his seed after him. ”And thou shalt make for them breeches of linen,“ signifies what is external of conjugial love; ”to cover the flesh of their nakedness,“ signifies lest the interior things of the love, which are filthy and infernal, should appear; ”from the loins even unto the thighs they shall be,“ signifies their extension, that is, of the exteriors of conjugial love; ”and they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons,“ signifies protection from the hells; ”when they go in unto the Tent of meeting,“ signifies in the representative worship of all things of heaven and of the church; ”or when they come near unto the altar to minister in what is holy,“ signifies in the representative worship of the Lord Himself; ”lest they bear iniquity, and die,“ signifies the annihilation of the whole of worship; ”it is a statute of an age to him and to his seed after him,“ signifies the laws of order in the representative church.

AC 9959. And thou shalt make for them breeches of linen.  That this signifies what is external of conjugial love, is evident from the signification of ”breeches,“ as being what is external of love; and from the signification of ”linen,“ as being external truth, or natural truth.  The reason why ”breeches“ signify what is external of conjugial love, is that garments or coverings derive their signification from that part of the body which they cover (n. 9827), and the loins together with the genitals, which are clothed or covered by the breeches, signify conjugial love. That ”the loins“ have this signification, (n. 3021, 4280, 4575); and also ”the genitals,“ (n. 4462, 5050-5062). What love truly conjugial is, shall be told in the following article.

[2] The reason why the breeches were made of linen, was that ”linen“ signifies external truth, that is, natural truth (n. 7601), and the external itself is truth.  The reason why the external is truth, is that internal things cease in external ones, and rest upon these as their supports; and supports are truths.  They are like the foundations on which a house is built; and therefore ”the foundations of a house“ signify truths of faith from good (n. 9643).  Moreover truths are what protect goods from evils and falsities, and resist them; and all the power which good has is by means of truths (n. 9643).  From this also it is that in the ultimate of heaven are those who are in truths of faith from good; and therefore also the ultimate, or outermost, with man, which is his outer skin, corresponds to those in the heavens who are in truths of faith (n. 5552-5559, 8980); but not to those who are in faith separate from good, for these are not in heaven.  From all this it can now be seen why the breeches were of linen.  But when Aaron was clothed in garments which were for glory and comeliness, his breeches were of linen with fine linen interwoven, as is evident from what follows, where it is said:--

They made the tunics of fine linen, the work of the weaver, and the miter of fine linen, and the adornments of the tiaras of fine linen, and the breeches of linen with fine linen interwoven (Exod. 39:27, 28).

But when he was clothed in the garments of holiness, Aaron’s breeches were of linen, as is evident from these words in Moses:--

When Aaron shall enter into the holiness within the veil, he shall put on the linen tunic of holiness, and the linen breeches shall be put upon his flesh, and he shall gird himself with the linen belt, and he shall put on himself the linen miter; these are the garments of holiness; he shall also wash his flesh with water when he puts them on; and he shall then first offer burnt-offerings and sacrifices, by which he shall expiate the holiness from uncleannesses (Lev. 16:2, 23, 24).

[3] The reason why Aaron then went clothed with linen garments, which were also called ”garments of holiness,“ was that he then administered the office of expiating the Tent, as also the people and himself, from uncleannesses; and all expiation, which was effected by means of washings, burnt-offerings, and sacrifices, represented the purification of the heart from evils and falsities, thus regeneration; and purification from evils and falsities, or regeneration, is effected by means of the truths of faith. Therefore there were then linen garments upon Aaron, for as before said, by ”the linen garments“ were signified the truths of faith. That all purification from evils and falsities is effected by means of the truths of faith, (n. 2799, 5954, 7044, 7918, 9089); thus that regeneration is so effected, (n. 1555, 2046, 2063, 2979, 3332, 3665, 3690, 3786, 3876, 3877, 4096, 4097, 5893, 6247, 8635, 8638-8640, 8772, 9088, 9089, 9103).

[4] It was for the same reason that the priest put on linen clothing, and linen breeches, when he took the ashes away from the altar (Lev. 6:10, 11); and that the priests the Levites, of the sons of Zadok, were also to do the same when they should enter into the sanctuary, of which we read in Ezekiel:--

The priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, shall enter into My sanctuary, and shall come near to My table, to minister to Me.  When they shall enter in at the gates of the inner court, they shall put on linen garments; and no wool shall come upon them, when they shall enter in at the gates of the inner court inward.  There shall be linen tiaras upon their heads, and linen breeches shall be upon their loins; they shall not gird themselves with sweat (Ezek. 44:15-18);

the new temple is here treated of, by which is signified the New Church; by ”the priests the Levites“ are signified those who are in truths from good; by ”the linen garments“ are signified the truths of faith by means of which purification and regeneration are effected; ”not to be girded with sweat“ signifies that the holy things of worship were not to be commingled with what is man‘s own; for ”sweat“ denotes what is man’s own; and what is man‘s own is nothing but evil and falsity (n. 210, 215, 694, 874-876, 987, 1047, 3812, 8480, 8941).

[5] That the breeches worn by Aaron when he was clothed in garments for glory and comeliness were of linen with fine linen interwoven (Exod. 39:27, 28), was because in them Aaron represented the Lord as to Divine good in the heavens; Aaron himself the Lord as to the Divine celestial there; and his garments the Lord as to the Divine spiritual there proceeding from the Divine celestial (n. 9814); and ”fine linen“ denotes the Divine spiritual that proceeds from the Divine celestial (n. 5319, 9469).

AC 9960. To cover the flesh of their nakedness.  That this signifies lest the interior things of the love, which are filthy and infernal, should appear, is evident from the signification of ”covering,“ as being to cause not to appear; and from the signification of ”the genitals“ and ”the loins,“ which are here meant by ”the flesh of nakedness,“ as being the interior things of conjugial love; for when by ”breeches“ are signified the external things of this love (n. 9959), by ”the flesh“ which they cover are signified its internal things. That ”the loins“ signify conjugial love, (n. 3021, 4280, 4575); as also ”the genitals,“ (n. 4462, 5050-5062); and ”flesh,“ the good of love, (n. 3813, 7850, 9127). And as most things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise have ”the loins,“ ”the genitals,“ and ”the flesh,“ in which sense they signify the evil, filthy, and infernal things of this love (n. 3813, 5059). That here they signify evil, filthy, and infernal things, is evident from the fact that it is said, ”to cover the flesh of their nakedness.“  ”The flesh of nakedness“ here denotes that which is opposite to the good of conjugial love, which is the delight of adultery, thus what is infernal.

[2] With respect to ”nakedness,“ it derives its signification from the parts of the body which appear naked, just as garments derive their signification from the body which they clothe (n. 9827). Therefore ”nakedness“ has one signification when it has reference to the head, which is baldness; another when it has reference to the whole body; and another when it has reference to the loins and genitals.  When ”nakedness“ has reference to the head, which is baldness, it signifies the loss of the intelligence of truth and the wisdom of good; when it has reference to the whole body, it signifies the loss of the truths of faith; but when it has reference to the loins and the genitals, it signifies the loss of the good of love.

[3] As regards the first point: That when ”nakedness“ has reference to the head, which is baldness, it signifies the loss of the intelligence of truth and the wisdom of good, is evident in Isaiah:--

In that day shall the Lord shave by the king of Asshur the head and the hair of the feet, and shall consume the beard (Isa. 7:20);

”to shave the head“ denotes to deprive of the internal truths of the church; ”to shave the hair of the feet,“ and ”to consume the beard,“ denotes to deprive of its external truths; ”by the king of Asshur“ denotes by means of reasonings from falsities.  It is plain to everyone that neither the head, nor the hair of the feet, nor the beard, was to be shaved by the king of Asshur, and yet that these expressions are significative. That ”the head“ denotes the interior things of wisdom and intelligence, (n. 6292, 6436, 9166, 9656); that ”the king of Asshur“ denotes reasoning, (n. 119, 1186); ”hair,“ the external truth of the church, (n. 3301, 5247, 5569-5573); ”the feet“ also denote external or natural things, (n. 2162, 3147, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952). That ”the beard“ denotes sensuous memory-knowledges, which are ultimate truths, is evident from those passages in the Word where ”the beard“ is mentioned.

[4] Again:--

On all the heads is baldness, every beard is cut off (Isa. 15:2);

where the meaning is the same.  Again:--

Baldness shall come upon Gaza; how long will thou cut thyself? (Jer. 47:5).

Shame shall be upon all faces, and baldness upon all heads.  They shall cast forth their silver into the streets, and their gold shall be for an abomination (Ezek. 7:18, 19);

”baldness upon all heads“ denotes the loss of the intelligence of truth and wisdom of good; and because this is signified it is also said ”they shall cast forth their silver into the streets, and their gold shall be for an abomination;“ for ”silver“ denotes the truth of intelligence, and ”gold“ the good of wisdom (n. 1551, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932).  It is evident that baldness upon all heads is not meant, that they were not to cast forth their silver into the streets, and that gold was not to be an abomination.

[5] Again:--

Moses said unto Aaron, and unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons, Shave not your heads, neither rip open your garments; lest ye die, and He be angry with the whole assembly (Lev. 10:6).

The priests, the Levites, shall not shave the head, and shall not let down their hair (Ezek. 44:20).

As Aaron and his sons represented the Lord as to Divine good and as to Divine truth (n. 9806, 9807), and as by a ”shaven head,“ and by ”ripped garments,“ was signified the loss of these, therefore it was forbidden to shave the head and to rip open their garments; and it is said, ”lest ye die, and He be angry with the whole assembly,“ by which is signified that thus would perish the representative of the Lord as to Divine good and as to Divine truth, thus the representative of the church.

[6] As mourning represented spiritual mourning, which is mourning on account of the loss of the truth and good of the church, therefore when mourning they made bald their heads; as we read in the following passages:--

Men shall not lament for them, nor shall they make themselves bald for them (Jer. 16:6).

I will turn your feasts into mourning, and I will make baldness to go up upon every head; and I will make it as the mourning for the only-begotten (Amos 8:10).

Put on baldness, and shave thee for the sons of thy delights; enlarge thy baldness as the eagle; for they have gone away from thee (Micah 1:16);

”sons of delights“ denote Divine truths; their ”going away“ denotes the loss of these. That ”sons“ denote truths, (n. 9807).

[7] Secondly: That when ”nakedness“ has reference to the whole body, it signifies the loss of the truths of faith, is evident in John:--

To the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write, Because thou sayest, I am rich, and have need of nothing, and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and needy, and blind, and naked; I counsel thee to buy of Me gold purified in the fire, and white garments, that thou mayest be clothed, that the shame of thy nakedness be not made manifest (Rev. 3:14, 17, 18);

”the angel of the church“ denotes the truth Divine there; ”saying that it is rich“ denotes that it is in the knowledges of truth and good; ”wretched, needy, blind, and naked,“ denotes that nevertheless it is devoid of truths implanted in the life, thus is devoid of good; ”buying gold purified in the fire“ denotes to procure for themselves good; ”white garments“ denote the genuine truths of faith from good.  From this it is evident what is meant by ”the shame of thy nakedness not being made manifest.“

[8] Again:--

Behold I come as a thief, blessed is he that watcheth, and preserveth his garments, that he walk not naked, and they see his shame (Rev. 16:15);

where the meaning is similar. Again:--

They shall hate the harlot, and shall make her devastate and naked (Rev. 17:16);

”the harlot“ denotes those who falsify truths Divine; ”making her naked“ plainly denotes depriving them of these truths, for it is said ”devastate and naked,“ and ”to devastate“ denotes to deprive of truths.

[9] By ”nakedness“ is also signified ignorance of truth, and by ”being clothed,“ information, in these passages:--

When thou shalt see the naked, and shalt cover him, thy light shall break forth as the dawn (Isa. 58:7, 8).

The King shall say unto them on His right hand, I was naked, and ye clothed Me; and unto them on His left hand, I was naked, and ye clothed Me not (Matt. 25:34, 36, 41, 43);

”naked“ here denotes those who are not in truths, and yet long for truths, and also those who acknowledge that there is nothing of good and truth in them (n. 4956, 4958).

[10] Thirdly: That when ”nakedness“ has reference to the loins and genitals, it signifies the loss of the good of love, is evident in Isaiah:--

O virgin, daughter of Babylon, take the millstone, and grind meal; uncover thy hair, make bare thy feet, uncover the thigh, pass through the streams; thy nakedness shall be uncovered, yea, thy reproach shall be seen (Isa. 47:1-3);

the ”daughter of Babylon“ denotes the church, or a semblance of the church, where there is what is holy in externals, but what is profane in internals.  That which is profane in internals is that they regard themselves and the world as their end, thus dominion and abundance of wealth; and holy things as means to this end.  ”Taking a millstone and grinding meal“ denotes to string together doctrine from such things as will serve for means to promote the end (n. 7780); ”uncovering the hair, making bare the feet, and uncovering the thigh“ denotes to dishonor holy things, both external and internal, without shame and fear; thus ”uncovering the nakedness“ denotes to cause to appear the filthy and infernal things which are their ends.

[11] In Jeremiah:--

Jerusalem hath sinned a sin, all that honored her despise her, because they see her nakedness.  Her uncleanness was in her skirts (Lam. 1:8, 9);

”Jerusalem“ denotes the church, here the church which is in falsities from evil; ”seeing the nakedness“ denotes filthy and infernal loves, ”uncleanness in the skirts“ denotes such things in the extremes. That ”the skirts“ denote the extremes, (n. 9917). In Nahum:--

I will uncover thy skirts upon thy faces; and I will show the nations thy nakedness, and the kingdoms thy shame (Nahum 3:5);

”uncovering the skirts“ denotes to take away the externals so that the interiors appear; ”the nakedness which shall be shown to the nations, and the shame which shall be shown to the kingdoms,“ denote infernal loves, which are the loves of self and of the world, which defile the interiors.

[12] Again:--

Thou camest to ornaments of ornaments; thy breasts were made firm, and thy hair grew; thou wast naked and bare.  With all thine abominations and thy whoredoms thou hast not remembered the days of thy youth, when thou wast naked and stripped, trampled upon in thy blood.  Thy nakedness was uncovered through thy whoredoms over thy lovers (Ezek. 16:7, 22, 36).

I will give thee into the hand of those whom thou hatest, that they may deal with thee from hatred, and they shall leave thee naked and stripped; and the nakedness of thy whoredoms shall be uncovered (Ezek. 23:28, 29).

Contend with your mother that she put away her whoredoms from her faces, and her adulteries from between her breasts; lest perchance I strip her naked, and set her according to the day that she was born, and make her as a wilderness, and dispose of her like a land of drought, and slay her with thirst.  I will return, and take My grain, My new wine, My wool, and My flax, which should have covered her nakedness. And I will uncover her baseness in the eyes of her lovers (Hos. 2:2, 3, 9, 10).

[13] In these passages the subject treated of is Jerusalem, which is also called ”mother,“ and by which is signified the church; its perversity is described by ”whoredoms, adulteries,“ and by ”the uncovering of her nakedness,“ which denote nothing else than filthy and infernal loves, such as are the loves of self and of the world when they are ends, from which all evils and the derivative falsities take their rise.  Consequently falsifications of truth and adulterations of good are described in the Word by ”whoredoms“ and ”adulteries,“ and are also there called ”whoredoms“ and ”adulteries“ (n. 8904).  From this it is evident what is meant by ”nakedness,“ and by ”the uncovering of nakedness.“ As the subject treated of is the truths of the church falsified, and the goods thereof adulterated, therefore it is said, ”I will make her as a wilderness, and dispose of her like a land of drought, and will slay her with thirst;“ ”a wilderness“ denotes that which is devoid of goods; ”a land of drought,“ that which is devoid of truths; and ”thirst“ denotes the loss of all things of faith.

[14] It is also said that He would ”take away His grain, His new wine, His wool, and His flax, with which He had covered her nakedness,“ because by ”grain“ is signified the interior good of the spiritual church, by ”new wine (mustum),“ the interior truth thereof, by ”wool,“ its exterior good, and by ”flax,“ its exterior truth.  That flax, wool, new wine, and grain are not meant, can be seen by everyone who reads these things from a reason in some measure enlightened, who believes that in the Word there is no word devoid of value, and that there is nothing in it anywhere that is not holy, because it is Divine.

[15] Again:--

O daughter of Edom, the cup shall pass through unto thee also; thou shalt be drunken, and shalt become naked (Lam. 4:21).

Woe unto him that causeth his neighbor to drink, making him drunken, and looking on their nakednesses! Thou shalt be sated with shames for glory; drink thou also that thy foreskin may be uncovered (Hab. 2:15, 16).

In thee they have shed blood, in thee hath he uncovered his father’s nakedness (Ezek. 22:9, 10);

no one can know what these words signify, unless he knows what is meant by a ”cup,“ by ”drinking,“ by ”being drunken,“ by ”being made naked,“ by ”looking on nakednesses, and uncovering them,“ and by ”the foreskin.“ That all these expressions are to be spiritually understood, is plain; spiritually, ”drinking“ denotes to be instructed in truths, and in the opposite sense in falsities, thus to imbibe them (n. 3069, 3168, 3772, 8562, 9412); from which it is evident what is meant by a ”cup,“ out of which men drink (n. 5120); ”being drunken“ denotes to be insane from this; and ”being made naked“ denotes to be made destitute of truths; ”to uncover nakedness“ denotes to reveal the evils of the loves of self and of the world, which are infernal; ” to uncover a father‘s nakedness“ denotes to reveal those evils which are from inheritance and from the will; ”to uncover the foreskin“ denotes to defile celestial goods by these loves. That ”the foreskin“ denotes this defilement, (n. 2056, 3412, 4462, 7045); consequently ”circumcision“ denotes purification from these loves, (n. 2036, 2632).

[16] From all this it can be seen what is signified by the ”drunkenness“ and consequent ”uncovering of the nakedness“ of Noah, as described in Genesis:--

Noah drank of the wine, and was drunken; and he was uncovered in the midst of his tent. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers.  And Shem and Japheth took a garment, and put it upon the shoulder, both of them, and went backward, and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were backward, and they saw not their father’s nakedness (Gen. 9:21-23);

here is described the man of the Ancient Church, who is ”Noah;“ ”the wine which he drank, and with which he was made drunken,“ denotes the falsity with which that church in the beginning was imbued; his consequent lying ”uncovered in the midst of his tent“ signifies evils resulting from a deficiency of truth in worship; ”the garment with which Shem and Japheth covered his nakedness,“ denotes the truth of faith by means of which these evils were covered and amended; the implanting of the truth and good of faith in the intellectual part is described by their ”laying the garment upon the shoulder, going backward, and turning the face backward,“ for this is exactly the case with the truths and goods of faith with the man of the spiritual church; ”Shem and Japheth“ signify those of the spiritual church who have received the truths of faith in good, which is charity; but ”Canaan“ signifies those who have not received the truths of faith in good, that is, in charity.

[17] That Noah represents the man of the Ancient Church in its beginning, and that they were of such a character, (n. 736, 773, 788, 1126); that Shem represents the man of the internal spiritual church, and Japheth the man of the external spiritual church, (n. 1102, 1127, 1140, 1141, 1150); that Canaan represented those who are in faith separated from charity, or what is the same thing, in external worship separated from internal, thus specifically the Jewish nation, (n. 1093, 1140, 1141, 1167); that with the men of the spiritual church the truth and good of faith are implanted in the intellectual part, (n. 9596); moreover that ”the wine with which Noah was made drunken“ signifies falsity, (n. 6377); ”the tent“ in which he lay uncovered signifies the holiness of worship, (n. 2145, 2152, 3312, 4128, 4391); ”the garment“ with which they covered their father‘s nakedness signifies the truth of faith, (n. 5954, 9212, 9216). ”The nakedness“ itself signifies his evil will, which is covered by means of the truths of faith; and while it is being covered the truths look backward.  That these  arcana are involved in these historical things is plain from the internal sense.  And that these  arcana are  arcana of the church, can be seen from the fact that Shem and Japheth were blessed, and with them all their posterity, merely because they covered their father’s nakedness; and that Canaan with all his posterity was cursed, merely because his father told this to his brothers.

[18] As with the Jewish and Israelitish nation the interiors were filthy, because of their being in the loves of self and of the world more than other nations; and because the genitals together with the loins signify conjugial love, and this love is the fundamental love of all celestial and spiritual loves, and thus comprehends them; therefore a warning was given lest the nakedness of these parts with Aaron and his sons should in any manner appear while they were in holy worship, which is the reason why it is said that they should ”make them linen breeches to cover the flesh of their nakedness, from the loins even to the thighs;“ and in another place, that they should ”not go up by steps upon the altar, that their nakedness be not uncovered thereon“ (Exod. 20:23). That with the Jewish and Israelitish nation the interiors were filthy, and that these were closed while they were in worship, (n. 9320, 9380); that the genitals together with the loins signify conjugial love, (n. 3021, 4280, 4462, 4575, 5050-5062); and that conjugial love is the fundamental love of all celestial and spiritual loves, and consequently that these loves also are meant by conjugial love, (n. 686, 2734, 3021, 4280, 5054). From all this it is now evident what ”nakedness“ signifies--especially the nakedness of the parts assigned to generation--when the interiors are filthy.

[19] But when the interiors are chaste, then ”nakedness“ signifies innocence, because it signifies conjugial love, for the reason that in its essence love truly conjugial is innocence. That love truly conjugial belongs to innocence, (n. 2736); consequently that in this sense ”nakedness“ denotes innocence, (n. 165, 8375); wherefore also the angels of the inmost heaven, who are called celestial angels, appear naked, (n. 165, 2306, 2736). As the Most Ancient Church, which is described in the first chapters of Genesis, and is meant in the internal sense by the ”Man,“ or ”Adam,“ and by his ”wife,“ was a celestial church, therefore it was said of them, that ”they were both naked, and were not ashamed“ (Gen. 2:25).  But when that church had fallen, which was caused by their eating of the tree of knowledge, by which was signified reasoning from memory-knowledges about Divine things, then it is said that ”they knew that they were naked,“ and that ”they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves girdles,“ thus that they covered their nakednesses; and that the man also said, when Jehovah called unto him, that he ”was afraid because he was naked;“ and that ”Jehovah then made for them tunics of skin, and clothed them“ (Gen. 3:6-11, 21).

[20] By ”the fig leaves of which they made themselves girdles,“ and also by ”the tunics of skin,“ are meant the truths and goods of the external man.  The reason why their state after the fall is thus described, is that from being internal men they became external; their internal is signified by ”the paradise,“ for ”the paradise“ denotes the intelligence and wisdom of the internal man, and its being closed up is signified by their being cast out of the paradise. That ”a leaf“ denotes natural truth, which is memory-knowledge, (n. 885); that a ”fig-tree“ denotes natural good, that is, the good of the external man, (n. 217, 4231, 5113); and that a ”tunic of skin“ also denotes the truth and good of the external man, (n. 294-296); that ”skin“ denotes what is external, (n. 3540).

AC 9961. From the loins even unto the thighs they shall be. That this signifies the extension of the exterior things of conjugial love, which are signified by ”the linen breeches,“ is evident from the signification of ”the loins,“ and ”the thighs,“ as being the things that belong to conjugial love; ”the loins,“ those which belong to its interiors; and ”the thighs,“ those which belong to its exteriors; thus its extension from interiors to exteriors.  That ”the loins“ signify the interior things of this love, is because they are above; and that ”the thighs“ signify its exterior things, is because they are below; for the things with man which are above signify interior things, and those which are below signify exterior things.  From this it is that in the Word interior things are meant by higher, and exterior by lower things (n. 3084, 4599, 5146, 8325).  With man the higher things correspond to celestial and spiritual things, which are interior; and the lower things correspond to natural things, which are exterior.  It is from this that ”the feet“ signify natural things (n. 2162, 3147, 3986, 4382, 4938-4952).  And as by the thighs is meant the lower part of the loins, which looks toward the feet, therefore the exterior or lower things of conjugial love are signified by the thighs (n. 4277, 4280); but that in general ”the loins“ signify conjugial love, see (n. 3021, 3294, 4575, 5050-5062).  That ”the loins“ have this signification is from correspondence. Concerning the correspondence of all things of man with heaven, (n. 9276, 9280).

[2] It is said ”the extension of conjugial love from interior things to exterior;“ for in the heavens there is an extension of all things of love and of all things of faith, or what is the same, of all things of good and of all things of truth, for there all are conjoined according to affinities in respect to the truths of faith and the gods of love.  There is such an extension in each heaven.  This extension reaches also into the heavens which are beneath, because all the heavens make a one; nay, they extend even to man, so that he likewise may make a one with the heavens.  This extension is what is meant by ”the extension from higher or interior to lower or exterior things.“  Higher or interior things are called celestial and spiritual, while lower or exterior things are called natural or worldly.

[3] As to what specifically concerns conjugial love, the extension of which is here described, this love is the fundamental of all loves; for it descends from the marriage of good and truth in the heavens; and as the marriage of good and truth is in the heavens, and makes the heavens, therefore love truly conjugial is heaven itself with man.  But the marriage of good and truth in the heavens descends from the conjunction of the Lord with the heavens; for that which proceeds from the Lord and flows into the heavens is the good of love; and that which is received there by the angels is the truth thence derived, thus is the truth which is from good, or in which is good. For this reason the Lord is called in the Word the ”Bridegroom“ and ”Husband;“ and heaven with the church is called the ”bride“ and ”wife.“

[4] From all this it can be seen how holy marriages are in heaven, and how profane adulteries are there. For in themselves marriages are so holy that there is nothing more holy, and this also for the reason that they are the seminaries of the human race, and the human race is the seminary of the heavens, for thither come the men who in the world have lived an angelic life.  And on the other hand adulteries are so profane that there is nothing more profane, because they are destructive of heaven and the church with man. That this is so, see what has been said and shown above concerning marriages and adulteries, (n. 2727-2759).

[5] From all this it can be seen further why by ”nakedness“ are signified the filthy and infernal things spoken of in the preceding paragraph; and why it was so strictly enjoined that Aaron and his sons, while ministering, should be clothed with breeches, and that otherwise they would die; for it is said, ”Thou shalt make them linen breeches to cover the flesh of their nakedness; from the loins even unto the thighs they shall be; and they shall be upon Aaron, and upon his sons, when they go into the Tent of meeting, or when they come near unto the altar to minister in what is holy; lest they bear iniquity, and die; it is a statute of an age to him and to his seed after him.“

[6] Therefore be it known that by conjugial love is meant all celestial and spiritual love, for the reason, as shown above, that love truly conjugial is the fundamental of all loves.  Therefore those who are in this love are also in all other loves of heaven and of the church, for as before said, it descends from the marriage of good and truth in the heavens, which marriage makes heaven. From this also it is that in the Word heaven is compared to a ”marriage,“ and is likewise called a ”marriage.“  From this also it is evident why a warning was given that the nakednesses of Aaron and of his sons should not appear while they were ministering; for their ”nakednesses“ signified all loves contrary to heavenly loves, which in general, when they are ends, are called the loves of self and of the world, and are filthy and infernal loves.  That this is so the man of the present day is not aware, for the reason that he is in these loves, and perceives no other delight than that which is from them.  Consequently when spiritual love and celestial love are mentioned, he is perplexed, and does not know what they are, consequently what heaven is; and perhaps he will be amazed when he hears and thinks that in spiritual and celestial love, separate from the love of self and of the world, there is eternal happiness which is unutterable.

AC 9962. And they shall be upon Aaron and upon his sons.  That this signifies protection from the hells, is evident from the signification of ”the breeches,“ of which it is said that ”they shall be upon Aaron and his sons,“ as being the external things of conjugial love (n. 9959); and from the signification of ”the nakednesses“ which the breeches were to cover, as being the interior things of this love, which were filthy and infernal (n. 9960); and because ”nakednesses“ have this signification, therefore the breeches which were to be upon Aaron and upon his sons, were for protection from the hells. The case herein is as follows.  In respect to their interiors, the Jewish and Israelitish nation was in the loves of self and of the world, thus in infernal loves, above all other nations; but in respect to their exteriors they could be in holiness also above all other nations; wherefore when they were in holiness, their interiors were closed; for in this way holy external things could he communicated through them with the heavens, and from this there could be conjunction.  It would have been altogether different if the internals with them, which as above said were filthy and infernal, had not been closed.  It is from this that with that nation there was no church, but only the representative of a church; for a church which is a church is in the internal things of faith and of love; but not in external things separate from these.  The external things with them were all representative.

[2] As then by ”breeches“ are signified the external things of conjugial love, and in general the external things of all heavenly loves; and as external things were what covered the internal things, and as with that nation the internal things were filthy and infernal, therefore by ”the breeches being upon Aaron and upon his sons“ is signified protection from the hells; for so long as they were in a holy external, and their internals were covered or closed, so long also they were removed from the hells, and were thereby under protection. That the internals with the Jewish and Israelitish nation were filthy and infernal, and that on this account there was no church with them, but only the representative of a church, may be seen at the places cited in (n. 9320, 9380); that while they were in worship, they were only in a holy external, (n. 3479, 4293, 4311, 6304, 8588, 9373, 9380); and that their interiors were then closed, (n. 8788, 8806).

AC 9963. When they go in into the Tent of meeting.  That this signifies in the representative worship of all things of heaven and of the church, is evident from the signification of ”going in into the Tent of meeting,“ as being the representative worship of all things of heaven and of the church; for by ”the Tent“ was represented heaven where the Lord is (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9784); thus by ”going into it,“ when said of Aaron and his sons, is signified the worship of the Lord.  Moreover at that time all worship was performed in the Tent and at the altar; for in the Tent were set in order the breads of faces, the lamps were lighted, incense was burned, and sacrifices were offered at the altar. In these things the representative worship chiefly consisted.  Representative worship is external worship that represents the internal things which belong to love from the Lord to the Lord, thus which are all things of heaven and of the church; for in heaven and in the church all things bear relation to the good that is of love, and to the truth that is of faith, from the Lord to the Lord.

AC 9964. Or when they come near unto the altar to minister in what is holy.  That this signifies in the representative worship of the Lord Himself, is evident from the fact that the altar was the chief representative of the Lord in respect to the Divine good (n. 9714); thus ”coming near unto the altar, and ministering there in what is holy“ denotes the worship of the Lord Himself. The representative worship of the Lord consisted chiefly in burnt-offerings and sacrifices offered upon the altar (n. 922, 923, 2180, 6905, 8680, 8936); the representative worship of the Lord in respect to Divine good was at the altar, and the representative worship of Him in respect to Divine truth was in the Tent of meeting.  Therefore it is said that by ”going in into the Tent of meeting“ is signified the representative worship of all things of heaven and of the church (n. 9963); and by ”coming near unto the altar“ is signified the representative worship of the Lord Himself; for heaven and the church are receptacles of the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord.  The Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord is the truth that proceeds from the good of His love, and it is implanted where this good also is received, consequently where the Lord is received, from whom is this good.

AC 9965. Lest they bear iniquity, and die.  That this signifies the annihilation of the whole of worship, is evident from the signification of ”bearing iniquity,“ when said of the priesthood of Aaron and his sons, as being the removal of falsities and evils with those who are in good from the Lord (n. 9937).  But when they are said ”to bear iniquity and die,“ it signifies the annihilation of all worship (n. 9928); for representative worship died, because nothing of it appeared any longer in the heavens. How the case herein is can be seen from what was said and shown above, (n. 9959-9961). Moreover that they died when they did not act in accordance with the statutes, is plain from Aaron‘s sons, Nadab and Abihu, who were consumed by fire from heaven when they burned incense, not from the fire of the altar, but from strange fire (Lev. 10:1, 2).  The fire of the altar represented love Divine, thus love from the Lord, whereas the strange fire represented love from hell.  The annihilation of worship was signified by the burning of incense from this latter fire, which resulted in their death. That ”fires“ signify loves, (n. 5215, 6832, 7324, 7575, 7852).

[2] It is said in many passages in the Word that ”they would hear iniquity“ when they did not act according to the statutes, and by this was signified damnation, because their sins were not removed; not that they were damned on this account, but that they thereby annihilated the representative worship, and thus represented the damned who remain in their sins. For no one is damned on account of the omission of external rites; but on account of evils of the heart, thus on account of the omission of them from evil of heart. This is signified by ”bearing iniquity“ in the following passages. In Moses:--

If a soul shall sin, and shall do any of the things commanded by Jehovah not be done; though he knew it not, yet shall he be guilty, and shall hear his iniquity (Lev. 5:17);

”to bear iniquity“ here does not mean, but only signifies, the retention of evils and thus damnation, because he did not do it from evil of heart; for it is said, ”though he knew it not.“

[3] Again:--

If eating any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace-offerings be eaten on the third day, he that offereth it shall not be reconciled; it is an abomination, and the soul which eateth of it shall bear his iniquity, and shall be cut off from his peoples (Lev. 7:18, 20; 19:7, 8);

by ”bearing iniquity“ here also is signified to remain in his sins, and thus to be in damnation; not because he ate of his sacrifice on the third day; but because by ”eating it on the third day“ was represented that which is abominable, which is amenable to damnation. Thus by ”bearing iniquity“ and by ”being cut off from his people,“ was represented the damnation of those who do the abomination which is signified by that deed.  Nevertheless the damnation was not on account of the eating, for it is the interior evils which were represented that condemn, and not the outward things without them.

[4] Again:--

Every soul that eateth a carcass, and that which is torn, and laveth not his garments, nor washeth his flesh, shall bear his iniquity (Lev. 17:15, 16);

as ”to eat a carcass and that which is torn“ represented the appropriation of evil and falsity, therefore he is said to ”bear iniquity,“ also representatively. Again:--

If a man who is clean shall omit to keep the passover, this soul shall be cut off from his peoples, because he offered not the oblation of Jehovah in its appointed time, he shall bear his sin (Num. 9:13);

the passover represented liberation from damnation by the Lord (n. 7093, 7867, 7995, 9286-9292); and the paschal supper represented conjunction with the Lord through the good of love (n. 7836, 7997, 8001); and because these things were represented, it was ordained that anyone who did not keep the passover should be cut off from his people, and that he should bear his sin.  Yet this was not so very bad a deed; but only represented those who at heart deny the Lord, and the consequent liberation from sins; and thus it represented those who do not wish to be conjoined with Him by love; thus it represented their damnation.

[5] Again:--

The sons of Israel shall not come nigh the Tent of meeting, to bear iniquity in dying.  The Levites shall do the work of the Tent of meeting, and they shall bear iniquity (Num. 18:22, 23);

the reason why the people ”bore iniquity in dying“ if they came nigh the Tent of meeting to do the work there, was that they thus annihilated the representative worship enjoined on the ministry of the priests; the ministry of the priests, or the priesthood, represented the whole work of the Lord’s salvation (n. 9809).  Therefore it is said that ”the Levites,“ who also were priests, should ”bear their iniquity,“ by which was signified expiation, that is, the removal from evils and falsities with those who are in good from the Lord alone (n. 9937).  By ”bearing iniquity“ is signified real damnation when it is said of those who do evils from an evil heart, as is said of those described in (Leviticus 20:17, 19, 20; 24:15, 16; Ezekiel 18:20; 23:49).

AC 9966. It is a statute of an age to him and to his seed after him.  That this signifies the laws of order in the representative church, is evident from the signification of ”a statute of an age,“ as being a law of Divine order in the heavens and in the church (n. 7884, 7995, 8357).  It is said ”in the representative church,“ because the external things of worship which represented internal things were called ”statutes“ (n. 8972), thus those things which were representatives of the church; and because the internal things which were represented were Divine, thus eternal, therefore it is said, ”a statute of an age;“ for by ”an age“ is signified what is eternal.

CONCERNING THE SECOND EARTH SEEN IN THE STARRY HEAVEN

AC 9967. I was afterward led by the Lord to an earth in the universe which was at a greater distance from our earth than that first one which was treated of at the end of some of the former chapters.  That it was further distant was given me to know from the fact that I was two days being led thither as to my spirit.  This earth was to the left; but the former was to the right.  Remoteness in the other life does not arise from distance of place; but from difference of state, which nevertheless appears there like distance of place (n. 9440).  Wherefore from the time it took to get there, which as already said was two days, I was able to infer that the state of the interiors with those people--which is the state of the affections and the consequent thoughts--differed from the state of the interiors with the spirits from our earth in the same proportion.  As I was conveyed thither in respect to the spirit by means of changes of state of the interiors, it was given me to note the successive changes themselves, before I arrived there.  This took place while I was awake.

AC 9968. When I arrived there, the earth itself was not seen, but only the spirits from that earth; for as has already been observed several times, the spirits of every earth appear around their own earth, for the reason that they are of a diverse genius in consequence of a diverse state of life; and in the other life diversity of state disjoins, and likeness of state conjoins; and especially for the reason that they may be with the inhabitants of their own earth, who are of a similar genius.  For a man cannot live apart from spirits, and spirits of a like nature are adjoined to everyone (n. 5846-5866, 5976-5993).  These spirits appeared at a considerable height above the head, and from thence they looked at me as I was coming.

[2] Be it known that those who are on high can look at those who are below; and the greater their height, the farther their view extends; and that they can not only look at them, but can also speak with them.  From their position they observed that I was not from their earth, but from a greater distance elsewhere; wherefore they addressed to me a variety of questions, to which it was also given me to reply. Among other things I told them from what earth I was, and what was its nature. Afterward I told them about the earths in our solar system, and at the same time also about the spirits of the earth or planet Mercury, to whom it is given to wander about to many earths for the sake of acquiring knowledges about various things, with which they are delighted (n. 6808-6817, 6921-6932, 7069-7079). When they heard this, they said that they also had seen these spirits among them.

AC 9969. I was told by angels from our earth that the inhabitants and spirits of this ”second“ earth bear relation in the Grand Man to the keenness of the external sight; and that on this account they appear on high, and are also remarkably keen of sight.

AC 9970. Because they bear this relation in the Grand Man, which is heaven, and as they clearly see the things which are below, in conversing with them I compared them to eagles, which fly to a great height, and look around with a sharp and far-reaching vision. But at this they were indignant, supposing that I believed them to be like eagles in respect to rapacity, and thus that they were evil. But I replied that I did not liken them to eagles in respect to rapacity, but in respect to their keenness of sight; adding that they who are like eagles in respect to rapacity are evil, but that they who are like them only in keenness of sight are good.

AC 9971. Being questioned about the God whom they worship, they answered that they worship God visible and invisible; a visible God under a human form, and an invisible God not under any form.  And it was found from their speech, and also from the ideas of their thought when communicated to me, that their visible God is our Lord Himself, and they also called Him ”the Lord.“ To all this it was given me to reply that on our earth also a visible and an invisible God is worshiped, and that the invisible God is called ”the Father;“ and the visible God, ”the Lord;“ but that the two are One, as He Himself taught us, saying, that ”no one hath ever seen the shape of the Father,“ but that ”the Father and He are One,“ that ” whosoever seeth Him, seeth the Father,“ that ”the Father is in Him, and He in the Father;“ consequently that both are this Divine in one person. That these are the words of the Lord Himself, (John 5:37; 10:30; 14:7, 9-11).

AC 9972. Afterward I saw spirits from the same earth in a place beneath the former, and I spoke with these also. But these were idolaters, for they worshiped an idol of stone like a man, but not beautiful. Be it known that at first all who come into the other life have a worship like their worship in the world, but that they are gradually removed from it. The reason of this is that all worship remains implanted in the interior life of the man, from which it cannot be removed and rooted out except gradually.  Upon seeing this, it was given me to tell them that they ought not to worship what is dead, but what is alive. To this they answered that they know that God is alive, and is not a stone; but they think of the living God when they look upon a stone that is like a man, and that otherwise the ideas of their thought could not be fixed and determined to the invisible God.  It was then given me to tell them that the ideas of thought can be fixed and determined to the invisible God, by fixing and determining them to the Lord, who is the visible God; and that in this way a man can be conjoined with the invisible God in thought and affection, and consequently in faith and love, when he is conjoined with the Lord; but not otherwise.

AC 9973. A continuation concerning this Second Earth in the starry heaven will be found at the end of the following chapter.


Back | Next | Index | Home