HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 30

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH

AC 10167. Few know from what origin comes forth conjugial love.  They who think from the world believe that it comes forth from nature; but they who think from heaven believe that it comes forth from the Divine in heaven.

AC 10168. Love truly conjugial is the union of two minds, which is a spiritual union; and all spiritual union descends from heaven.  From this it is that love truly conjugial is from heaven, and that its first being is from the marriage of good and truth there.  The marriage of good and truth in heaven is from the Lord; wherefore in the Word the Lord is called the ”Bridegroom“ and ”Husband,“ while heaven and the church are called the ”bride“ and ”wife;“ and therefore heaven is compared to a marriage.

AC 10169. From all this it is evident that love truly conjugial is the union of two persons in respect to their interiors which belong to the thought and the will, thus to truth and good; for truth belongs to the thought, and good to the will. For one who is in love truly conjugial loves what the other thinks and what the other wills; thus he also loves to think as the other does, and he loves to will as the other does; consequently to be united to the other, and to become as one man. This is what is meant by the Lord’s words in Matthew:--

”And they twain shall be one flesh, therefore they are no more twain, but one flesh“ (Matt 19:4-6; Gen. 2:24).

AC 10170. The delight of love truly conjugial is an internal delight, because it belongs to the minds, and is also an external delight from this, which belongs to the bodies. But the delight of love not truly conjugial is only an external delight without an internal one, and such a delight belongs to the bodies and not to the minds. But this delight is earthly, being almost like that of animals, and therefore in time perishes; whereas the first-mentioned delight is heavenly, as that of men should be, and therefore is permanent.

AC 10171. No one can know what love truly conjugial is, and what is the nature of its delight, except one who is in the good of love and in the truths of faith from the Lord; because, as has been said, love truly conjugial is from heaven, and is from the marriage of good and truth there.

AC 10172. From the marriage of good and truth in heaven and in the church we can learn what must be the nature of marriages on earth, namely, that they must be between two, one husband and one wife, and that love truly conjugial is never possible if there are a number of wives to one husband.

AC 10173. That which is done from love truly conjugial is done from freedom on both sides, because all freedom is from love, and both have freedom when one loves that which the other thinks and that which the other wills. From this it is that the wish to command in marriages destroys genuine love, for it takes away its freedom, thus also its delight. The delight of commanding, which follows in its place, brings forth disagreements, and sets the minds at enmity, and causes evils to take root according to the nature of the domination on the one side, and the nature of the servitude on the other.

AC 10174. From all this it can be seen that marriages are holy, and that to injure them is to injure that which is holy; consequently that adulteries are profane; for as the delight of conjugial love descends from heaven, so the delight of adultery ascends from hell.

AC 10175. Therefore those who take delight in adulteries can no longer receive any good and truth from heaven. From this it is that those who have taken delight in adulteries, afterward make light of and also at heart deny the things of the church and of heaven. The reason of this is that the love of adultery is from the marriage of evil and falsity, which is the infernal marriage.

EXODUS 30:1-38

1. And thou shalt make an altar for the burning of incense; of shittim wood shalt thou make it.

2. A cubit the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall it be; and two cubits the height thereof; out of it shall be its horns.

3. And thou shaft overlay it with pure gold, its roof and its walls round about, and its horns; and thou shalt make for it a border of gold round about.

4. And thou shalt make for it two rings of gold from under its border, upon its two ribs; upon its two sides shalt thou make them; and it shall be for receptacles for the staves, to carry it in them.

5. And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold.

6. And thou shalt put it before the veil that is over the ark of the Testimony, before the propitiatory that is over the Testimony, whither I will come to meet thee.

7. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of spices morning by morning; in dressing the lamps he shall burn it.

8. And when Aaron maketh the lamps to go up between the evenings, he shall burn it, a continual incense before Jehovah to your generations.

9. Ye shall not make strange incense go up upon it, nor a burnt-offering, nor a meat-offering; and ye shall pour no drink-offering upon it.

10. And Aaron shall make expiation upon the horns of it once in the year, from the blood of the sin-offering of expiations; once in the year he shall make expiation upon it to your generations: a holy of holies is this to Jehovah.

11. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,

12. When thou shalt take up the sum of the sons of Israel, as to those who are numbered of them, then they shall give everyone an expiation of his soul to Jehovah in numbering them, that there be no plague in them in numbering them.

13. This they shall give, everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered, half a shekel, in the shekel of holiness, a shekel of twenty gerahs, the half of a shekel an uplifting to Jehovah.

14. Everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered, from a son of twenty years and upward, shall give an uplifting to Jehovah.

15. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, from the half of the shekel, to give an uplifting to Jehovah, to make expiation upon your souls.

16. And thou shalt take the silver of expiations from among the sons of Israel, and thou shalt give it for the work of the Tent of meeting; and it shall be to the sons of Israel for a memorial before Jehovah, to make expiation upon your souls.

17. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,

18. And thou shalt make a laver of brass, and its base of brass, for washing; and thou shalt put it between the Tent of meeting and the altar, and thou shalt put waters therein.

19. And Aaron and his sons shall wash from it their hands and their feet.

20. When they enter into the Tent of meeting they shall wash with waters, that they die not; or when they come near unto the altar to minister, to burn a fire-offering to Jehovah.

21. And they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not; and it shall be to them a statute of an age, to him and to his seed, to their generations.

22. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,

23. And do thou take to thee chief spices, best myrrh five hundred, and aromatic cinnamon the half thereof, two hundred and fifty, and aromatic calamus two hundred and fifty:

24. And cassia five hundred, in the shekel of holiness; and oil of olive a hin.

25. And thou shalt make it an oil of anointing of holiness, an ointment of ointment, the work of a perfumer, it shall be an oil of anointing of holiness.

26. And thou shalt anoint with it the Tent of meeting, and the ark of the Testimony:

27. And the table and all the vessels thereof, and the lamb stand and the vessels thereof, and the altar of incense:

28. And the altar of burnt-offering and all the vessels thereof, and the laver and its base.

29. And thou shalt sanctify them, and they shall be a holy of holies; whosoever toucheth them shall be made holy.

30. And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and shalt sanctify them, to minister to Me in the priest‘s office.

31. And thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel, saying, This shall be to Me an oil of anointing of holiness to your generations.

32. Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured; and in the quality thereof ye shall not make any like it; holy is this; holy shall it be to you.

33. The man who shall make ointment like it, and who shall put of it upon a stranger, even he shall be cut off from his peoples.

34. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Take to thee fragrant spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum, things fragrant, and pure frankincense, so much in so much shall it be.

35. And thou shalt make it incense, an ointment the work of a perfumer, salted, pure, holy.

36. And thou shalt bruise of it small, and shalt put it before the Testimony in the Tent of meeting, whither I will come to meet thee, a holy of holies shall it be to you.

37. And the incense which thou makest in its quality, ye shall not make for yourselves: holy to Jehovah shall it be to thee.

38. The man who shall make like unto it, to make an odor with it, even he shall be cut off from his peoples.

THE CONTENTS

AC 10175a. The subjects treated of in this chapter are the altar of incense; the expiation of everyone by means of silver; the laver and the washing from it; and the preparation of the oil of anointing, and of the incense.  In the internal sense by ”burning incense“ is signified the hearing and reception by the Lord of all things of the worship which is from love and charity; by ”the expiation of everyone by means of silver,“ is signified the ascription of all things of worship to the Lord, and nothing to self, that no one may have merit.  By ”the laver and the washing“ is signified purification from evils first in all worship.  By ”the preparation of the oil of anointing“ is signified the quality of the love in worship; and by ”the preparation of the incense,“ the quality of the worship from it.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 10176. Verses 1-10. And thou shalt make an altar for the burning of incense; of shittim wood shalt thou make it.  A cubit the length thereof and a cubit the breadth thereof; four square shall it be; and two cubits the height thereof; out of it shall be its horns.  And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, its roof and its walls round about, and its horns; and thou shalt make for it a border of gold round about. And thou shalt make for it two rings of gold from under its border, upon its two ribs; upon its two sides shalt thou make them; and it shall be for receptacles for the staves, to carry it in them. And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood, and shalt overlay them with gold. And thou shalt put it before the veil that is over the ark of the Testimony, before the propitiatory that is over the Testimony, whither I will come to meet thee. And Aaron shall burn thereon incense of spices morning by morning, in dressing the lamps he shall burn it. And when Aaron maketh the lamps to go up between the evenings, he shall burn it, a  continual incense before Jehovah to your generations.  Ye shall not make strange incense go up upon it, nor a burnt-offering, nor a meat-offering; and ye shall pour no drink-offering upon it. And Aaron shall make expiation upon the horns of it once in the year, from the blood of the sin-offering of expiations; ones in the year he shall make expiation upon it to your generations: a holy of holies is this to Jehovah. ”And thou shalt make an altar for the burning of incense,“ signifies a representative of the grateful hearing and reception by the Lord of all things of worship which are from love and charity; ”of shittim wood shalt thou make it,“ signifies from love Divine; ”a cubit the length thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof,“ signifies equally from good and from truth; ”foursquare shall it be,“ signifies thus perfect; ”and two cubits the height thereof,“ signifies the degrees of good and of truth, and their conjunction; ”out of it shall be its horns,“ signifies the powers of truth from the good of love and of charity; ”and thou shalt overlay it with pure gold,“ signifies a representative of all things of worship from good; ”its roof,“ signifies the inmost; ”and its walls round about,“ signifies the interiors; ”and its horns,“ signifies the exteriors; ”and thou shalt make for it a border of gold round about,“ signifies a bounding from good lest they he approached and injured by evils; ”and thou shalt make for it two rings of gold from under its border,“ signifies the sphere of Divine good, through which are conjunction and preservation; ”upon its two ribs,“ signifies with truths on the one side; ”upon its two sides shalt thou make them,“ signifies with good on the other side; ”and it shall be for receptacles for the staves,“ signifies the power of truth from good there; ”to carry it in them,“ signifies its consequent preservation in its state; ”and thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood,“ signifies power from the good of the Lord’s love; ”and shalt overlay them with gold,“ signifies the foundation of all things upon good; ”and shalt put it before the veil that is over the ark of the Testimony,“ signifies in the interior heaven where it is conjoined with the inmost heaven; ”before the propitiatory that is over the Testimony,“ signifies where there is the hearing and reception by the Lord of all things of worship from the good of love; ”whither I will come to meet thee,“ signifies in this way the presence and influx of the Lord; ”and Aaron shall burn thereon,“ signifies the uplifting by the Lord of worship from love and charity; ”incense of spices,“ signifies grateful hearing and reception; ”morning by morning,“ signifies when the state of love is in clearness; ”in dressing the lamps he shall burn it,“ signifies when truth also comes into its light; ”and when Aaron maketh the lamps to go up between the evenings, he shall burn it,“ signifies an uplifting also in an obscure state of love when truth also is in its shade; ”a continual incense before Jehovah,“ signifies in all worship from love from the Lord; ”to your generations,“ signifies to eternity with those who are in faith from love; ”ye shall not make strange incense go up upon it,“ signifies no worship from any other love than the love of the Lord; ”nor a burnt-offering, nor a meat-offering,“ signifies no representative there of regeneration through the truths and goods of celestial love; ”and ye shall pour no drink-offering upon it,“ signifies no representative there of regeneration through the truths and goods of spiritual love; ”and Aaron shall make expiation upon the horns of it,“ signifies purification from evils through the truths of faith which are from the good of love; ”once in the year,“ signifies perpetually; ”from the blood of the sin-offering of expiations,“ signifies through the truths which are from the good of innocence; ”once in the year he shall make expiation upon it,“ signifies the perpetual removal of evils; ”to your generations,“ signifies those of the church who are in the truths and goods of faith; ”a holy of holies is this to Jehovah,“ signifies because from the Divine celestial.

AC 10177. And thou shalt make an altar for the burning of incense.  That this signifies a representative of the grateful hearing and reception by the Lord of all things of worship from love and charity, is evident from the signification of the ”altar for burning incense,“ as being a representative of such things of worship as are uplifted to the Lord; that these are from love and charity will be plain in what follows.  By the ”altar“ is signified the same as by that which is upon it, because the altar is the containant, and that which is upon it is the thing contained; and the containant and the thing contained make a one; as do a table and the bread which is upon it; and a cup and the wine which is in it.

[2] The reason why an altar was made for burning incense, and not a table, was because among the Israelitish nation altars were the principal representatives of worship from love, for there was fire upon them, and by ”fire“ is signified love and charity, from which is the worship. That altars were the principal representatives of worship, (n. 4192, 4541, 8623, 8935, 8940, 9714).

[3] That the altar of incense represented the hearing and reception of all things of the worship which is from love and charity, was because by smoke, and consequently by fumigation, was signified that which is lifted on high; and by the odor of the smoke was signified that which is grateful, consequently that which is heard and received by the Lord; and that alone is grateful, and is received by the Lord, which is from love and charity; and for this reason that altar was covered over with gold, and was called ”the golden altar,“ because ”gold“ signifies the good of love and of charity (n. 9874, 9881).

[4] The reason why that alone is grateful, and is therefore heard and received by the Lord, which is from love and charity, is because love makes the whole man, for every man is such as is his love.  From this it is that the angels in the heavens are loves and charities in form; the very form they have is from this the human form, because in respect to the Divine Human, the Lord, who is in them and forms them, is the Divine love itself. From this it is that their quality in respect to love is clearly perceived from their faces, their speech, their gestures, and especially from the spheres of the affections which flow forth from them to a distance.

[5] And because love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor are from the Lord, and because love is spiritual conjunction, therefore whatever proceeds from this source is heard and received by the Lord.  Whereas the holiness and piety that are not from this source are indeed heard, but are not gratefully received, for they are a hypocritical holiness and piety, because they are a mere external without an internal; and a holy external without an internal penetrates no further than to the first threshold of heaven, and is there dispersed. Whereas a holy external from a holy internal penetrates even into heaven, according to the quality of the internal, thus to the Lord. For a holy external without an internal is merely from the mouth and the gestures, whereas a holy external from an internal is at the same time from the heart. Concerning the latter and the former holiness, (n. 8252-8257).

[6] In the Tent without the veil was the table on which were the breads of faces, also the lampstand with the lamps, and the altar of incense; by the breads of faces was represented love to the Lord; by the lamps of the lampstand, charity and faith; and by the incense upon the altar, the worship from these, and therefore it was burned every morning and every evening when the lamps were prepared. From this also it is evident that by ”burning incense“ was represented the worship of the Lord from love and charity; and by the Tent itself in which it took place, was represented heaven, where all worship is of this nature. That the breads represented celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord, (n. 9545); that the lampstand represented spiritual good, which is the good of charity toward the neighbor and the good of faith, (n. 9548-9561); and that the Tent represented heaven, (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9784, 9963).

[7] When worship is spoken of, that holiness is meant which is effected by means of prayers, adorations, confessions, and the like, that proceed from the internals which are of love and charity. These are the acts of worship which are meant by ”burning incense,“ as can be seen from the following passages:--

Accepted are my prayers as incense before Thee (Ps. 141:2).

The four animals, and the twenty-four elders, fell down before the Lamb, having everyone harps, and golden vials full of incensings, which are the prayers of the saints (Rev. 5:8).

An angel came having a golden censer, and there were given unto him many incensings, that he should offer them with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar that was before the throne. And the smoke of the incensings went up from the prayers of the saints (Rev. 8:3, 4).

[8] As by ”incense“ was signified worship and its elevation, thus hearing and reception by the Lord, therefore it was commanded by Moses that ”they should take incense boxes with frankincense and burn it before Jehovah, that from this they might know whom Jehovah would choose, thus whom He would hear“ (Num. 16:1); and when the people murmured, ”Aaron ran into the midst of the congregation with incense, when the plague had begun, and thus stayed it“ (Num. 16:44-49).  In Malachi:--

From the rising of the sun even unto its going down, the name of Jehovah shall be great among the nations, and in every place incense shall be offered to My name, and a clean meat-offering (Mal. 1:11);

”a clean meat-offering“ is added, because by it is signified the good of love (n. 10137).  In Moses:--

The sons of Levi shall teach Jacob Thy judgments, and Israel Thy law; they shall put incense in Thy nose, and a burnt-offering upon Thine altar (Deut. 33:10);

it is said, ”shall put incense in Thy nose“ because by the ”nostrils“ is signified perception (n. 4624-4634); a ”burnt-offering“ is here added because by it also is signified that which is from the good of love.

[9] But in the opposite sense by ”burning incense“ is signified worship from contrary loves, which are the loves of self and of the world; as by ”burning incense to other gods“ (Jer. 1:16; 44:3, 5); by ”burning incense to idols“ (Ezek. 8:11; 16:18); and by ”burning incense to the baals“ (Hosea 2:13).

[10] As the ”burnings of incense“ signified such things as are raised upward and are accepted by the Divine, therefore they were employed by the Gentiles also in their religious ceremonials. That frankincense, censers, and incense boxes were in use among the Romans and among other nations is known from history. A religious ceremonial of this kind was derived from the Ancient Church, which was spread through many regions of Asia; as through Syria, Arabia, Babylon, Egypt, and Canaan. This church had been a representative church, thus consisting in external things that represented internal ones, which are celestial and spiritual; and from this church many religious ceremonials were carried over to the nations round about, and among these the burning of incense, and from them through Greece into Italy; and in like manner the perpetual fires, for guarding which chaste virgins were appointed, whom they called vestals.

[11] The offerings of incense in the Ancient Church, and from this in the Israelitish, were prepared from fragrant substances, such as stacte, onycha, galbanum, and frankincense; for the reason that odor signified perception, and a fragrant odor a grateful perception (n. 925, 1514, 1517-1519, 3577, 4624-4634, 4748, 10054).  But frankincense in particular signifies the truth of faith, and therefore when ”frankincense“ is mentioned in the Word, there is joined with it ”oil,“ ”bread,“ a ”meat-offering,“ or ”gold,“ by all of which is signified the good of love; as in Isaiah:--

All they from Sheba shall come, they shall bring gold and frankincense, and shall proclaim the praises of Jehovah (Isa.  60:6).

In like manner those who came from the east, of whom it is written in Matthew, ”there came wise men from the east, seeking the Lord just then born, and opening their treasures they offered gold, frankincense, and myrrh“ (Matt. 2:1, 2, 11). That those who were from the east and were called ”sons of the east,“ in the Word signify those who were in the knowledges of good and truth, (n. 3249, 3762); in like manner ”Sheba,“ (n. 1171, 3240); that ”gold“ signifies the good of love, (n. 9874, 9881).

[12] In Jeremiah:--

They shall bring a burnt-offering and sacrifice, and a meat-offering and frankincense (Jer. 17:26);

by ”a meat-offering“ is likewise signified the good of love (n. 9992, 10137). From this it is evident that by ”frankincense in the Word is signified the truth which is of faith; for in the Word, where good is spoken of, truth also is spoken of, on account of the heavenly marriage which is that of good and truth in every detail therein (n. 9263, 9314). For this reason also “upon the meat-offering there was oil, and also frankincense” (Lev. 2:1, 2, 15); but not upon the meat-offering which was for sin (Lev. 5:11); nor upon the meat-offering of jealousy (Num. 5:15). The reason why there was no oil or frankincense on these meat-offerings, was because they were given as an expiation from evils, and so long as a man is in expiation he cannot receive the good of love and the truth of faith, because the evils stand in the way; but it is otherwise after expiation, or the removal of the evils.

[13] As the good of love is not possible except together with the truth of faith (for good produces truth, and in truth procures for itself its quality, and forms itself), therefore it was that “upon every meat-offering there was frankincense,” and also “upon the breads of faces” which were upon the table in the Tent of meeting (Lev.  24:7); for “breads” signified the good of love (n. 3478, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 8410, 9323, 9545, 10040, 10137).

AC 10178. Of shittim wood shalt thou make it.  That this signifies from love Divine, is evident from the signification of “shittim wood,” as being the good of merit and of righteousness that belongs to the Lord alone (n. 9472, 9486, 9715); that it also signifies love, is because when the Lord was in the world, He from Divine love fought against all the hells and subjugated them, and thereby saved the human race, and hence alone had merit and was made righteousness (n. 9486, 9715, 9809, 10019, 10152). Therefore the good of the Lord‘s merit is His Divine love.  That“shittim wood” has such and so great a signification is because all things which are in the threefold kingdom of the earth, animal, vegetable, and mineral, signify spiritual and celestial things, and also their opposites; for all nature is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom (n. 9280); also that “wood” in general signifies the good of love, and specifically the good of merit (n. 2784, 2812, 3720, 4943, 8354, 8740). From this it is that in the supreme sense “wood” signifies Divine good, because all things which in the internal sense signify such things as belong to the church and heaven, in the supreme sense signify Divine things.

AC 10179. A cubit the length thereof and a cubit the breadth thereof.  That this signifies equally from good and from truth, is evident from the signification of“ length,” as being good, and of “breadth,” as being truth (n. 1613, 3433, 3434, 4482, 9487); equally from both is signified by “the length a cubit, and the breadth a cubit,” thus by the measure being equal, because by measures in the Word things are determined in respect to their quantity and quality, and the determination is effected by means of numbers. The thing that is here determined by the measure, which is a “cubit,” is good and truth; the former by the “length,” and the latter by the “breadth.” That “length” denotes good is because it is reckoned from east to west, and by “east and west” is signified good from one boundary to another; and breadth is reckoned from south to north, and by “south and north” is signified truth from one boundary to another. For such is the case in heaven, where the Lord is the Sun, and also the East, from which all determinations are there made. They who are in the front there are in the perception of good according to the distance; they who are in clear perception of good are in the east (n. 3708, 9668), and they who are in obscure perception of good are in the west (n. 3708, 9653); but they who are in the clear light of truth are in the south (n. 9642), and they who are in the obscure light of truth are in the north (n. 3708). Hence it is that in the Word such things are signified by these four quarters; and that by “ length” is signified good, and by “breadth” truth.

AC 10180. Foursquare shall it be.  That this signifies thus perfect, is evident from the signification of “foursquare,” as being righteous, and also perfect (n. 9177, 9861).

AC 10181. And two cubits the height thereof.  That this signifies the degrees of good and of truth, and their conjunction, is evident from the signification of “two,” as being conjunction (n. 1686, 5194, 8423); and from the signification of “height,” as being the degrees of good and of the derivative truth (n. 9489, 9773). By degrees of height are meant degrees from interiors to exteriors, or from inmosts to outermosts, the nature of which degrees may be seen illustrated and shown above (n. 3405, 3691, 4145, 5114, 5146, 8603, 8945, 10099).

[2] Degrees are of two kinds, namely, degrees in length and breadth, and degrees in respect to height and depth: the latter differ greatly from the former. Degrees of length and breadth are those which succeed each other from the middle to the circumference; but degrees of height proceed from interiors to exteriors. The former degrees, namely of length and breadth, are degrees which continually decrease toward the circumferences, as light decreases from a flame down to its obscurity, and as the sight of the eye decreases from the nearest objects to those which are most remote, and as the intellectual sight decreases from those things which are in light to those which enter into shade. But degrees of height, which proceed from inmosts to outermosts, or from highests to lowests, are not continuous, but discrete. They are circumstanced as are the inmosts of a seed in respect to its exteriors; and as are the inmosts of a man in respect to his outermosts; and as the inmost of the angelic heaven is in respect to its outermost. These degrees are discriminated from each other, and are thus distinct, as are that which produces and that which is produced.

[3] Things which are in an interior degree are more perfect than those which are in an exterior degree, and there is no likeness between them except through correspondences.  From this it is that those who are in the inmost heaven are more perfect than those who are in the middle heaven, and that these are more perfect than those who are in the ultimate heaven. It is the same with a man in whom is heaven; his inmost is in a more perfect state than his middle, and this is in a more perfect state than his ultimate; and they are associated together in no other way than through correspondences, the nature of which has been abundantly shown in the preceding explications.

[4] He who does not acquire a perception of these degrees cannot possibly know the differences between the heavens, and those between the interior and exterior faculties of man, thus neither can he know the difference between the soul and the body. Nay, he cannot at all apprehend what the internal sense of the Word is, and its difference from the external sense, nor even the difference between the spiritual world and the natural. He cannot even understand what and whence correspondences and representations are, and scarcely what influx is. Sensuous men do not apprehend these differences, for they regard as continuous any increase or decrease according to these degrees, thus they regard these degrees as being like those of length and breadth, and therefore they stand outside, and far away from intelligence.

[5] These degrees are degrees of height, and therefore by what is high in the Word is meant what is interior (n. 2148, 4210, 4599), and because interior, also more perfect. From this it is that in the Word the Lord is called “the Highest,” because He is perfection itself, intelligence and wisdom itself, and good and truth itself; and from this it is that heaven is said to be on high, because it is in perfection, intelligence, wisdom, good, and truth, from the Lord; and therefore hell is said to be in the deep, because there is in it no perfection, no intelligence and wisdom, and no good and truth.

AC 10182. Out of it shall be its horns.  That this signifies the powers of truth from the good of love and of charity, is evident from the signification of “horns,” as being the powers of truth (n. 2832, 9719-9721). That it signifies from the good of love and of charity is because all the power of truth is from this source. Therefore also the horns were continued on from the altar itself, or were “out of it;” for this altar was a representative of the hearing and reception by the Lord of all things of the worship that is from love and charity (n. 10177).

[2] That all the power of truth is from the good of love cannot be apprehended by those who have only a material idea of power and therefore how the case herein is must be told. In the heavens all power is from the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine good; from this the angels have power, for the angels are receptions of the Divine truth from the Lord (n. 1752, 4295, 8192). By the power which they have from this they protect man by removing the hells from him; for one angel prevails against a thousand spirits from the hells.  This power is what is meant by the keys of Peter, but by Peter who is there called a “rock” is meant the Lord as to the truth of faith from the good of love (n. 2670, 3750, 4738, 6000, 6073, 6344, 10087); and that a “rock” denotes the Lord as to the truth of faith (n. 8581).

[3] The power of Divine truth is meant also by “the voice of Jehovah” in David:--

The voice of Jehovah is upon the waters. The voice of Jehovah is in power. The voice of Jehovah breaketh the cedars.  The voice of Jehovah cleaveth the flame of fire. The voice of Jehovah maketh the wilderness to tremble. The voice of Jehovah strippeth the forests; Jehovah giveth strength to His people (Ps.  29:3-11).

That “the voice of Jehovah” denotes the Divine truth proceeding from His Divine good, (n. 9926).

[4] The power of Divine truth is meant also by “the Word” in John:--

All things were made by the Word, and without Him was not anything made that was made (John 1:3);

that “the Word” denotes the Divine truth that proceeds from the Divine good, see above (n. 9987); wherefore also the Lord when in the world first made Himself Divine truth, which is also meant by “the Word was made flesh” (John 1:14). The reason why the Lord then made Himself Divine truth, was in order that He might fight against all the hells and subjugate them, and thus reduce into order all things there, and at the same time all things in the heavens (n. 9715, 9809, 10019, 10052).

[5] That truths from good have all power, and that on the contrary falsities from evil have no power, is very well known in the other life. For this reason it is that the evil who come there from the world are deprived of persuasive faith, and likewise of all knowledge of truth, and are thus left to the falsities of their evil.

[6] That truths from good have such power cannot be apprehended by those who have the idea that truth and its faith are mere thought; when yet man’s thought from his will produces all the strength of his body, and if it were inspired by the Lord through His Divine truth, man would have the strength of Samson. But it is the Lord‘s good pleasure that in respect to the things of his spirit, and that conduce to eternal salvation, man should have strength through faith from love. From this it can be seen what is meant by the power of truth from good, which is signified by “the horns of the altars” both of burning offering and of incense.

[7] That “horns” signify this power is evident from the passages in the Word where “horns” are mentioned, as in these passages:--

In that day will I make a horn to grow for the house of Israel (Ezek. 29:21).

Have we not taken to us horns by our own strength? (Amos 6:13).

Jehovah will give strength to His king, and will exalt the horn of His anointed (1 Sam. 2:10).

Jehovah hath exalted the horn of His people (Ps. 148:14).

All the horns of the wicked will I cut off; but the horns of the righteous shall be exalted (Ps. 75:10).

The Lord hath cutoff in the wrath of His anger all the horn of Israel, and hath exalted the horn of thine adversaries (Lam.  2:3, 17).

Ye thrust with side and with shoulder, and strike all the weak sheep with your horns, till ye have scattered them abroad (Ezek. 34:21).

I saw four horns. The angel said, These are the horns which have scattered Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem. The smiths are come to cast down the horns of the nations, who lift up their horn against the land of Judah (Zech. 1:18-21).

His horns are the horns of the unicorn; with them shall he strike the peoples all together to the ends of the earth (Deut.  33:17).

That in these passages by “horns” is signified power, is evident, and indeed power in both senses, namely, the power of truth against falsity, and of falsity against truth; for in the internal sense the state of the church is everywhere treated of.

[8] In Amos:--

In that day I will visit upon the altars of Bethel, and the horns of the altar shall be cut off, and shall fall to the earth (Amos 3:14);

by “the altars of Bethel,” and by its “horns,” are signified evils and falsities destroying the good and truth of the church, of which it is said that they “shall be cut off.”

[9] From all this it can be seen what is meant by the “horns,” of which such frequent mention is made in Daniel, and by John in the Apocalypse, as in these passages:--

The beast had ten horns, and also a horn speaking to it (Dan. 7:8, 11, 20).

The horn made war with the saints and prevailed until the Son of man came (Dan. 7:21, 22);

Concerning the horns of the ram and the horns of the he-goat, by which they made war with each other (Dan. 8:3-21).  The dragon had ten horns (Rev. 12:3).  In like manner the beast that came up out of the sea (Rev.  13:1).  And also the scarlet beast (Rev. 17:3).  The horns are ten kings (Revelation 17:12, 13; Daniel 7:24). That by “kings” in the Word are signified truths, and in the opposite sense falsities, (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).

[10] As by a“horn” is signified truth in its power, and in the opposite sense falsity destroying truth, therefore speech is attributed to a horn (Rev. 9:13; Dan. 7:8; Ps. 22:21).

[11] That kings were anointed with oil from a horn (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39), represented truth from good in its power, for “horns” denote truths in their power; “oil” denotes good; and “kings” denote those who are in truths from good. That “oil” denotes good, (n. 886, 9780); and “kings,” those who are in truths from good, thus abstractedly, truths from good, (n. 6148). From this also it is that a horn is said “to sprout forth” (Ps. 132:17), because all spiritual growth belongs to truth from good; thus also in old times they made sprouting horns. That good has all power through truth, or what is the same, that all power belongs to truth from good, (n. 10019).

AC 10183. And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold.  That this signifies what is representative of all things of worship from good, is evident from the signification of “gold,” as being the good of love (n. 9874); and that “overlaying with gold” denotes to found upon this good (n. 9490), thus that it is representative of it is evident.

AC 10184. Its roof.  That this signifies the inmost, is evident from the signification of a “roof,” as being the inmost.  A “roof” denotes the inmost because it is supreme or highest, and what is supreme or highest signifies inmost, according to what was shown above (n. 10181); and because a “roof” signifies the like as the head with man. For all the representatives in nature bear relation to the human form, and have a signification according to this relation (n. 9496).  That the “head” signifies the inmost, (n. 5328, 6436, 7859, 9656, 9913, 9914). The inmost here signified by the roof of the altar of incense is the inmost of worship; for in worship there are similar things to those which are in the man himself from whom the worship proceeds; namely, an internal, a middle, and an external. The inmost is called celestial, the middle spiritual, and the external natural (n. 4938, 4939, 9992, 10005, 10017, 10068). From the correspondence these degrees are signified by the “head,” the “breast,” and the “feet;” in like manner by the “roof,” the “sides,” and the “horns,” of the altar of incense.

[2] As by the “roof” is signified the celestial, which is inmost, good is also signified, for good is everywhere the inmost, and truth proceeds from it, as, to speak comparatively, light does from flame. This is meant by the “roof” in Matthew:--

Let him that is on the roof of the house not go down to take anything out of his home (Matt. 24:17; Mark 13:15; Luke 17:31).

The subject here treated of is the last times of the church, and by being “on the roof” is signified the state of a man who is in good; and by “going down to take anything out of the house,” is signified a return to the former state (n. 3652). As in Jeremiah:--

On all the roofs of Moab, and in the streets thereof, all is mourning (Jer. 48:38);

by a “mourning on all the roofs” is signified the vastation of all goods with those who in the representative sense are meant by Moab, namely, those who are in natural good, who easily suffer themselves to be seduced (n. 2468); and by a “mourning in the streets” is signified the vastation of all truths. That “streets” denote truths, (n. 2336).

[3] As a “roof” signified good, therefore the ancients had roofs on their houses where they walked, and also where they worshiped, as can be seen in (1 Sam.  9:25, 26; 2 Sam. 11:2; Zeph. 1:5).  In Moses:--

When thou buildest a new house, thou shalt make a parapet for thy roof, that thou bring not bloods on thine house if anyone fall from it. Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with mixed seed, lest the gathering from the seed which thou hast sowed, and from the produce of the vineyard, be forfeited. Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together. Thou shalt not put on a garment mixed with wool and linen together (Deut. 22:8-11).

[4] From all this it is also evident that by a “roof” is signified the good of love; for each of these precepts involves similar things, which are not disclosed except by means of the internal sense.  This sense is that he who is in good, which is the state of a regenerate man, shall not return into a state of truth, which is his prior state, namely, during regeneration; for in this state man is led by means of truth to good, thus partly by himself; but in the later or posterior state, namely when he has been regenerated, man is led by good, that is, through good by the Lord.

[5] This is the secret which lies hidden within each of these precepts; thus the same as is contained in the Lord’s words in the following passages:--

Then he who is upon the house, let him not go down to take anything out of his house; and he who is in the field, let him not return back to take his clothes (Matt. 24:17, 18).

He who is up on the roof, let him not go down into the house, neither let him enter to take away anything out of his house; and he who shall be in the field, let him no more turn back to take his raiment (Mark 13:16).

In that day, whosoever shall be upon the house, and his vessels in the house, let him not go down to take them away; and whosoever shall be in the field, let him likewise not return to the things behind him; Remember Lot‘s wife (Luke 17:31, 32).

[6] Who cannot see that arcana of heaven are contained in these passages? for otherwise what could he meant by its being said that they should not go down from the house, or return back from the field, and that they should remember Lot’s wife?  In like manner in what is said in Moses, that they should make a parapet about the roof lest blood should be shed if people fell down; and that a field should not be sown mixedly with seed, and also about the produce of a vineyard; and that they should not plough with an ox and an ass together; nor wear a garment mixed with wool and linen. For by “the roof” is signified good, and by being “upon the house,” or “upon the roof,” is signified the state when a man is in good; by “falling from it” is signified a relapse to the former state; and by “bloods” is signified the violence then offered to good and truth (n. 374, 1005, 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326); by a “vineyard” is signified the church with man; by the “produce of the vineyard,” a state of truth (n. 9139); by “the seed of wheat or barley,” a state of good (n. 3941, 7605); by an “ox” also is signified good, and by “ploughing with an ox,” a state of good (n. 2781, 9135); in like manner by “wool,” and by “putting on a garment of wool” (n. 9470); and by an “ass” is signified truth (n. 2781, 5741); and also by “linen” (n. 7601, 9959). But how the case is with this secret, see unfolded in the places cited in (n. 9274).

AC 10185. And its walls round about.  That this signifies the interiors, is evident from the signification of “walls,” or “sides,” as being the interiors, for as the “roof” signifies the inmost, the “walls” beneath signify the interiors; by the interiors are meant the things beneath the inmost and above the ultimate ones, thus the middle things. That the “walls” signify the interiors is because the sides and breast with man signify the interiors, for all the representatives in nature bear relation to the human form, and have a signification in accordance with this relation (n. 9496); as for instance a house: its highest part called the roof signifies the like as the head with a man; its more interior things which are below the highest, signify the like as the breast and sides; and its foundation, the like as the feet and soles of the feet. That this is so, is because the universal heaven bears relation to a man, and from this there is an influx into universal nature, for the natural world comes forth and subsists from the spiritual world.  When the spiritual world is spoken of, there is meant the Divine of the Lord which is there.

[2] That all things in nature bear relation to the human form, is also evident from all the things in the vegetable kingdom, in which kingdom all things are clothed with leaves, bearing flowers before they bring forth fruits, while fruits are the ultimate ends for the sake of which are the prior things, and to which they all look.  For the leaves in that kingdom bear relation to the lungs, and are as it were in the place of the respiration, because by their means the sap is drawn up, and therefore a tree stripped of its leaves bears no fruit.  From this also it is that “leaves” in the Word signify the truths of faith (n. 885), for in like manner by their means is drawn up the living power whereby good is formed.

[3] The blossoming before the fruit corresponds to the state of that age with man when the conjugial inclination enters minds and gladdens them, thus when truth is being conjoined with good. But the fruit corresponds to the good itself, which, in so far as it ripens like fruit, puts itself forth into works.  From this it is that “fruits” in the Word signify the works of charity; and the blossoming before the fruit is compared to the voice and joy of the bride and bridegroom; and so in all other things.

[4] Therefore one who is able to reflect wisely will very clearly notice that the heavenly paradise is represented in the earthly one, and that from this all things in nature bear relation to such as are in the spiritual world.  And one who is able to draw further conclusions will perceive that nature does not subsist from itself, but through influx from heaven, that is, from the Divine in heaven; insomuch that if the communication were taken away, all things of the earth would fall down to nothing. That this is so the simple apprehend, but not the wise of the world, for the reason that the simple attribute all these things to the Divine, but the wise of the world attribute them to nature.

AC 10186. And its horns. That this signifies the exteriors, is evident from the signification of “horns,” as being the powers of truth from good (n. 10182); that they denote the exteriors also, is because truth from good is in its power in the extremes or ultimates (n. 9836); and because the horns of the altar bear relation also to the arms and hands with man, by which also is signified truth in its power in the ultimates or extremes (n. 10019, 10062, 10076, 10082).

AC 10187. And thou shalt make for it a border of gold round it. That this signifies a bounding from good lest they be approached and injured by evils, is evident from the signification of “a border,” as being a bounding to prevent approach and injury by evils (n. 9492); and from the signification of “gold,” as being good (n. 9874, 9881).  The reason why the border was made of gold was because it represented a closure from good; for good cannot be approached by evils, because evils cannot by any means endure the sphere of good; when evils, that is, those who are in evils, or those who are from hell, come unto this sphere, which is the sphere of heaven, they are direfully tortured, and in so far as they enter into this sphere, so far they feel infernal torments within them, and consequently become like those who are lying in the death agony; and therefore they instantly cast themselves down into hell, and no longer dare to lift up their heads. This is the reason why those who are in heaven are in safety from the infestation of evils from the hells; and this is meant by the words of Abraham to the rich man who was in hell:--

Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that they who would pass over from hence to you cannot, neither can they who are there pass over to us (Luke 16:26);

and by these words:--

They shall say to the mountains and to the rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of Him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb (Rev. 6:6; Hosea 10:8).

But as regards truth, this can he approached by the evil, because the evil pervert truths by wrong interpretations, and so apply them to favor their own cupidities; but in proportion as good is present in truths, truths cannot be approached. From this it can be seen what kind of protection is possible in the other life to those who are solely in truths, which are called the truths of faith, and not at the same time in good. By good is meant charity toward the neighbor and love to the Lord, for all goods are from this source. From all this it is now evident why a border was made round about the sides of the altar of incense.

AC 10188. And thou shalt make for it two rings of gold from under its border.  That this signifies the sphere of Divine good, through which are conjunction and preservation, is evident from the signification of “two,” as being conjunction (n. 5194, 8423); from the signification of “gold,” as being good (n. 9874, 9881); and from the signification of a “border,” as being a bounding to prevent their being approached and injured by evils (n. 10187). From all this it is evident that by “two rings of gold from under the border” is signified the sphere of Divine good through which is conjunction; and that preservation also is signified, is because the altar of incense was carried by staves inserted in the rings, and by “carrying” is signified preservation (n. 9900).

[2] What the sphere of Divine good is shall here be briefly told. The sphere of Divine good fills the universal heaven, and also extends itself into hell, for it is like the sphere of the sun‘s heat in the world, which in summer penetrates even into dark places where the sun does not appear. This Divine sphere was likened by the ancients to radiant circles in the midst of which was God, and round about were angels. Accordingly those who suffer themselves to be led by the Lord, thus who receive the Divine from Him, are in the sphere of Divine good in proportion to their reception of it; while those who do not receive it are indeed in the same sphere, but their interiors have been so much closed up that they do not feel the influx. For those who are in hell are in externals and are not in internals, and from their externals there exhale evils and the derivative falsities, which appear around them like the smoke from a furnace; causing the external sphere of Divine good to be dulled there, while the internal sphere of it still remains; but it is not received because it has been closed to them; nevertheless the Lord rules the hells by means of it.

[3] The reason why there is a sphere of Divine good which proceeds from the Lord, is because the Sun of heaven, which is the Lord, is Divine love itself, for this so appears; the heat thence proceeding is the good of love, and the light thence proceeding is the truth of faith; hence in the Word by the “sun” is meant the Divine love; by “fire,” and “heat,” the good of love; and by “light,” the truth of faith.

[4] Moreover, from every angel proceeds a sphere from his love, also from every spirit good and evil according to his love; but the spheres proceeding from these do not extend themselves far, whereas the Divine sphere extends through the universe, for it proceeds from the inmost, and the inmost is the all in all the things that follow in succession from it. Concerning these spheres, (n. 1048, 1053, 1316, 1504-1512, 1695, 2401, 4464, 5179, 6206, 7454, 6598-6613, 8063, 8630, 8794, 8797, 9490-9492, 9498, 9499, 9534, 9606, 9607).

AC 10189. Upon its two ribs.  That this signifies conjunction with truths on the one side, and preservation by means of them, is evident from the signification of “ribs,” when by them are meant sides, as being truths; for the sides which are called “ribs” look to the south and the north, and by the “south” is signified truth in light (n. 9462), and by the “north” truth in shade (n. 3708).  But by “sides” properly so called is signified good, because they look to the east and the west, and by the “east” is signified good in clearness, and by the “west” good in obscurity (n. 3708, 9653). Therefore it is here said, “thou shalt make for it two rings of gold from beneath the border, upon the two ribs thereof thou shalt make them upon the two sides thereof.” That the sides properly so called look to the east and the west, but that the sides which are called “ribs” look to the south and the north, is plain in (Exodus 26:13, 26, 27, 35). Moreover “ribs,” being supports of the breast, signify the truths that support good.

[2] In heaven however the case is this. On the right are those who are in the light of truth, thus who are in the south; but on the left are those who are in the shade of truth, thus who are in the north; before the face are those who are in the clear perception of good, thus who are in the east; but at the back are those who are in the obscure perception of good, thus who are in the west. These, who are in good, constitute the celestial kingdom of the Lord; and the former, who are in truth, constitute His spiritual kingdom.  This is the appearance to the angels there in whatever direction they turn themselves, for the angels have the Lord, who is the very East, continually before the face; but the contrary is the case with those who are in hell, for these have the Lord continually at the back.

[3] For in the other life the quarters are not determined toward fixed regions, as they are in the world; but according to fixed and ruling loves.

[4] For an angel or a spirit is his own love, and where the love is, thither he turns himself; they who are in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor, and from this in faith, look at the Lord before them wherever they turn their bodies and their faces.  For the Lord turns them to Himself, because He enters by the way of the east into them, and constantly keeps them in a determination toward Himself. Hence their external sight, determined by the internal sight that belongs to the understanding, and this by the love that belongs to the will, looks in the direction in which the love carries it. It is similar with men in the world in respect to their interiors that belong to their spirit.  Moreover in the other life all are distinguished according to the way in which each one turns himself. That the spaces and places in the other life are of this nature, and that from this they signify states, (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381, 9440, 9667, 10146).

AC 10190. Upon its two sides shalt thou make them.  That this signifies conjunction with good on the other side and preservation by means of it, is evident from what has been said and shown just above (n. 10189). From the same also it can be seen how the case is with the Divine sphere round about, namely that it is a sphere of the good of love from the Lord as a Sun from the east even to the west, and a sphere of truth from good from the south to the north. Thus the sphere of Divine good in the midst is like an axis, with the sphere of Divine truth proceeding from it on both sides, on the right and on the left.

AC 10191. And it shall be for receptacles for the staves. That this signifies the power of truth from good there, is evident from the signification of the “receptacles” (or “rings,” for these were the receptacles), as being the Divine sphere (n. 10188); and from the signification of “the staves,” as being the power of truth from good (n. 9496).

AC 10192. To carry it in them. That this signifies its consequent preservation in its state, is evident from the signification of “carrying,” as being to hold together in a state of good and truth, thus to come forth and subsist (n. 9500, 9737), and also to preserve (n. 9900).

AC 10193. And thou shalt make the staves of shittim wood.  That this signifies power from the good of the Lord’s love, is evident from the signification of “the staves,” as being power (n. 9496); and from the signification of “shittim wood,” as being the good of the Lord‘s love (n. 10178).

AC 10194. And shalt overlay them with gold.  That this signifies the foundation of all things upon good, is evident from the signification of “overlaying with gold,” as being to found upon good (n. 9490). What is meant by being founded on good shall be briefly told. It is believed by some that truth is that on which all things are founded; but they are very much mistaken; for no truth is possible with a man unless he is in good. The truth with a man which is devoid of good is an external without an internal, thus a shell without a kernel, residing only in the memory. This truth may be likened to a painting of a flower, of a tree, or of an animal, which inwardly is nothing but clay; whereas truth from good not only resides in the memory, but is also inrooted in the life, and may be likened to the flower, the tree, or the animal itself, the perfection of which increases toward the interiors; for that which has been created by the Divine is more perfect the more interiorly it is examined. This can be very clearly seen from the representatives in the other life. Representatives are there presented according to the states of the interiors among spirits, for they are correspondences.  Around the spirits who are in truths from good appear most beautiful representatives, namely, houses and palaces flashing with gold and precious stones, also gardens and paradises of unspeakable beauty; all these things being from the correspondence. But around those who are in truths, and not from good, there appear nothing but stony places, rocks, and bogs, and sometimes shrubberies, but unpleasant and barren; these also being from the correspondence. And around those who are in falsities from evil appear swamps, privies, and many monstrous objects.  The cause of this being so is that all the representatives in the other life are outward things shaped according to the states of the interior ones; for in this way the spiritual world presents itself to view there. From this it can be seen what is meant by being founded upon good.

AC 10195. And thou shalt put it before the veil that is over the ark of the Testimony.  That this signifies in the interior heaven where it is conjoined with the inmost heaven, is evident from the signification of “the veil,” which was before the ark and between the holy and the holy of holies, as being an intermediate uniting the second and the third heavens (n. 9670, 9671); and from the signification of “the ark of the Testimony,” as being the inmost heaven (n. 9485). That the Tent together with the place within the veil and without the veil and together with the court represented the three heavens, (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9741).

AC 10196. Before the propitiatory that is over the Testimony. That this signifies where there is the hearing and reception by the Lord, of all things of worship from the good of love, is evident from the signification of “the propitiatory,” as being the hearing and reception by the Lord of all things of worship from the good of love (n. 9506); and from the signification of “the Testimony,” as being the Lord in respect to the Word (n. 8535, 9503), thus in respect to the Divine truth, for the Lord in respect to Divine truth is the Word (n. 9987).

[2] A few words may here be said about Divine good and Divine truth. The Lord as to the Divine Itself which is called “the Father,” and as to the Divine Human which is called “the Son,” is the Divine love itself, thus Divine good itself; but the Lord as heaven, which is beneath the Lord as a Sun, is the Divine truth; yet this Divine truth has within it the Divine good accommodated to the reception of angels and spirits. This Divine is what is called “the Spirit of Jehovah” and “the Holy.” The reason why this is called Divine truth, and not Divine good, is that angels and spirits are created, and from this are receptions of the Divine truth that proceeds from the Divine good. They, like men, enjoy two faculties, namely, understanding and will, and the understanding has been formed to receive Divine truth, and the will to receive Divine good. The understanding serves them for reception, and also for perception.

[3] An idea of this subject can be obtained by the simple from a comparison with the sun of the world, and with the world that comes forth from it. In the sun of the world there is fire, but that which proceeds from it is heat and light.  Everyone is able to know that the light is not in the sun itself, but that the light proceeds from it. And in so far as the light proceeding from the sun has heat in it, plants live and grow, and bring forth fruits and seeds. These things are said by comparison, because universal nature is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom; and it is such a representative theater because the natural world came forth through the spiritual world from the Divine, and perpetually comes forth, that is, subsists; hence it is that in the Word by the “sun” is meant the Lord as to Divine love, in like manner by “fire;” and that by “light” is meant the Lord as to Divine truth (John. 1:9; 3:19; 9:5; 12:46).

AC 10197. Whither I will come to meet thee there.  That this signifies in this way the presence and influx of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “coming to meet,” when said of Jehovah, as being the presence and influx of the Lord (n. 10147, 10148).

AC 10198. And Aaron shall burn incense thereon.  That this signifies the uplifting by the Lord of worship from love and charity, is evident from the signification of “burning incense,” as being the uplifting of all things of worship from love and charity (n. 10177); and from the representation of Aaron as high priest, as being the Lord as to Divine good, and as to the work of salvation (n. 9806, 9965, 10068).  That “burning incense” signifies the uplifting of worship, is because “fire” signified the good of love, hence all things that came forth from fire signified such as proceed from love; for which reason it is that not only light, but also smoke, were representative. That by “fire” is signified the good of love, (n. 4906, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324, 10055). That smoke also was representative is evident in these passages:--

Jehovah will create over every habitation of Zion a cloud by day, and a smoke and the shining of a flame of fire by night (Isa. 4:5).

The temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from His power (Rev. 15:8).

That the smoke of incense denotes the uplifting of prayers, thus in general the uplifting of all things of worship, is evident in the same:--

The smoke of the incense went up with the prayers of the saints (Rev. 8:4).

AC 10199. Incense of spices.  That this signifies grateful hearing and reception, is evident from the signification of “incense,” as being the hearing and reception by the Lord of all things of worship from love and charity (n. 10177); and from the signification of “spices,” as being things that are grateful.  It is from their odor that spices denote what is grateful, for “odor” signifies perceptivity; consequently a sweet odor signifies a grateful perceptivity, and an offensive odor an ungrateful perceptivity.  For all things which are perceived by man through the organs of sense signify spiritual things, which bear relation to the good of love and to the truths of faith, as do smell, taste, sight, hearing, and touch; hence “smell” signifies the perceptivity of interior truth from the good of love; “taste” signifies the perception and affection of knowing and of being wise; “sight,” the understanding of the truths of faith; “hearing,” perceptivity from the good of faith, and from obedience; and “touch” in general, communication, transfer, and reception.

[2] The reason of this is that all external sensations derive their origin from internal sensations which are of the understanding and will, thus in man from the truths of faith and from the good of love, for these constitute the understanding and the will of man.  But the internal sensations, which are proper to the understanding and will with man, have not that sense which the external sensations have, but are turned into such when they flow in; for all things made sensible to man by the external organs of sense, flow in from internal things, because all influx is from internal things into external, but not the reverse. For there is no such thing as physical influx, that is, influx from the natural world into the spiritual, but only from the spiritual world into the natural. The interiors of man which belong to his understanding and will are in the spiritual world, and his externals which belong to the senses of the body are in the natural world. From this also it can be seen what correspondence is, and what is its nature.

[3] That smell in general corresponds to perception in respect to the quality of a thing, (n. 1514, 1517-1519, 3577, 4624-4634, 10054); taste, to the perception and affection of knowing and of growing wise, (n. 3502, 4791-4805); sight, to the understanding of the truths of faith, (n. 3863, 4403-4421, 4567, 5114, 5400, 6805); hearing, to the perception of the good of faith, and to obedience, (n. 3869, 4652-4660, 7216, 8361, 9311, 9926); and that touch denotes communication, transfer, and reception, (n. 10130).

[4] From all this it is evident that “spices” signify such things as are gratefully perceived, such as are those which are from love and charity; specifically, interior truths, because these are from this source, as is evident from the following passages in the Word:--

Instead of spice shall be rottenness; and instead of a girdle rending, and instead of braided work baldness (Isa. 3:24);

where the subject treated of is the daughters of Zion, by whom is signified the celestial church, which church is in interior truths from the good of love to the Lord; “spice” here denotes interior truth; “rottenness,” the privation thereof; a “girdle” denotes conjunction; a “rending” denotes the dispersion of connection and order; “braided work” denotes memory-truth, which is exterior truth, or the truth of the external man; and “baldness” denotes the deprivation of it. That a “girdle” denotes conjunction and a bond, that all things may be kept in connection, so as to look to one end, (n. 9828); that “braided work” denotes memory-truth, (n. 2831); and “baldness,” the deprivation of it, (n. 9960).

[5] In Ezekiel:--

An eagle great with wings came unto Lebanon, and brought down therefrom a small branch of cedar into the land of Canaan; in a city of those who deal in spices he set the head thereof (Ezek. 17:3, 4);

the subject here treated of in the internal sense is the beginning of a spiritual church and its growth, and afterward its perversion and end; by “an eagle great with wings” is signified the interior truth of this church (n. 3901, 8764); “wings” denote exterior truths (n. 8764, 9514); “Lebanon” denotes this church; the “cedar” there denotes the truth of the spiritual church; the “city of those who deal in spices” denotes where there is the doctrine of interior truth. That “cities” in the Word signify doctrines, (n. 402, 2449, 3216, 4492, 4493); it is from interior truths that it is called the “city of those who deal in spices.”

[6] Again:--

The traders of Sheba and Raamah, by the chief of spice, and by every precious stone and gold, gave their tradings (Ezek.  27:22);

the subject here treated of is Tyre, by which is signified the church in respect to the knowledges of good and truth; “traders” denote those who have these knowledges and communicate them; “Sheba and Raamah” denote those who are in the knowledges of things celestial and spiritual; “the chief of spice” denotes that which is grateful from interior truths; “precious stones” denote these truths themselves; and “gold” denotes their good. That “Tyre” denotes the church in respect to the interior knowledges of good and truth, and in the abstract sense these knowledges themselves, (n. 1201); and that “traders” denote those who have these knowledges and communicate them, (n. 2967, 4453); “Sheba and Raamah,” those who are in the knowledges of things celestial and spiritual, (n. 1171, 3240); a “precious stone,” interior truth, (n. 9863, 9865, 9873, 9874); and “gold,” its good, (n. 9874, 9881).

[7] From this it is evident what was represented by the Queen of Sheba coming to Jerusalem to Solomon, “with camels carrying spices, and gold, and precious stone” (1 Kings 10:1, 2); and by the wise men of the east offering to the child Jesus “gold, frankincense, and myrrh” (Matt. 2:11). As “spices” signified interior truths, thus such as are grateful, therefore the incense was made aromatic, and also the oil of anointing.

[8] By interior truths are meant those which have been made to be of the man‘s life and affection, thus which are with him inwardly; but not the truths that are merely in the memory, and not made to be of the life. These truths are called external truths relatively, because they have not been inscribed on the life, but only on the memory; for they reside in the external man, and not in the internal man.  The truths of faith which have been inscribed on the life are in the will, and those things which are in the will are in the internal man, for by means of the truths of faith the internal man is opened, and communication is effected with the heavens. From this it is evident that interior truths with man are those which are from the good of love and of charity.  Whether you say the will, or the love, it is the same, for that which is of man’s will is of his love; and therefore truths inscribed on the life, which are called interior truths, are those which have been inscribed on the love, thus on the will, from which they afterward proceed when they come into speech and act.

[9] For heaven (in which is the internal man that has been opened) does not flow immediately into truths, but mediately through the good of love; and heaven cannot enter with man when the internal man is closed, because there is not any good of love there to receive it; and therefore with those with whom the internal man has not been opened by means of truths from the good of love and of charity, hell flows in with falsities from evil, however much the truths of faith, even interior ones, may reside in the external man only, that is, in the memory. From all this it can now be seen what is meant by interior truths which are grateful and are signified by “spices,” namely, those which are from the good of love and of charity.

AC 10200. Morning by morning.  That this signifies when the state of love is in clearness, is evident from the signification of “morning,” as being when the state of love is in clearness (n. 10134); hence “morning by morning” denotes when there is this state. That in the heavens there is continually a succession of states of love and light, that is, of good and truth, as on earth there are morning, noon, evening, and twilight; and spring, summer, autumn, and winter, has been occasionally shown above; also that these times of the day and of the year have their origin from this source; for the things which come forth in the world are images of those which come forth in the heavens, because everything natural comes forth from what is spiritual, that is, from the Divine in the heavens. From this it is evident what is the nature of the variations of states in the heavens, for they are known from comparison with the states of heat and light in the world; for heat in the heavens is the good of love from the Lord, and light there is the truth of faith from the Lord. The reason for such successions of states there is that the angels there may be continually being perfected; for in this way they pass through all the varieties of good and of truth, and become imbued with them. The differences of the varieties of the good of love and of the truth of faith in the heavens are also like the differences of heat and of light in the several regions or climates of the earth, namely, of one kind nearer to the equator, and of another at a greater distance on each side therefrom; and differently in each day of every year, and also in one year differently from another; for there is never a return of what is absolutely alike, or the same; it being provided that what is absolutely the same is never found either in the spiritual world or in the natural. From this the perfection continually increases.

AC 10201. In dressing the lamps he shall burn it.  That this signifies when truth also comes into its light, is evident from the signification of “lamps,” as being Divine truth and the consequent intelligence and wisdom (n. 9548, 9783); that “to dress” or kindle them denotes when these come into their light, is evident; and from the signification of “burning,” as being the hearing and reception of all things of worship (n. 10177, 10198). From this it is evident that by “burning it every morning, when the lamps were dressed,” is signified that the hearing and reception of all things of worship is chiefly when they are in a clear state of love, and from this in the intelligence and wisdom of truth.

[2] It is said “from this in the intelligence and wisdom of truth,” because the light of truth with man is altogether according to the state of his love: in proportion as the love is kindled, the truth shines, for the good of love is the vital fire itself, and the truth of faith is the intellectual light itself which is intelligence and wisdom. These two advance with equal step.

[3] By intelligence and wisdom is not meant the capacity to think and reason on every subject, for this exists equally with the evil as with the good, but there is meant the capacity to see and perceive the truths and goods which are of faith and charity, and of love to the Lord. This capacity exists solely with those who are in enlightenment from the Lord, and they are so far in enlightenment as they are in love to Him and in charity toward the neighbor. For the Lord enters through good, thus through the love and charity that are with the man, and leads into truths corresponding to the good; but when the loves are alien, as are those which are turned away from the Lord and the neighbor to self and the world, then these loves lead him, but from truths into falsities, while the capacity to think and reason still remains.

[4] The reason is that they are not in enlightenment from the Lord, but from self and the world, which enlightenment is mere thick darkness in spiritual things, that is, in those which are of heaven and the church. For with such the internal man, which sees from the light of heaven, is closed; and the external is opened which sees from the light of the world; and to see anything from the light of the world without the influx of light from heaven, is to see the things of heaven in thick darkness. Nay, in so far as the man has then kindled natural light by means of the loves of self and of the world, so far he rushes into falsities, consequently so far he extinguishes the truths of faith. From this it is that the learned of the world, who are in the love of self, having greater resources for confirming falsities, are more blind than the simple.

[5] These things have been said that it may be known that the faith of everyone is such as is his love; and that it may be understood what is meant by truth coming into its light when love comes into its clearness, which things are signified by “burning the incense every morning when the lamps were dressed.”

AC 10202. And when Aaron maketh the lamps to go up between the evenings, he shall burn it.  That this signifies an uplifting also in an obscure state of love when truth also is in its shade, is evident from the signification of “making the lamps go up,” that is, to kindle them, as being to enlighten with Divine truth, and the consequent intelligence and wisdom (n. 10201); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good, and as to the work of salvation (n. 9806, 9965, 10068); from the signification of “between the evenings,” as being an obscure state of love, and consequently a state of truth in shade (n. 10134, 10135); and from the signification of “burning,” as being the uplifting of worship (n. 10198). From this it is evident that by “Aaron‘s making the lamps to go up between the evenings,” is signified the uplifting of all things of worship by the Lord in an obscure state of love, when truth also is in its shade. How the case herein is can be seen from what was said just above (n. 10200, 10201), namely, that states of love in the heavens are varied as are the times of the day and of the year in the world; and that truth is in its light as good is in its heat, that is, in its love; and therefore when the love is not so much in its heat, neither is the truth in its light.  This being so, mention is made of “dressing the lamps in the morning, and making the lamps to go up in the evening,” for “to make to go up” denotes to uplift and increase the light of truth then as much as it can be done.

AC 10203. A continual incense before Jehovah. That this signifies in all worship from love from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “incense,” as being worship from love (n. 9475); from the signification of “continual,” as being all in all (n. 10133); and from the signification of “before Jehovah,” as being from the Lord (n. 10146). It is said “worship from love from the Lord,” because both love and faith, which are the essentials of worship, are from the Lord; and also from the Lord is the uplifting of all things of worship to Himself. A man who is not acquainted with the arcana of heaven supposes that worship is from himself, because he thinks and adores; yet the worship which is from man himself is not worship, but that which is from the Lord with man. For love and faith make worship, and as love and faith are from the Lord, worship also is from Him; neither can a man uplift into heaven anything from himself, but the Lord uplifts it; there being in man merely the capacity that this can be done, with which capacity he is endowed during regeneration (n. 6148); but all the activity and life of this capacity are from the Lord. That life itself is from the Lord, and that men and angels are recipient forms, (n. 1954, 2021, 2536, 2706, 3001, 3318, 3484, 3741-3743, 4151, 4249, 4318-4320, 4417, 4523, 4524, 4882, 5847, 5986, 6325, 6467, 6468, 6470, 6472, 6479, 9338).

AC 10204. To your generations.  That this signifies to eternity with those who are in faith from love, is evident from the signification of “generations,” as being those things which are of faith and love (n. 613, 2020, 2584, 6239, 9042, 9079, 9845); and “to generations” denotes to eternity (n. 9789).

AC 10205. Ye shall not make strange incense go up upon it. That this signifies no worship from any other love than the love of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “incense,” as being worship from love (n. 9475); and from the signification of “strange,” as being one who is within the church and yet does not acknowledge the Lord (n. 10112). From this it is evident that by “not making strange incense go up,” is signified that worship from any other love than that of the Lord is not worship. The case herein is this. Acknowledgment, faith, and love to the Lord, are the principal of all things of worship within the church, for acknowledgment, faith, and love conjoin; acknowledgment and faith conjoin there what is of the understanding, and love what is of the will; and these two things make the whole man. He therefore who within the church does not acknowledge the Lord has no conjunction with the Divine, for all the Divine is in the Lord and from the Lord; and when there is no conjunction with the Divine, there is no salvation.  From this it is that worship from any other faith and from any other love than those which are directed to the Lord is not worship. It is otherwise with those who are outside the church; for as they are in ignorance about the Lord, their worship is accepted by the Lord when they live from their religion in any mutual charity, and in any faith and in any love to God, whom most of them worship under a human form.  Moreover, in the other life, when they are instructed by the angels about the Lord, that He is the Divine Itself in human form, they acknowledge Him; and in so far as they had been in the good of life, so far they worship Him from faith and love (n. 2589-2604).

AC 10206. Nor a burnt-offering, nor a meat-offering.  That this signifies no representative there of regeneration through the truths and goods of celestial love, is evident from the signification of “a burnt-offering,” as being a representative of purification from evils, of the implanting of good and truth, and of their conjunction, thus of regeneration (n. 10042, 10053, 10057); and from the signification of “a meat-offering,” as being celestial good, into which man is introduced by regeneration (n. 4581, 9992, 10079, 10137), and also as being a representative of regeneration (n. 9993, 9994). From this it is evident that by “not making a burnt-offering nor a meat-offering go up on the altar of incense,” is signified that there was no representative there of regeneration through the truths and goods of faith and love, but a representative of the worship of the Lord from these.  Regeneration is one thing, and worship another; for regeneration is first, and the worship is according to the quality of the man’s regeneration; for his worship is accepted and is pleasing in the proportion that he has been purified from evils and the consequent falsities, and accordingly in the proportion that the truths and goods of faith and of love have been implanted.  For by worship is meant everything that proceeds from love and faith with man, and is uplifted to the Lord by the Lord. As this is the full completion, the altar of incense, by which worship was represented, is described last; for all things follow in order according to the series in which they are described. First is described the Testimony, by which is meant the Lord; next the ark in which was the Testimony, by which is signified the inmost heaven where the Lord is; afterward the table on which were the breads, by which is signified the good of love therefrom; and also the lampstand with the lamps, by which is signified the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine good; then the Tent itself, by which is signified heaven and the church which are from these; at length the altar of burnt-offering, by which is signified regeneration by means of truths from good; and lastly the altar of incense, by which is signified worship from all these in heaven and in the church.

AC 10207. And ye shall pour no drink-offering upon it.  That this signifies no representative there of regeneration through the truths and goods of spiritual love, is evident from the signification of a “drink-offering,” as being a representative of regeneration through the truths and goods of faith and charity (n. 10137), which are the truths and goods of spiritual love.  For love to the Lord is called celestial love, but charity toward the neighbor is called spiritual love; the former love reigns in the inmost heaven, but the latter in the middle and ultimate heavens (n. 9277, 9596, 9684).

AC 10208. And Aaron shall make expiation upon the horns of it. That this signifies purification from evils through the truths of faith which are from the good of love, is evident from the signification of “expiating,” as being purification from evils (n. 9506); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good and as to the work of salvation (n. 9806, 9946, 10017); and from the signification of “horns,” as being powers (n. 10182), and also the exteriors (n. 10186). That it signifies purification through the truths of faith which are from the good of love, is because expiation was made by blood, and by “blood” is signified the truth of faith which is from the good of love (n. 4735, 7317, 7326, 7846, 7850, 7877, 9127, 9393, 10026, 10033, 10047); and all purification from evils is effected by means of the truths of faith which are from the good of love (n. 2799, 5954, 7044, 7918, 9088). That expiations were made with blood upon the horns of the altar of burnt-offering and of the altar of incense, is evident in (Leviticus 4:3, 7, 18, 25, 30, 34; 16:18).

[2] The reason why the altars were expiated in this way, was because the holy things were defiled by the sins of the people, for the people represented the church; and therefore the things that belonged to the church, and were called its sanctuaries, as the altar and the Tent, together with the things that were therein, were defiled when the people itself sinned; seeing that these sanctuaries belonged to the church.  The same can be seen in Moses:--

Ye she separate the sons of Israel from their uncleanness, that they die not in their uncleanness, when they defile My Habitation that is in the midst of them (Lev. 15:31).

Aaron shall make expiation for the holy place, from the uncleannesses of the sons of Israel. Thus shall be make expiation for the sanctuary of holiness, and for the Tent of meeting, and for the altar (Lev. 16:16, 33).

[3] The case herein is this. What are called the holy things of the church are not holy unless they are solemnly received; for unless they are solemnly received, the Divine does not flow into them, and all the holy things with man are holy merely from the Divine influx. For instance, holy edifices, the altars there, the bread and wine for the Holy Supper, become holy solely through the presence of the Lord; and therefore if the Lord cannot be present there because of the sins of the people, what is holy is absent, because the Divine is absent.  Moreover the holy things of the church are profaned by sins, because these remove from them what is Divine.

[4] This then is the reason why the sanctuaries are said to be defiled by the uncleanness of the people, and that on this account they were to be expiated every year. That expiations were made by blood upon the horns of the altars, and not upon the altars themselves, was because the horns were their extremes, and nothing of man has been purified unless the extremes have been purified; for it is the extremes into which the interiors flow, and the influx takes place in accordance with their state; and therefore if the extremes have been perverted, the interiors are perverted therein; for when these flow in, the recipient forms of the interiors accommodate themselves to the state of the extremes. When there is something wrong with the eye, the sight which comes from within sees no otherwise than according to this state of the eye. Or when there is something wrong with the arms, the powers which come from within must needs put themselves forth accordingly. Wherefore, if the natural man has been perverted, the spiritual man must needs act into him in a perverted manner. From this it is that the spiritual or internal man is then closed.

[5] But see what has been shown above on this subject, namely, that in order to man’s purification, he must be purified as to the natural or external man (n. 9325); for the reason that all influx is from the internal into the external, and not the reverse (n. 5119, 6322): for the natural of man is the plane in which influx from the spiritual world terminates (n. 5651); and the externals of man have been formed to be of service to the internals (n. 5947, 9216, 9828). Thus the external man must be wholly subject to the internal (n. 5786, 6275, 6284, 6299); for the reason that the internal man is in heaven, and the external in the world (n. 3167, 10156); and of himself, or left to himself alone, the external man is opposite to the internal (n. 3913, 3928). More over what the internal man is, and what the external, (n. 9701-9709).

AC 10209. Once in the year.  That this signifies perpetually, is evident from the signification of “once in the year,” as being for the whole year, for expiation upon the horns of the altar of incense once in the year involved expiation for the whole year; and a year, like all things of time, signifies a state and its duration, and also perpetuity.  In this case there is meant a state of purification from evils by means of the truths of faith, for this state is signified by “expiation upon the horns of the altar of incense once in the year;” and all purification from evils, or regeneration, goes on perpetually, not only in the world, but also perpetually in the other life. That by a “year” is signified what is perpetual and eternal, (n. 2906, 7828); and also by “yesterday,” “to-day,” “to-morrow,” and similar things of time, (n. 2838, 3998, 4304, 6165, 6984, 9939); and that purification from evils, or regeneration, goes on to eternity, (n. 9334, 10048).

AC 10210. From the blood of the sin-offering of expiations. That this signifies through the truths which are from the good of innocence, is evident from the signification of “blood,” as being Divine truth (n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326, 7846, 7850, 9127, 9393, 10026, 10033, 10047); and from the signification of “the sin-offering of expiations,” or of the sacrifice of sin by which expiation is effected, as being purification from evils and the consequent falsities. That by “sin” is meant sacrifice for sin, (n. 10039); and that “expiation” denotes purification from evils and the consequent falsities, (n. 9506). That this purification is effected by means of truths which are from the good of innocence, is because the blood by which expiation was effected was from a bullock or a lamb, and by a “bullock” is signified the good of innocence in the external man (n. 9391, 9990, 10132); and by a “lamb,” the good of innocence in the internal man (n. 10132); and there must be innocence in order that truth and good may be received (n. 3111, 3994, 4797, 6013, 6765, 7836, 7840, 9262, 10134, 10021).  For the good of innocence consists in acknowledging that all truths and goods are from the Lord, and nothing from man‘s own; thus it consists in being willing to be led by the Lord, and not by self. From this it is plain that the more a man trusts and believes in himself, thus the more he is in the love of self, the less he is in the good of innocence.  From this it is that a man cannot be purified from evils unless he is in the good of innocence; for if he is not in this good, he is not led by the Lord, but by self; and he who is led by self, is led by hell, for what is man’s own is nothing but evil, and all evil is of hell.  That all expiation was made by the blood either of a bullock, or of a lamb, or of turtle-doves, or of young pigeons, is evident in (Exodus 29:36; Leviticus 4:1-7, 13-18, 27-35; 5:1-7; 15:14, 28-31; Numbers 6:9-11). By “turtledoves,” and by “young pigeons,” is also signified the good of innocence.

AC 10211. Once in the year he shall make expiation upon it. That this signifies the perpetual removal of evils, is evident from the signification of “once in the year,” as being what is perpetual (n. 10209); and from the signification of “expiating,” as being purification from evils and the consequent falsities (n. 9506); and purification from evils is nothing but a withholding from them, or their removal (n. 10057).

AC 10212. To your generations.  That this signifies those of the church who are in the truths and goods of faith, is evident from the signification of “ generations,” as being those things which are of faith and charity (n. 10204); that those are meant who are of the church is because genuine truths and goods of faith and love exist solely with these, for with these is the Word; and by the “sons of Israel,” whose generations are here meant, is signified the church (n. 9340).

AC 10213. A holy of holies is this to Jehovah.  That this signifies because from the Divine celestial, is evident from the signification of “a holy of holies,” as being the Divine celestial (n. 10129). What the Divine celestial is, and the Divine spiritual, and what is the difference between them, (n. 9277, 9596).

AC 10214. Verses 11-16.  And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, When thou shalt take up the sum of the sons of Israel as to those who are numbered of them, then they shall give everyone an expiation of his soul to Jehovah in numbering them, that there be no plague in them in numbering them. This they shall give, everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered, half a shekel, in the shekel of holiness, a shekel of twenty gerahs, the half of a shekel an uplifting to Jehovah.  Everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered, from a son of twenty years and upward, shall give an uplifting to Jehovah.  The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, from the half of the shekel to give an uplifting to Jehovah, to make an expiation upon your souls. And thou shalt take the silver of expiations from among the sons of Israel, and thou shalt give it for the work of the Tent of meeting; and it shall be to the sons of Israel for a memorial before Jehovah to make expiation upon your souls. “And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,” signifies enlightenment through the Word by the Lord; “when thou shalt take up the sum of the sons of Israel,” signifies all things of the church; “as to those who are numbered of them,” signifies as to a setting in order and disposing; “then they shall give everyone an expiation of his soul to Jehovah in numbering them,” signifies purification or liberation from evil through the acknowledgment and faith that all the goods and truths of faith and love, and their setting in order and disposing, are from the Lord, and not at all from man; “that there be no plague in them in numbering them,” signifies lest there should be the penalty of evil in doing goods as from self; “this they shall give, everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered,” signifies the ascription to the Lord of all things of faith and love; “half a shekel, in the shekel of holiness,” signifies all things of truth from good; “a shekel of twenty gerahs,” signifies all things of good; “the half of a shekel an uplifting to Jehovah,” signifies that all things of truth from good are of the Lord alone; “everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered,” signifies the ascription of all truths and goods to the Lord alone; “from a son of twenty years and upward,” signifies a state of the intelligence of truth and good; “shall give an uplifting to Jehovah,” signifies ascription to the Lord alone; “the rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, from the half of the shekel, to give an uplifting to Jehovah,” signifies that all, of whatever ability they may be, must ascribe all things of truth and good to the Lord; “to make expiation upon your souls,” signifies that evils may be removed; “and thou shalt take the silver of expiations from among the sons of Israel,” signifies truths purifying by virtue of good, which are of the church; “and thou shalt give it for the work of the Tent of meeting,” signifies conjunction with heaven through the acknowledgment that all truths and goods are from the Lord; “and it shall be to the sons of Israel for a memorial before Jehovah,” signifies in this way the preservation of the church and of all things of the church by the Lord; “to make expiation upon your souls,” signifies because in this way evils are removed.

AC 10215. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying.  That this signifies enlightenment through the Word by the Lord, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when by Jehovah to Moses, as being enlightenment by the Lord through the Word; for “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, and by Moses is represented the Word; for by “speaking” is signified influx, perception, and instruction (n. 2951, 5481, 5743, 5797, 7226, 7241, 7270, 8127, 8128, 8221, 8262, 8660), consequently also enlightenment, for enlightenment is influx, perception, and instruction by the Lord when the Word is being read. That “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, (n. 9373); and that in the representative sense “Moses” denotes the Word, (n. 9372). That these things are signified by “Jehovah speaking to Moses,” is because these words are not perceived in heaven in the same way as on earth; for in heaven words are perceived according to the internal sense, but on earth according to the external sense, for in heaven all things are understood spiritually, but on earth naturally.  The spiritual understanding is instantaneous, without any knowledge of what is understood in the external or literal sense by man. Such is the consociation of the angels of heaven with man, for the reason that everything of man‘s thought flows in from the spiritual world, and thus that in its first origin his thought is spiritual, and becomes natural in the external man by means of influx.

AC 10216. When thou shalt take up the sum of the sons of Israel.  That this signifies all things of the church, is evident from the signification of “the sum,” as being all; and from the representation of “the sons of Israel,” as being the church (n. 9340). That all things of the church are signified by “the sum of the sons of Israel,” is because the internal sense of the Word is such as is its sense in the heavens, for thither names do not pass, as the names of Israel, Moses, Aaron, and many others; for these names are amid material things, which are solely for the man of the bodily senses; but in their place are perceived spiritual things that belong to heaven and the church. The angels of heaven are spiritual, and apprehend whatever occurs according to its essence, that is, spiritually. That in heaven instead of the sons of Israel they understand the church, is because in the inmost heaven, where the Lord is more present than in the heavens beneath, by the names in the Word, in a good sense, is understood the Lord Himself; as by Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, David, Joseph, Judah, Israel. And as by these names is there understood the Lord, therefore the Divine things of heaven and of the church, which are from the Lord, are perceived by the same names in accordance with the connection of the things in the Word.  Perception flows in from the Lord, who is the Word; for everything of intelligence and wisdom is from the Lord, and without Him there is none at all.

AC 10217. As to those who are numbered of them.  That this signifies a setting in order and disposing, is evident from the signification of “numbering,” when said of all things of the church, which are the truths and goods of faith and love, as being the setting in order and the disposing of them, consequently “those who were numbered” signify what has been set in order and disposed. “Numbering” has this signification because numbering involves survey, and that which is surveyed by the Lord is also set in order and disposed.  Moreover the word by which numbering is here expressed, in the original tongue means to survey, to estimate, to observe, and also to visit, to command, to preside, thus to set in order and dispose. That these significations belong to this word is because in the spiritual sense the one thing involves the other, and the spiritual sense is the interior sense of the words, which sense is often contained in the words of languages, especially of the oriental languages.

[2] That in the spiritual sense, in which sense the truths and goods of faith and love are treated of, “to number” denotes to set in order and dispose, is evident also from the passages in the Word where “numbering” is spoken of, and also “number,” as in the following:--

The voice of a tumult of the kingdoms of the nations gathered together; Jehovah Zebaoth numbereth (setteth in order) the army of war (Isa. 13:4).

Lift up your eyes on high, and see who hath created these; He that hath brought forth by number their army; He calleth them all by name; of the multitude of the powerful and of the might in strength, not a man is lacking (Isa. 40:26).

Jehovah who numbereth the army of the stars; He calleth all by names (Ps. 147:4).

That by “numbering” in these passages is signified to set in order and dispose, is plain, for it is said of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, who does not number any army, or stars, but sets in order and disposes those things which are signified by an “army” and by“ stars,” which are the truths and goods of faith and love; for the subject treated of is not wars in the natural world, but wars in the spiritual world, which are wars or combats of truths from good against falsities from evil. That “wars” in the spiritual sense denote such combats, (n. 1664, 2686, 8273, 8295); that an “army” denotes the truths and goods of the church and of heaven, (n. 7988, 8019); and that “stars” denote the knowledges of truth and good, (n. 2495, 2849, 4697).

[3] When it is down what is signified by “numbering,” and by “ the sons of Israel,” it can be seen why it was not allowable for David to number the people, and why after he numbered them, Gad the prophet was sent to him, who declared the penalty (2 Sam. 24:1-15); and why it is here said that “everyone should give an expiation of his soul, that there be no plague in them in numbering them.” For by “the sons of Israel” are signified the truths and goods of the church, and by “numbering” is signified to set in order and dispose; and because it is of the Lord alone to set in order and dispose the truths and goods of faith and of love with everyone in the church and in heaven, therefore when this is done by a man, as it was done by David through Joab, it then signifies the setting in order and disposing of such things by man, and not by the Lord, which is not to set in order and dispose, but to destroy. If the numbering of the sons of Israel had not involved such things, there would not have been any sin or guilt in numbering them.

[4] That by “the sons of Israel” are signified spiritual truths and goods, which are the truths and goods of the church and of heaven, (n. 5414, 5801, 5803, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833, 5879, 5951, 7957, 8234, 8805); in like manner by the tribes into which the sons of Israel were divided, (n. 3858, 3926, 4060, 6335, 6397). As by“the sons of Israel” and by the “tribes” such things are signified, and these are innumerable, therefore in the Word it is said of them that:--

Their number should be as the sand of the sea, which shall not be measured, nor numbered (Hosea 1:10).

Who will number the dust of Jacob, and the number of Israel? (Num. 23:10).

Jehovah said to Abraham, I will make thy seed as the dust of the earth; so that if one can number the dust of the earth, it shall be that thy seed will be numbered (Gen. 13:16; 16:10).

Look up toward heaven, and number the stars, if thou be able to number them. So shall thy seed be (Gen. 15:5).

That by “the sons of Israel,” and by “the seed of Abraham,” was not meant their posterity; but spiritual truths and goods, which are innumerable, and also for the most part unutterable, can be seen from the fact that there was not a greater multitude of them than of other nations, which also Moses testifies:--

Not because of your multitude above all peoples hath Jehovah desired you, that He should choose you, for indeed ye are fewer than all peoples (Deut. 7:7).

[5] Moreover by “numbering” is signified to set in order and dispose, in Jeremiah:--

In the cities of Jerusalem and of Judah shall the flocks yet pass over according to the hands of him that numbereth them (Jer. 33:13);

“flocks” also denote the goods and truths of the church (n. 6048, 8937, 9135); “according to the hands of him that numbereth,” denotes according to the disposing of the Lord. In David:--

Who knoweth the vehemence of Thine anger? for numbering our days, make known what is right, that we may put on a heart of wisdom (Ps. 90:12);

“to number days” denotes to set in order and dispose the states of life; and days are said to be “numbered” when they are set in order and disposed, thus when they are finished, as in these passages:--

By the letting out of my days I shall go away unto the gates of hell; I have been numbered as to the residue of my years (Isa.  38:10);

A writing appeared before king Belshazzar: Numbered, Weighed, and Divided (Dan. 5:25);

for when “to number” signifies to set in order and dispose, then what is “numbered” signifies what is finished, as when a line is drawn under numbers on completing the calculation.

[6] That by “numbering” is signified to set in order and dispose, is because by “number” is signified the quality of a thing and of a state, and the quality is determined by the adjoined number; hence “to number” denotes to qualify, and in spiritual things qualification is effected by a setting in order and a disposing by the Lord.  This is signified by “number” in John:--

He causeth that he give to all a mark upon their right hand or upon their foreheads, and that no one can buy or sell save he that hath the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath intelligence count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man; namely, the number six hundred and sixty-six (Rev. 13:16-18).

[7] The subject treated of in this chapter is the beast out of the sea and the beast out of the earth; by the “beast out of the sea” is meant the truth of the church falsified by means of memory-knowledges which are from the world; and by the “beast out of the earth” is meant the truth of the church falsified by means of the literal sense of the Word applied to favor the evils of the loves of self and of the world; for the “earth” denotes the church as to good and truth (n. 9325); and the “sea” denotes memory-knowledge in general, (n. 28, 2120, 2850). “To have his mark upon the hand and upon the forehead” denotes to acknowledge all things no matter what they may be; for the “forehead” signifies love (n. 9936); and a “name” signifies all the quality of that which is being treated of (n. 1930, 3006, 3421, 6674, 8274).

[8] “To count the number of the beast” denotes to explore and know these falsified truths of the church; “the number of a man” signifies the subject and the state of the church; “six hundred and sixty-six” signifies its quality as to all truths falsified from evil, and also the profanation of what is holy, and likewise the end. To know these things, and to explore them, is the part of a wise and intelligent man, and therefore it is said, “this is wisdom, let him that hath intelligence count its number;” for the number “six” signifies the same as the number “twelve,” because it is the half of it (n. 3960, 7973, 8148); and “twelve” signifies all the truths and goods of the church in the complex (n. 2129, 2130, 3272, 3858, 3913, 7973), hence also in the opposite sense it signifies all falsities and evils in the complex.  The trebling of the number six also involves the end, and the end is when truth is completely profaned.

[9] From all this it is very evident that numbers in the Word involve things and states, and signify quality according to the numbers fixed upon, as also in the following words in John:--

The angel measured the wall of the holy Jerusalem a hundred and forty-four cubit, which is the measure of a man, that is, of an angel (John 21:17);

by the number fixed upon in this passage are also signified all truths and goods in the complex, for “a hundred and forty-four” signifies the same as “twelve” (n. 7973), for it arises from twelve multiplied into itself; and therefore it is here said that its “measure is the measure of a man,” as above that this number is “the number of a man;” but as truths from good are here signified, it is added that this measure is also “the measure of an angel,” for “ an angel” in the Word signifies truths from good, because he is a recipient of Divine truth from the Lord (n. 8192).

AC 10218. Then they shall give everyone an expiation of his soul to Jehovah in numbering them.  That this signifies purification or liberation from evil through the acknowledgment and faith that all the truths and goods of faith and love, and their setting in order and disposing, are from the Lord, and not at all from man, is evident from the signification of “giving an expiation of his soul,” as being to be purified or liberated from evil by means of the truth of faith, which here is to acknowledge that all truths and goods are from the Lord; and from the signification of “numbering Israel,” as being the setting in order and the disposing of them by the Lord alone and not by man. That these things are signified is evident from all that is here said about the half of a shekel that was to be given to Jehovah, and about the expiation by it in numbering the people; for by the “shekel of holiness” is signified the truth which is of the Lord alone; by “expiation thereby” is signified purification or liberation from evil (n. 9506); and by “numbering the sons of Israel” is signified to set in order and dispose all the truths and goods of the church (n. 10217).

[2] The case herein is this.  It was forbidden to number the sons of Israel because by “numbering” was signified to set in order and dispose, and by the “sons of Israel” and by the “tribes” into which they were divided, were signified all the truths and goods of faith and love in the complex; and as the setting in order and the disposing of these was of the Lord alone and not of man, therefore to number them was a trespass, such as is made by those who claim for themselves the truths which are of faith and the goods which are of love, and the setting in order and disposing of these, the character of whom is known in the church. For they are such as justify themselves by claiming for themselves as merit all things of faith and love, and consequently believe themselves to have of themselves merited heaven by virtue of their faith and works.  This evil was involved in the numbering of the people by David, concerning which we read in the second book of Samuel:--

Again the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel, and therefore He incited David against them, saying, Go, number Israel and Judah. And the king said to Joab, Go through all the tribes of Israel, and number ye the people, that I may know the number of the people. And Joab said unto the king, Jehovah thy God add unto the people how many soever they be, a hundred-fold, but why doth my lord the king desire this word? But the king’s word prevailed against Joab, and against the princes of the army; wherefore they went out to number the people Israel. Afterward David‘s heart smote him, wherefore he said unto Jehovah, I have sinned exceedingly in that I have done; nevertheless, O Jehovah, put away, I beseech thee, the iniquity of Thy servant, for I have done very foolishly. But Gad the prophet was sent to David, that he might choose one evil out of three; and he chose the pestilence, whereof seventy thousand men died (2 Samuel 24:1-25).

[3] From all this it is evident how great a sin it was to number Israel; not that regarded in itself the numbering was a sin, but because, as already said, the numbering of the sons of Israel by David signified the setting in order and disposing of all things of faith and love by self and not by the Lord, the “numbering” itself signifying setting in order and disposing, and “the sons of Israel” signifying all the truths and goods of faith and love.  To the intent therefore that they might be delivered from sin in numbering the sons of Israel, the half of a shekel was given for an expiation; for it is said, “they shall give everyone an expiation of his soul to Jehovah in numbering them, that there be no plague in them in numbering them.” From this it is evident that by these words is signified purification or liberation from evil by the acknowledgment that all the truths and goods of faith and love, and their setting in order and disposing, are from the Lord and not at all from man.

[4] That this is so, namely, that all the goods and truths of faith and love are from the Divine and not at all from man, is also known in the church, and likewise that it is evil for man to attribute them to himself; and that those are delivered from this evil who acknowledge and believe that these are from the Lord, for so they claim for themselves nothing which is Divine and from the Divine.  But see what has been shown above on this subject, namely, that those who believe that they do good of themselves and not from the Lord, believe that they merit heaven (n. 9974); that goods from self and not from the Lord are not good, because those who do goods from themselves do them from evil (n. 9975, 9980); that such despise the neighbor, and are angry with God Himself if they do not receive a reward (n. 9976); that such persons cannot receive heaven into themselves (n. 9977); that they cannot possibly fight against the hells; but that the Lord fights for those who acknowledge and believe that all goods and truths are from Him (n. 9978); and that the Lord alone is merit and righteousness (n. 9486, 9715, 9809, 9979-9984, 10019, 10152).

AC 10219. That there be no plague in them in numbering them. That this signifies lest there be the penalty of evil in doing goods as from self, is evident from the signification of a “plague,” as being the penalty of evil; and from the signification of “numbering the sons of Israel,” as being to set in order and dispose the truths and goods of faith and love (n. 10217), thus to do them.  It is said “as from self,” because the goods which a man does he does as from himself, nor does he perceive otherwise until he is in faith from love. For goods flow in from the Lord and are received by man, and those which are received, are at first felt no otherwise than as in himself and from himself; nor is it perceived that they are from the Lord until he comes into knowledge, and afterward into acknowledgment from faith.  For before this he cannot reflect that anything flows in from the Divine; nor can he at all perceive this, that is, be sensible of it in himself, until he begins to will and to love that it be so.

[2] This is like the life itself in man, and his two interior faculties of life, which are the understanding and the will.  Who before instruction does not believe that life is in himself, and thus that what he does from this life is of himself, and in like manner his understanding and will? although both his life in general, and his understanding and will, flow in; the truths of the understanding and the goods of the will out of heaven from the Lord, but the falsities of understanding and the evils of will from hell. For unless there are spirits and angels with man through whom this influx is effected, he cannot live a single moment, consequently neither can he think or will, as can be seen from manifold experience related at the close of several chapters, where influx was treated of (n. 9223, 9276, 9682).

[3] But so long as a man believes that he does all things of himself, both goods and evils, so long goods do not affect him, and evils adhere to him; but the moment that he acknowledges and believes that goods flow in from the Lord, and not from himself, and that evils are from hell, then goods affect him and evils do not adhere to him; and, moreover, in so far as goods affect him, so far evils are removed, thus he is purified and liberated from them.  But so long as the state of man is such that he cannot perceive and be sensible of the influx of goods from the Lord, so long he does goods as from himself, and yet ought to acknowledge and believe that they are from the Lord.  When this is the case, he also is liberated from evils; but in order that he may be liberated from evils this acknowledgment must be the confession of the heart itself, and not of the lips only.

[4] That a “plague” denotes the penalty of evil, is evident without explication. There are three plagues which follow those who attribute to themselves the truths and goods of faith and love, or who believe that they merit heaven by their works; for they who attribute these to themselves believe also that of themselves they merit heaven.  These three penalties are: l. That they cannot receive anything of the good of love and the truth of faith. 2. That evils and falsities continually pursue them.  3.  And that the truths and goods received from infancy perish.  These three penalties are signified by the three plagues which were proposed to David by the prophet Gad on account of numbering the people, which were: l. Seven years of famine.  2. A fleeing of three months before their enemies.  3. And a pestilence of three days (2 Sam. 24:13).

[5] For by “famine” is signified a lack and scarcity of the goods and truths of faith and love, because these are signified by bread, food, wheat, barley, oil, and wine, which are lacking while the famine lasts.  By “fleeing before enemies” in the internal sense is meant to be pursued by evils and falsities, for those who attribute goods and truths to themselves cannot fight against the evils and falsities which are from hell (n. 9978), and which in the spiritual sense are the enemies before whom is the fleeing, and by whom they are pursued. But by “pestilence” is signified the vastation and consumption of the goods and truths which have been received from infancy (n. 7505). That David chose the pestilence, and that seventy thousand died of it, signified that every truth and good of faith and love would perish with the Israelitish and Jewish nation, which also came to pass, for they did not acknowledge the Lord, from whom nevertheless are all goods and truths. “Three days” signified to the full, and the same was also signified by the “seventy thousand” men who died.

AC 10220. This they shall give, everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered.  That this signifies the ascription to the Lord of all things of faith and love, is evident from the signification of “ giving,” namely, the expiation of the soul, which was half a shekel, as being liberation from evils through the acknowledgment that everything of faith and love is from the Lord and nothing from man (n. 10218). Hence “everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered” signifies whatever of truth and good that is set in order and disposed by the Lord. For “everyone that passeth over” is everyone of the sons of Israel, and by the “sons of Israel” are signified all spiritual goods and truths (n. 5414, 5801, 5803, 5812, 5817, 5819, 5826, 5833, 5879, 5951, 7957, 8234, 8805); and by “those who are numbered” are signified those who are set in order and disposed by the Lord (n. 10218).

AC 10221. Half a shekel, in the shekel of holiness.  That this signifies all things of truth from good, is evident from the signification of “half,” as being all things; and from the signification of a “shekel,” as being truth from good. That “half” signifies all things, is because half a shekel was ten gerahs, or oboli, and by “ten” are signified all things (n. 4638), and also remains (n. 576, 1906, 1988, 2284), which are the truths and goods with man stored up in his interiors by the Lord (n. 5135, 5342, 5897, 5898, 7560, 7564).  That a “shekel” denotes truth from good is because a shekel was a weight of silver and also of gold, and by “silver” is signified truth, and by “gold” good; but how much of truth from good and of good through truth, is determined by the number of gerahs or oboli in the shekel; and in itself, regarded as a weight, a “shekel” denotes the quantity; and when it is called “the shekel of holiness,” it denotes the quantity of truth and good, for truth and good are what are called “holy,” because they are from the Lord who alone is holy.  More may be seen concerning the shekel and its signification in (n. 2959).

AC 10222. A shekel of twenty gerahs.  That this signifies all things of good, is evident from the signification of “twenty,” as likewise being all things, and the remains of good, as also what is holy. That it denotes all things and hence what is full, (n. 9641); also the remains of good, (n. 2280); and what is holy, (n. 4759, 7842, 7903). For when said of the Lord, “twenty” signifies what is His own, which is what is Holy itself (n. 4176); which shows why a shekel contained twenty gerahs or oboli, and why it is called a “shekel of holiness” in this and other passages (Lev. 27:3; Num. 3:47, 50; 7:13, 19, 25, 31, 37, 49, 55, 61, 67, 73; 18:16).  That the shekel was a weight both of silver and of gold, see (Genesis 24:22; Exodus 38:24; Ezekiel 4:10; 45:12).

AC 10223. The half of a shekel an uplifting   to Jehovah. That this signifies that all things of truth from good are of the Lord alone, is evident from the signification of “half a shekel,” as being all things of truth from good (n. 10221); and from the signification of “an uplifting to Jehovah,” as being that which is of the Lord alone (n. 10093).

AC 10224. Everyone that passeth over upon those who are numbered.  That this signifies that all truths and goods are to be ascribed to the Lord alone, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10220).

AC 10225. From a son of twenty years and upward.  That this signifies the state of the intelligence of truth and good, is evident from the signification of “twenty,” when said of a man’s age, as being a state of the intelligence of truth and good. That “twenty” denotes a state of the intelligence of truth and good, is because when a man attains the age of twenty years he begins to think from himself; for from earliest infancy to extreme old age a man passes through a number of states in respect to his interiors that belong to intelligence and wisdom. The first state is from birth to his fifth year; this is a state of ignorance and of innocence in ignorance, and is called infancy.  The second state is from the fifth year to the twentieth; this is a state of instruction and of memory-knowledge, and is called childhood and youth. The third state is from the twentieth year to the sixtieth, which is a state of intelligence, and is called adolescence, young manhood, and manhood. The fourth or last state is from the sixtieth year upward, which is a state of wisdom, and of innocence in wisdom.

[2] These successive states of the life of man are signified by the numbers of the years of age - “five,” “twenty,” and “sixty,” in the following passages in Moses:--

When anyone shall make a special vow, the estimation of a male shall be from a son of twenty years even to a son of sixty years, fifty shekels of silver. If it be a female, the estimation shall be thirty shekels. And if from a son of five years even unto to a son of twenty years, the estimation shall be, if a male, twenty shekels; and if a female, ten shekels. And if it be from the son of a month even unto five years, the estimation of a male shall be five shekels; of a female three shekels. And if it be from a son of sixty years upward, the estimation shall be fifteen shekels, and of a female ten shekels (Lev. 27:2-7).

[3] That the first state is a state of ignorance and also of innocence in ignorance is plain. During the continuance of this state, the interiors are being formed for use, consequently are not manifest, but only those most external, that belong to the sensuous man; and when these alone are manifest, there is ignorance; for whatever man understands and perceives is from the interiors; from which it can also be seen that the innocence which exists at that time and is called the innocence of infancy, is innocence most external.

[4] That the second state is a state of instruction and of memory-knowledge is also plain; this state is not as yet a state of intelligence, because at that time the child or youth does not form any conclusions from himself, neither does he from himself discriminate between truths and truths, nor even between truths and falsities, but from others; he merely thinks and speaks things of memory, thus from mere memory-knowledge; nor does he see and perceive whether a thing is so, except on the authority of his teacher, consequently because another has said so.

[5] But the third is called a state of intelligence, because the man then thinks from himself, and discriminates and forms conclusions; and that which he then concludes is his own, and not another‘s. At this time faith begins, for faith is not the faith of the man himself until he has confirmed what he believes by the ideas of his own thought.  Previous to this, faith was not his, but another’s in him, for his belief was in the person, not in the thing. From this it can be seen that the state of intelligence commences with man when he no longer thinks from a teacher, but from himself; which is not the case until the interiors are opened toward heaven.  Be it known that the exteriors with man are in the world, and the interiors in heaven; and that in proportion as light flows in from heaven into what is from the world, the man is intelligent and wise; and this according to the degree and quality of the opening of his interiors, which are so far opened as the man lives for heaven and not for the world.

[6] But the last state is a state of wisdom and of innocence in wisdom; which is when the man is no longer concerned about understanding truths and goods, but about willing and living them; for this is to be wise.  And a man is able to will truths and goods, and to live them, just in so far as he is in innocence, that is, in so far as he believes that he has nothing of wisdom from himself, but that whatever he has of wisdom is from the Lord; also in so far as he loves to have it so: hence it is that this state is also a state of innocence in wisdom.

[7] From the succession of these states the man who is wise may also see the wonderful things of the Divine Providence, which are that a prior state is constantly the plane of the states which follow, and that the opening or unfolding of the interiors proceeds successively from outermosts even to inmosts; and at last so that what was first (namely, ignorance and innocence), but in outermosts, is also last, but in inmosts; for he who knows that of himself he is ignorant of all things, and that whatever he knows is from the Lord, is in the ignorance of wisdom, and also in the innocence of wisdom.  From all this it can be seen what is the state of intelligence which is signified by “twenty,” when this number is predicated of man‘s age.

[8] The like is also meant by this number in other passages of the Word, as in Moses:--

Take ye the sum of all the congregation, from a son of twenty years and upward, everyone that goeth forth into the army in Israel (Num. 1:2, 3, 18).

The subject treated of in this passage is the encampment and journeying of the sons of Israel according to the tribes, and thereby is also signified the setting in order and disposing by the Lord of the truths and goods of faith and love; by the “encampment,” the setting in order and disposing (n. 4236, 8103, 8130, 8131, 8155); and by the “tribes,” the goods and truths of faith and love in the whole complex (n. 3858, 3926, 3939, 4060, 6335, 6337, 6397). Hence by “a son of twenty years and upward” are meant those who are in a state of intelligence, for with these the truths and goods of faith and love can be set in order and disposed by the Lord, because the Lord flows into their understanding and will, and sets them in order and disposes them, and also removes and casts down falsities and evils. Therefore it is said “from a son of twenty years and upward everyone that goeth forth into the army,” for by“ the army” are signified truths disposed in this order - that they do not fear falsities and evils; but repel them if they assault. That such truths are meant in the internal sense by an “army,” (n. 3448, 7236, 7988, 8019).

[9] But with those who are in a state of infancy and childhood, thus who are under twenty years of age, truths and goods have not been so set in order as to enable them to go forth into the army and into warfare, because, as before said, they do not as yet from themselves discriminate, and form any conclusions; consequently they cannot as yet by means of the rational dispel anything of falsity or evil; and they who are not able to do this are not let into combats. For this reason a man is not admitted into temptations, which are spiritual combats against falsities and evils, until he is in a state of intelligence, that is, until he comes to his own judgment (n. 3928, 4248, 4249, 8963).

[10] The like is signified by the age of “twenty years and upward” in other passages in Moses:--

Jehovah said to Moses and Eleazar, Take ye the sum of all the assembly of the sons of Israel, from a son of twenty years and upward, everyone that goeth forth to warfare in Israel (Num. 26:2, 3);

in the spiritual sense by “going forth to warfare” is signified to go forth into combats against the falsities and evils which are from hell.

[11] One who does not know that a “son of twenty years and upward” signifies a state of Intelligence, or those who are in this state, cannot know either why when they murmured against Jehovah, it is said that they should “die in the wilderness from twenty years and upward, all who came up out of Egypt” (Num. 14:29; 32:10, 11); for they who are in such a state of intelligence that they can discriminate, conclude, and judge, from themselves, are blamable for their evil but not those who are not yet in this state.  From this also iv is evident that by “twenty years,” when said of a person’s age, is signified a state of understanding, or of judgment.  But the number “twenty” has a different signification when said of a different subject (n. 10222).

AC 10226. Shall give an uplifting to Jehovah.  That this signifies ascription to the Lord alone, is evident from the signification of “an uplifting to Jehovah,” as being that which is of the Lord alone (n. 10093).  That this denotes all the truths and goods of faith and love, with their setting in order and disposing, is plain from what precedes.

AC 10227. The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less, from the half of the shekel, to give an uplifting to Jehovah.  That this signifies that all, of whatever ability they may be, must ascribe all things of truth from good to the Lord, is evident from the signification of “one who is rich,” as being one who abounds in truths and goods and their knowledges; From the signification of “one who is poor,” as being one who does not abound in these things; and from the signification of “not giving more,” and “not giving less,” as being all equally; from the signification of “half a shekel,” as being all things of truth from good (n. 10221); and from the signification of “giving to Jehovah,” as being to ascribe to the Lord; for by “Jehovah” in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 9373). From all this it is evident that by “the rich man not giving more, and the poor not giving less, than half a shekel, to give to Jehovah,” is signified that all, of whatever ability they may be, must equally ascribe to the Lord all things of truth from good.

[2] The case herein is this. All have the capacity to understand and to be wise; but the reason one person is wiser than another is that they do not in like manner ascribe to the Lord all things of intelligence and wisdom, which are all things of truth and good.  They who ascribe all to the Lord are wiser than the rest, because all things of truth and good, which constitute wisdom, flow in from heaven, that is, from the Lord there. The ascription of all things to the Lord opens the interiors of man toward heaven, for thus it is acknowledged that nothing of truth and good is from himself; and in proportion as this is acknowledged, the love of self departs, and with the love of sell the thick darkness from falsities and evils. In the same proportion also the man comes into innocence, and into love and faith to the Lord, from which comes conjunction with the Divine, influx thence, and enlightenment. From all this it is evident whence it is that one is more wise, and another less; and also why the rich should not give more and the poor less - namely, that all alike have the capacity of being wise; not indeed an equal capacity of being wise, but they are alike in having the capacity to be so, because both the one and the other can be wise.

[3] By the capacity to be wise is not meant the capacity to reason about truths and goods from memory-knowledges, nor the capacity to confirm whatever one pleases; but the capacity to discern what is true and good, to choose what is suitable, and to apply it to the uses of life.  They who ascribe all things to the Lord do thus discern, choose, and apply; while those who do not ascribe to the Lord, but to themselves, know merely how to reason about truths and goods; nor do they see anything except what is from others; and this not from reason, but from the activity of the memory.  As they cannot look into truths themselves, they stand outside, and confirm whatever they receive, whether it be true or false.  They who can do this in a learned way from memory-knowledges are believed by the world to be wiser than others; but the more they attribute all things to themselves, thus the more they love what they think from themselves, the more insane they are; for they confirm falsities rather than truths, and evils rather than goods, and this because they have light from no other source than the fallacies and appearances of the world, and consequently from their own light, which is called natural light, separated from the light of heaven; and which light when thus separated is mere thick darkness in respect to the truths and goods of heaven.

[4] That “riches” and “wealth” denote the things of intelligence and wisdom, consequently also the knowledges of truth and good, which moreover are called spiritual wealth and riches, is evident from the passages in the Word where they are mentioned, as in Isaiah:--

I will visit upon the fruit of the pride of the king of Assyria, for he hath said, In the strength of my hand I have done it, and by my wisdom, for I am intelligent; whence I will remove the bounds of the peoples and will ravage their treasures; as a nest shall my hand find the wealth of the peoples (Isa. 10:12-14);

the subject here treated of in the internal sense is those who trust in their own intelligence, and do not believe that true wisdom comes from heaven, but from themselves.  The “king of Assyria” denotes reasoning, here from self-intelligence (n. 1186); hence “to ravage the treasures and the wealth of the peoples” denotes to destroy those things which are truths of intelligence and wisdom.

[5] Again:--

A prophecy concerning the beasts of the south. They carry their wealth upon the shoulder of asses, and their treasures upon the back of camels, unto Egypt (Isa. 30:6, 7);

“the beasts of the south” denote those who are within the church, thus are in the light of truth from the Word, but who nevertheless do not read the Word except merely for the sake of memory-knowledge, and not for the sake of the use of life; for “the south” denotes where is the light of truth, thus where the Word is (n. 3195, 3708, 5672, 9642); an “ass” denotes memory-knowledge, and likewise a “camel,” and also “Eat.” That an “ass” has this signification, (n. 5492, 5741, 7024); also a “camel,” (n. 3048, 3071, 3143, 3145, 4516); and “Egypt,” (n. 9391). That these prophetic words are to be understood in a spiritual sense can be seen from the fact that without this sense no one knows what is meant by “the beasts of the south,” or by “carrying their wealth on the shoulder of asses, and their treasures on the back of camels,” and this “unto Egypt.”

[6] In the same:--

I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden wealth of secret places, that thou mayest know that I am Jehovah (Isa. 45:3);

“the treasures of darkness, and hidden wealth of secret places” denote such things as belong to heavenly intelligence and wisdom, which have been hidden from the natural man.

[7] In Jeremiah:--

The sin of Judah is written with a pen of iron. O My mountain in the field, I will give thy property and all thy treasures for a spoil (Jer. 17:1, 3);

Judah is called a “mountain in the field” because with Judah was the representative of the celestial church; for a “mountain” denotes the love of the celestial church (n. 6435); and a “field” denotes the church (n. 2971, 3766, 7502, 9139, 9295); the “property,” and the “treasures,” which were to be “given for a spoil,” denote all the truths and goods of the church, which were to be dispersed.

[8] Again:--

Because of thy confidence in thy works, and in thy treasures, thou also shalt be taken (Jer. 48:7);

here also “treasures” denote the doctrinal things and knowledges of the church.

[9] Again:--

O sword against her horses, and against her chariots, and against the promiscuous crowd that is in the midst of her! O sword against her treasures, that they may be snatched away! A drought is upon her waters, that they may be dried up (Jer. 50:37, 38).

These words are spoken against the Chaldeans, by whom are meant those who are in external worship without internal, thus who profess the truths of the Word with the lips, but at heart deny them. A “sword” denotes falsity fighting against truths (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); “horses” denote the understanding (n. 2760-2762, 3217, 5321); “chariots” denote what is of doctrine (n. 5321, 8215); the “treasures that were to be snatched away” denote the truths and goods of the church that would be perverted and would perish by being connected with the evils of the loves of self and of the world; “a drought upon her waters” denotes the deprivation and consumption of the truths of faith. That “water” denotes the truth of faith, (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 8568, 9323).

[10] Who cannot see that the literal sense is not the genuine sense of these words? for what holiness, or what of the church or of heaven, or who sense, is there in these expressions - that “a sword should be against the horses,” “against the chariots,” “against the promiscuous crowd,” “against the treasures,” and that “a drought should be upon the waters that they should be dried up?” Wherefore from these and all other things of the Word it can be plainly seen that a spiritual sense, which differs from the natural, is in every detail, and that without this sense the Word cannot be called holy, and in very many places it cannot even be apprehended.

[11] Again:--

O Babel, who dwellest upon many waters, great in treasures (Jer. 51:13).

“Babel” denotes those who possess the Word and from this all the goods and truths of the church, but who connect them with the love of self, and thus profane them (n. 1326); which was also represented by the king of Babel taking all the vessels of the temple, which were of gold and silver, and drinking out of them, and then praising the gods of gold and silver (Dan. 5:2). Hence Babel is said to “dwell upon many waters, great in treasures;” “waters” denote truths, and in the opposite sense falsities (n. 2702, 3058, 4976, 8568, 9323). This is more fully described in the Apocalypse, where the riches of Babylon, which are there called “merchandise,” are enumerated (Rev. xviii).

[12] In Ezekiel:--

I will bring Nebuchadnezzar against Tyre.  With the hoofs of his horses shall he trample all thy streets.  They shall snatch away thy wealth, and plunder thy merchandise (Ezek. 26:7, 11, 12);

by “Tyre” is meant the church in respect to the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201); by “Nebuchadnezzar king of Babel” is meant the profanation that vastates (n. 1327), which takes place when by means of a wrong application the truths and goods of the church serve as means to favor the evils of the loves of self and of the world; for then the evils of these loves are within the heart, and the holy things of the church are in the mouth; the “hoofs of the horses” denote the outermost natural things, which are merely sensuous memory-knowledges (n. 7729), and “streets” denote the truths of faith (n. 2336); “wealth” and “merchandise” denote the knowledges of good and truth.

[13] As by “Tyre” are signified the knowledges of good and truth (n. 1201), therefore where Tyre is treated of in the Word, various kinds of merchandise and riches are also treated of, as in the same prophet:--

Tarshish was thy trader, by means of the multitude of all kinds of wealth, in silver, iron, tin, and lead. Damascus was thy trader for the multitude of all thy wealth. By the multitude of thy wealth and of thy merchandise thou didst enrich all the kings of the earth (Ezek. 27:12, 18, 33).

In thy wisdom and in thine intelligence thou hast made wealth for thyself, gold and silver in thy treasuries; by the multitude of thy wisdom thou hast multiplied wealth for thyself (Ezek. 28:4, 5);

speaking also of Tyre; by which it is very evident that by “wealth” and “riches” in the Word are meant spiritual wealth and riches, which are the knowledges of good and truth, thus which are the means of wisdom.

[14] So in these passages:--

Tyre hath gathered silver as dust, and gold as the mire of the streets. Behold the Lord will impoverish her, and will shake off her wealth into the sea (Zech. 9:3, 4).

The daughter of Tyre shall offer thee a gift. O daughter of the king; the rich of the people shall intreat thy faces (Ps.  45:12).

In this passage the church is described in respect to the affection of truth, and is called the “daughter of the king,” for a “daughter” denotes the church as to affection (n. 2362, 3963, 6729, 9055); and a “king” denotes truth (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3670, 4575, 4581, 4966, 6148); therefore it is said that “the daughter of Tyre shall offer a gift,” and “the rich of the people shall intreat thy faces;” “the rich of the people” denote those who abound in truths and goods.

[15] In Hosea:--

Ephraim said, Surely I am become rich, I have found for me wealth (Hosea 12:8);

where by “becoming rich and finding wealth” is not meant that he was enriched with worldly riches and wealth, but with heavenly; for by “Ephraim” is meant the intellectual of the church, which is enlightened when the Word is read (n. 5354, 6222, 6238, 6267).

[16] In John:--

And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write, Because thou sayest, I am rich, and I have been enriched, and I need no aid, and knowest not that thou art wretched, and miserable, and needy, and blind, and naked; I counsel thee to buy of Me gold purified in the fire, that thou mayest be rich; and white garments, that thou mayest be clothed (Rev. 3:14, 17, 18).

The subject here treated of is the church which makes everything of the church consist in bare knowledges, and from this exalts itself above others, when yet knowledges are nothing but means for amending and perfecting the life; wherefore he who possesses them without a life according to them, is “wretched, miserable, needy, blind, and naked;” to “buy gold purified in the fire” denotes to procure from the Lord genuine good, and “white garments,” denotes to procure from the Lord genuine truths from this good. That “gold” denotes the good of love, (n. 9874); and that “garments” denote the truths of faith, (n. 4545, 5248, 5319, 5954, 9212, 9216, 9814, 9952).

[17] In Jeremiah:--

I Jehovah give to everyone according to his ways, according to the fruits of his works. As the partridge gathereth, but beareth not, so he getteth riches, but not with judgment; In the midst of his days he shall desert them; and in the end of his days he shall become a fool (Jer. 17:10, 11);

the subject here treated of is those who acquire knowledges without any use in view than that they may “get riches,” that is, that they may know them; when yet it is the life which they ought to be devoted to.  This is meant by “gathering as the partridge and yet not bearing,” and by “getting riches, but not with judgment.”

[18] In Luke:--

Whosoever he be of you that renounceth not all his property, he cannot be My disciple (Luke 14:33);

he who does not know that in the internal sense “property” denotes spiritual riches and wealth, which are knowledges from the Word, cannot possibly know otherwise than that in order that he may be saved he must deprive himself of all wealth; when yet this is not the sense of these words: by “property” are here meant all things which are from man‘s own intelligence, for no one can be wise from himself, but only from the Lord; wherefore “to renounce all property” denotes to attribute nothing of intelligence and wisdom to self; and he who does not do this cannot be instructed by the Lord, that is, “be His disciple.”

[19] As by “property,” “riches,” “wealth,” “silver,” and “gold,” are signified those things which belong to intelligence and wisdom, therefore also the kingdom of heaven is compared by the Lord to “treasure hid in a field” (Matt. 13:44); and it is said that they should “make to themselves treasure in the heavens that faileth not, because where the treasure is there is the heart” (Matt. 6:19-21; Luke 12:33, 34).

[20] They who do not know that by the “rich” are meant those who possess the knowledges of truth and good, thus who have the Word; and that by the “poor” are meant those who do not possess these knowledges, but who nevertheless desire them, cannot know otherwise than that by the “rich man who was clothed in crimson and fine linen,”and by the “poor man who was cast forth at his entrance” (Luke 16:19-31), are meant a rich and a poor man in the common meaning of these terms, when yet by the “rich man” is there meant the Jewish nation which had the Word; by the “crimson” with which he was clothed is meant genuine good (n. 9467); and by the “fine linen,” genuine truth (n. 5319, 9469, 9596, 9744); and by the “poor man cast forth at the entrance” are meant those who are outside the church and have not the Word, and yet long for the truths and goods of heaven and of the church.

[21] From this also it is plain that by the “rich” are meant those who have the Word, consequently Divine truths; as also in the prophetic utterance of Mary in Luke:

God hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich He hath sent empty away (Luke 1:53);

here “the hungry” denotes those who are in other places called the “poor,” thus who have no bread and water, and consequently who are in hunger and thirst, that is, who do not know good and truth and yet long for them.  By “bread and water” in the Word are signified good and truth (n. 9323); and by “hungering and thirsting,” thus by “hunger and thirst,” is signified the longing for these.

[22] Such are also meant by the “poor” in other places, as in the following:--

Blessed are the poor; for theirs is the kingdom of the heavens. Blessed are ye that hunger, for ye shall be sated (Luke 6:20, 21).

The master of the house said to the servant, Go out into the streets and highways of the city, and bring in the poor, and the maimed, and the lame, and the blind (Luke 14:21).

To the poor the Gospel shall be preached (Luke 7:22).

The poor hear the Gospel (Matt. 11:5).

Then the firstborn of the poor shall feed, and the needy shall lie down confidently (Isa. 14:30).

The needy of men shall exult in the Holy One of Israel (Isa.  29:19).

I will leave in the midst of thee a people miserable and poor, who shall hope in the name of Jehovah; they shall feed and shall rest, none making them afraid (Zeph. 3:12, 13).

The poor and the needy seek water, but there is none; their tongue faileth for thirst. I Jehovah will hear them. I will open rivers upon the hillsides, and I will set fountains in the midst of the valleys (Isa. 41:17, 18).

[23] “The afflicted and the needy seeking water” denote those who long for the knowledges of good and truth; “water” denotes truth; the longing is described by “their tongue failing with thirst;” and the abundance which they will have, by “rivers being opened upon the hillsides, and fountains in the midst of the valleys.”  From all this it is further evident that heavenly things, which are truths of faith and goods of love, are meant by earthly things, which are “waters,” “rivers upon the hillsides, fountains in the valleys,” and that the latter is the literal sense of the Word, but the former the spiritual sense; and that through this sense the Word is Divine, and that without it, it is not Divine.

[24] The signification of “wealth” and of “riches” as being what belongs to intelligence and wisdom, is also from correspondence; for among the angels in heaven all things appear as if they shone with gold, silver, and precious stones, and this because they are in the intelligence of truth and in the wisdom of good; for the interiors of the angels are presented to view in this way from the correspondence.  More over with the spirits who are below the heavens there is an appearance of riches according to the state of the reception of truth and good from the Lord.

AC 10228. To make expiation upon your souls.  That this signifies that evils may be removed, is evident from the signification of “expiating upon their souls,” as being to be purified or liberated from evils through the truth of faith (n. 10218); and as purification or liberation from evils is nothing else than the removal of them, therefore this also is signified by the same words. That man is not liberated from evils, and so purified; but that he is withheld from them when he is kept in good by the Lord, and thus that evils are removed, (n. 10057).

AC 10229. And thou shalt take the silver of expiations from among the sons of Israel.  That this signifies truths purifying by virtue of good, which truths are of the church, is evident from the signification of “silver,” as being truth from good (n. 1551, 2954, 5658, 6112, 6914, 6917, 8932); from the signification of “expiations,” as being purification from evils (n. 10218); thus “the silver of expiations” denotes purifying truth; and from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being the church (n. 9340). It is said “purifying truth” because all purification from evils is effected by means of truths (n. 2799, 5954, 7044, 7918, 9089). The case herein is this. From himself man thinks nothing but evil, for from himself he does not think about God, nor about what is good and just toward his neighbor, except for the sake of self.  He does not even think about heaven and eternal life, but about the world and life in the world.  So long as a man is in such a state, he thinks from the things which are beneath him, and not from those which are above him; thus from hell, and not from heaven. In order therefore that a man may think what is good, he must think from heaven, consequently his mind must be raised there. This is effected solely by means of truths such as are in the church from the Word; for these truths teach what God is, and what the neighbor, that there is a heaven, that there is eternal life, and in particular what evil is, and what good is. When these truths enter, then the interiors are raised above self, and are thus withdrawn from those things which are beneath self, thus from evils.  From this it can be seen that all purification or removal from evils is effected by means of truths, which are consequently called “purifying truths.”

AC 10230. And thou shalt give it for the work of the Tent of meeting.  That this signifies conjunction with heaven through the acknowledgment that all truths and goods are from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “the work of the Tent of meeting,” as being that which works and makes heaven; for “work” denotes that which works and makes; and “the Tent of meeting” denotes heaven where the Lord is. That “the Tent of meeting” denotes heaven where the Lord is, see (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9784, 9963); thus it also denotes that which conjoins man with heaven, for that which works and makes heaven with man also conjoins him with heaven. That there is signified conjunction with heaven through the acknowledgment that all goods and truths are from the Lord, is because that which was given for the work of the Tent of meeting was the half of a shekel, which was called “the silver of expiations” on account of the numbering of the people, and by “giving the half of a shekel” is signified the ascription of all things of faith and love to the Lord (n. 10220, 10221); and by “numbering” is signified the setting in order and disposing of all things by the Lord (n. 10218).

AC 10231. And it shall be to the sons of Israel for a memorial before Jehovah.  That this signifies in this way the preservation of the church and of all things of the church by the Lord, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being the church (n. 9340); from the signification of “a memorial,” when said of Jehovah, as being preservation (n. 9849); and from the signification of “before Jehovah,” as being by the Lord (n. 10146).

AC 10232. To make expiation upon your souls.  That this signifies because in this way evils are removed, is evident from the signification of “expiating upon their souls,” as being to remove evils by means of truths (n. 10228); that here by “making expiation upon your souls” is signified because in this way evils are removed, and not, to remove evils, is because these things so follow from those which precede; for the internal sense does not regard the sense of the words according to the consistency in the letter, but according to the consistency in its own sense, which is that the preservation of the church and of all things of the church is from the Lord, because in this way evils are removed. That the church is then preserved with man is because evils do not binder; for the Lord flows in constantly and continually with His mercy, and provides that the truths and goods that belong to the church are not only preserved with a man, but also that they are multiplied and grow; but so long as evils reign, the truths and goods of the church flowing in from the Lord are either rejected by the man, or are stifled, or perverted; whereas when evils are removed, they are accepted and acknowledged.

AC 10233. Verses 17-21.  And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, And thou shalt make a laver of brass, and its base of brass, for washing; and thou shalt put it between the Tent of meeting and the altar, and thou shalt put waters therein.  And Aaron and his sons shall wash from it their hands and their feet. When they enter into the Tent of meeting they shall wash with waters, that they die not; or when they come near unto the altar to minister, to burn a fire-offering to Jehovah.  And they shall wash their hands and their feet, that they die not; and it shall be to them a statute of an age, to him and to his seed, to their generations.  “And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,” signifies perceptivity from enlightenment through the Word by the Lord; “and thou shalt make a laver of brass,” signifies the good of the natural man, in which is purification; “and its base of brass,” signifies the good of the ultimate of the natural, which is of the sensuous; “ for washing,” signifies purification from evils and falsities; “and thou shalt put it between the Tent of meeting and the altar,” signifies that there may be the conjunction of truth and good; “and thou shalt put waters therein,” signifies the truths of faith, through which there is purification in the natural; “and Aaron and his sons shall wash from it,” signifies a representative of the purification and regeneration of man by the Lord; “their hands and their feet,” signifies the interiors and exteriors of man; “when they enter into the Tent of meeting,” signifies worship from the good of faith; “they shall wash with waters,” signifies purification by means of the truths of faith; “that they die not,” signifies lest the representative perish; “or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn a fire-offering to Jehovah,” signifies worship from the good of love; “and they shall wash their hands and their feet,” signifies the purification of the interiors and the exteriors of man; “that they die not,” signifies lest the representative perish; “and it shall be to them a statute of an age,” signifies an eternal law of order; “to him and to his seed, to their generations,” signifies all who receive the things that proceed from the Lord, thus who are being regenerated by Him.

AC 10234. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying.  That this signifies perceptivity from enlightenment through the Word by the Lord, is evident from the signification of “Jehovah speaking unto Moses,” as being enlightenment through the Word by the Lord (n. 10215), and from the signification of“ saying, as being perception (n. 2862, 3509, 5743, 8660).  Be it known that when anything new, distinct from what goes before, is to be set forth, it is said that ”Jehovah spake unto Moses,“ as in this chapter (verses 11, 17, 22, 34); and also in other passages. The new thing now set forth is about purification from evils and falsities.

AC 10235. And thou shalt make a laver of brass.  That this signifies the good of the natural man, in which is purification, is evident from the signification of ”a laver,“ wherein is water for washing, as being the natural of man; and from the signification of ”brass,“ as being the good of this (n. 425, 1551).  The subject treated of in what now follows is washing, and it is said that Aaron and his sons should wash their hands and their feet when they entered into the Tent of meeting, or came near unto the altar to minister; and in other places it is said that they who had become unclean should wash themselves and their garments, and so they would be clean; from which it can be seen that washing represented purification from evils; thus the washing of the body and the garments represented the purification of the heart and mind. Everyone who thinks from any enlightenment can see that the evils of the heart and mind were not wiped away by the washing, but only the uncleanness of the body and the garments; and that after this was wiped away the evils still remained; and that evils cannot possibly be washed away by water, but by repentance.

[2] From all this it is again evident that the things which were instituted among the Israelitish nation were external things that represented internal ones, and that these internal things were the real holy things of the church among them, and not the external things without the internal things. But that this nation nevertheless made all holiness to consist in the external things, and nothing of it in the internal things, is evident from the words of the Lord in the Gospel of Matthew as follows:--

Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye cleanse the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and intemperance. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first the inside of the cup and of the platter, and the outside also shall become clean.  Ye make yourselves like unto whitened sepulchres, which indeed appear beautiful outwardly, but within are full of dead men’s bones and of all uncleanness (Matt. 23:25-27; Mark 7:2-8; Luke 11:39).

[3] That the ”laver“ signifies the natural, is because by washing therein is signified purification from evils, and purification from evils is effected in the natural; and moreover by vessels in general is signified what is of the natural man (n. 3068, 3079, 9394), because the natural is the recipient of the spiritual things of the internal man.  By the natural is meant the external of man, that is, what is called the external man.  It may seem strange that by the ”laver“ is signified the natural of man; but be it known that the subject here treated of in the internal sense is purification from evils, and it is man that is purified; hence it follows that something of man is signified by that in which the washing, by which is signified purification, was effected.  That this is the natural is because as already said, purification is effected in this.  Moreover all things which were built up for the sake of worship among the Israelitish and Jewish nation signified things of heaven and the church, consequently such as belong to man; for unless they had signified something with man, they would not have represented any. thing.

[4] As by the ”laver“ is signified the natural of man; by the ”waters in the laver,“ the truths which are of faith; and by ”washing,“ purification from evils; it can from this be known what was signified by the brazen sea near the temple, and what by the twelve oxen which bore it; and likewise by the ten other lavers also placed near the temple, and by the lions, the oxen, and the cherubs engraved on them, also by the wheels like those of a chariot under them.  The signification of all these things is evident when it is known what is signified by a laver, by water, and by washing, and when it is further known how the case is with purification from the evils in man, for each and all were representative of celestial and spiritual things.

[5] The brazen sea made by Solomon, and set near the temple, is thus described:--

He made the molten sea of ten cubits from brim to brim, round in compass, the height five cubits; and a line of thirty cubits compassed it round about. And under the brim of it round about were wild gourds, for ten cubits, compassing the sea round about.  It stood upon twelve oxen, three looking toward the north, and three looking toward the west, and three looking toward the south, and three looking toward the east; and the sea was set upon them above, and all their hinder parts were inward.  Its thickness was a hand-breadth; and the brim thereof was according to the work of the brim of a cup, the flower of a lily; it held two thousand baths. And the sea was set on the right shoulder of the house eastward over against the south (1 Kings 7:23-26, 39).

[6] This vessel or laver is called a ”sea,“ because by the ”sea“ is signified memory-knowledge in general, and all memory-knowledge belongs to the natural of man. That the ”sea“ denotes memory-knowledge in general, (n. 28, 2850, 8184); and that this knowledge belongs to man‘s natural, (n. 1486, 3019, 3020, 3309, 3310, 5373, 6004, 6023, 6071, 6077, 9918).  The reason why this laver was ”according to the work of the brim of a cup“ was because by a ”cup,“ a ”bowl,“ or a ”goblet,“ is also signified the memory-knowledge that belongs to the natural or sensuous of man (n. 9557, 9996).  By the ”twelve oxen“ were signified all the goods of the natural and sensuous man in the complex, because they were for a base, and by a ”base“ is signified that which is ultimate, and supports. That ”twelve“ denotes all things in the complex, (n. 3272, 3858, 3913); and that an ”ox“ denotes the good of the natural man, (n. 2781, 9135).

[7] That they looked to all the quarters of the world was because the good of the natural man is the receptacle of all things that flow in from the world, as well those which relate to goods as those which relate to truths.  The diameter of ”ten cubits“ signified what is full (n. 3107); and the circumference ”thirty cubits“ signified a full and complete complex (n. 9082); ”two thousand baths“ signified the conjunction of good and truth, thus purification and regeneration, for regeneration is nothing else than the conjunction of good and truth; ”two thousand“ signify the same as ”two,“ for multiplied numbers signify the like as the simple ones from which they are compounded (n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973); and ”two“ denotes conjunction (n. 5194, 8423).  The brazen sea being set ”on the right shoulder of the house toward the east over against the south“ signified that it looked to the Lord, for the Lord is the ”East“ (n. 101, 9668); the ”horse“ or temple denotes heaven and the church where the Lord is (n. 3720).  From all this it can now be seen what was signified by the brazen sea, consequently what by the laver, namely, the natural of man, in which is purification.

AC 10236. And its base of brass.  That this signifies the good of the ultimate of the natural, which is the good of the sensuous, is evident from the signification of the ”base“ of the laver wherein was water for washing, as being the ultimate of the natural, which is called the sensuous; and from the signification of ”brass,“ as being good (n. 10235).  That the ”base“ denotes the ultimate of the natural, which is called the external sensuous, is because by the laver which is above it is signified the natural in which is purification, consequently by that which is beneath is signified what is in the lowest place; that is, in the ultimate, thus the external sensuous of man. The natural of man is external, middle, and internal; the external of the natural communicates with the world, and is called the external sensuous; the internal natural is what communicates with the internal man, which is in heaven; the middle natural is that which conjoins the two; for where there are an external and an internal, there must be a conjoining intermediate. That man has an external, a middle, and an internal natural, (n. 4009, 4570, 5118, 5120, 5649, 9216).

[2] By the sensuous, which is the ultimate of the natural, is properly meant that which is called the ”flesh,“ and which perishes when man dies, thus what has served man for his functions in the world; as the sensuous of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.  That this sensuous is the ultimate plane, in which the life of man terminates, and on which it reposes as a base, is evident, for it stands forth directly in the world, and through it as the outermost the world enters, and heaven departs. But this sensuous is common to man with brute animals, whereas the external sensuous which man has not so much in common with them, and yet is an external sensuous, is that which man has in his memory from the world, and is constituted of merely worldly, bodily, and earthly things there.  The man who thinks and reasons from these things alone, and not from interior things, is called a sensuous man.  This sensuous remains with man after death, but is quiescent; and this external sensuous is what is properly signified by the ”base.“

[3] The nature of this sensuous was represented by the bases of the ten lavers, which were set near the temple, and which are thus described:--

Solomon made the ten bases of brass; four cubits the length of each base, and four cubits the breadth; three cubits the height. Upon the closures that were between the flights of steps were lions, oxen, and cherubs; and upon the flights of steps in like manner above. Moreover each base had four wheels and tables of brass; and its four corners had shoulders: beneath the laver were the shoulders molten. The work of the wheels was like the work of a chariot wheel; their hands, and their backs, and their tires, and their spokes, were all molten. After this manner he made the ten bases; all of them had one casting, one measure, one proportion. Then he made the ten lavers of brass; each laver contained forty baths; each laver was four cubits (1 Kings 7:27-39).

[4] The nature of the external sensuous in man is here described by representatives, and especially the protection of the Lord lest man should enter into the things of heaven or of the church from his sensuous, thus from the world, because this is contrary to Divine order.  For the world cannot enter into heaven, but heaven can enter into the world, which comes to pass when the Lord inflows through heaven with man, and enlightens him, teaches him, and leads him, by means of the Word. That to enter from the world into the things of heaven is contrary to Divine order, can be seen from those who enter from their sensuous, thus from the memory-knowledges which enter from the world, in that they believe nothing whatever.

[5] Protection to prevent this is signified by the lions, the oxen, and the cherubs, for by ”lions“ is signified protection lest truths enter, ”lions“ denoting truths in their power (n. 6367, 6369); by ”oxen“ is signified protection lest goods enter, for ”oxen“ denote goods in their power (n. 2781). That by ”cherubs“ is signified the protection of the Lord lest this be done, see (n. 308, 9509); also that the ”shoulders“ of which mention is made denote power and resistance, (n. 1085, 4931-4937, 9836). By the ”wheels as of a chariot“ is signified the capacity of being wise when all things enter from heaven, for thus all things advance according to order, because the ”wheels“ of a chariot denote the capacity of advancing, thus of learning (n. 8215, 9872); and ”chariots“ denote what belongs to the doctrine of heaven and the church (n. 5321, 8215)

[6] What the sensuous man is, may again be briefly told. He is called a sensuous man who thinks only from such things as are in the memory from the world, and who cannot be raised toward interior things; such especially are they who believe nothing about heaven and the Divine because they do not see them, for they trust solely in the senses; and what does not appear before the senses they believe to be nothing. Such people closely approach the nature of brute animals, which also are led solely by the external senses; nevertheless they are cunning and skilful in acting and reasoning; but they do not see truth from the light of truth.  Such were formerly called serpents of the tree of knowledge, and such for the most part is the infernal crew. But what the sensuous man is, and what the sensuous itself, (n. 9331, 9726, 9730, 9731, 9922, 9996); and what it is to be raised above sensuous things, or to be withdrawn from them, in those cited in (n. 9922).

[7] The good of the sensuous, which is signified by the ”base of brass,“ is what is called the pleasure and delight that affect the imaginative thought, which thought is merely from what is earthly, bodily, and worldly; and it is distinguished from other delights by the fact that it looks to no other uses than those of self, or for the sake of self.  For the sensuous man is in the love of self and of the world, and his delights belong to these loves. And because the loves of the sensuous man are of this nature, it is evident that he is more skilful than others in reasoning and in acting for the sake of profits and honors. For his body burns with the fire of this love, and this fire kindles a light which is called natural light; and when this has been kindled to brightness, then the light of heaven, which is of the interior man, is completely obscured; consequently the things of this light, being in thick darkness, are said to be nothing. It is otherwise with those who act from the fire of heaven, and think from the light of this fire. From all this it can be seen what is meant by the good of the sensuous, which is signified by the ”base“ of the laver.

AC 10237. For washing.  That this signifies purification from evils and falsities, is evident from the signification of ”washing,“ as being purification from evils and falsities (n. 3147, 5954). As in what now follows the subject treated of in the internal sense is purification from evils and falsities by means of the truths of faith, it shall be briefly told how this is; for by ”washing“ is signified purification; by ”waters“ are signified the truths of faith; and by the ”laver“ containing the water is signified the natural, because all spiritual purification is effected in the natural.  Man has an external and an internal; the external is called the natural, and also the natural man; and the internal is called the spiritual, and also the spiritual man, for the reason that the internal of man is in the spiritual world where spirits and angels are, and his external is in the natural world where men are.  Both the internal and the external man are purified, the internal in heaven, and the external while the man lives in the world, thus in the natural which is in the world.

[2] The reason why purification goes on in the natural at that time, is that the truths of faith come to clear perception in the natural; for there they are among the memory-knowledges, or things of the memory, which are clearly perceived when they are thought of.  But this is not the case with the things that are thought of in the internal man; these do not come to clear perception while the man is in the world, because the ideas in the internal man are spiritual. Hence it is that purification is effected in the natural. That it is effected by means of the truths of faith can be seen from the fact that those who are being purified must not only know what evil and falsity are, but must also acknowledge them, and then hold them in aversion and shun them. When this is done, then for the first time is the man purified from them; and evils and falsities cannot be known, thus cannot be acknowledged, except in the natural by means of the truths of faith; for these truths teach what things are evil and false, and thus make them manifest.  He who believes that he is purified from evils and falsities before he sees and acknowledges them in himself, is very much mistaken (n. 8388, 8390).

[3] It was said that it is in the natural that a man knows his evils and falsities by means of the truths of faith; that is, he knows them in the external man, but not in the internal; the reason is that the ideas of thought in the internal man are spiritual, and spiritual ideas cannot be comprehended in the natural, for they are intellectual ideas which have no such objects as are in the material world; nevertheless these spiritual ideas, which are proper to the internal man, flow into the natural ideas which belong to the external man, and produce and make them, which is done by means of correspondences.  But concerning the spiritual ideas which belong to the internal man, of the Lord’s Divine mercy more will be said when heaven is described, with the spirits and angels there, for they think by means of spiritual ideas, and also converse with each other by means of them.

AC 10237a. And thou shalt put it between the Tent of meeting and the altar.  That this signifies that there may be the conjunction of truth and good, is evident from the signification of ”between the Tent of meeting and the altar,“ as being the conjunction of truth and good (n. 10001, 10025).  The reason why the laver was set between the Tent of meeting and the altar, and Aaron and his sons there washed their hands and their feet, was that there might be represented the purification of the heart, and regeneration, which in its essence is the conjunction of truth and good; for the conjunction of truth and good is heaven itself with man; wherefore also heaven is compared in the Word to a marriage.  This conjunction is effected by means of the truths of faith, because these teach how man ought to live; and therefore when he lives according to the truths of faith, the conjunction of truth and good is effected, truth being then made good by means of the life.  The life of truth is good. This is also meant by man‘s being regenerated ”by water and the spirit,“ ”water“ denoting the truth of faith; and ”the spirit,“ a life of this. That regeneration is the conjunction of truth and good, (n. 2063, 3155, 3158, 3607, 4353, 5365, 5376, 8516, 8517, 8772, 10067).

AC 10238. And thou shalt put waters therein.  That this signifies the truths of faith, through which there is purification in the natural, is evident from the signification of ”waters,“ as being the truths of faith (n. 28, 739, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8568, 9323); and from the signification of the ”laver,“ as being the natural (n. 10235). He who does not know that ”waters“ signify the truths of faith, will fail to comprehend many passages in the Word; as what is signified by the statement that ”unless a man is born of water and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God“ (John 3:5). They who by ”water“ in this passage understand nothing but water, believe that the water of baptism is that by which man is regenerated; when yet the water contributes nothing to regeneration; but the truth of faith and the good of love; for water merely washes away the uncleanness of the body, and by no means the evils of the heart.

[2] He who does not know that ”waters“ signify the truths of faith, cannot know what baptism signifies; for he believes that this external rite saves man, when yet this external thing effects nothing; but the internal thing that is signified, which is regeneration by means of the truths of faith.  For they who are of the church are distinguished by baptism from all others in the whole world, because they can be regenerated by means of the truths of faith, but not those who are outside the church, seeing that within the church is the Word, in which are the truths of faith.

[3] He who does not know that ”waters“ signify the truths of faith, cannot know what is meant by ”the waters that were above the expanse, and the waters that were under the expanse“ (Gen. 1:6-10), when yet by ”the waters above the expanse“ are signified the truths of faith in the internal man; and by ”the waters under the expanse,“ the truths of faith in the external man; for the subject treated of in that chapter is the new creation of the man of the Most Ancient Church, thus his regeneration

[4] He who does not know that ”waters“ signify the truths of faith, cannot know either what is signified by ”waters“ in these passages:--

Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him shall never thirst; but the water that I shall give him shall become in him a fountain of water springing up into eternal life (John 4:13).

The poor and the needy seek water, but there is none, and their tongue faileth for thirst. I will open rivers on the hillside, and I will set fountains in the midst of the valleys; I will make the wilderness a pool of waters, and the dry land springs of waters (Isa. 41:17, 18).

They shall not thirst, He shall cause the waters to flow out of the rock for them; and He shall cleave the rock that the waters flow out (Isa. 48:20, 21).

And very frequently elsewhere.  But see what has been previously said and shown on this subject; as, That purification from evils and falsities is effected by means of the truths of faith (n. 2799, 5954, 7044, 7918, 9089, 10229): As also regeneration (n. 9959) That ”baptism“ signifies regeneration by means of the truths of faith (n. 4255, 5120, 9089): That purification is effected in the natural (n. 3147, 9572): And also regeneration (n. 9325).

AC 10239. And Aaron and his sons shall wash from it.  That this signifies a representative of the purification and regeneration of man by the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”washing,“ as being purification (n. 10237); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good celestial (n. 9806, 10068); and from the representation of the sons of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good spiritual (n. 9807, 10068); from which it is evident that by Aaron and his sons ”washing from the laver“ is signified a representative of the purification of man by the Lord.  That it is also a representative of regeneration, is because regeneration also was represented by washing, but by the washing of the whole body, which washing was called ”baptizing“. That ”baptizing,“ or ”baptism,“ signifies regeneration, (n. 4255, 9088).

[2] But regeneration differs from purification in that regeneration precedes, and purification follows; for no one can be purified from evils and falsities except the man who is being regenerated, and after he has been regenerated; for he who has not been regenerated is indeed withdrawn from evils in so far as he allows; but he is not purified from them, for he is always cure.  It is otherwise with the regenerate man, who is being purified from day to day, which is meant by the Lord’s words to Peter:--

He that hath been washed needeth not save to be washed as to his feet, and so is wholly clean (John 13:10);

”he who hath been washed“ signifies one who is regenerate.

[3] That the washing of everything was called” baptizing,“ is evident in (Mark 7:4); and the washing of the whole body, in (Matthew 3:13-16; Mark 1:9; 2 Kings 5:10, 14). The Jordan, in which the washings took place, which were baptizings (Matt.  3:6-13; Mark 1:5; 2 Kings 5:10, 14), signified the natural (n. 1585, 4245).  By the washing of baptism is also signified temptation (Matt. 20:21-23), because all regeneration is effected by means of temptations (n. 5036, 5773, 8351, 8958, 8959).

[4] A few words shall be added to say why the Lord, when He was in the world, Himself also wished to be baptized, when yet by baptizing is signified the regeneration of man by the Lord.  It was because the baptizing of the Lord Himself signified the glorification of His Human; for in the Word that which signifies the regeneration of man signifies also the glorification of the Human in the Lord, because the regeneration of man is an image of the glorification of the Lord (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4401, 5688).  Therefore when the Lord suffered John to baptize Him, He said:--

Thus it becometh us to fulfil all the righteousness of God (Matt. 3:15);

”to fulfil all the righteousness of God“ denotes to subdue the hells by His own power, and reduce them and the heavens into order, and at the same time glorify His Human; which things were done by means of temptations admitted into Himself, thus by means of continual combats with the hells, even to the last on the cross. That this is the ”righteousness“ which the Lord fulfilled, (n. 9486, 9715, 9809, 10019, 10152). The like things are also signified by ”all things being fulfilled which were written concerning the Lord in the Law and the Prophets“ (Luke 18:31; 22:37; 24:44); and by the Lord‘s coming ”to fulfil all things of the Law“ (Matt. 5:17, 18).

[5] He who does not know the arcana of the Word believes that the Lord became righteousness by fulfilling all things of the Law, and that by this fulfilment He set free the human race from the yoke of the Law, thus from damnation.  But this is not the meaning of these words; but that He became righteousness through the subjugation of the hells, the reduction of the heavens into order, and the glorification of His Human; for by this He introduced Himself into power, so that He could, from His Divine Human, eternally subjugate the hells, and keep the heavens in order, and so regenerate man, that is, deliver him from the hells, and save him.

AC 10240. As by ”washing“ is also signified regeneration, some thing further shall be said about this.  He who does not know that the Lord, both in the Prophets and in the Evangelists, spoke by correspondences, consequently that in the Word there is an internal sense, cannot possibly know what is meant by the Lord’s words in John:--

Verily, verily, I say unto thee, except a man be born of water and the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.  That which is born of the flesh is flesh; but that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. The Spirit bloweth where it willeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but ”knowest not whence it cometh and whither it goeth; so is everyone that is born of the Spirit (John 3:5, 6, 8).

[2] If these words are unfolded by means of correspondences, it is plain what their meaning is, for they are arcana of heaven. By correspondence “water” is the truth of faith which comes to clear perception in the natural man; “the Spirit” is the Divine truth which flows in from the Lord through the internal of man into his external or natural, whereby the man who is being regenerated has the life of faith; “the flesh” is what is man‘s own, which is nothing but evil; by “the Spirit blowing where it willeth” is signified that the Lord in mercy gives new life by means of the Divine truth; by “hearing the voice thereof” is signified that these things come to perception in the external or natural man; “the voice” denotes what is announced from the Word; by “not knowing whence it cometh and whither it goeth” is signified that man does not know how regeneration is effected, for it is effected by the Lord by means of countless and unutterable secret things.

[3] That by correspondence “waters” are truths of faith, see n. 28, 739, 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8568, 9323, 10238; also that “the Spirit” is Divine truth, from which is the life of faith (n. 9229, 9818); that “flesh” is what is man’s own, which is nothing but evil (n. 8409); that “breathing” is the state of the life of faith (n. 9281); that the “voice” is what is announced from the Word, thus truth therefrom (n. 9926); that “hearing” is perception (n. 9311, 9926); that “to come and to go,” or to enter in and go out, is the state of the thing from beginning to end (n. 9927); that the secret things of regeneration are countless and unutterable (n. 3179, 3573, 5398, 9334, 9336); and that what goes on in the internal man is not perceived while the man is in the world, but only what is in the external or natural man (n. 10236).

AC 10241. Their hands and their feet.  That this signifies the interiors and exteriors of man, is evident from the signification of “hands,” as being the interiors of man; and from the signification of “feet,” as being the exteriors of man, thus his natural things, for these are exterior. That the “feet” denote what is natural, thus the exteriors of man, (n. 2162, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952, 9406). But that the “hands” denote the interiors is because the higher things of the body extend into the hands, and there terminate, consequently by the “hands” is signified whatever pertains to man, and also his power (n. 10019).  But when both the “hands” and the “feet” are mentioned, then there is signified whatever is in the internal and also in the external man, or both spiritual and natural things.  For this reason by “lifting up the hand” is signified power in the spiritual; and by “lifting up the foot,” power in the natural (n. 5327, 5328); moreover by the extremes of man are signified all that pertains to him (n. 10044), and the extremes are the hands and feet.  From all this it can be seen why Aaron and his sons were to wash the hands and feet when they entered into the Tent of meeting, or came near to the altar to minister.

AC 10242. When they enter into the Tent of meeting.  That this signifies worship from the good of faith, is evident from the signification of “entering into the Tent of meeting,” when said of Aaron and his sons, as being to represent all things of worship from the good of faith.  That these things were represented by “entering into the Tent of meeting,” was because by “coming near to the altar” were represented all things of worship from the good of love.  There are two essentials of Divine worship: the good of faith, and the good of love. Worship is Divine, whether it be from the former good, or from the latter. The good of faith is the good of charity toward the neighbor; and the good of love is the good of love to the Lord.  These goods differ from each other as do the spiritual and the celestial, for the nature of which difference see the places cited in (n. 9277).  Worship from the good of faith, or from the good of charity toward the neighbor, was represented by the ministration of Aaron and his sons in the Tent of meeting in which there was daily ministration, because by that Tent was represented the heaven where spiritual good reigns; but worship from celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord, was represented by the ministration of Aaron and his sons at the altar (n. 9963, 9964, 10001, 10025).

AC 10243. They shall wash with waters.  That this signifies purification by means of the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of “washing,” as being purification from evils and falsities (n. 10237); and from the signification of “waters,” as being the truths of faith (n. 10238). He who does not know what is signified by “washing,” and what by the “feet” and “hands,” cannot know what these words involve, in John:--

Jesus poureth water into the basin, and beginneth to wash the disciples‘ feet, and to wipe them with the linen towel wherewith He was girded. And He cometh to Simon Peter, who saith unto Him, Dost Thou wash my feet? Jesus answered, What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter. Peter saith unto Him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me. Peter saith to Him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. Jesus saith to him, He that hath been washed, needeth not save to be washed as to his feet, but is wholly clean. Ye are clean already (John 13:5-10).

Who can know what is involved in what the Lord said, “What I do, thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter”? and, “if I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me”? and, “he who hath been washed needeth not save to be washed as to his feet, but is wholly clean”?

[2] That the subject here treated of is purification from evils and falsities, cannot be known except from the internal sense, from which it is evident that by “washing” is meant purification from evils and falsities; by the “water in the basin,” the truth of faith in the natural; by the “linen towel, with which the Lord was girded and with which He wiped,” the Divine truth proceeding from Him; by the “ feet” the natural of man; by “washing the head, hands, and feet,” regeneration, and in like manner by “him who hath been washed.”  Thus by “washing the feet” is meant to purify the natural of man, for unless this is purified and cleansed with man while he lives in the world, it can never be purified afterward. for such as the natural of man is when he dies, such it remains. It is not amended afterward, because it is this plane into which the interiors, which are spiritual, flow, it being their receptacle; and therefore when it has been perverted, the interiors are perverted into its image when they flow in. This is as when the eye is injured, or any other organ of sense, or member of the body, in that the interiors then feel and act through the organ or member no otherwise than according to the reception of them there.

[3] That for this reason a man can never be purified unless he is purified in the world in respect to his natural, is meant by the Lord’s words, “What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know hereafter.” That he who has been regenerated is not to be purified except in respect to the natural, is meant by these words, “He that hath been washed needeth not save to be washed as to his feet, and is wholly clean.” And that all purification is effected by the Lord alone, by these words, “If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with Me.” And that this is effected by means of the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord, is signified by His “wiping with the linen towel with which He was girded.” That a “linen cloth” denotes truth from the Divine, see above (n. 7601); thus the linen cloth with which the Lord was girded denotes the Divine truth from Him. That “water” denotes the truth of faith, (n. 10238); that a “basin” or“ laver” in which is water denotes the natural, (n. 10235); that the “washing” of the head, hands, and feet, or of the whole body, denotes regeneration, (n. 10239); and that the “feet” denote the natural of man, (n. 10241). From all this it can be seen again that the Lord spoke by correspondences, thus from the internal sense, because from heaven in which is this sense; and therefore unless the Word of the Lord is understood as to this sense, it is understood but little.

AC 10244. That they die not. That this signifies lest the representative perish, is evident from the signification of “dying,” when said of the ministration of Aaron and of his sons, as being the cessation of the representatives, and consequently of conjunction with heaven (n. 9928). The case herein is this. In the church that existed with that nation, conjunction with heaven, and through heaven with the Lord, was solely by means of representatives, that is, by means of external things that represented internal ones; and therefore as soon as they did not minister according to the prescribed rituals, the representative perished, and with it conjunction with heaven.  And when conjunction with heaven perished, they had no protection against hell. Hence the death of the sons of Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, for they put incense upon strange fire (Lev. 10:1, 2), by which was represented worship from some other love than the love of the Lord. Hence their separation from heaven, and extinction.  The like would have happened if Aaron or his sons had come near to minister unwashed; for thus they would have represented worship not from heaven, but profane, which is from hell. From all this it is evident that by “dying,” when said of the ministration of Aaron and of his sons, is signified the extinction of the representatives, and consequently of conjunction with the heavens.

AC 10245. Or when they come near to the altar to minister, to burn a fire-offering to Jehovah.  That this signifies worship from the good of love, is evident from the signification of “coming near to the altar to minister,” as being to represent the Lord as to the good of love (n. 9964); and from the signification of “to burn a fire-ring to Jehovah,” as being worship from the love of the Lord. For by “burning,” or sacrificing, is signified worship (n. 6905, 8936), and by “a fire-offering to Jehovah” is signified what is from the Divine love of the Lord (n. 10055). How the case herein is, (n. 10241).

AC 10246. And they shall wash their hands and their feet. That this signifies the purification of the interiors and the exteriors of man, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10239, 10240), where are the like words.

AC 10247. That they die not, signifies lest the representation perish (n. 10243).

AC 10248. And it shall be to them a statute of an age.  That this signifies an eternal law of order, is evident from the signification of “a statute,” as being a law of order (n. 7884, 7995, 8537); and from the signification of “an age,” as being what is eternal. That “an age” denotes what is eternal, is because by “an age” is meant duration even to the end; and in the internal sense this duration signifies what is eternal; more over the word by which “an age” is here expressed in the original tongue signifies eternity. That “an age” denotes what is eternal, is because “an age,” when said in the Word about the church, signifies its duration even to the end; and consequently when it is said of heaven, where there is no end, and when it is said of the Lord, it signifies what is eternal.  This is predicated in general of every church, but specifically of the celestial church. Moreover “an age” also signifies the world and life there, and likewise life thereafter to eternity.

[2] As regards the FIRST meaning: That “an age” when said of the church, signifies its duration even to the end, is evident from the following passages:--

The disciples said unto Jesus, Tell us what shall be the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age? (Matt.  24:3);

by “the consummation of the age” is signified the last time of the church, thus its end, when there is no longer any faith because no charity. That this is the consummation of the age, consequently that “an age” denotes the duration of the church even to its end, can be seen from all that was said by the Lord in that chapter, which may be seen unfolded in this work before the chapters of Genesis, from chapter 26 to chapter 40. The like is signified elsewhere by “an age” and its “consummation” in the same Gospel:--

The harvest is the consummation of the age (Matt. 13:39, 40, 49).

I am with you all the days even unto the consummation of the age (Matt. 28:20).

Here also the “age” means the duration of the church from beginning to end.

[3] In Ezekiel:--

They shall dwell upon the land, they and their sons, and their sons‘ sons, even to an age; David shall be their prince for an age. My sanctuary shall be in the midst of them for an age (Ezek. 37:25, 28);

these things are said of Israel, by whom in the internal sense is meant the spiritual church; by the “land on which they shall dwell” is also signified the church; by the “sanctuary,” everything of the church; and by “David,” the Lord; from which it is evident that by “to an age” is signified even to the end.  That “Israel” in the Word denotes the spiritual church, (n. 9340); that the “land” denotes the church, (n. 9325); that the “sanctuary” denotes everything of the church, and that it is predicated of the good and truth of the spiritual church, (n. 8330, 9479); and that“ David” denotes the Lord, (n. 1888, 9954).

[4] In David:--

Before the mountains were born, and the earth and the world were formed, even from age to age, Thou art God (Ps. 90:2);

by “the mountains being born,” and by “the earth and the world being formed,” is not meant the creation of the world, but the setting up of the church; for “mountains” in the Word signify celestial love, thus the church in which is this love; the “earth” also, and the “world,” signify the church; hence “from age to age” signifies from the setting up of churches to their ends; for churches follow on, one after another, because when one has been ended or vastated another is set up. That a “mountain” denotes celestial love, consequently the church which is in this love, (n. 795, 796, 4210, 6435, 8758); and that “land” denotes the church specifically, and the “world” the church generally, (n. 9325).

[5] SECONDLY: That “an age,” when said of heaven where there is no end, and of the Lord, signifies what is eternal, is evident from the following passages:--

Jehovah is King for an age, and forever (Ps. 10:16; Exod. 15:18).

Thy kingdom is a kingdom of all the ages; and Thy dominion is to every generation and generation (Ps. 145:13).

The living God, the King of an age (Jer. 10:10).

His dominion is the dominion of an age which shall not pass away. Afterward the saints of the highests shall receive the kingdom, and shall confirm the kingdom even to an age, and even to ages of ages (Dan. 7:14, 18, 27).

Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, unto ages (Matt. 6:13).

God shall give unto Him the throne of David, that He may reign over the house of Jacob for ages (Luke 1:32, 33).

[6]

To Jesus Christ be glory and strength unto ages of ages (Rev. 1:6).

Behold I am alive unto ages of ages (Rev. 1:18).

To the Lamb be blessing, and honor, and glory, and strength, unto ages of ages. The twenty-four elders worshiped Him that liveth unto ages of age (Rev. 5:13, 14; 10:6; 11:15).

My salvation shall be for an age, and My righteousness to generation of generations (Isa. 51:6, 8).

The angel of His faces carried them all the days of an age (Isa. 63:9).

Many of them that sleep shall awake to the life of an age (Dan. 12:2).

If anyone shall eat of this bread, he shall live for an age (John 6:51, 58).

I give unto them eternal life, and they shall not perish for an age (John 10:28).

Lead me in the way of an age (Ps. 139:24).

He hath established them forever and for an age, He hath made a statute which shall not pass away (Ps. 148:6).

[7] In these passages “an age” signifies what is eternal, because it is said of the Lord and of His kingdom, and of heaven and the life there, whereof there is no end; “ages of ages” do not mean eternities of eternities, but denote what is eternal; and the expression is used relatively to churches on earth of which one succeeds another. It is evident from the Word that on our earth a church has been set up four times, of which the first was the Most Ancient Church, which was before the flood; the second was the Ancient Church, which was after the flood; the third was the Israelitish and Jewish Church; and lastly there was the Christian Church. The period of each Church, from beginning to end, is “an age;” moreover after this last mentioned Church, a new one will begin. These successions of churches are meant by “ages of ages.” That “an age” denotes the duration of a church even to the end, was shown above.

[8] THIRDLY: That “an age” is predicated in general of even church, but specifically of the celestial church, is evident from the following passages:--

I will set up the tent of David that is fallen, and will build according to the days of an age (Amos 9:11);

where by “the days of an age” is meant the time of the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial.  And in Micah:--

Bethlehem Ephrathah, out of thee shall He come forth unto Me who shall be Ruler in Israel, whose goings forth are from of old, from the days of an age (Micah 5:2);

where the sense is the same.  And in  Moses:--

Remember thou the days of an age; understand ye the years of generation and generation (Deut. 32:7);

here “the days of an age” denote the time of the Most Ancient Church, which was celestial; and “the years of generation and generation” denote the time of the Ancient Church, which was spiritual.

[9] In Isaiah:--

Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of Jehovah; awake according to the days of antiquity, of the generation of ages (Isa. 51:8, 9);

“according to the days of the generation of ages” denotes according to the states of love and faith in the Ancient Churches derived from the Most Ancient Church. In David:--

I have considered the days of old, the years of ages (Ps.  77:5);

where the sense is the same.

[10] Again:--

Remember the former things from an age (Isa. 46:9).

Then shall the meat-offering of Judah and Jerusalem be sweet to Jehovah, according to the days of an age, and according to the ancient years (Mal. 3:4).

Judah shall be seated for an age, and Jerusalem to generation and generation (Joel 3:20);

where by “Judah” is signified the celestial church, of which it is therefore said, “according to the days of an age,” and “for an age;” and by “Jerusalem” is signified the spiritual church, of which it is said, “according to the ancient days,” and “to generation and generation.” That “Judah” denotes the celestial church, (n. 3654, 3881, 6363, 8770); and “Jerusalem” the spiritual church, (n. 402, 3654).

[11] FOURTHLY: That “an age” signifies the world and life there, is evident from the following passages:--

He that was sown among the thorns, this is he that heareth the Word but the care of this age and the deceitfulness of riches choke the Word (Matt. 13:22).

The sons of this age are more prudent than the sons of light (Luke 16:8).

The sons of this age marry and are given in marriage (Luke 20:34).

The wicked and the secure of the age multiply riches (Ps.  73:12).

[12] FIFTHLY: That “an age” signifies the life after death to eternity:--

He shall receive a hundredfold now in this time, and in the age to come life eternal (Mark 10:30).

When I shall bring thee down with them that go down into the pit, to the people of an age (Ezek. 26:20).

And in other passages, as (Luke 18:9, 30; 20:35; Isa. 34:10, 17; Rev. 14:11; 20:10; 22:5).

AC 10249. To him and to his seed, to their generations.  That this signifies all who receive the things that proceed from the Lord, thus who are being regenerated by Him, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to Divine good (n. 9806, 9946); from the signification of “seed,” as being those who are born of the Lord, thus who are being regenerated, for they who are being regenerated are said to be “born of God,” and also to be “His sons.” But in the sense abstracted from persons by “the seed of Aaron” are signified the things which proceed from the Lord, thus by virtue of which a man is regenerated, which are the goods of love and the truths of faith. And from the signification of “generations,” as being the goods and truths which proceed from the former as from their parents, and their derivations; for by “generations” in the Word in the internal sense are meant spiritual generations, which are those of love and faith (n. 10204).

[2] As the Lord is meant by Aaron in the representative sense, therefore by the “seed of Aaron” are specifically meant those who are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom; and by “generations” those who are in His spiritual kingdom; for the goods and truths of love and faith in the heavens are born and proceed in this way from the Lord. That by “seed,” “those born,” and “generations,” are meant those who are in love and faith to the Lord, and in the abstract sense the goods of love and the truths of faith, is evident from many passages in the Word, of which only the following may be adduced:--

I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west (Isa. 43:5);

this is said of Jacob and Israel, by whom in the internal sense is meant the church external and internal, the “seed” of which is the truth of faith and the good of charity.

[3] Again:--

I will pour out My spirit upon thy seed, and My blessing upon thine offspring (Isa. 44:3);

“upon seed,” and “upon offspring,” denote upon those who are of the church, thus upon the things that are of the church, which are goods and truths, or charity and faith, for these make the church with man. Again:--

In Jehovah shall all the seed of Israel glory (Isa. 45:25);

where the meaning is the same. Again:--

If He shall make His soul guilty, He shall see His seed (Isa. 53:10);

speaking of the Lord, whose “seed” they are called who are born of Him, thus who are regenerated.  Again:--

To the right hand and to the left thou shalt break forth, and thy seed shall inherit the nations (Isa. 54:3);

where the meaning is similar.

[4] In Jeremiah:--

Behold the days come that I will sow the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the seed of man, and with the seed of beast (Jer. 31:27);

these words are not understood unless it is known what is signified by “the house of Israel,” and “the house of Judah,” also what by “the seed of man,” and “the seed of beast.” They who do not think beyond the sense of the letter will believe the meaning to be that man and beast are to be multiplied in Israel and Judah, but this meaning involves nothing holy of the church.  But by “the house of Israel” is there meant the spiritual church, and by “the house of Judah” the celestial church; “the seed of man” denotes the internal good of these churches; and “the seed of beast” denotes their external good. That a “beast” denotes the affection of good, (n. 9280); and that when mention is made of “man and beast,” it denotes what is internal and what is external, (n. 7523).

[5] Again:--

As the army of the heavens shall not be numbered, and the sand of the sea is not measured, so will I multiply the seed of David (Jer. 33:22).

I have made a covenant with My chosen, I have sworn unto David; thy seed will I establish for an age, and build up thy throne to generation and generation (Ps. 89:3, 4);

by the “seed of David” is not meant the posterity of David as a father for this was not so greatly multiplied, nor of so much importance that it should be multiplied as the army of the heavens and as the sand of the sea; but by “David” in this passage, as also in other places, is meant the Lord as to Divine truth, thus by his “seed” those who have been regenerated or born of the Lord, and in the abstract sense the things which they have from the Lord, namely, the truths of faith and the goods of charity. That “David” denotes the Lord, (n. 1888, 9954).

[6] And again:--

A seed that shall serve Jehovah shall be counted to the lord for a generation (Ps. 22:30).

Their seed shall become known among the nations, and their offspring in the midst of the peoples (Isa. 61:9);

here “seed” denotes those who are regenerate, thus those who are of the church, and in whom the church is; thus in a sense abstracted from persons, those things which make a regenerate man, of which make the church with a man, which are faith and charity from the Lord.

[7] And in John:--

The dragon was angry against the woman, and went away to make war with the remains of her seed, who keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ (Rev. 12:17);

by “the dragon” are meant those who will attempt to destroy the church of the Lord hereafter to be set up; by “the woman” is meant this church; and by “those who are of her seed” are meant those who are in love and faith to the Lord from the Lord. But in the opposite sense “seed” signifies those who are against the things of the church, thus who are in evil and the falsities thence derived; and in the abstract sense evils and falsities; as in these passages:--

Woe to the sinful nation, a seed of evil ones (Isa. 1:4).

Sons of the sorceress, seed of the adulterer, are ye not born of transgression, the seed of a lie? (Isa. 57:3, 4).

The seed of evil-doers shall never be mentioned (Isa.  14:20).

AC 10250. Verses 22-33.  And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying, And do thou take to thee chief spices, best myrrh five hundred, and aromatic cinnamon the half thereof two hundred and fifty, and aromatic calamus two hundred and fifty, and cassia five hundred, in the shekel of holiness; and oil of olive a hin. And thou shalt make it an oil of anointing of holiness, an ointment of ointment, the work of a perfumer; it shall be an oil of anointing of holiness. And thou shalt anoint with it the Tent of meeting, and the ark of the Testimony, and the table and all the vessels thereof and the lampstand and the vessels thereof and the altar of incense, and the altar of burnt-offering, with all the vessels thereof and the laver and its base.  And thou shalt sanctify them, and they shall be a holy of holies; whosoever toucheth them shall be made holy.  And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons, and shalt sanctify them to minister to Me in the priest‘s office.  And thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel, saying, This shall be to Me an oil of anointing of holiness to your generations.  Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured; and in the quality thereof ye shall not make any like it; holy is this; holy shall it be to you.  The man who shall make ointment like it, and who shall put of it upon a stranger, he shall be cut off from his peoples.  “And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying,” signifies another perceptivity from enlightenment through the Word by the Lord; “and do thou take to thee chief spices,” signifies truths with goods, from the Word, which are gratefully perceived; “best myrrh,” signifies the perception of sensuous truth; “five hundred,” signifies full; “and aromatic cinnamon,” signifies the perception and affection of natural truth; “the half thereof, two hundred and fifty,” signifies the corresponding quantity; “and aromatic calamus,” signifies the perception and affection of interior truth; “two hundred and fifty,” signifies the corresponding quantity and quality; “and cassia,” signifies truth still more interior from good; “five hundred” signifies full; “in the shekel of holiness,” signifies the estimation of truth and good; “and oil of olive,” signifies the Lord’s Divine celestial good; “a hin,” signifies the quantity for conjunction; “and thou shalt make an oil of anointing of holiness,” signifies a representative of the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love; “an ointment of ointment,” signifies in each and all things of His Human; “the work of a perfumer,” signifies from the influx and operation of the Divine Itself which was in the Lord from conception; “it shall be an oil of anointing of holiness,” signifies a representative of the Lord as to the Divine Human; “and thou shalt anoint with it the Agent of meeting,” signifies to represent the Divine of the Lord in the heavens; “and the ark of the Testimony,” signifies in the celestial good that belongs to the inmost heaven; “and the table and all the vessels thereof,” signifies in spiritual good from the celestial, that belongs to the second heaven, and in the ministering goods and truths; “and the lampstand and the vessels thereof,” signifies in spiritual truth, that belongs to the second heaven, and in the ministering truths; “and the altar of incense,” signifies in all things of worship from these goods and truths: “and the altar of burnt-offering,” signifies to represent the Divine Human of the Lord and the worship of Him in general; “with all the vessels thereof,” signifies Divine goods and Divine truths; “and the laver and its base,” signifies all things that belong to purification from evils and falsities, and to regeneration by the Lord;“ and thou shalt sanctify them, and they shall be a holy of holies,” signifies in this way the influx and presence of the Lord in the worship of the representative church; “whosoever toucheth them shall be made holy,” signifies that which is communicative to all who receive in love and faith; “and thou shalt anoint Aaron and his sons,” signifies inauguration to represent the Lord in both kingdoms; “and shalt sanctify them to minister to Me in the priest’s office,” signifies to represent the Lord in respect to all the work of salvation; “and thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel, saying,” signifies instruction for those who are of the church; “this shall be to Me an oil of anointing of holiness,” signifies a representative of the Lord as to the Divine Human; “to your generations,” signifies in all things of the church; “upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured,” signifies no capability of communication with man‘s own; “and in the quality thereof ye shall not make any like it,” signifies no imitation from the study of man; “holy is this, holy shall it be to you,” signifies because it is the Divine of the Lord; “the man who shall make ointment like it,” signifies the imitation of Divine things by art; “and who shall put of it upon a stranger,” signifies conjunction with those who do not acknowledge the Lord, thus who are in evils and the falsities of evil; “he shall be cut off from his peoples,” signifies separation and spiritual death.

AC 10250a. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, saying.  That this signifies another perceptivity from enlightenment through the Word by the Lord, is evident from what was unfolded above (n. 10215), where are the like words. That another perceptivity is meant, is because it is so said when anything new is revealed and commanded (n. 10234).

AC 10251. And do thou take to thee chief spices.  That this signifies truths with goods, from the Word, which are gratefully perceived, is evident from the signification of “spices,” as being truths conjoined with goods, which are grateful (n. 10199). That it denotes which are gratefully perceived is because “odor” signifies perceptivity; and hence an “aromatic odor” signifies grateful perceptivity. That “odor” signifies perceptivity, (n. 3577, 4624-4634, 4748, 10054). That it denotes truths conjoined with goods from the Word, is because this is said to Moses, for it is said, “do thou take to thee spices,” and by Moses is represented the Lord as to the Word (n. 9372); moreover it is the Word from which are all the truths of the church, for the Word is Divine truth itself sent down from heaven by the Lord.

AC 10252. Best myrrh.  That this signifies the perception of sensuous truth, is evident from the signification of “fragrant myrrh,” as being the perception of sensuous truth; for its odor denotes perceptivity, and “myrrh” denotes sensuous truth. In what now follows, the subject treated of is the oil of anointing, by which is signified celestial good, which is the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love in the inmost heaven; its quality is described by the fragrant things of which it was compounded, which were best myrrh, aromatic cinnamon, aromatic calamus, cassia, and oil of olive, by which are signified celestial truths and goods in their order, namely, from ultimate to first ones, or from outermost to inmost ones; the ultimate or outermost ones being signified by “myrrh.” The reason why celestial good, or the good of the inmost heaven, is thus described, is because this good comes forth by means of the truths which are signified, and it also subsists by means of them.

[2] But as this is a subject of deeper investigation, it may be set forth further. In order that celestial good, which is inmost good, may be born with man, which is effected by the Lord through regeneration, truths must be acquired from the Word, or from the doctrine of the church which is from the Word. These truths obtain their first seat in the memory of the natural or external man; from this they are called forth by the Lord into the internal man, which is done when the man lives according to them; and the more the man is affected with them, or loves them, the higher, or the more interiorly, they are raised by the Lord, and there become celestial good.

[3] Celestial good is the good of the love of doing truths from the Word for the sake of good, thus for the Lord‘s sake; for the Lord is the source of good, thus is good; and this is the generation of this good. From this it is evident that this good comes forth by means of truths from the Word, first in the most external or sensuous man, next by their elevation into the internal man, and finally into the very inmost man, where they become celestial good.  And as this good comes forth in this way by means of truths in their order, so it afterward subsists in a like order by means of the same truths, for subsistence is a perpetual coming-forth.  And when it so subsists, as it had come forth, it is complete, for then the higher things subsist, rest, and store up themselves in order, upon the lower ones as upon their planes; and upon their outermosts or ultimates, which are sensuous memory-truths, as upon their foundation.

[4] These truths are described by John in the Apocalypse by the precious stones forming the foundation of the wall of the holy Jerusalem that came down out of heaven (Rev. 21:19, 20).  By “precious stones” are signified truths Divine received in good (n. 9476, 9863, 9873, 9905).  That “fragrant myrrh” denotes sensuous truth, is evident also in David:--

Thou hast loved righteousness, therefore God, Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows; with myrrh, aloes, and kesia, all Thy garments (Ps. 45:8, 9);

this is said of the Lord, who alone is the “anointed of Jehovah,” because there was in Him the Divine good of the Divine love which is signified by the oil of anointing (n. 9954).  By His “garments” which are said to be “anointed with myrrh, aloes, and kesia,” are signified Divine truths from His Divine good in the natural (n. 5954, 9212, 9216, 9814); thus by “myrrh” is signified Divine truth in the sensuous, because it is mentioned in the first place.

[5] In Matthew:--

The Wise men from the east, opening their treasures, offered unto the Lord then born, gifts: gold, frankincense, and myrrh (Matt. 2:11);

here “gold” denotes good; “frankincense,” internal truth; and “myrrh,” external truth; both of these from good. That “gold” is here mentioned in the first place is because it signifies good, which is inmost; in the second place “frankincense,” because it signifies internal truth from good; and “ myrrh” is mentioned in the third or last place because it signifies external truth from good. That “gold” denotes good, (n. 9874, 9881); and that “frankincense” denotes internal truth from good will be seen in what follows: (verse 34).

[6] The reason why the wise men from the east offered these things to the Lord then born, was that they might signify His Divine in the Human; for they knew what gold signified, what frankincense, and what myrrh, because they were in the science of correspondences and representations. In those times this was the chief science among the Arabians, Ethiopians, and others in the east; and therefore also in the Word by “Arabia,” “Ethiopia,” and “the sons of the east,” in the internal sense, are meant those who are in the knowledges of heavenly things (n. 1171, 3240, 3242, 3762). But in course of time this science perished, because when the good of life ceased it was turned into magic. It was first obliterated with the Israelitish nation, and afterward with the rest; and at this day so completely that it is not even known to exist. So much is this the case in the Christian world, that if it were said that all things of the Word in the sense of the letter signify heavenly things by correspondence, and that from this is its internal sense, no one would know what was meant.

[7] As “myrrh” signified truth the most external, which is sensuous truth, and its perception, therefore the bodies of the dead were formerly anointed with myrrh and aloes, by which anointing was signified the preservation of all truths and goods with the man, and also their resurrection. For this reason such a substance was employed as signified the ultimate of life with man, which ultimate is called the sensuous life. That the body of the Lord was anointed with such things, and was encompassed with them, together with a linen cloth, and that this was the custom of the Jews, (John 19:39, 40; Luke 23:53, 56). But be it known that what is said of the Lord Himself in the Word is to be understood in a supereminent sense, and therefore these things here signify His Divine life in the sensuous, which is the life proper to the body, and also the resurrection of this. It is known that the Lord rose again with the whole body which He had in the world, differently from other men, for He left nothing in the sepulchre; and therefore He also said to the disciples, who when they saw the Lord supposed that they saw a spirit, “Why are ye troubled? behold My hands and My feet, touch Me and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see Me have” (Luke 24:38, 39).

AC 10253. Five hundred.  That this signifies full, is evident from the signification of the number “five hundred,” as being what is full.  That “five hundred” denotes what is full is because this number is compounded of five twice multiplied by ten, or five times a hundred; and by “five” is signified much, in like manner by “ten,” and by a “hundred;” hence by “five hundred” is signified what is full. That by “five” is signified much, (n. 5708, 5956, 9102); so by “ten,” (n. 3107, 4638); also by a “hundred,” (n. 4400, 6582, 6594); and that all numbers in the Word signify real thing, (n. 9488); and that compound numbers signify the like as the simple ones from which they come forth by multiplication, (n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973).

[2] That numbers signify real things is clearly evident in Ezekiel, where the house of God with all within and without it, and also the new earth, are measured, and are described by the numbers of the measure (chapters 40 to 48); and by the “new earth” is there meant the church, and by the “house of God” the holiness of it; in like manner by John in the Apocalypse, where also the New Jerusalem, by which also is meant a new church, is described by the numbers of the measure.  If numbers had not signified real things, all these measurements would have been of no value.

[3] That “five hundred” signifies the whole from one end to the other, thus what is full, is evident from this in Ezekiel:--

He measured outside the house, or temple, on the eastern quarter, five hundred reeds round about; on the northern quarter five hundred reeds round about; on the southern quarter five hundred reed; and on the quarter of the sea five hundred reeds.  Its wall round about; the length five hundred reeds, and the breadth five hundred reeds; to distinguish between that which was holy and that which was profane (Ezek. 42:15-20);

from which words it is plain that “five hundred” denotes the whole in the complex, or everything holy from one end to the other, thus what is full, for it is said that the wall, which was of this length and breadth in a square, distinguished between what was holy and what was profane.

[4] That “five hundred” signifies much; and its tenth part, or “fifty,” relatively some thing, is evident from the Lord’s words to Simon in Luke:--

Jesus said, A certain creditor had two debtors; the one owed five hundred pence, and the other fifty. When they had nothing to pay, he forgave them both; therefore which of them will love him most? Simon answered, He to whom he forgave most. Jesus said, Just so the woman‘s many sins are forgiven, because she loved much; but to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little (Luke 7:41-50).

The Lord employed these numbers because they signified much and something; for He spoke from the Divine, thus by means of significatives according to correspondences; and also in all other places, as when He spoke of the virgins, whom He called “ten,” and “five” of them wise, and “five” foolish.  He said “ten,” because by this number are signified all, that is, of the church; and “five,” because by this number is signified some part (n. 4637, 4638).

AC 10254. And aromatic cinnamon.  That this signifies the perception and affection of natural truth, is evident from the signification of “aromatic cinnamon,” as being the perception and affection of natural truth, which truth is the interior truth of the external man; for with man there are sensuous life and natural life, both of the external man; but the sensuous life is exterior, deriving its truths from the objects which are on the earth and in the body; and the natural life is interior, deriving its truths from the causes of these objects. The life of the internal man is in like manner exterior and interior. The exterior derives its truths from those things which are in the ultimates of heaven; but the interior from those which are in the interiors of heaven; these latter truths are signified by the fragrant things which follow.

[2] That by “aromatic cinnamon is signified the perception and affection of truth, is because by what is aromatic is signified perception that is grateful. Such perception is from the affection which is of love, for that which is grateful in perception is from no other source. That all odors signify perception, (n. 3577, 4626, 4748); and that grateful odors signify the perception of truth from good, (n. 1514, 1517-1519, 4628, 10054), thus from the affection which is of love; and that the spheres of perception are turned into odors with spirits and angels, (n. 4626).

[3] Be it known further that all those sweet spices from which the oil of anointing was prepared, belong to the celestial class, that is, to those things which are of the celestial kingdom whereas the spices of which the incense was compounded belong to the spiritual class, that is, to those things which are of the spiritual kingdom; and therefore in the original tongue the spices of which the oil of anointing was composed are from a different word and derivation than the spices of which the incense was composed; for there are in the Word special words to express those things which are of the celestial kingdom; and special words to express those of the spiritual kingdom; and still others which are common to both. But in order that it may be known what these words are, it must first be known that heaven is divided into two kingdoms; likewise the church; and that in the celestial kingdom the essential is the good of love to the Lord, whereas in the spiritual kingdom it is the good of charity toward the neighbor. For the difference between these, (n. 9277).

[4] That the ”spice“ which is here mentioned signifies the perception and affection of celestial truth, is evident in Isaiah:--

Instead of spice there shall be rottenness; and instead of a girdle a rent; and instead of braided work baldness (Isa. 3:24);

the subject here treated of is the daughters of Zion, by whom is signified the celestial church, in this case perverted; and therefore ”spice“ is expressed by the same word as in the verse before us; and by ”instead of spice rottenness“ is signified that in the place of the perception and affection of truth from good, and of the consequent life, there shall be the perception and affection of falsity from evil, in which there is nothing of life.

[5] In Ezekiel:--

The traders of Sheba and Raamah were thy traders in the chief of every spice, and in precious stone and gold (Ezek.  27:22);

this was said of Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of good and truth in the church; and by ”Sheba and Raamah“ are signified those who are in the knowledges of celestial things.

[6] In like manner where the queen of Sheba is treated of:--

The queen of Sheba gave to Solomon a hundred and twenty talents of gold, and of spices very great store, and precious stone; there came no more such a multitude of spice as this (1 Kings 10:10);

that ”Sheba“ chiefly denotes those who are in the knowledges of celestial things, see (n. 1171, 3240). From all this it is evident that these spices from which the oil of anointing was prepared, signify the perception and affection of truth such as are possessed by those who are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom.

[7] The reason why the spices with which the anointing oil was prepared, which were noble myrrh, aromatic cinnamon, aromatic calamus, and cassia, belong to the celestial class, that is, to those things which are of the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, is that the ”oil of anointing“ signified the Divine good of the Divine love in the Lord, which in heaven is His Divine celestial. That the ”oil of anointing“ has this signification, (n. 9954, 10019).

AC 10255. The half thereof two hundred and fifty.  That this signifies the corresponding quantity, is evident from the signification of a number which is the half of a preceding one, as being somewhat, and as much as is sufficient, or as much as is for use, thus also as much as corresponds. Hence it is that ”two hundred and fifty,“ being the half of the previous number ”five hundred,“ signifies the corresponding quantity. How the case herein is can be seen from examples. Take for example the number ”ten.“ When this number signifies all, then the half of it, or ”five,“ signifies some; when ”ten“ signifies what is full, then ”five“ signifies as much as is sufficient; but when ”ten“ signifies much, ”five“ signifies somewhat; and so on. The case is the same with all other numbers when halved. That ”five“ signifies some, also somewhat, and likewise as much as is sufficient, and as much as is for use, (n. 4638, 5708, 5956, 9102, 9689), thus with variety relatively to the number ”ten,“ when this signifies all, what is full, or much. It is similar with the signification of ”fifty“ relatively to a ”hundred,“ and of ”two hundred and fifty“ relatively to ”five hundred;“ it does not matter whether a number is greater or less, seeing that the greater numbers have a like signification with the less from which they are composed (n. 5335, 5708, 7973); and that numbers in the Word signify real things, (n. 9488, 10127). From all this it can be seen that the present number, which is half of the previous one, does not signify half the perception of interior truth relatively to the perception of exterior truth; but a corresponding quantity. For things in the heavens are not measured and numbered as are things on earth, because in the heavens there are no spaces, or times, but instead thereof states, which are perceived in respect to their quality and quantity, without regard to any numbering. For numbering and measurement involve such things as belong to space and time, thus which are proper to nature in its ultimates.

AC 10256. And aromatic calamus.  That this signifies the perception and affection of interior truth, is evident from the signification of ”aromatic calamus,“ as being the perception and affection of interior truth, for ”calamus“ denotes this truth, and ”aromatic“ denotes the perception and affection thereof.  That ”calamus“ denotes truth, will be seen below; and that ”aromatic“ denotes the perception and affection thereof, (n. 10254).

[2] By interior truth is here meant that truth of the internal man which is exterior there, according to what was said above (n. 10254), namely, that in the external man there is an interior and an exterior, and the same in the internal man.  Hence it is that four aromatics were employed in the preparation of the oil of anointing; namely, noble myrrh, aromatic cinnamon, aromatic calamus, and cassia; and by ”noble myrrh“ is signified the perception of exterior truth in the external man, which is sensuous truth; by ”aromatic cinnamon,“ interior truth there, which is natural truth; by ”aromatic calamus,“ exterior truth in the internal man; and by ”cassia,“ interior truth there; and by ”oil of olive,“ the good itself from which are the affections and perceptions of these truths.

[3] That ”calamus“ denotes interior truth, can be seen from the passages in the Word where it is mentioned; yet there it is not called ” aromatic calamus,“ but only ”calamus,“ and” good calamus,“ as in these passages:--

Thou hast not called upon Me, O Jacob; and thou hast wearied of Me, O Israel; thou hast bought Me no calamus with silver, and thou hast not filled Me with the fat of thy sacrifices (Isa.  43:22, 24).

Dan and Javan furnished yarn in thy tradings; bright iron, cassia, and calamus were in thy trading (Ezek. 27:19).

To what purpose cometh to Me frankincense from Sheba, and good calamus from a far country? (Jer. 6:20).

That in these passages by ”calamus“ is meant something of the church, and worship there, is plain; for otherwise what could be meant by its being said that they should ”buy for Jehovah calamus with silver“? and that ”good calamus should come to Him from a far country“?  And as something of the church and its worship is signified, it follows that it is truth or good, because all things of the church and of worship bear relation to these; but what truth or good is signified, whether celestial or spiritual, whether of the external or the internal man, is evident from the internal sense of the above passages when it is examined in its connection. That it is interior truth is plain.

AC 10257. Two hundred and fifty.  That this signifies the corresponding quantity and quality, is evident from what was shown just above (n. 10255).

AC 10258. And cassia.  That this signifies a more interior truth from good, is evident from the signification of ”cassia,“ as being the interior truth of the internal man. That ”cassia“ has this signification is plain from what has been said and shown above; for heavenly things follow in this order, from the outermost to the inmost, and therefore it is inmost truth which is signified by” cassia,“ for it is the fourth in order. That ”cassia“ denotes truth from good is because inmost truth proceeds immediately from good, and in lower things acts in conjunction with good. This takes place when the understanding acts wholly as a one with the will, so that it is not known whether the act is from the one or from the other. Moreover the more interior heavenly things are, the more perfect they are, for all perfection increases toward the interiors, and all perfection is from good, that is, through good from the Lord.

[2] ”Cassia“ is mentioned among those things which signify things celestial in Ezekiel:--

Dan and Javan furnished yarn in thy trading; bright iron, cassia, and calamus were in thy trading (Ezek. 27:19);

the subject here treated of is Tyre, by which are signified the knowledges of truth and good in the church (n. 1201); and by ”Dan and Javan“ are signified those who are in the knowledges of celestial things; ”bright iron“ denotes ultimate celestial truth; and ”cassia,“ inmost truth.

[3] Cassia of this kind is not mentioned in other passages in the Word, but in David is mentioned ”kesia,“ which also is a species of cassia:--

God, thy God, hath anointed thee, all thy garments with the oil of gladness, with myrrh, aloes, and kesia (Ps. 45:8, 9);

the subject treated of in this whole Psalm is the Lord, and indeed the glorification of His Human, He who is not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word cannot possibly know what is signified by ”anointing all garments with myrrh, aloes, and kesia,“ where the Lord is the subject treated of.

[4] That garments are not meant, is plain, nor myrrh, aloes, and kesia with which they were anointed; but Divine truths from Divine good, which the Lord put on in respect to His Human. For anointing was nothing else than a representative of the Divine good in the Lord’s Divine Human; hence by ”myrrh, aloes, and kesia“ are signified Divine truths in their order proceeding from the Divine good which was in Him. Hence by ”garments“ is signified His Divine Human; for whether you say ”the Divine Human of the Lord,“ or ”the Divine truth,“ it is the same, because when the Lord was in the world He was the Divine truth itself; and when He went out of the world, He made Himself the Divine good, from which is the Divine truth (n. 9199, 9315). Moreover in the Word, that is called a ”garment“ which clothes something else, whatever it may be. The like is signified by the Lord‘s ”garments“ in (Isaiah 63:2, 3). That ”garments“ signify the truths which clothe good, (n. 2576, 4545, 4763, 5248, 5319, 5954, 9093, 9212, 9216, 9952). From this it is now evident that by ”kesia,“ which is a species of cassia, is signified the Divine truth which proceeds immediately from the Divine good, which truth is inmost truth.

AC 10259. Five hundred.  That this signifies full, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10253). The reason why five hundred in the shekel of holiness were taken of myrrh, and five hundred of cassia, but only two hundred and fifty of aromatic cinnamon and of aromatic calamus, was that ”myrrh“ signified sensuous truth, which is the truth last in order, and ”cassia“ the truth that proceeds immediately from good, which is inmost truth; whereas ”aromatic cinnamon“ and ”aromatic calamus“ signified interior truths, which are intermediate; and of the last and the inmost there must be what is full; but of the intermediates a corresponding quantity; for intermediates must hold themselves so as to correspond with what is first and what is last.

AC 10260. In the shekel of holiness.  That this signifies the estimation of truth and of good, is evident from the signification of ”the shekel of holiness,“ as being the price and estimation of truth and good in respect to its quality and quantity (n. 2959, 10221).

AC 10261. And oil of olive.  That this signifies the Lord’s Divine celestial good, is evident from the signification of ”oil,“ as being good both celestial and spiritual (n. 886, 4582, 9780); and from the signification of ”olive,“ as being celestial love; hence by ”oil of olive“ is signified the good of celestial love, or what is the same, celestial good.  It is called the Lord‘s Divine celestial good, because all good which is essentially good in the heavens, is from the Divine of the Lord.

[2] But be it known that in itself the Lord’s Divine good is one and indivisible, for it is infinite, and contains infinite things within it.  That which is infinite is one and indivisible, because the infinite things which it contains make a one. But that it is distinguished into celestial and spiritual is owing to its reception by angels in the heavens and by men on earth. As received by the angels and men who belong to the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, it is called Divine celestial good; but as received by the angels and men who belong to the Lord’s spiritual kingdom, it is called Divine spiritual good; for all angels and men receive variously or dissimilarly the one only good of the Lord.  Comparatively speaking this is like the heat and light of the sun of the world, which although considered in themselves they are one and indivisible, yet vary according to the times of the year and of the day, and also in a dissimilar manner in every region of the earth; and this variation of heat and light is not effected by the sun, but by the varied turning of the earth, according to the varieties of its orbit and of its rotation, thus also by the reception.  Moreover the same light varies in every object according to the reception, whence come colors. From all this it can be seen whence it is that the Lord‘s Divine good, which is one and indivisible, because infinite, is called celestial and spiritual.

[3] That ”oil“ denotes good both celestial and spiritual, is evident from the passages above cited; but that ”olive“ denotes celestial love, and ”oil“ the perception and affection of this love, is evident from the passages in the Word where ”oil“ and ”olive“ are mentioned; as from the following:--

The prophet saw a lampstand all of gold, its seven lamps were upon it, two olive-trees were near it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon the left side thereof. He said to the angel, What are these two olive-trees, and what are these two olive berries, which are in the hand of the two pipes of gold? He said, these are the two sons of olives that stand beside the Lord of the whole earth (Zech. 4:2, 3, 11, 12, 14);

[4] what these prophetic words involve cannot be known to anyone unless he knows from the internal sense what is signified by a ”lampstand,“ and what by an ”olive-tree;“ that a ”lampstand“ signifies the spiritual heaven, and its ”lamps“ the holy truths there, see above (n. 9548, 9551, 9555, 9558, 9561, 9684); from which it is evident that an ”olive-tree“ signifies the celestial kingdom by virtue of its perception and affection of good; and the ”olive berries,“ the holy goods there, the truths of which are signified by the ”sons of olives.“ ”Two“ signifies the internal and the external of this kingdom, and the conjunction.

[5] Like things are signified by ”oil“ and ”lampstand“ in these passages:--

I will give to My two witnesses that they may prophesy a thousand two hundred and sixty days, clothed in sackcloth. These are the two olive-trees, and the two lampstands, that stand before the God of the earth (Rev. 11:3, 4).

I will plant in the wilderness the cedar of shittim, and the myrtle, and the wood of oil (Isa. 41:19);

the ”cedar“ and the ”wood of oil“ are mentioned because the ”cedar“ signifies spiritual good, and the ”wood of oil“ celestial good.  Spiritual good is charity toward the neighbor, and celestial good is love to the Lord; to ”plant these trees in the wilderness“ means in lands outside the church, thus among the Gentiles.

[6] In Hosea:--

His branches shall advance, and his honor shall be as the olive, and his smell as Lebanon (Hosea 14:6);

by ”the olive“ is here also signified celestial good, and by ”Lebanon“ spiritual good, thus by ”Lebanon“ the like as by the ”cedar,“ because Lebanon was a forest of cedars.

[7] In Isaiah:--

Thus shall it be in the midst of the earth, in the midst of the peoples, as the beating of an olive-tree, as the grape gleanings when the vintage is completed (Isa. 24:13; 17:6);

it is said ”the beating of an olive-tree, and the gleanings of the completed vintage,“ because the ”olive-tree“ signifies the church which is in celestial good, and the ”vine“ the church which is in spiritual good; for in the Word where good is treated of, truth also is treated of, by reason of their marriage; and in like manner where the celestial is treated of, the spiritual also is treated of. Moreover the celestial is predicated of good, and the spiritual of truth (n. 9263, 9314); and therefore it is so concerning the vine and the olive. That a ”vine“ denotes the spiritual church and its good and truth, (n. 1069, 5113, 6376, 9277).

[8] For this reason the ”vine“ and the ”olive“ are mentioned together elsewhere, as in these passages:--

Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine in the sides of thy house, thy sons like olive-plants round about thy table (Ps.  128:3).

The fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall produce be in the vines: the word of the olive shall deceive (Hab. 3:17).

The most of your gardens and your vineyards and your fig-trees and your olive-trees hath the worm devoured (Amos 4:9);

the ”fig-tree“ also is here mentioned because the ”fig-tree“ signifies the good of the external church (n. 5113), but the ”vine“ the good of the internal spiritual church, and the ”olive“ the good of the internal celestial church.

[9] As the ”wood of oil“ signified the good of celestial love, therefore the two cherubs which were in the adytum of the temple were made of wood of oil, as were the doors, threshold, and posts (1 Kings 6:23, 31, 32); for by the adytum of the temple was represented the inmost heaven, where celestial good is, and therefore all things therein signified celestial things. That the ark which was there, and for which the adytum was made, signified the inmost heaven where the Lord is, (n. 9485).

[10] Moreover the like was signified by the ”Mount of Olives“ - which was over against the temple--as by the ”olive,“ just as the like was signified by ”Lebanon“ as by the ”cedar;“ and therefore in order that there might be represented in the heavens all things which the Lord performed when He was in the world, and especially Divine celestial things, the Lord was very often on the Mount of Olives when He was at Jerusalem, as is evident in Luke:--

Jesus was for days teaching in the temple, but in the nights He went out and passed them in the Mount that is called of Olives (Luke 21:37).

Jesus came out, and went, as His custom was, into the Mount of Olives (Luke 22:39).

That this mountain was over against the temple, (Mark 13:3; Matthew 24:3).

[11] That the ”Mount of Olives“ signified Divine celestial good, is evident in Zechariah, where it is said:--

The feet of Jehovah shall stand upon the Mount of Olives which is before the faces of Jerusalem, and He shall there fight against the nations; and this mountain shall cleave asunder, part toward the east, and toward the sea, with a great valley; and part of the mountain shall withdraw toward the north, and part toward the south (Zech. 14:4);

there is here described the state of heaven and the church when the Lord was in the world, and fought against the hells and overcame them, and at the same time brought back the heavens into order; the ”nations“ there against which He fought denote evils from the hells; the ”Mount of Olives“ upon which His feet stood, denotes the Divine good of the Divine love, for from this He fought and conquered; the ”cleaving asunder of the mountain toward the east and toward the sea, with a great valley,“ signifies the separation of heaven and hell; as also does its ”withdrawal toward the north and the south;“ for those are said to be ”in the south“ who are in the light of truth; ”in the east,“ those who are in the love of good; but ”toward the sea,“ those who are in evils; and ”to the north,“ those who are in falsities.

AC 10262. A hin. That this signifies the amount sufficient for conjunction, is evident from the signification of a ”hin,“ which was a measure of liquids, here of oil, as being the amount sufficient for conjunction; for by ”oil“ is signified the Lord’s Divine celestial good, which is the very conjunctive of all in the heavens; hence by its measure is signified the amount sufficient for conjunction, and everything of conjunction. The Lord‘s Divine celestial good is the very conjunctive of all, because it is the very being of the life of all; for it vivifies all things by means of the Divine truth that proceeds from this Divine good, and it vivifies them according to the quality of the reception. Angels are receptions, and so also are men; the truths and goods with them afford the quality according to which is effected the reception, thus the conjunction.

[2] Two measures are mentioned in the Word, which were in holy use, one for liquids, which was called the ”hin,“ the other for dry things, which was called the ”ephah;“ by the hin were measured oil and wine, and by the ephah, meal and fine flour; the measure hin, which was for oil and wine, was divided into four parts, but the measure ephah was divided into ten. The reason why the measure hin was divided into four, was that it might signify what is conjunctive, for ”four“ denotes conjunction; but that the measure ephah was divided into ten was that it might signify what is receptive, the quality whereof was marked by the numbers, for ”ten“ signifies much, all, and what is full. That ”four“ denotes conjunction, (n. 8877, 9601, 9674, 10136, 10137); and that ”ten“ denotes much, all, and what is full, the same as a ”hundred,“ (n. 1988, 3107, 4400, 4638, 8468, 8540, 9745, 10253).

[3] That the measure hin was for oil and wine in the sacrifices, and that it was divided into four; but that the measure ephah was for meal and fine meal, which were for the meat-offering in the sacrifices, and that this was divided into ten, can be seen in (Exod. 29:40; Lev. 5:11; 23:13; Num. 15:3-10; 28:5, 7, 14). From all this it is evident that by a ”hin“ is signified the amount sufficient for conjunction, and by an ”ephah“ the amount sufficient for reception. Moreover the oil conjoined the fine flour, and the flour received it, for in the meat-offering there were oil and fine flour.

[4] There were other measures besides which were in common use both for dry things and for liquids; the dry measures were called the ”homer“ and the ”omer,“ and the liquid measures the ”cor“ and the ”beth.“ The homer contained ten ephahs, and the ephah ten omers; but the cor contained ten baths, and the bath ten lesser parts (Exod. 16:36; Ezek. 45:11, 13, 24).

[5] But in Ezekiel, where the new temple is treated of, there appears a different division of the ephah and the bath; the ephah and the bath not being there divided into ten, but into six; and the hin there corresponds to the ephah, as is plain in this prophet (Ezek. 45:13, 14, 24; 46:5, 7, 11, 14). The reason is that the subject there treated of is not celestial good and its conjunction, but spiritual good and its conjunction; and in the spiritual kingdom the corresponding numbers are twelve, six, and three, because by these numbers are signified all things, and when they are predicated of truths and goods, all things of truth and of good in the complex. That these things are signified by ”twelve,“ (n. 3272, 3858, 3913, 7973); also by ”six,“ (n. 3960, 7973, 8148, 10217); in like manner by ”three,“ by which is signified from beginning to end, thus what is full, and in respect to things, everything, (n. 2788, 4495, 5159, 7715, 9825, 10127). That these numbers involve similar things is because the greater numbers have a like signification with the simple ones from which they arise by multiplication (n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973).

[6] As by the ”hin“ is signified the amount sufficient for conjunction with spiritual truth also, therefore likewise for the meat-offering in the sacrifices from the ram, there was taken a third part of a hin of oil, and for the drink-offering a third part of wine (Num. 15:6, 7); for by the ”ram“ is signified spiritual good (n. 2830, 9991). From all this it is now again clearly evident that by the numbers mentioned in the Word are signified real things; otherwise to what purpose would have been so frequent a designation of quantity and measure by means of numbers in Moses, in Ezekiel, and elsewhere?

AC 10263. And thou shalt make it an oil of anointing of holiness.  That this signifies a representative of the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love, is evident from what has been shown above concerning the oil of anointing (n. 9954, 10011, 10019).

AC 10264. An ointment of ointment.  That this signifies in each and all things of His Human, is evident from the signification of ”ointment,“ when said of the oil of anointing, by which is signified a representative of the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine Human, as being what is Divine in each and all things of His Human. That this is signified by ”an ointment of ointment“ is because all the spices mentioned above, which were best myrrh, aromatic cinnamon, aromatic calamus, and cassia, are meant by the ”ointment of ointment.“ Moreover in the original tongue what is aromatic in general is meant by this word (”spice,“ or ”aromatic“); but the translators call it ”ointment“ from anointing.

[2] That ”aromatic of aromatic“ signifies in each and all things of the Lord’s Human, is because there are signified the truths of the whole human, together with their perceptions and affections, namely, the ultimate truth of the sensuous mind, together with the perception of it, which is signified by ”myrrh“ (n. 10252); the interior truth of the natural or external man, together with the perception and the affection of it, which is signified by ”aromatic cinnamon“ (n. 10254); truth still more interior which is of the internal man, together with the perception and the affection of it, which is signified by ”aromatic calamus“ (n. 10256); and inmost truth, together with the perception and the affection of it, which is signified by ”cassia“ (n. 10258). Thus the whole human is signified by these, for each and all things in man bear relation to truths and their perceptions and affections, because these make man‘s life.

[3] For it can be known that without the perception and affection of truth and good, a man is not a man, seeing that each and all things that he thinks bear relation to truths and their perceptions, and to goods and their affections. The thoughts and affections of man are nothing else; for man has an understanding and a will; and the understanding is made out of the perception of truth; and the will out of the affection of good. That the whole man from head to heel, both within and without, is nothing but his own truth or falsity, and his own good or evil; and that the body is the external form of these, is a secret which has not as yet been known in the world.

[4] From all this it can now be seen that by ”aromatic of aromatic,“ or ”ointment of ointment,“ by which are understood all truths from the ultimate to the inmost, thus truths in their whole complex, are signified each and all things in man, or from which he is man; consequently when this ”aromatic“ is predicated of the Lord, that it signifies each and all things of His Human.

[5] It is said, ”thou shalt make it an oil of anointing, an aromatic of aromatic, the work of a perfumer,“ because the ”oil of anointing“ signifies the Divine good itself of the Divine love which was in the Lord from conception (n. 9954, 10011, 10019); ”an aromatic of aromatic“ signifies this in each and all things of His Human; and ”the work of a perfumer,“ or of a ”maker of ointment,“ signifies from the influx and operation of the Divine Itself; for the Lord alone in respect to His Human was the anointed of Jehovah (n. 9954).

AC 10265. The work of a perfumer.  That this signifies from the influx and operation of the Divine Itself which was in the Lord from conception, is evident from the signification of ”a perfumer,“ or ”a maker of ointment,“ as being the one who does this work; and therefore when it is said of the Lord, the Divine Itself is signified, and by ”work,“ its operation.  Whatever is said in the Word is to be understood relatively to that of which it is said; and therefore when it is said of the Divine, it is to be understood of the Divine and of its operation, influx, and attributes; no matter how it may be expressed in the sense of the letter. In the inmost heaven all things of the Word are applied to the Divine Human of the Lord, for the angels there think immediately from the Lord, and perceive the Word in its inmost sense, which is the celestial sense; and therefore here by ”ointment of ointment, the work of a maker of ointment,“ they perceive nothing else than that which is of the Divine Itself which was in the Lord from conception, and its influx and operation into each and all things of His Human; for the Human of the Lord is the Divine Itself with them.  They know that the Divine good of the Divine love, which is called the ”Father,“ is reciprocally in the Divine Human of the Lord, which is the ”Son,“ according to the Lord’s words, that ”the Father is in Him and He in the Father“ (John 14:10, 11); and that they ”are one“ (John 10:30).  Wonder not that by a ”maker of ointment“ or of ”perfumes“ is signified the Divine Itself, seeing that in the Word throughout Jehovah calls Himself the ”Former,“ and the ”Maker,“ nay, even the ”Potter,“ as in Isaiah:--

O Jehovah Thou art our Father; we are the clay, and Thou our Potter; and we all are the work of Thy hands (Isa. 64:8);

and also in other passages in the same prophet, and in (Jeremiah 18:2-6).

AC 10266. By the preparation of the oil of anointing in what just precedes, there has been described the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love in His Divine Human; and in the relative sense the good of love with man from the Lord; for what is said in the Word, in the supreme sense, of the Lord, in the relative sense is said also of man, because the regeneration of man is an image of the glorification of the Lord’s Human (n. 3138, 3212, 3296, 3490, 4402, 5688).  From this it is evident that the preparation of the oil of anointing involves also the generation and formation by the Lord of the good of love with man; consequently that the good of love is formed by means of the truths of the church which are from the Word, first by means of the external truths, and then by means of those which are more and more interior, according to the description in what just precedes; and that accordingly the external man is first imbued with these truths, and then the interior man successively. Be it known that this good is preserved by the Lord, and subsists, in the same order in which it had been formed by the Lord by means of truths, that is, in the order in which it had come forth; for preservation is perpetual formation, as subsistence is a perpetual coming-forth.  From this it follows that the quality of the good of love with a man is according to the quality of the perception and the affection, and according to the order in which the man has become imbued with truths.  If his affection of truth has been for the sake of truth and good, with out affection for the sake of self and the world, and if the order has been from outermost things to more interior ones, by degrees, then the good of love is genuine; if otherwise, it is spurious, or not good.  It matters not if in the beginning, when the man begins to be formed, his affection of truth is also for the sake of himself and the world.  But this affection must be put off as good increases by means of truths; and moreover the man is afterward continually being purified from such things; as are the digestive organs, from what is of no use.  He who believes that a man can be endowed with the good of love, without the truths of faith, and without a life in accordance with these, is very much mistaken.

AC 10267. It shall be an oil of anointing of holiness.  That this signifies a representative of the Lord as to the Divine Human, is evident from the signification of ”an oil of anointing,“ as being a representative of the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love (n. 9954, 10011, 10019). It is here said ”an oil of anointing of holiness,“ in order that there may be understood the Lord as to the Divine Human, because this is the holy itself in the heavens; for the angels in the heavens know and acknowledge no other Divine than the Divine Human of the Lord, because of this they can think, and this they can love; while of the Divine which is called the Father they cannot think, thus cannot love it, because it is incomprehensible, according to the Lord’s words, ”Ye have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His shape“ (John 5:37). That which cannot be seen and heard cannot enter into any idea of thought, nor into any affection of love. That which is to be comprehended by faith and love must be an accommodated objective. That the incomprehensible Divine which is called the Father is simultaneously worshiped when the Lord as to the Divine Human is worshiped, is also evident from the words of the Lord Himself, where He says that ”He is the way,“ and that ”no one cometh to the Father but by Him“ (John 14:6); and that ”no one knoweth the Father but the Son, and he to whom the Son will reveal Him“ (Matt. 11:27); and that ”no one hath seen the Father at any time, except the only-begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, and He setteth Him forth“ (John 1:18); and therefore the Lord says, ”Come unto Me all ye, and I will refresh you“ (Matt. 11:28). That the Divine Human of the Lord is the all in all of heaven, and that it is the holy itself there, (n. 9933, 9972, 10067, 10159); also that the Lord alone is holy, and all that is holy is from Him, (n. 9229, 9479, 9680, 9818, 9820, 9956).

AC 10268. And thou shalt anoint with it the Tent of meeting. That this signifies to represent the Divine of the Lord in the heavens, is evident from the signification of ”anointing with the oil of holiness,“ as being to induce a representation of the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love in respect to the Divine Human; for ”anointing“ signifies to induce a representation, seeing that the things which were anointed were not called holy from the oil, but from the representation of the Divine which is signified by the oil, because ”oil“ signifies the Divine good of the Divine love, and ”holiness“ signifies the Divine Human, for this alone is holy (n. 9954, 10011, 10019, 10264-10267); and from the signification of ”the Tent of meeting,“ as being heaven in the whole complex; the inmost or third heaven being where was the ark of the Testimony; the middle or second heaven being where was the table on which were the breads of faces, and where also was the lampstand and the altar of incense; and the ultimate or first heaven being where was the court (n. 9457, 9481, 9485, 9784, 9963, 10230, 10242, 10245).  From this it is evident that by ”anointing the Tent of meeting“ is signified to induce a representation of the Divine good of the Lord’s Divine love in respect to His Divine Human; and because this is signified by ”anointing the Tent of meeting,“ there is also signified to represent the Divine of the Lord in the heavens.  For heaven is not heaven from the angels as regarded in what is their own; but from the Divine of the Lord with them (n. 9408, 10125, 10151, 10157, 10159).

AC 10269. And the ark of the Testimony.  That this signifies in the celestial good that belongs to the inmost heaven, is evident from the signification of ”anointing the ark of the Testimony,“ as being to induce a representation of the Divine in the celestial good that belongs to the inmost heaven; for by ”anointing“ is signified to induce a representation of the Divine of the Lord (n. 10268); and by ”the ark of the Testimony“ is signified the good of the inmost heaven. That ”the ark“ denotes the inmost heaven, and that ”the Testimony“ denotes the Lord there, may be seen above (n. 9485); and as the good which reigns in this heaven is the good of love to the Lord, which good is called celestial good, therefore by ”anointing the ark of the Testimony“ is signified to induce a representation of the Divine of the Lord in the celestial good that belongs to the inmost heaven.  How the case herein is can be seen from what has been everywhere shown above, namely, that anointing represented the Lord as to the Divine Human; for the Lord as to His Divine Human was alone the anointed of Jehovah, because in Him, from conception, and consequently in His Human, there was the Divine of the Father. It is possible to know that the human body proceeds from the being of the father which is called his soul; for the likeness of the father in respect to the various affections which are of love appears in the children even in their faces. From this each family derives its own peculiarities by which it is distinguished from others.  What then must have been the case with the Lord, in whom the Divine Itself was His being which is called the soul? Hence it is that the Lord says, ”He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me“ (John 14:9, 11).

AC 10270. And the table, and all the vessels thereof.  That this signifies in spiritual good from the celestial, which belongs to the second heaven, and in the ministering goods and truths, is evident from the signification of ”the Tent of meeting outside the veil“ where was this table, as being the second heaven (n. 9457, 9481, 9485); from the signification of ”the table upon which were the breads of faces,“ as being spiritual good from the celestial; for the ”breads“ signify celestial good (n. 9545); and the ”table“ upon which these were signifies spiritual good (n. 9684, 9685); and from the signification of its ”vessels,“ as being the knowledges of celestial good and truth (n. 9544), thus ministering goods and truths, for knowledges minister. The reason why these words signify spiritual good from the celestial (which is signified by ”the table upon which were the breads of faces“), is that by the Tent of meeting outside the veil was represented the second heaven, in which reigns the good of charity toward the neighbor, which is called spiritual good, and this good is so far good as there is in it celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord For there are three kinds of good which make the three heavens.  There is the good of love to the Lord, which is called celestial good: this makes the inmost heaven. There is the good of charity toward the neighbor, which is called spiritual good, and which makes the second heaven. And there is the good of faith, which is called spiritual natural good, and makes the ultimate heaven. The Lord inflows immediately from His Divine Human into the celestial good which is of the inmost heaven. The Lord inflows from the Divine Human into the spiritual good which is of the second heaven, and also mediately through celestial good. And the Lord inflows from the Divine Human into the spiritual natural good, which is of the ultimate heaven, and again also mediately. It is said ”also mediately,“ because the Lord not only flows into the goods of these heavens mediately, but also immediately (n. 9682).

AC 10271. And the lampstand, and the vessels thereof.  That this signifies in the spiritual truth that belongs to the second heaven, and in the ministering truths, is evident from the signification of ”the lampstand,“ as being a representative of the Lord as to the spiritual truth that belongs to the second heaven (n. 9548, 9551, 9555, 9558, 9561, 9684); and from the signification of its ”vessels,“ as being memory-truths, which are ministering ones (n. 3068, 3079, 9572, 9724).

AC 10272. And the altar of incense.  That this signifies in all things of worship from these goods and truths, is evident from the signification of ”the altar of incense,“ as being a representative of all things of worship which are from love and charity from the Lord (n. 10177, 10198). It is called a representative of the Lord in goods and truths, and in ministering goods and truths, and in all things of worship, because the goods and truths which are represented are so far goods and truths as there is in them the Divine of the Lord. For all the goods and truths that are with man and angel are from the Lord; without life from the Lord in them they are dead things, and even evil; for if they are not from the Lord, but from man, they have regard to man and the world, and those things which have man and the world as their end are in themselves evil, for the end is the inmost of man, because it is the soul of all things in him. From this it can be seen what is meant by a representative of the Lord in goods and truths, and in their ministering ones. By ministering goods and truths are meant the goods and truths which are in the natural or external man, which are called knowledges and memory-knowledges; for it is these into which the internal man looks, and from which he chooses those which act as confirmations, and which are in agreement with the life of his affections, or with his love; and because they are thus subordinate, they are called ”ministering.“ There are also goods and truths again ministering to these, which are called sensuous memory-knowledges; for the goods and truths with a man are circumstanced like families, or like households, where there are the father of the family, sons, daughters, sons-in-law, and daughters-in-law, and menservants and maidservants; in the lowest place therein are those which are meant by sensuous memory-knowledges, although at the present day with most men these are in the highest place.

AC 10273. And the altar of burnt-offering.  That this signifies to represent the Divine Human of the Lord and the worship of Him in general, is evident from the representation of the altar of burnt-offering, as being the principal representative of the Divine Human of the Lord and of the worship of Him (n. 2777, 2811, 8935, 8940, 9388, 9389, 9714, 9964, 10123, 10151).

AC 10274. With all the vessels thereof.  That this signifies Divine goods and Divine truths, is evident from the signification of ”vessels,“ as being knowledges and memory-knowledges (n. 3068, 3079, 9394, 9544, 9724); but when said of the Lord‘s Divine Human they denote the Divine goods and Divine truths which minister.

AC 10275. And the laver, and its base.  That this signifies all things that belong to purification from evils and falsities, and to regeneration, by the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”the laver,“ in which washing was performed, as being a means of purification from evils and falsities, and also of regeneration (n. 10235); and from the signification of its ”base,“ as being the sensuous that supports and ministers (n. 10236).

AC 10276. And thou shalt sanctify them, and they shall be a holy of holies.  That this signifies in this way the influx and presence of the Lord in the worship of the representative church, is evident from the signification of ”to be sanctified,“ as being to represent the Lord as to the Divine Human, and the reception of Divine good and Divine truth from Him; for the Lord alone is holy, and consequently that only is holy which proceeds from Him; from which it is plain that by ”being sanctified“ is also signified the influx and presence of the Lord in the worship of the representative church. That ”to be sanctified“ denotes to represent the Lord as to the Divine Human, (n. 9956, 9988, 10069); and also the reception of Divine good and Divine truth from Him, (n. 8806, 9820, 10128); that the Lord alone is holy, and only that is holy which proceeds from Him, (n. 9229, 9479, 9680, 9818); thus that the holy things with the Israelitish and Jewish nation were representatively holy, (n. 10149). And from the signification of ”a holy of holies,“ as being Divine celestial good (n. 10129).

[2] From this it is evident that all those things which were anointed were called ”holy of holies“ from the influx and presence of the Divine Human of the Lord; and all influx and presence of the Lord takes place immediately, and in the lower heavens also mediately through celestial good, which is the good of the inmost heaven. Therefore in so far as the goods of the lower heavens contain and store up within them celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord, so far they are goods. From this it is that those things which were anointed were called ”holy of holies.“ Concerning the immediate and mediate influx of the Lord, (n. 9682, 9683).

[3] But in order that it may be known how the case herein is, it is necessary to know what representation is, and what a representative church is. What these are has been abundantly shown in the places cited in n. 9229, 9280, 10030; but as at the present day few know what these are, the subject may be somewhat further illustrated. It is the affections of good and truth from the Lord which make the life and happiness of the angels in the inmost heavens. In the ultimate heaven these affections are presented with infinite variety in countless outward forms.  Whatever they see there with their eyes is from this source.  These are representatives of interior things, which are the affections of good and truth, and are called celestial and spiritual.

[4] The good spirits who as subjects perceive the holy things of heaven in these representatives, are interiorly affected. For example, they see paradises with trees and fruits of countless species, also beds of roses, lawns, fields with things sown in them, houses and palaces, and very many other things, all of which correspond to the affections of good and of truth that are from the Lord in the higher heavens. In these heavens also there are representatives, but such as immeasurably surpass in perfection, delight, and happiness those which are in the ultimate heaven. It is these representatives of which it is said that ”no eye hath ever seen“ such things; and if anything were told of them it would exceed human belief.

[5] From this it can be seen what representatives are. All the representatives instituted with the Israelitish nation were like those in the ultimate heaven; but were less perfect, because they were in the nature of this world. Such were the Tent with the ark, the table upon which were the breads of faces, the lampstand and its lamps, the altar of incense, the garments of Aaron and his sons, and afterward the temple with the adytum there containing the ark upon which were the propitiatory and the cherubs, also the brazen sea, the lavers, and other similar things. Yet countless more things appear in the ultimate heaven, and in greater excellence and perfection. It was from this heaven that the things to be instituted with the Israelitish nation were shown by the Lord to Moses on Mount Sinai. (Exod. 25:40; 26:30; 27:8). But these things were not seen by Moses with the eyes of his body, but with the eyes of his spirit.

[6] The nature of representatives can be seen further from the things seen by the prophets; as by Daniel, by John in the Apocalypse, and by the rest; all of which store up within them Divine spiritual and celestial things that anyone can see are not intelligible without interpretation from the internal sense.

[7] From all this it is now further evident what a representative church is. This church was established in the land of Canaan chiefly for the sake of the Word, in order that this might be written by means of representatives and significatives, thus by means of such things as existed with that nation, in their church, and in their land.  For from the most ancient times all the places in the land of Canaan, and all the mountains and rivers there, represented such things as are in the heavens (n. 3686, 4240, 4447, 4454, 5136, 6516); as did afterward the inheritances, the tribes, and all other things there.  Of such things was the literal sense of the Word of the Old Testament, in order that there might be some ultimate in which the interior things might close, and upon which they might stand, like a building on its foundation (n. 9360, 9824, 10044).

[8] From all this an intelligent person is able to know that the Word is most holy, and that its literal sense is holy from its internal sense, but that apart from this it is not holy.  For apart from the internal sense the literal sense is like the external of man separated from his internal, which is a mock appearance devoid of life, and is like the peel of a tree, flower, fruit, or seed, without anything inside; and is also like a foundation without a house. Therefore they who lay stress on the sense of the letter of the Word alone, and neither have, nor procure for themselves from the Word, doctrine that is in agreement with its internal sense, can be drawn into any heresies whatever. It is from this that the Word is called by such the Book of Heresies. The very doctrine from the Word must by all means give light and guidance. This very doctrine is taught by the internal sense, and he who knows this doctrine, has the internal sense of the Word.

[9] As the Jewish nation did not acknowledge anything holy in the Word except in the mere sense of its letter, which they completely separated from the internal sense, they fell into such darkness that they did not recognize the Lord when He came into the world. At the present day that nation is of the same character, and therefore although they live among Christians they nevertheless still do not acknowledge the Lord from the Word. That from the earliest time that nation was in external things without internal, (n. 9320, 9380). Therefore unless the Lord had come into the world and opened the interior things of the Word, the communication with the heavens by means of the Word would have been broken; and then the human race on this earth would have perished, for man can think no truth and do no good except from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord; and the Word is that which opens heaven.

AC 10277. Whosoever toucheth them shall be made holy.  That this signifies that which is communicative to all who receive in love and faith, is evident from the signification of ”touching,“ as being communication (n. 10130); and from the signification of ”being made holy,“ as being the influx and presence of the Lord (n. 10276); and as the influx and presence of the Lord are in love and faith, thus are with those who receive Him in love and faith, these are they who are here said to be ”made holy;“ but it is the Divine with them which alone is holy, and not at all what is their own.

AC 10278. And thou shall anoint Aaron and his sons.  That this signifies inauguration to represent the Lord in both kingdoms, is evident from the signification of ”anointing,“ as being to induce a representation; from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to Divine good celestial, thus in the celestial kingdom; and from the representation of the sons of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to spiritual good, thus in the spiritual kingdom (n. 9807, 10017, 10068).

AC 10279. And shalt sanctify them to minister to me in the priests office.  That this signifies to represent the Lord in respect to all the work of salvation, is evident from the signification of ”sanctifying,“ as being to represent the Lord as to the Divine Human (n. 10276); and from the representation of the priest’s office of Aaron and of his sons, as being the Lord‘s work of salvation in successive order (n. 9809, 10017).

AC 10280. And thou shalt speak unto the sons of Israel, saying. That this signifies instruction for those who are of the church, is evident from the signification of ”the sons of Israel,“ as being the church (n. 9340); and from the signification of ”speaking“ and ”saying,“ when by Jehovah, as being instruction (n. 6879, 6881, 6883, 6891, 7186, 7226, 7241, 7267, 7304, 7380, 7517, 8127).

AC 10281. This shall be to Me an oil of anointing of holiness. That this signifies a representative of the Lord as to the Divine Human, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10267).

AC 10282. To your generations.  That this signifies in all things of the church, is evident from the signification of ”generations,“ when said of the sons of Israel, by whom is signified the church, as being those who are of the church (n. 10212); thus abstractedly from persons, the things which are of the church. It is said ”abstractedly from persons,“ because the Divine things which proceed from the Lord make the church, and nothing whatever of man does so: these Divine things do indeed flow in with man, but still they do not become man’s, but are the Lord‘s with man. This being the case, when the angels are speaking together, they speak abstractedly from persons; and for the same reason neither does the name of any person enter heaven of whom mention is made in the Word, but the thing which is there signified by the person. That all names of persons and of places in the Word signify actual things, (n. 1888, 4442, 5095, 5225); and that names do not enter heaven, (n. 1876, 6516, 10216).

AC 10283. Upon the flesh of man shall it not be poured.  That this signifies that which is not communicative to what is man’s own, is evident from the signification of ”the flesh of man,“ as being that which is his own; and from the signification of ”pouring,“ as being to communicate; for the like is signified by ”pouring“ as by ” touching,“ but ”pouring“ is said of liquids, as of oil, wine, and water, and ”pouring forth“ of things Divine, celestial, and spiritual; while ”touching“ is said of things dry and bodily. That ”to touch“ denotes to communicate, (n. 10130).  Hence it follows that by the oil of anointing not being poured on the flesh of man is signified that the Divine good of the Lord‘s Divine love is not communicative to that which is man’s own, because that which is man‘s own is nothing but evil, and the Lord’s Divine good cannot be communicated to what is evil. That what is man‘s own is nothing but evil, (n. 210, 215, 731, 874-876, 987, 1023, 1024, 1047, 5660, 5786, 8480).

[2] Man has that which is his own in both the will and the understanding; the former is evil, and the latter is the falsity thence derived; that is to say, the former is signified by ”the flesh of man,“ and the latter by the ”blood“ of this flesh.  That this is so is evident from the following passages:--

Jesus said, Blessed art thou Simon, for flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but My Father who is in the heavens (Matt. 16:17);

that ”flesh“ here, and also ”blood,“ denote that which is man’s own, is very evident.

[3] In John:--

As many as received Him, to them gave He power to be the sons of God, who were born, not of bloods, nor of the will of the flesh, but of God (John 1:12, 13);

by ”bloods“ are here signified the falsities which come forth from that which is man‘s own in his understanding; and by ”the will of the flesh“ are signified the evils which come forth from that which is his own in his will. That ”bloods“ denote falsity from evil, thus what is man’s own in the understanding derived from what is his own in the will, (n. 4735, 9127).

[4] In Isaiah:--

I will feed thine oppressors with their own flesh; and they shall be drunken with their own blood as with new wine (Isa.  49:26);

where to ”feed them with their own flesh, and make them drunken with their own blood,“ denotes to fill them with evil and the falsity of evil, thus with that which is their own; for both evil and falsity are from this.

[5] In Jeremiah:--

Cursed is the man that trusteth in man, and maketh flesh his arm (Jer. 17:5);

”to trust in man, and make flesh his arm,“ denotes to trust in himself and in what is his own.

[6] In Isaiah:--

The people is become like food for the fire; if one shall cut down on the right hand he shall be hungry; and if he shall eat on the left hand they shall not be satisfied; they shall eat every man the flesh of his own arm: Manasseh, Ephraim; and Ephraim, Manasseh (Isa. 9:19, 20);

by ”food for the fire“ is signified the appropriation of evils, or the cupidities of the love of self and the world; by ”being hungry and not being satisfied“ is signified not to receive the good and truth of faith; by ”the flesh of the arm“ is signified what is man‘s own of both kinds; by ”Manasseh,“ the evil of the will; by ”Ephraim,“ the falsity of the understanding; and by ”eating,“ to make one’s own. That ”fires“ denote the evils or cupidities of the love of self and the world, (n. 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 7324, 7575, 9141); and that ”to be hungry and not satisfied“ denotes not to receive the good and truth of faith, is because by ”hunger and thirst“ is signified the desolation of good and truth, (n. 5360, 5376, 6110, 7102, 8568); that the ”right hand“ denotes the good from which is truth, and the ”left hand“ the truth through which is good, (n. 10061). Hence ”to be hungry if he cut down on the right hand, and not to be satisfied if he ate on the left hand,“ signifies that however much they are instructed concerning good and truth, they will nevertheless not receive them.

[7] ”Manasseh“ denotes the good of the will (n. 5348, 5351, 5353, 6222, 6234, 6238, 6267); and ”Ephraim“ denotes the truth of the understanding (n. 3969, 5354, 6222, 6234, 6238, 6267); hence in the opposite sense ”Manasseh“ denotes the evil of the will, and ”Ephraim“ the falsity of the understanding, for almost all things in the Word have also an opposite sense. ”To eat“ denotes to appropriate (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745); hence it is plain what is meant by ”eating the flesh of his own arm,“ namely, appropriating to themselves evil and falsity from what is their own. It is said ”the flesh of the arm“ because by the ”arm,“ as by the ”hand,“ is signified that which belongs to man, and in which he trusts (n. 10019).

[8] In Zechariah:--

I said, I will not feed you; he that dieth let him die; let those who remain eat everyone the flesh of another (Zech. 11:9);

”not to feed“ denotes not to instruct and reform; ”to die“ denotes to perish as to spiritual life; ”to eat the flesh of another“ denotes to appropriate to themselves the evils which are from that which is another‘s.

[9] In Ezekiel:--

Jerusalem, thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt thy neighbors, great in flesh (Ezek. 16:26);

”Jerusalem“ denotes the perverted church; ”to commit whoredom with the sons of Egypt great in flesh“ denotes to falsify the truths of the church by means of memory-knowledges which are from the natural man alone, thus by means of sensuous memory-knowledges. That ”Jerusalem“ denotes the church, (n. 402, 2117, 3654), here the perverted church; that ”to commit whoredom“ denotes to falsify truths, (n. 2466, 2729, 8904); that ”sons“ denote truths and also falsities, (n. 1147, 3373, 4257, 9807); that ”Egypt“ denotes memory-knowledge in both senses, (n. 9340); and that it denotes the natural, (n. 9391). Hence those are called ”great in flesh“ who from the things of sense reason and draw conclusions about the truths of the church.  They who do this, seize on falsities instead of truths, for to reason and draw conclusions from the things of sense is to do so from the fallacies of the bodily senses; wherefore it is sensuous men who are meant by ”great in flesh,“ because they think from that which is their own in the body.

[10] In Isaiah:--

Egypt is a man, and not God; and his horses are flesh, and not spirit (Isa. 31:3);

here also ”Egypt“ denotes memory-knowledge; his ”horses“ denote the understanding thence derived; this is called ”flesh not spirit,“ when they draw conclusions from what is their own, and not from the Divine. That ”horses“ denote the understanding, (n. 2761, 2762, 3217, 5321, 6534); and that the ”horses of Egypt“ denote memory-knowledges in conformity with a perverted understanding, (n. 6125, 8146, 8148).

[11] That by ”flesh“ is signified that which is man’s own, or what is the same, the evil of his will, is evident from Moses where the subject treated of is the desire of the Israelitish people to eat flesh, of which it is thus written:--

The rabble that was in the midst of the people lusted a lust, and said, Who shall feed us with flesh? Jehovah said, Tomorrow ye shall eat flesh; ye shall not eat it one day, nor two days, nor five days, nor ten days, nor twenty days, but even for a month of days. And there went forth a wind from Jehovah, and carried off the quails from the sea, and let them fall over the camp, as it were two ells upon the faces of the earth. The people rose up all the day and all the night, and all the next day, and gathered and spread them round about the camp. While the flesh was yet between their teeth, before it was swallowed, the anger of Jehovah burned against the people, and Jehovah smote the people with a very great plague; whence he called the name of that place, The graves of lust (Num. 11:4, 18-20, 31-33);

[12] that ”flesh“ signified what belonged to that nation, can be seen from the details in this passage; for had it not been so, what evil could there have been in desiring flesh, especially as flesh had previously been promised them (Exod. 16:12)? But as it signified that which was their own, thus the evil of the will, in which that nation was more than other nations, therefore it is said when they desired flesh, that they ”lusted a lust;“ and therefore they were smitten with a great plague, and the name of the place where they were buried was called ”The graves of lusts (concupiscentiarum).“  Whether you say evil of the will, or concupiscence, it is the same, for the evil of the will is concupiscence, because man‘s own desires nothing but its own, and not anything of the neighbor, or anything of God, except for the sake of itself. Because that nation was of this character, it is said that ”they should eat flesh, not one day, nor two, nor five, nor ten, nor twenty, but even for a month of days,“ by which is signified that that nation would be such forever; for ”a month of days“ means forever, and therefore it is said that ”the flesh being yet between the teeth, before it was swallowed, they were smitten with a great plague;“ for by ”teeth“ is signified the bodily (or corporeal) own, which is the lowest of man (n. 4424, 5565-5568, 9062). That that nation was of such a character, (n. 9380); and also in the song of Moses in (Deuteronomy 32:20-28, 32-34).

[13] In the Word, ”spirit“ is opposed to ”flesh,“ because by ”spirit“ is signified life from the Lord, and by ”flesh“ life from man, as in John:--

It is the spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth nothing; the words that I speak unto you are spirit and are life (John 6:63);

from this it is evident that” spirit“ denotes life from the Lord, which is the life of love and faith to Him from Him; and that ”flesh“ denotes life from man, thus what is his own; hence it is said, ”the flesh profiteth nothing.“ In like manner elsewhere:--

That which is born of the flesh is flesh; but that which is born of the spirit is spirit (John 3:6).

God remembered that they were flesh, a wind (spirit) that goeth away, and cometh not again (Ps. 78:39).

[14] As by ”flesh,“ when said of man, is signified that which is his own, which is the evil of the love of self and the world, it is plain what is signified by ”flesh“ when said of the Lord, namely, that which is His own, which is the Divine good of the Divine love.  This is signified by the ”flesh“ of the Lord in John:--

The bread that I will give is My flesh. Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you; he that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, hath eternal life; for My flesh is food indeed, and My blood is drink indeed (John 6:51, 53-55);

that by the Lord’s ”flesh“ is signified the Divine good of His Divine love, and by His ”blood“ the Divine truth proceeding from this Divine good, thus the like as by the bread and the wine in the Holy Supper, and that these are His own in His Divine Human, (n. 1001, 3813, 4735, 4976, 6978, 7317, 7326, 7850, 9127, 9393, 10026, 10033, 10152); and that the sacrifices represented the goods which are from the Lord, and that on this account their ”flesh“ signified goods, (n. 10040, 10079). Moreover in the Word throughout mention is made of ”all flesh,“ and by it is meant every man (Gen. 6:12, 13, 17, 19; Isa. 40:5, 6; 49:26; 66:16, 23, 24; Jer. 25:31; 32:27; 45:5; Ezek. 20:48; 21:4, 5).

AC 10284. And in the quality thereof ye shall not make any like it.  That this signifies no imitation from the study of man, is evident from the signification of ”making any like it in quality,“ that is, making the like oil by means of the like spices, as being to prepare in imitation by the study of man.  That these things are signified by these words, follows from the connection of the things in the internal sense; for it is said first, that it should ”not be poured upon the flesh of man,“ by which is signified that which is not communicative to what is man‘s own: and next that it shall be ”holy unto you;“ whereas that which is made from man, and by his study, is made from what is his own, and is not holy, because study from what is man’s own is nothing but falsity from evil, for it regards itself and the world as the end, and not the neighbor and God; and therefore it is called ”imitation.“

[2] The case herein is this. Everything that is from the Lord is good and true. But the good and truth in imitation of this by man is not good and true, for the reason that everything good and true has life in it from its end. An end from man is merely for the sake of himself; whereas that which is good and true from the Lord is for the sake of good itself and truth itself as ends, thus for the sake of the Lord, because everything good and true is from Him. With man the end is himself, for it is his will, and it is his love; because that which a man loves, and that which he wills, this he has as his end.  All the love with man from man is the love of self and the love of the world for the sake of self; but the love with man from the Lord is love toward the neighbor and love to God. The difference between these loves is as great as that between hell and heaven; and indeed the love of self, and the love of the world for the sake of self, reign in hell and are hell; whereas love toward the neighbor and love to the Lord reign in heaven and are heaven. Moreover a man is such, and such remains to eternity, as is his love; for love is everything of man‘s will, and from this of his understanding, because the love which makes the will continually flows into the understanding, and kindles it, and enlightens it.  From this it is that when those who love what is evil are thinking by themselves, they think what is false in conformity with the evil of their love; although before men they speak differently, from hypocrisy, and some from persuasive faith, the quality of which may be seen above (n. 9364, 9369).

[3] Be it known that before men a man is able by study to imitate Divine things themselves, and to present himself as an angel of light; whereas before the Lord and before the angels the external form does not appear, but the internal; and when this is from what is man’s own, it is filthy. Within such persons there is merely what is natural, and nothing spiritual; they see only from natural light, and not at all from the light of heaven. Nay, they do not know what the light of heaven is, and what the spiritual is, for all their interiors are turned outward, almost like the interiors of animals, nor do they suffer themselves to be raised upward by the Lord; when yet man possesses this special privilege above the beasts, that he is capable of being raised by the Lord to heaven and to the Lord, and thus of being led.  All those are so raised who love good and truth for the sake of good and truth, which is the same as loving the neighbor and God; for in a general sense the neighbor is what is good and true, and in a lower sense what is just and right; and moreover God is what is good and true, and what is just and right, because these are from God.

[4] From all this it can be seen what it is to imitate Divine things by the study of man; the quality of those who do this is described in the Word throughout by ”Egypt“ and ”Pharaoh,“ for by ”Egypt“ and ”Pharaoh“ are signified the memory-knowledges that belong to the natural man; and it is also described by ”Asshur,“ by whom is signified reasoning from memory-knowledges. Concerning ”Egypt“ (n. 9340, 9391); and concerning ”Asshur,“ (n. 1186).

[5] Among spirits there are great numbers who imitate Divine things by study and art; for they counterfeit what is sincere, upright, and pious, insomuch that good spirits would be led astray unless the Lord enlightened them, and made them see the interiors of those who would lead them astray, at the sight of which the good are seized with horror, and flee away.  But such spirits are stripped of their externals, and are let into their interiors which are diabolical, and thus of themselves they sink down into hell.  More may be seen concerning these spirits in (n. 10286).

AC 10285. Holy shall it be to you.  That this signifies because it is the Divine of the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”holy,“ when said of the oil of anointing, as being the Divine of the Lord; for the oil of anointing was representative of the Divine good of the Divine love in the Lord‘s Divine Human, thus was representative of His Divine Human itself; for whether you say the Divine good of the Divine love, or the Divine Human, it is the same.  As this was signified by the ”oil of anointing,“ and was represented by anointing, and as this alone is holy, and from this that which proceeds from Him is holy, because it is of Him, therefore it is so often said, that this is ”holy“ (n. 10266).

AC 10286. The man who shall make ointment like it.  That this signifies the imitation of Divine things by art, is evident from the signification of ”making like it,“ as being imitation; and from the signification of the ”ointment,“ as being Divine truths which are of the Lord alone, and from the Lord alone (n. 10264). That imitation by art is signified, is be, cause all imitation of Divine things by man is done by art. How the case herein is can be seen from what was said and shown above (n. 10284). But all this can be further illustrated by what exists among spirits. Those of them who attribute all things to fortune and their own sagacity, and nothing to the Divine (as they had done in the world), know how to imitate Divine things by various methods; for they present to view palaces almost like those in the heavens, also groves and fields almost like those which are presented to view by the Lord among good spirits; they adorn themselves with shining garments, and the sirens even assume a beauty almost angelic; but all these things are produced by art by means of phantasies. And however much these things may appear similar in the outward form, nevertheless in the internal form they are loathsome, which also is instantly made manifest to good spirits by the Lord; because if this were not done they would be led astray. The external is taken away, and then the diabolism within stands forth; what is external is taken away by means of light let in upon it from heaven, whereby is dispelled the delusive light of phantasies by means of which they produce such effects.  From this can be seen the nature of the imitation of Divine things by art.  But the things which are from the Lord are inwardly heavenly, and the more interior they are, so much the more heavenly they are; for Divine things increase in perfection toward the interiors, until finally they are of unspeakable perfection and beauty.

[2] The like is the case with the imitation of what is good and true among those who live evilly: those of them who know how to counterfeit good affections, and somewhat of charity toward the neighbor, and of love to God, and at the same time from these affections speak and preach the truths of faith as if from the heart, are in a similar light of foolishness and phantasy; and therefore when the external which had counterfeited what is internal is taken away, there appears the infernalism that lay hidden within, which is nothing but evil and the falsity of evil; and then it is in like manner presented to view that this evil is their love, and the falsity of this evil their faith. From all this it is again evident what is the imitation of things Divine by the study of man (n. 10284).

AC 10287. And who shall put of it upon a stranger.  That this signifies conjunction with those who do not acknowledge the Lord, thus who are in evils and the falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of ”putting upon“ anyone, when said of Divine truths, which are signified by the ”aromatic ointment,“ as being to conjoin; and from the signification of ”a stranger,“ as being one who is not of the church, thus who does not acknowledge the Lord, and consequently is in evils and falsities; for he who does not acknowledge the Lord is not of the church; and he who denies the Lord is in evils and falsities, because what is good and true comes from no other source. That such persons are signified by ”strangers“ will be seen from the passages in the Word which will follow. But something shall first be said about the conjunction of Divine truth with those who do not acknowledge the Lord. This conjunction is profanation, for profanation is the conjunction of Divine truth with falsities from evil; and this conjunction which is profanation is not possible with any but those who have first acknowledged the things of the church, and especially the Lord, and have afterward denied the same. For by the acknowledgment of the truths of the church, and of the Lord, communication is effected with the heavens, and from this the opening of the interiors of man toward heaven; and by denial afterward is effected the conjunction of the same with falsities from evil; for all things which a man acknowledges remain implanted, because nothing perishes with man which has entered by means of acknowledgment.

[2] The state of the man who commits profanation is that he has communication with the heavens and at the same time with the hells; by truths with the heavens, and by falsities of evil with the hells; from this in the other life there comes a tearing asunder, whereby everything of interior life perishes.  After this tearing asunder such persons barely appear as men, but as burnt bones in which there is but little life. See what has already been said and shown about profanation, namely: That those profane who have first acknowledged truths Divine, and afterward deny them, (n. 1001, 1010, 1059, 2051, 3398, 4289, 4601, 6348, 6960, 6963, 6971, 8394): That those who have denied them from infancy, such as the Jews and others, do not profane, (n. 593, 1001, 1059, 3398, 3489, 6963): And that the greatest care is taken by the Lord to prevent profanation with man, (n. 301-303, 1327, 1328, 2426, 3398, 3402, 3489, 6595).

[3] But be it known that there are very many genera of profanation, and of these many species; for there are those who profane the goods of the church, and there are those who profane its truths; there are those who profane much, and those who profane little; there are those who profane interiorly, and those who profane more and more exteriorly; there are those who profane through belief contrary to the truths and goods of the church; there are those who profane through the life; and there are those who profane through the worship.  Hence result many hells of profaners, which are distinct from one another according to the diversities of the profanation. The hells of the profanations of good are at the back; but the hells of the profanations of truth are under the feet and at the sides. Such hells are deeper than the hells of all other evils, and are seldom opened.

[4] That ”strangers“ denote those who do not acknowledge the Lord, and are unwilling to acknowledge Him, whether they be out of the church or within it, thus who are in evils and in the falsities of evil, and in a sense abstracted from persons, that they are evils and the falsities of evil, is evident from many passages in the Word. It is said ”those who do not acknowledge the Lord, thus who are in evils and the falsities of evil,“ because those who do not acknowledge the Lord must needs be in evils and the falsities of evil; for all good and the truth of good are from the Lord, and therefore those who deny the Lord are in evils and the falsities of evil; according to the words of the Lord in John:--

Unless ye believe that I am, ye shall die in your sins (John 8:24).

[5] That these are ”strangers,“ is evident from the following passages.  In Isaiah:--

Your land is a solitude, your cities are burned with fire; your ground, strangers shall devour it in your presence; and it shall be a solitude, as the overthrow of strangers (Isa. 1:7);

by ”land“ in this passage is not meant land, nor by ”cities“ and ”ground,“ cities and ground; but by ”land“ is meant the church; in like manner by ”ground;“ and by ”cities,“ the truths of the church which are called doctrinal things, and which are said to be ”burned with fire“ when they have been consumed by the evils of the loves of self and of the world. From this it is evident what is signified by ”strangers devouring the ground,“ namely, that evils and the falsities of evil devour the church; and by ”the land being desolate“. That ”land“ or ”earth“ denotes the church, (n. 9325); in like manner ”ground,“ (n. 566, 1068); that ”cities“ denote the doctrinal things of the church, thus its truths, (n. 2268, 2451, 2712, 2943, 3216, 4492, 4493); and ”fire“ the evils of the loves of self and of the world, (n. 1297, 1861, 2446, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 7575, 9141).

[6] In Jeremiah:--

Disgrace hath covered our faces, seeing that strangers are come against the sanctuaries of the house of Jehovah (Jer. 51:51);

”strangers against the sanctuaries of the house of Jehovah“ denote evils and the falsities of evil against the truths and goods of the church; those of the nations were called ”strangers“ who were servants in the Jewish Church; and by the ”nations“ of that land are also signified evils and falsities (n. 9320).  In the same:--

Thou sayest, There is no hope, no; but I will love strangers, and after them will I go (Jer. 2:25);

”to love strangers, and to go after them,“ denotes to love evils and  the falsities of evil, and to worship them.

[7] In Ezekiel:--

I will bring the sword upon you, and I will give you into the hand of strangers (Ezek. 11:8, 9);

where ”to bring a sword“ denotes falsities from evil fighting against truths from good; ”to give into the hand of strangers“ denotes that they should believe and serve these falsities. That a ”sword“ denotes truth fighting against falsities, and in the opposite sense falsities fighting against truths, (n. 2799, 6353, 7102, 8294).

[8] Again:--

Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised in the hand of strangers (Ezek. 28:10);

”the uncircumcised“ denote those who in respect to the life are in filthy loves and their cupidities, however much they may be in doctrinal things (n. 2049, 3412, 3413, 4462, 7045, 7225), whose death is spiritual death; ”in the hand of strangers“ denotes in evils themselves and the falsities of evils.

[9] Again:--

Jerusalem is an adulterous wife under her man, she receiveth strangers (Ezek. 16:32);

”Jerusalem an adulterous wife“ denotes the church in which good is adulterated; ”to receive strangers“ denotes to acknowledge evils and the falsities of evil in life and doctrine. And in Joel:--

Jerusalem shall be holiness, and there shall no strangers pass through her any more (Joel 3:17);

”Jerusalem“ denotes the church, but that in which the Lord is acknowledged, men live in good, and believe in the truths which are from the Lord; that ”strangers shall not pass through her any more“ denotes that the evils and falsities of evil which are from hell shall not enter.

[10] In David:--

Strangers are risen up against me, and violent men have sought after my soul (Ps. 54:3);

here also ”strangers“ denote evils and the falsities of evil; ”violent men“ denote the same doing violence to goods and truths.  Those who look solely at the sense of the letter of the Word, understand nothing else by ”strangers“ than those who are outside the church, and that they will rise up against David; whereas nothing of person enters into the heavens, but only the things which are signified (n. 8343, 8985, 9007); thus not strangers, but instead of them strange things, which are those which are estranged from the church, thus evils and the falsities of evil which destroy the church; by ”David“ also, against whom they would rise up, is perceived the Lord (n. 1888, 9954).

[11] In Moses:--

He forsook God who made him, and lightly esteemed the Rock of his salvation; they provoked Him to jealousy by strangers (Deut. 32:15, 16);

”to forsake God, and lightly esteem the Rock of salvation,“ denotes to deny the Lord; ”to provoke by strange things“ denotes by evils and the falsities of evil. That a ”Rock“ denotes the Lord as to the truths of faith, (n. 8581). Moreover in other places also ”strangers“ denote evils and falsities (Isa.  25:2, 5; Jer. 30:8; Ezek. 31:11, 12).

[12] As ”strangers“ signified those who are in evils and the falsities of evil, and from this in the abstract sense, evils and the falsities of evil, therefore it was forbidden that a stranger should eat the holy things (Lev. 22:10); that a stranger should approach the office of the priesthood, or the service of the sanctuary; and that if he did so he should be slain (Num. 1:51; 3:10, 38; 18:7).

[13] It was also forbidden to burn incense from strange fire, for doing which Nadab and Abihu, sons of Aaron, were consumed by fire from heaven (Lev. 10:1, 2); for by the holy fire which was from the altar was signified love Divine; but by ”strange fire,“ infernal love, and hence also evils and their cupidities (n. 1297, 1861, 2446, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 7575, 9141).

[14] Mention is also made of ”foreigners,“ which is expressed in the original tongue by another word than ”strangers,“ and by ” foreigners“ are signified falsities themselves, as in these passages:--

O Jehovah look on our reproach; our inheritance is turned unto strangers, and our houses unto foreigners (Lam. 5:1, 2).

Strangers have led captive his strength, and foreigners have entered his gates, and shall cast a lot upon Jerusalem (Obad. 1:11);

”to cast a lot upon Jerusalem“ denotes to destroy the church, and to dissipate its truths.

[15] In Zephaniah:--

I will visit upon the princes, and upon the king’s sons, and upon all such as are clothed in the clothing of a foreigner (Zeph. 1:8);

”those clothed in the clothing of a foreigner“ denote those who are in falsities; for ”princes and the king‘s sons,“ upon whom was visitation, denote the chief truths, and in the opposite sense the chief falsities. That princes have this signification, (n. 1482, 2089, 5044); and that ”kings“ denote truths themselves, and in the opposite sense falsities themselves, (n. 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148); consequently ”the king’s sons“ denote that which is derived therefrom.

[16] In David:--

Deliver me and rescue me out of the hand of the sons of the foreigner, whose mouth speaketh emptiness, and their right hand is a right hand of a lie (Ps. 144:7, 8, 11);

that ”the sons of the foreigner“ denote those who are in falsities, thus falsities, is very evident, for it is said, ”whose mouth speaketh emptiness, and their right hand is the right hand of a lie;“ for ”emptiness“ denotes falsity of doctrine, and ”a lie,“ falsity of life (n. 9248).

AC 10288. He shall be cut off from his peoples.  That this signifies separation and spiritual death, is evident from the signification of being ”cut off“ and of being ”slain,“ as being to be separated from those who are in good and the truths thence derived, and to perish as to spiritual life (n. 6767, 8902); and from the signification of ”peoples,“ as being those of the church who are in the truths and goods of faith (n. 3581, 4619, 6451, 6465, 7207); and thus to be ”cut off from the peoples“ denotes to be separated from them and perish. In the Word those who are of the church are sometimes called a ”people,“ sometimes a ”nation,“ as ”the Israelitish people,“ and ”the Jewish nation.“  By a ”people“ is there signified those who are of the spiritual church, and by a ”nation,“ those who are of the celestial church.  It is from this that ”peoples“ signify the truths and goods of faith; but ”nations,“ the goods of love.

AC 10289. Verses 34-38. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Take to thee fragrant spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum, things fragrant, and pure frankincense, so much in so much shall it be.  And thou shalt make it incense, an ointment the work of a perfumer, salted, pure, holy. And thou shalt bruise of it small, and shalt put it before the Testimony in the Tent of meeting, whither I will come to meet thee; a holy of holies shall it be to you. And the incense which thou makest in its quality, ye shall not make for yourselves: holy to Jehovah shall it be to thee. The man who shall make like unto it, to make an odor with it, shall be cut off from his peoples.  ”And Jehovah said unto Moses,“ signifies again enlightenment and perception by the Lord through the Word; ”take to thee fragrant spices,“ signifies the affections of truth from good which must be in Divine worship; ”stacte,“ signifies the affection of sensuous truth; ”and onycha,“ signifies the affection of interior natural truth; ”and galbanum,“ signifies the affection of truths still more interior; ”things fragrant,“ signifies affections from spiritual good; ”and pure frankincense,“ signifies inmost truth, which is spiritual good; ”so much in so much shall it be,“ signifies correspondence in every way; ”and thou shalt make it incense,“ signifies worship from these things; ”an ointment the work of a perfumer,“ signifies from the influx and operation of the Divine of the Lord into each and all things; ”salted,“ signifies the longing of truth for good; ”pure,“ signifies free from evil; ”holy,“ signifies free from the falsity of evil; ”and thou shalt bruise of it small,“ signifies the disposing of truths into their series; ”and shalt put it before the Testimony in the Tent of meeting,“ signifies the worship of the Lord in heaven and in the church; ”whither I will come to meet thee,“ signifies from the influx of the Lord; ”a holy of holies shall it be to you,“ signifies because it is from the Lord; ”and the incense which thou makest in its quality, ye shall not make for yourselves,“ signifies that worship from the holy truths of the church must not be applied in favor of the loves of man; ”holy to Jehovah shall it be to thee,“ signifies that worship must be applied in favor of love Divine; ”the man who shall make like unto it, to make an odor with it,“ signifies the imitation of Divine worship by means of the affections of truth and good from what is man‘s own; ”shall be cut off from his peoples,“ signifies separation from heaven and the church, and spiritual death.

AC 10290. And Jehovah said unto Moses.  That this signifies again enlightenment and perception by the Lord through the Word, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ when by Jehovah, as being enlightenment and perception. That it denotes enlightenment, (n. 7019, 10215, 10234); and that it denotes perception, (n. 1791, 1815, 1819, 1822, 1898, 1919, 2080, 2862, 3509, 5877); and from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 6752, 7014, 7089). That ”Jehovah“ in the Word denotes the Lord, (n. 9373). Hence it is plain that by ”Jehovah said unto Moses“ is signified enlightenment and perception by the Lord through the Word.

[2] That this is signified is because the Lord speaks with the man of the church in no other way than through the Word, for He then enlightens man so that he may see truth, and also gives him perception to perceive that it is so; but this is effected according to the quality of the desire for truth with the man, and the desire for truth with a man is according to his love of it. They who love truth for the sake of truth are in enlightenment, and they who love truth for the sake of good are in perception. What perception is, (n. 483, 495, 521, 536, 597, 607, 784, 1121, 1387, 1919, 2144, 2145, 2171, 2515, 2831, 5228, 5920, 7680, 7977, 8780).

[3] But the Lord spoke with Moses and the prophets by a living voice, in order that the Word might be promulgated, and be such that each and all things might have an internal sense.  Consequently also in these words, ”Jehovah said unto Moses,“ the angels, who are in the internal sense, do not know what ”Moses“ is, because the names of persons do not enter heaven (n. 10282), but instead of ”Moses“ they perceive the Word; and the expression ”said“ is turned with them into what is in agreement with the sense, thus here into being enlightened and perceiving. Moreover in the angelic idea, ”saying“ and ”speaking,“ when said of the Lord speaking through the Word, are nothing else.

AC 10291. Take to thee fragrant spices.  That this signifies the affections of truth from good which must be in Divine worship, is evident from the signification of ”spices,“ as being the perceptions and affections of truth and of good (n. 10254). That it signifies which must be in Divine worship, is because by the incense which was prepared from them is signified Divine worship. The spices which are now mentioned are of a totally different kind from those of which the oil of anointing was prepared (verses 23, 24). These also are called ”spices,“ but are expressed in the original tongue by another word. The spices from which the oil of anointing was prepared, in like manner signify perceptions and affections of truth and good as do these spices, but with the difference that the former truths belong to the celestial class, and the latter to the spiritual class. That the former truths belong to the celestial class, (n. 10254); and that the latter belong to the spiritual class, will be seen in what follows.

[2] What is meant by belonging to the celestial class, and to the spiritual class, shall be briefly told.  It has been frequently stated that heaven is distinguished into the celestial kingdom and the spiritual kingdom.  In the two kingdoms the truths differ as do the goods; the good of the celestial kingdom is the good of love to the Lord, and the good of the spiritual kingdom is the good of charity toward the neighbor.  Every good has its own truths; celestial good its own, and spiritual good its own; which are quite different from each other. What this difference is can be seen from what has been shown concerning the two kingdoms at the places cited in (n. 9277).

[3] That every good has its truths, is because good is formed by means of truths (n. 10252, 10266), and also manifests itself by means of truths.  It is with these as it is with the will and the understanding in man; his will is formed by means of the understanding, and it also manifests itself by means of it: that which is of the will is called good, and that which is of the understanding is called truth.

AC 10292. Stacte.  That this signifies the affection of sensuous truth, is evident from the signification of ”stacte,“ as being sensuous truth; that it denotes the affection of this truth, is from its fragrance, for ”odor“ signifies perceptivity; a fragrant odor, the perceptivity of what is grateful; and an offensive odor, the perceptivity of what is ungrateful; and all gratefulness and ungratefulness of perception are from the affection which is of love, and according to it (n. 925, 1514, 1517-1519, 3577, 4624-4634, 4748, 5621, 10054).  In general be it known that all things in the vegetable kingdom, whatever they may be, whether the produce of the forest, or that of gardens, fields, and plains, such as trees, crops, flowers, grasses, and vegetables, both in general and in particular, signify spiritual and celestial things, for the reason that universal nature is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom (n. 9280).

[2] That ”stacte“ denotes the affection of sensuous truth is because it is mentioned first; for there are four spices of which the incense was prepared, as there were also four of which the oil of anointing was prepared; and that which is mentioned in the first place is the most external, as is also that which is mentioned in the first place for the preparation of the oil of anointing, which was best myrrh. That this denotes the perception of sensuous truth, (n. 10252).

[3] That four spices were taken for the preparation of both the oil and the incense, was for the reason that they signified truths in their order from external to inmost; and they are in the same succession with man; for man has an external which is called the external man, and an internal which is called the internal man, in each of which there is an exterior and an interior; the most external is called the sensuous, and this is therefore signified by ”stacte“. What the sensuous is, and its quality, (n. 9996, 10236).

[4] That ”stacte“ denotes the affection of sensuous truth, cannot be confirmed from other passages in the Word, because it is nowhere else mentioned; but stacte of another kind, expressed in the original tongue by another word, is mentioned among those spices which were brought down into Egypt (Gen. 37:25; 43:11), and which involve such things as are in the external or natural man, because by ”Egypt“ is signified the memory-knowledge that is of the natural man (n. 9391).

AC 10293. And onycha.  That this signifies the affection of interior natural truth, is evident from the signification of ” fragrant onycha,“ as being the affection of natural truth. By ”onycha“ is signified this truth, and by ”fragrant,“ the perceptivity of what is grateful, which is from the affection of truth, thus there is signified the affection itself. It is said ”fragrant onycha“ because this expression is used both before and after the enumeration of these spices, in these words, ”take to thee fragrant spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum, things fragrant.“ That it is the affection of truth in the natural which is signified by ”onycha,“ is because it is mentioned in the second place; for the spices are mentioned in order, according to the truths with man, from most external to inmost; hence by ”stacte“ is signified the affection of sensuous truth, which is truth most external; by ”onycha,“ the affection of natural truth, which is interior truth in the natural man; by ”galbanum,“ an affection of truth still more interior, which is interior truth in the spiritual or internal man; and by ”frankincense,“ inmost truth in the internal man, which is spiritual good--in like manner as was signified by the spices from which the oil of anointing was prepared, which were best myrrh, aromatic cinnamon, aromatic calamus, and cassia. That these spices signified truths in such an order, (n. 10252, 10254, 10256, 10258).  But the difference is that those truths which are signified by the spices of the oil of anointing, belong to the celestial class; while these truths which are signified by the spices of the incense, belong to the spiritual class, of which distinction see (n. 10254, 10291).

AC 10294. And galbanum.  That this signifies the affection of a truth still more interior, is evident from what was said just above (n. 10293). That ”onycha“ and ”galbanum“ denote truths successively more interior, can be confirmed in no other way than from their order, because they do not occur in the Word elsewhere.

AC 10295. Things fragrant.  That this signifies affections from spiritual good, is evident from the signification of ”fragrant spices,“ as being the affections of truth from good (n. 10291); that they are from spiritual good, (n. 10254, 10290, 10293).  The reason why the incense was prepared from spices, which signify truths from spiritual good; or what is the same, why the truths which are signified by these spices belong to the spiritual class, is that by ”incense“ is signified Divine worship which is performed by means of truths from this good, for it is confessions, adorations, prayers, and other similar things, which are specifically signified by ”incense“ (n. 9475); and such things come forth from the heart by means of the thoughts and the speech.  That this worship is performed by means of spiritual truths, can be seen from the ideas in which a man is when in this worship, for the ideas in which a man then is are from his memory, and consequently from the understanding; and the things which proceed from this source are called spiritual.  But as regards Divine worship from celestial good, such as is with those who are in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom, this is not performed by means of confessions, adorations, and prayers of the same quality as exist with those who are in the spiritual kingdom; thus not by means of truths from the memory, but by means of truths from the heart, which make one with the love itself in which they are; for the truths with these are inscribed on their love.  When therefore they do from love what is commanded, they do it at the same time from truths, without any thought about these from doctrine, thus without calling them forth from the memory. That such is the state of those who are in the Lord’s celestial kingdom can be seen from what was shown concerning this kingdom and the spiritual kingdom in the passages cited in (n. 9277). That ”incense“ signifies confessions, adorations, and prayers which proceed through the mouth from the thought, (n. 9475, 10177, 10198).

AC 10296. And pure frankincense.  That this signifies inmost truth, which is spiritual good, is evident from the signification of ”frankincense,“ as being that which has been clarified from the falsity of evil. That the inmost truth which is signified by ”frankincense“ is spiritual good, is because the good with those who are in the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom is nothing else than truth, which is called good when the man wills and does it from conscience and affection. For with the spiritual all the will has been destroyed, but the understanding is preserved entire by the Lord, and in it there is implanted by the Lord a new will by means of regeneration. This will is the conscience with them, which is a conscience of truth. For whatever is implanted in the understanding and proceeds from the understanding, is truth, because man’s understanding has been allotted to the reception of the truths of faith; but the will to the reception of the goods of love.  From this it is evident that in its essence spiritual good is truth. That with the spiritual a new will is implanted in their intellectual part, and that consequently the good with them is in its essence truth, (n. 9277, 9596, 9684). It is said of inmost truth that it is good, for the reason that the more interior things are, the more perfect they are; and because the inmost of man is his will, and that which belongs to the will is called good. That”frankincense“ denotes inmost truth, thus spiritual good, can be seen from the passages above adduced from the Word, (n. 10177).

[2] As ”frankincense“ denotes spiritual good, and good is that which reigns in all truths, disposes them, conjoins them, and gives affection to them, therefore frankincense is mentioned in the let place, and on this account the vessels of incense were called ”censers  ;“ for the name is from the essential, which is good; in like manner as the oil of anointing is named from the oil of olive, and not from the spices from which it was prepared; for a similar reason, namely, because ”oil“ signified good, and ”spices“ truths.

[3] It is called ”pure frankincense“ because ”pure“ signifies that which has been clarified from the falsities of evil; and in the original tongue by this word is signified what is interiorly pure, but by another word that which is exteriorly pure or clean.  That what is interiorly pure is signified by this word is evident in these passages:--

Wash you, make you pure, put away the wickedness of your works from before Mine eyes (Isa. 1:16).

In vain have I rendered mine heart pure, and washed my hands in innocency (Ps. 73:13);

to ”render the heart pure“ denotes to be purified interiorly; and to” wash the hands in innocency“ denotes the same exteriorly. And again:--

Be thou pure when thou judgest (Ps. 51:4).

That by the other word is signified what is exteriorly pure or clean, may be seen in (Lev. 11:32; 12:7, 8; 13:6, 13, 17, 23, 28, 34, 37, 58; 14:7, 8, 9, 20, 48, 53; 15:13, 28; 16:30; 22:7; Jer. 13:27; Ezek. 24:13; 39:12).

AC 10297. So much in so much shall it be, signifies correspondence in every way.  By ”so much in so much“ is meant equally as much of one and of the other, or as much of the frankincense as of the spices, and by quantity both of measure and weight is signified correspondence, here correspondence in every way.

AC 10298. And thou shalt make it incense.  That this signifies worship from these things, is evident from the signification of ”incense,“ as being confessions, adorations, prayers, and such things of worship as come forth from the heart into the thought and speech (n. 9475); for by the ”smoke“ of incense is signified elevation (n. 10177, 10198); and by ”fragrant odor,“ grateful perception and reception (n. 10292).

[2] As Divine worship, signified by the ”incense of spices,“ is here described, and by the spices of which this incense was prepared are signified truths in their order, it shall here be told in a few words how the case is with this worship. But this is a secret which cannot be revealed unless the nature of man is known.  Man is not from his face, nor even from his speech, but from understanding and will; such as are his understanding and his will, such is the man. It is known that when he is born he has nothing of understanding and nothing of will; and also that his understanding and his will are formed by degrees from infancy; from this a man becomes a man, and such a man as are the understanding and the will that have been formed in him. The understanding is formed by means of truths, and the will by means of goods, insomuch that his understanding is nothing else than a composition of such things as bear relation to truths, and his will is nothing else than the affection of such things as are called goods. From this it follows that a man is nothing but the truth and good from which his two faculties have been formed.

[3] Each and all things of his body correspond to these, as can be seen from the fact that the body instantly does that which the understanding thinks and the will wills; for the mouth speaks in accordance with the thoughts, the face changes in accordance with the affections, and the body makes movements in accordance with the commands of both. From this it is evident that a man is wholly such as are his understanding and his will, thus such as he is in respect to truths and in respect to goods; for as before said, truths constitute his understanding, and goods his will; or what is the same, a man is his own truth and his own good.

[4] That this is so appears openly with spirits: these are nothing else than their own truths and their own goods which they had put on when they lived in the world as men; and yet they are human forms. Consequently from their face shines forth the quality of the truths and goods which they have; and this is also perceived from the sound and disposition of their speech, and from their gestures, especially from their spoken words; for their spoken words are not such as are with men in the world, but are in perfect harmony with their truths and goods, so as to proceed from these quite naturally.  In this speech are spirits and angels when they are conversing together; and in respect to his spirit, man is in a like speech during his life in this world, although he is then unaware of it; for he thinks from similar ideas, as has also been observed by some learned men who have called these ideas immaterial and intellectual.  After death, when the man becomes a spirit, these ideas become words. From all this it is again evident that a man is not anything else than his own truth and his own good. Hence it is that after death a man remains such truth and good as he has become.

[5] It is said ”such truth and good as he has become,“ and thereby is also meant such falsity and evil as he has become; for evil men call falsity truth and evil good. This is a secret which must by all means be known, in order that it may be known how the case is with Divine worship; but besides this there is one secret more, namely, that in every idea of thought proceeding from a man‘s will there is the whole man.  This moreover follows from the former, for a man thinks from his truth and wills from his good, which are himself. That this is so can be seen from the following experience. When the angels perceive a single idea of a man, or a single idea of a spirit, they at once know the quality of the man or of the spirit.

[6] These things have been said in order that it may be known how the case is with Divine worship, which is signified by the ”incense of spices,“ namely, that the whole man is in each and all things of his worship, because his truth and good are there, which are himself.  This is the reason why four spices are mentioned, by which are signified all truths in the complex. From all this it also follows that it is the same whether you say that Divine worship consists of these truths and goods, or that man consists of them, because as before said the whole man is in everyone of the ideas of his thought, which are of his worship.

AC 10299. An ointment the work of a perfumer.  That this signifies from the influx and operation of the Divine of the Lord into each and all things, is evident from the signification of ”ointment,“ or ”aromatic,“ as being truths in each and all things of worship (n. 10264); and from the signification of ”the work of an ointment maker“ or ”perfumer,“ as being the influx and operation of the Divine Itself (n. 10265).

[2] How it is to be understood that there must be influx and operation into each and all things of worship shall also be briefly told.  It is believed by those who are not acquainted with the arcana of heaven that worship is from man, because it proceeds from the thought and affection which are in him; but the worship which is from man is not worship, consequently the confessions, adorations, and prayers which are from man, are not confessions, adorations, and prayers which are heard and received by the Lord; but they must be from the Lord Himself with man.  That this is so is known to the church, for it teaches that nothing that is good proceeds from man, but that all good is from heaven, that is, from the Divine there. From this also is all the good in worship; and worship without good is not worship; consequently in holy worship the church prays that God may be present and lead the thoughts of the discourse. The case herein is this. When a man is in genuine worship, then the Lord flows into the goods and truths which are with him, and raises them to Himself, and with them the man, in so far and in such a manner as he is in them. This elevation does not appear to the man unless he is in the genuine affection of truth and good, and in the knowledge, acknowledgment, and faith that everything good comes from above, from the Lord.

[3] That it is so may be comprehended even by those who are wise from the world, for they know from their learning that natural influx, which is called by them physical influx, is not possible, but only spiritual influx; that is, that nothing can flow in from the natural world into heaven, but only from heaven into the world.  From all this it can be seen how it is to be understood that the influx and operation of the Divine of the Lord are into each and all things of worship. That it is so has frequently been given me to experience; for it has been given me to perceive the very influx, the calling forth of the truths which were with me, their application to the objects of prayer, the affection of good that was adjoined, and the elevation itself.

[4] Nevertheless a man must not let down his hands and await influx, for this would be to act like an effigy devoid of life; in spite of all be must think, will, and act as of himself, and yet must ascribe to the Lord everything of thought of truth and of endeavor of good; by so doing there is implanted in him by the Lord the capability of receiving Him and the influx from Him.

[5] For man was created no otherwise than to be a receptacle of the Divine; and the capability of receiving the Divine is formed in no other way.  When this capability has been formed, he afterward has no other will than that it should be so; for he loves the influx from the Lord, and is averse to any working from himself; because the influx from the Lord is the influx of good, whereas any working from himself is the working of evil In such a state are all the angels in heaven; therefore by ”angels“ in the Word are signified truths and goods which are from the Lord, because the angels are receptions of these (n. 1925, 3039, 4085, 4295, 8192).

AC 10300. Salted.  That this signifies the longing of truth for good, is evident from the signification of ”salt,“ as being that longing for good which is of the love of truth; hence ”salted“ denotes that in which is this longing.  The reason why there must be a longing of truth for good is that this longing is conjunctive of the two; for in so far as truth longs for good, so far it is conjoined with it.  The conjunction of truth and good is what is called the heavenly marriage, which is heaven itself with man; and therefore when in Divine worship, and in each and all things of it, there is a longing for this conjunction, heaven is in each and all things there.  Thus the Lord is in them.  This is signified by the requirement that the incense should be salted.  Salt has this signification from its conjunctive nature; for it conjoins all things, and from this gives them relish; salt   even conjoins water and oil, which otherwise will not combine.

[2] When it is known that by ”salt“ is signified a longing for the conjunction of truth and good, it can be known what is signified by the Lord’s words in Mark:--

Everyone shall be salted with fire, and every sacrifice shall be salted with salt; salt is good, but if the salt have lost its saltness, wherewith will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves (Mark 9:49, 50);

”everyone shall be salted with fire“ denotes that everyone will long from genuine love; ”every sacrifice shall be salted with salt“ denotes that there shall be in all worship a longing from genuine love; ”salt without saltness“ signifies a longing from some other love than genuine love; ”to have salt in themselves“ denotes the longing of truth for good. That ”fire“ denotes love, (n. 4906, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 10055); and that ”sacrifice“ denotes worship in general, (n. 922, 6905, 8680, 8936). Who can know what it is to be salted with fire, and why the sacrifice should be salted, and what it is to have salt in themselves, unless it is known what is meant by fire, salt, and by being salted?

[3] In like manner in Luke:--

Whosoever he be of you that renounceth not all his possessions, he cannot be My disciple. Salt is good; but if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be seasoned? It is fit neither for the land, nor for the dunghill: they shall cast it out (Luke 14:33-35);

”to renounce all his possessions“ denotes to love the Lord above all things; ”his possessions“ denote the things which are man‘s own; ”salt that has lost its savor“ denotes a longing from what is one’s own, thus from the love of self and the world: such a longing is ”salt without savor,“ not fit for anything.  So also in Matthew:--

Ye are the salt of the earth; but if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted? It is no longer fit for anything but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot by men (Matt. 5:13, 14).

[4] That in all worship there must be a longing of truth for good is also signified by the law that every offering of the meat offering should be salted; and that upon every offering there should be the salt of the covenant of Jehovah (Lev. 2:13). By the ”meat-offering,“ and the ”offering,“ which is sacrifice, is signified worship, as above; and salt is there called ”the salt of the covenant of Jehovah,“ because by a ”covenant“ is signified conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778, 9396, 9416).  Moreover longing is the very ardor of love, thus its continuity; and love is spiritual conjunction.

[5] As the longing of truth for good conjoins, so the longing of falsity for evil disjoins, and that which disjoins also destroys; consequently by ”salt“ in the opposite sense is signified the destruction and devastation of truth and good, as in Jeremiah:--

Cursed is the man that maketh flesh his arm; he shall not see when good cometh, but shall dwell in parched places, in a salt land which is not inhabited (Jer. 17:5, 6);

”to make flesh his arm“ denotes to trust in one‘s self, thus in what is one’s own, and not in the Divine (n. 10283); and as one‘s own consists in loving self more than God and the neighbor, it is the love of self which is thus described: hence it said that ”he shall not see when good cometh,“ and that ”he shall dwell in parched places, and in a salt land,“ that is, in filthy loves and their longings, which have destroyed the good and truth of the church.

[6] In Zephaniah:--

It shall be as Gomorrah; a place left to the nettle, and a pit of salt, and a waste forever (Zeph. 2:9);

”a place left to the nettle“ denotes the ardor and burning of the life of man from the love of self; ”a pit of salt“ denotes a longing for what is false, which, as it destroys truth and good, is called ”a waste forever.“ It is said that it shall be ”as Gomorrah,“ because by ”Gomorrah and Sodom“ is signified the love of self (n. 2220).

[7] That Lot’s wife was turned into a statue of salt, because she turned her face to these cities (Gen. 19:26), signified the vastation of truth and good; for in the internal sense to ”turn the face to anything“ denotes to love (n. 10189); hence it is that the Lord says:--

Let him not turn back to what is behind him; remember Lot‘s wife (Luke 17:31, 32).

The whole land thereof shall be sulphur, and salt, and a burning, according to the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah (Deut.  29:22); by ”land“ here, as elsewhere in the Word, is meant the church (n. 9325).

[8] From this then it was that the cities which were no longer to be inhabited were after their destruction sown with salt (Judges 9:45).  From all this it is evident that by ”salt“ in the genuine sense is signified the longing of truth for good, thus what is conjunctive; and in the opposite sense, the longing of falsity for evil, thus what is destructive.

[9] He therefore who knows that ”salt“ denotes the longing of truth for good and their capability of conjunction, is able to know also what is signified by the waters of Jericho being healed by Elisha by casting in salt into their outlet (2 Kings 2:10-22); for by Elisha, as by Elijah, was represented the Lord in respect to the Word (n. 2762, 8029); and by ”waters“ are signified the truths of the Word; by the ”waters of Jericho“ the truths of the Word in the sense of the letter, and likewise by the ”outlet of the waters;“ and by ”salt“ is signified the longing of truth for good, and the conjunction of both; whence comes healing.

AC 10301. Pure. That this signifies free from evil, is evident from the signification of ”pure,“ as being free from evil. As all evil is impure, and all good is pure, therefore we speak of being ”purified from sins and iniquities,“ and this is said of the heart, that is, of the will; for in the Word the ”heart“ signifies the will (n. 2930, 7542, 8910, 9300, 9495); because it signifies the love (n. 3883-3896, 9050).

AC 10302. Holy.  That this signifies free from the falsity of evil, is evident from the signification of ”holy,“ as being the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord (n. 6788, 7499, 8302, 8330, 9229, 9818, 9820); hence that is called ”holy“ which is free from the falsity of evil. It is said ”the falsity of evil,“ because there is falsity without evil, as in the case of some good people among the nations outside the church, and also with some among Christians within the church.  But in itself the falsity that is defiled by evil is evil, for it is from evil; whereas the falsity with those who are in good is not defiled by evil, but is purified from it. Therefore also such falsity is accepted by the Lord almost as truth, and is also easily turned into truth, for they who are in good are inclined to receive truth. Concerning falsity, both that from evil, and that not from evil, (n. 9304, 10109).

AC 10303. And thou shalt bruise of it small.  That this signifies the disposing of truths into their series, is evident from the signification of ”bruising,“ when said of frankincense and spices; by which are signified truths, as being the disposing of truths into their series; for ”being“ has a like signification with ”grinding,“ but ”grinding“ is said of wheat, barley, and spelt; and ”bruising,“ of oil, frankincense, and spices.

[2] What is specifically signified by ”bruising“ and ”grinding“ cannot be known unless it is known how the case is with man in respect to the goods and truths which are signified by ”wheat,“ ”barley,“ ”meal,“ ”fine flour,“ ”oil,“ ”frankincense,“ and ”spices,“ when these goods and truths have been disposed for uses; for ”grinding“ and ”bruising“ denote so to dispose them that they may be of use. When ”grinding“ is said of the goods which are signified by ”wheat“ or ”barley,“ then by ”grinding“ is signified the disposing and bringing forth of good into truths, and in this way its application to uses. Moreover good never puts itself forth into uses except by means of truths.  In these it is disposed, and thus qualified, for unless good has been disposed in truths it has no quality; but when it is disposed in truths, it is then disposed, into series in application to things according to uses, into which things good enters as the affection of love, whence comes what is grateful, pleasant, and delightful.  The like is here signified by ”bruising small,“ for ”pure frankincense“ denotes spiritual good (n. 10296); and the truths which are disposed by this good are denoted by the spices stacte, onycha, and galbanum (n. 10292-10294).

[3] What is meant by disposing into series shall also be briefly told.  Truths are said to be disposed into series when they have been disposed according to the form of heaven, in which form are the angelic societies. What this form is may be seen from the correspondence of all the members, viscera, and organs of man with the Grand Man, which is heaven, concerning which correspondence (n. 10030). In these members, viscera, and organs, each and all things have been disposed into series and series of series. These are formed by the fibers and vessels, as is known to those who from anatomy are acquainted with the textures and contextures of the interiors of the body. Into like series have been disposed the truths from good with man.

[4] From this it is that a regenerated man is a heaven in the least form corresponding to the greatest; and that a man is wholly his own truth and good. That a regenerated man is a heaven in the least form, (n. 9279); and that a man is his own truth and good, (n. 10298); and that the truths with man have beer disposed into series according to the angelic societies with the regenerate, (n. 5339, 5343, 5530). The series into which truths have been disposed with the good, and the series into which falsities have been disposed with the evil, are signified in the Word by ”sheaves“ and ”bundles“ (Lev. 23:9-15; Ps. 126:6; 129:7; Amos 2:13; Micah 4:12; Jer. 9:22; Zech. 12:6; Matt. 13:30).

[5] It therefore being evident what is signified by ”bruising,“ and ”grinding,“ it can be known what is signified in the internal sense by the statement that:--

The sons of Israel ground the manna in mills, or bruised it in a mortar, and baked it into cakes (Num. 11:8);

for by the ”manna“ was signified celestial and spiritual good (n. 8464); and by ”grinding“ and ”bruising,“ a disposing that it might serve for use; for whatever is said in the Word is significative of such things as are in heaven and the church, for every detail has an internal sense.  It can also be known what is signified by the statement that:--

They should not take to pledge the mill or the millstone, for he taketh the soul to pledge (Deut. 24:6);

for by ”the mill and the millstone“ is signified that which prepares good so that it can be applied to uses; by ” barley“ also and by ”wheat“ is signified good, and by ”meal“ and ”fine flour“ truths; and as before said, good is applied to use by means of its own truths.

[6] From this it can be seen what is signified by the ”mill,“ by the ”millstone,“ and by ”sitting at the mills,“ in the following passages:--

Then shall two be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left (Matt. 24:41).

He that shall cause to stumble one of these little ones that believe in Me, it were better for him that an ass millstone were hanged on his neck, and he were sunk into the depth of the sea (Matt. 18:6; Mark 9:42).

A mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall Babylon be thrown down, and the voice of the mill shall be heard no more at all in her (Rev. 18:21, 22).

I will cause to cease from them the voice of joy, and the voice of the millstones, and the light of the lamp (Jer. 25:10).

O daughter of Babylon, sit on the earth; there is no throne, O daughter of the Chaldeans; take the mill and grind meal (Isa.  47:1, 2).

As in a good sense a ”mill,“ and ”grinding,“ signify application to good uses, so in the opposite sense they signify application to evil uses; hence when they are said of Babylon and Chaldea, they signify application in favor of their loves, which are the loves of self and of the world; for by the ”barley and wheat“ with them is signified good adulterated, and by the ”meal“ thence, truth falsified. The profanation of good and truth by application in favor of these loves is also signified by the statement that:--

Moses ground to powder the golden calf, and scattered it upon the waters that came down from Mount Sinai, and made the sons of Israel drink it (Exod. 32:20; Deut. 9:21).

AC 10304. And shalt put it before the Testimony in the Tent of meeting.  That this signifies the worship of the Lord in heaven and in the church, is evident from the signification of the ”incense,“ which was to be put before the Testimony, as being worship (n. 10298); from the signification of ”the Testimony,“ as being the Lord as to Divine truth (n. 9503); and from the representation of the Tent of meeting, as being heaven (n. 9457, 9481, 9485); and as it denotes heaven, it also denotes the church, for the church is heaven on earth.

AC 10305. Whither I will come to meet thee.  That this signifies from the influx of the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”coming to meet,“ when said of the Lord, as being His presence and influx (n. 10147, 10148, 10197); here from the influx of the Lord, because the subject treated of is worship, which is signified by ”incense;“ for everything of worship which is truly worship flows in from the Lord, as can be seen from what was shown above (n. 10299).

AC 10306. A holy of holies shall it be to you.  That this signifies because it is from the Lord, is evident from the signification of ”holy,“ as being all that, and only that, which proceeds from the Lord (n. 6788, 7499, 8302, 8330, 9229, 9818, 9820).

AC 10307. And the incense which thou makest in its quality, ye shall not make for yourselves.  That this signifies that worship from the holy truths of the church must not be applied in favor of the loves of man, is evident from the signification of ”incense,“ as being worship (n. 10298); from the signification of ”making in its quality,“ as being from the holy truths of the church; for to make in its quality is to make from the same spices, and by the spices, which were stacte, onycha, and galbanum, are signified the holy truths of the church in their order (n. 10292-10294); and from the signification of ”not making for yourselves,“ as being not to apply in favor of one’s own uses, thus of one‘s loves, for that which a man does for the sake of himself, he does for the sake of his loves. Such application is here meant because it is said, ”to make for yourselves.“

[2] How the case herein is, shall also be told. All the truths of the church have regard to two loves, namely, to love to God, and to love toward the neighbor.  That the whole Word, which is Divine truth itself, and from which are all the truths of the church, hangs on these two loves, is evident in (Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30, 31; Luke 10:27), where it is said that all the Law and the Prophets hang on these loves, and by ”the Law and the Prophets“ is signified the whole Word.  Quite the contrary however is it to apply Divine truth, or the truths of the church, in favor of the loves of man. By so doing a man turns from the Lord to himself, which is to turn from heaven to hell, and becomes as one of the spirits there; for in hell they have the Lord at the back and their own loves in front; nay, when looked at by the angels they appear inverted, with the head downward and the feet upward.

[3] When truths Divine are applied in favor of the loves of man, they are no longer truths, because by means of these applications evil enters them, and perverts them, and makes them appear false.  If it is then said to such men that they are not so to be understood, but otherwise, they are not willing to apprehend it, and some do not apprehend it; for to say what is contrary to principles confirmed by his loves, is to say what is contrary to the man himself, because contrary to his understanding which is from his will.  As regards those who by means of application in favor of their loves falsify truths and adulterate goods, much is said in the Word where Babel is treated of, especially in the Apocalypse.

AC 10308. Holy to Jehovah shall it be to thee.  That this signifies that worship must be applied in favor of love Divine, is evident from the signification of ”holy,“ as being all that which proceeds from the Lord (n. 10306); and from the signification of ”incense,“ of which it is said that ”holy to Jehovah shall it be to thee,“ as being worship (n. 10298); that it denotes that it is to be applied in favor of love Divine, follows from what immediately precedes, where it is said that they ”should not make such incense for themselves,“ by which is signified that worship from the holy truths of the church must not be applied in favor of the loves of man (n. 10307).  By ”love Divine“ is meant love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor; that the latter love also is Divine, is because it too proceeds from the Lord; for no one can love the neighbor from himself.  He who does so from himself, loves the neighbor and confers benefits upon him for the sake of himself, which is to love himself.  That the whole Word, which is the Divine truth itself from which are all the truths of the church, has regard to the above-mentioned two loves as ends, see just above (n. 10307); hence also Divine worship must look to the same, because all worship which is truly worship is from truths, as can be seen from what was shown above concerning the spices of the incense, by which are signified the truths of worship; and the truths of worship are applied in favor of Divine love when worship is performed by a man from the Lord, according to what was said in (n. 10299).

AC 10309. The man who shall make like unto it, to make an odor with it.  That this signifies the imitation of Divine worship by means of the affections of truth and good from what is man’s own, is evident from the signification of ”making like it,“ as being the imitation of Divine worship, for by ”making“ is signified imitating, and by the ”incense“ of which this is said, is signified Divine worship, as above; and from the signification of ”making an odor,“ as being to please, and as this is done by means of the affections of truth and good, these are what are signified by ”pleasing,“ for ”odor“ denotes the perceptivity of what is grateful, thus what is pleasing (n. 10292).  That it denotes from what is man‘s own is evident, because it is said, ”the man who shall make like unto it shall be cut off from his peoples.“ For that is from man’s own which is not from the affection of truth and good for the sake of truth and good, but for the sake of self; and to do anything for the sake of self is to do it for the sake of profit, honors, and reputation, as ends; and not for the sake of the salvation of the neighbor and the glory of the Lord; hence it is from evil and not from good; or what is the same, it is from hell and not from the Lord.  This therefore is what is meant by the imitation of Divine worship by means of the affections of truth and good from what is man‘s own, which is signified by ”making incense like unto it, to make an odor with it.“ Accordingly, those who do this are those who love the world more than heaven, and themselves more than God.  Moreover when such persons think inwardly, or by themselves, they do not believe anything about heaven and the Lord; but when they think out of themselves, as is the case when they speak before men, they then speak of heaven and the Lord from greater affection and faith than others, and this in proportion as they are inflamed by self-advantage, honors, and reputation. Their state then is that they are inwardly black and outwardly white, that is, they are devils in the form of angels of light; for the interiors which should be open to heaven are closed, and the exteriors which are open to the world are open; and if then from an affection as it were of love they raise their eyes and hands to heaven, they are nevertheless like effigies made by art, and such they appear to the angels. And if you are willing to believe it, there are many such in hell, who are present with and inspire men of like character, especially preachers, who imitate Divine worship by means of affections of truth and good from their own; which also is permitted by the Lord, because in this way they too perform a use; for good men nevertheless receive the Word from them well, because from whatever mouth the Word comes, it is received by a man according to the quality of his good. But such external things, being pretenses, are stripped off them in the other life; and then their spirit appears black, as it had been in the body.

AC 10310. Shall be cut off from his peoples.  That this signifies separation from heaven and the church, and spiritual death, is evident from the signification of being ”cut off from the peoples,“ as being separation and spiritual death (n. 10288); that it denotes separation from heaven is evident from what was said just above (n. 10309); that it also denotes separation from the church is because those alone are of the church in whom the church is; and the church is in those who are in the affection of truth for the sake of truth, and in the affection of good for the sake of good, thus who are in love toward the neighbor and in love to God; for the neighbor is good and truth, and also is God, because good and truth are of God, thus are God with them. They who are not of this character are not of the church, no matter how much they may be in the church.

ON THE THIRD EARTH IN THE STARRY HEAVEN

AC 10311. There appeared spirits from afar who were not willing to come near, for the reason that they could not be with the spirits of our earth who were then about me.  From this I perceived that they were from another earth, and I was afterward told that they were from a certain earth in the universe; but where that earth is, was not told me.

AC 10312. Differently from the spirits of our earth, they were unwilling to think at all about their bodies, or even about anything bodily and material; and for this reason they were not willing to come near; for spirits are associated and dissociated in accordance with the affections and the thoughts thence derived.  But after the removal of some spirits from our earth they came nearer and spoke with me; yet there was still felt an anxiety arising from the collision of spheres; for spiritual spheres that emanate from the life of their affections and consequent thoughts encompass all spirits and societies of spirits; and therefore if the affections are contrary, there results a collision which gives rise to anxiety.

AC 10313. The spirits of our earth declared that they did not dare to approach them, because when they do so they are not only seized with anxiety, but also, from phantasy, they seem to themselves to be as it were bound hand and foot with serpents, from which they cannot be loosed until they retire.  Such a phantasy is from correspondence; for the bodily sensuous of man is represented in the other life by serpents, and therefore by ”serpents“ in the Word is also signified the sensuous, which is the lowest of the life of man.

AC 10314. As the spirits of that earth are of this nature, they do not appear as do other spirits, in a clearly defined human form, but as a cloud; the better of them as a dusky cloud with a human whiteness scattered about in it. They said that inwardly they are white, and that when they become angels this duskiness is turned into a beautiful blue, which also was shown me.

AC 10315. I asked them whether they had been in such an idea concerning their bodies when they lived in the world as men. They said that the men of their earth make no account of their bodies.  but only of the spirit therein, because they know that the spirit is to live forever, and that the body will perish. The face however they do not call the body, because the affections of their spirits appear from the face, and the thoughts that come from the affections, from the eyes. They also said that some in their earth believe that the spirits of their bodies have existed from eternity, and were infused into the body at conception; but they added that now they know that it is not so, and they repent of having been in so false an opinion.

AC 10316. When I asked them whether they wished to see anything on our earth, which it was possible to do through my eyes, they first replied that they could not do so, and afterward said that they did not wish it, because they could see nothing but earthly and material things, from which they remove their thoughts as far as possible.

AC 10317. A continuation about this third earth in the universe will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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