HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 32

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH

AC 10386. Baptism was instituted as a sign that the man belongs to the church, and as a memorial that he is to be regenerated; for the washing of Baptism is nothing else than spiritual washing, which is regeneration.

AC 10387. All regeneration is effected by the Lord by means of the truths of faith and a life according to them. Therefore Baptism testifies that the man belongs to the church, and that he can be regenerated; for in the church the Lord is acknowledged, who regenerates; and in it is the Word which contains the truths of faith whereby regeneration is effected.

AC 10388. This the Lord teaches in John:--

Except a man be born of water and of the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God (John 3:5);

in the spiritual sense “water” denotes the truth of faith from the Word; “the spirit” denotes a life according to this truth; and “to be born” of these denotes to be regenerated.

AC 10389. As everyone who is regenerated also undergoes temptations, which are spiritual combats against evils and falsities, therefore by the waters of Baptism these temptations also are signified.

AC 10390. As Baptism is for a sign and a memorial of these things, therefore a man may be baptized when an infant, and if not then, when an adult.

AC 10391. Be it known therefore by those who are baptized, that Baptism itself does not confer faith, or salvation; but that it testifies that men receive faith, and that they are saved, if they are regenerated.

AC 10392. From this it can be seen what is meant by the Lord‘s words in Mark:

He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be condemned (Mark 16:16);

“he that believeth” is he who acknowledges the Lord and receives Divine truths from Him through the Word; “he that is baptized” is he who is regenerated by the Lord by means of these truth.

EXODUS 32:1-35

1. And the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain; and the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Rise, make us gods which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that made us come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him.

2. And Aaron said unto them, Tear off the golden earrings which are in the ears of your women, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me.

3. And all the people tore off the golden earrings that were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron.

4. And he received them from their hand, and formed it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf; and they said, These are thy gods, O Israel, which made thee come up out of the land of Egypt.

5. And Aaron saw, and he built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation, and said, To-morrow is a feast to jehovah.

6. And they rose up in the morning on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play.

7. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people have corrupted themselves, which thou madest to come up out of the land of Egypt:

8. They have gone back suddenly from the way which I commanded them; they have made them a molten calf, and have adored it, and have sacrificed to it, and said, These are thy gods, O Israel, which made thee to come up out of the land of Egypt.

9. And Jehovah said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and behold it is a stiffnecked people:

10. And thou, suffer Me, that Mine anger may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them; and I will make thyself into great nation.

11. And Moses besought the faces of Jehovah his God, and said, Wherefore, O Jehovah, shall Thine anger wax hot against Thy people, which Thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a strong hand?

12. Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying, Into evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from upon the faces of the earth?  Turn back from the wrath of Thine anger, and repent of the evil to Thy people.

13. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel Thy servants, to whom Thou swarest by Thyself, and spakest unto them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens, and all this land that I have said will I give unto your seed, and they shall inherit it for an age.

14. And Jehovah repented of the evil which He said He would do to His people.

15. And Moses looked back, and came down from the mountain, and the two tables of the Testimony were in his hand; the tables were written on the two crossings, hereupon and hereupon were they written.

16. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.

17. And Joshua heard the voice of the people in their shouting, and be said unto Moses, There is a voice of war in the camp.

18. And he said, It is not the voice of a cry for victory, neither is it the voice of a cry for being overcome: the voice of a miserable cry do I hear.

19. And it came to pass, as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dances; and Moses waxed hot with anger, and he cast the tables out of his hand, and brake them beneath the mountain.

20. And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it with fire, and ground it even to powder, and strewed it upon the faces of the waters, and made the sons of Israel drink.

21. And Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people to thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them?

22. And Aaron said, Let not thine anger wax hot, my lord; thou knowest the people, that it is in evil.

23. And they said to me, Make us gods, which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that made us to come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him.

24. And I said to them, Whosoever hath any gold, tear ye it off; and they gave it me; and I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf.

25. And Moses saw that the people was lax, for Aaron had made them lax unto annihilation by those rising up against them:

26. And Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is for Jehovah? come unto me. And all the sons of Levi were gathered together unto him.

27. And he said to them, Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel, Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and pass ye through and return from gate to gate in the camp, and slay ye, a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor.

28. And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses; and there fell of the people that day up to three thousand men.

29. And Moses said, Fill ye your hand this day to Jehovah, for a man is against his son, and against his brother; that He may bestow upon you a blessing this day.

30. And it came to pass on the day after, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin; and now I will go up unto Jehovah; perchance I shall make expiation for your sin.

31. And Moses returned unto Jehovah and said, I beseech Thee! this people hath sinned a great sin, and they have made them gods of gold.

32. And now if Thou wilt forgive their sin! and if not, blot me I pray out of Thy book which Thou hast written.

33. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Him that hath sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book.

34. And now go, lead the people unto that which I said to thee; behold Mine angel shall go before thee; and in the day of My visitation I will visit their sin upon them.

35. And Jehovah smote the people, because they had made the calf, which Aaron made.

THE CONTENTS

AC 10393. In the internal sense in this chapter there is described that a church could not be instituted among the Israelitish people, because they were wholly in externals without any internal; and that to prevent their profaning the holy things of heaven and the church, interior things were completely closed with them.  That this people was wholly in externals without any internal, is signified by the “golden calf” which they worshiped instead of Jehovah. And that interior things with them were completely closed, lest they should profane the holy things of heaven and of the church, is signified by the tables of the Law being broken by Moses, and by Moses grinding the golden calf and strewing the dust into the waters and giving them to drink, and also by their being slain in the camp by the sons of Levi to the number of three thousand men.

AC 10394. It is further described in the internal sense that although a church could not be instituted among them, there were nevertheless among them representatives which are ultimates of the church, to the end that the Word might be written, which should close in these ultimates.  These things are signified by Jehovah’s being entreated by Moses.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 10395. Verses 1-6. And the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain; and the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron, and said unto him, Rise, make us gods which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that made us come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him. And Aaron said unto them, Tear off the golden earrings which are in the ears of your women, of your sons, and of your daughters, and bring them unto me. And all the people tore off the golden earrings that were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. And he received them from their hand, and formed it with a graving tool, and made it a molten calf; and they said, These are thy gods, O Israel, which made thee come up out of the land of Egypt. And Aaron saw, and built an altar before it; and Aaron made proclamation and said, Tomorrow is a feast to jehovah.  And they rose up in the morning on the morrow, and offered burnt-offerings, and brought-peace offerings; and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose up to play. “And the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain,” signifies the Israelitish nation when it did not notice in the Word anything from heaven; “and the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron,” signifies that they turned themselves to the externals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, separate from what is internal; “and said unto him,” signifies exhortation; “Rise, make us gods which shall go before us,” signifies falsities of doctrine and of worship, thus things idolatrous; “for as for this Moses, the man that made us come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him,” signifies that it is altogether unknown what other Divine truth there is in the Word, which raises man from what is external into what is internal; “and Aaron said unto them,” signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, without what is internal; “Tear off the golden earrings that are in the ears of your women, of your sons, and of your daughters,” signifies the drawing out from the sense of the letter of the Word of such things as favor external loves and the principles thence derived; “and bring them unto me,” signifies a bringing together into a one; “and all the people tore off the golden earrings that were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron,” signifies the effect; “and he received them from their hand,” signifies things that favor what is their own; “and formed it with a graving tool,” signifies from their own intelligence; “and made it a molten calf,” signifies according to the delight of the loves of that nation; “and they said, These are thy gods, O Israel,” signifies which is to be worshiped above all things; “which made thee come up out of the land of Egypt,” signifies which had led them; “and Aaron saw,” signifies approval; “and he built an altar before it,” signifies worship; “and Aaron made proclamation, and said, Tomorrow is a feast to jehovah,” signifies that this is a very essential of the church which is to be celebrated, and a very divine which is to be perpetually adored; “and they rose up in the morning on the morrow,” signifies incitement by their loves; “and offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings,” signifies the worship of their loves, thus of the delights of these loves, and of the falsities thence derived; “and the people sat down to eat and to drink,” signifies the appropriation of these things; “and rose up to play,” signifies the consequent festivity of their interiors, and consent.

AC 10396. And the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain. That this signifies the Israelitish nation when they did not notice in the Word anything from heaven, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” when said of the understanding of the Word, as being notice (n. 2150, 3764, 3863, 4567, 4723, 5400); from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372); from the signification of “delaying to come down,” when said of the noticing of Divine truth from the Word, as being not to flow in, for the Divine truth which flows in with man is said to come down from heaven; and from the signification of “Mount Sinai,” as being heaven in respect to Divine truth (n. 9420). By “the people” is here meant the Israelitish nation in the proper sense, because in this chapter the quality of that nation is described in respect to the noticing of Divine truth from the Word, and in respect to the noticing of the interior things which were represented in what had been commanded the sons of Israel by Jehovah through Moses from Mount Sinai, as related in chapters 25 to 31 inclusive. From all this it is evident that by the words, “the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain,” is signified the Israelitish nation when they did not notice in the Word anything from heaven, thus not anything which was represented in the things commanded from Mount Sinai, which are interior things.

[2] The case herein is this. In the preceding chapters there have been treated of the statutes, the judgments, and the laws which were commanded by Jehovah to the sons of Israel, with whom a church was to be instituted. Each and all of these were external things which represented internal, as has been shown in the explications of these chapters. But the Israelitish nation was of such a nature that they did not at all desire to know anything about the internal things which were represented; but only about the external things in which was the representation. The reason why they were of such a nature was that they were altogether in bodily and earthly loves, and with those who are in these loves the interiors, which otherwise would be open into heaven, are closed. For man has an internal and an external; his internal is for heaven, and his external is for the world. When the external reigns, then worldly, bodily, and earthly things reign; and when the internal reigns, then heavenly things reign. But man has been so created that the external in him may be subordinated to the internal, thus the world to heaven; for as before said, the external is for the world and the internal for heaven. When therefore the external reigns, the internal is closed, for the reason that the man then turns himself from heaven and from the Lord to the world and to himself, and his heart is where he turns himself, consequently his love, and with his love the whole of his life, because the life of man is his love.

[3] These things have been said in order that it may be known how the case is with those who are in bodily and earthly loves; namely, that the interiors with them are closed; and those with whom the interiors have been closed do not acknowledge anything internal, saying that only those things exist which they see with their eyes and touch with their hands, and that all other things which they do not see with their eyes and touch with their hands, have no existence.  Consequently they have no faith in the existence of heaven, of the life after death, or that the interior things which the church teaches are anything. Such was the Israelitish nation, and that it was such is described in this chapter.

[4] He who does not know that interior things make the church with man, and not exterior things without interior, cannot know otherwise than that this nation was chosen and also loved by Jehovah above all other nations.  But the real fact is very different.  That nation was received because it was urgent to be received, yet not in order that any church might be with them, but only the representative of a church, to the end that the Word might be written which should have in such things an ultimate form.  The reason why that people is called in the Word the people of Jehovah, the chosen and beloved nation, is that by “Judah” in the Word is meant the celestial church; by “Israel,” the spiritual church; and by all the sons of Jacob, something of the church; likewise by “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,” the Lord Himself; as also by “Moses,” “Aaron,” and “David.” But as that nation is the subject treated of in this whole chapter (that a church could not be instituted with it, but only the representative of a church); therefore before proceeding further, see what has been already said and shown concerning that nation; namely, That there was no church among them, but only the representative of a church (n. 4281, 4288, 4311, 4500, 4899, 4912, 6304, 7048, 9320): Thus that they were not chosen; but received, because they insisted (n. 4290, 4293, 7051, 7439): That they were wholly in externals without anything internal (n. 4293, 4311, 4320, 4459, 4834, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4868, 4874, 4903, 4913, 9373, 9380, 9381): That their worship was merely external (n. 3147, 3479, 8871): That they did not wish to know the internal things of worship and of the Word (n. 3479, 4429, 4433, 4680): That on this account it was not granted them to know these things (n. 301-303, 2520, 3769): That if they had known them, they would have profaned them (n. 3398, 3489, 4289): that nevertheless by means of the externals of worship with them, which were representative of things interior, there was communication with heaven; and in what manner (n. 4311, 4444, 6304, 8588, 8788, 8806) That when the, were in worship their interiors which were unclean were closed (n. 3480, 9962): That this could be done with that nation, and that on this account they have been preserved even to this day (n. 3479, 4281, 6588, 9377): That they worshiped Jehovah merely in respect to the name (n. 3732, 4299, 6877): That at heart they were idolaters (n. 4208, 4281, 4820, 5998, 6877, 7401, 8301, 8882): In general, that it was the worst nation (n. 4314, 4316, 4317, 4444, 4503, 4750, 4751, 4815, 4820, 4832, 5057, 7248, 8819, 9320).

AC 10397. And the people gathered themselves together unto Aaron.  That this signifies that they turned themselves to the externals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, separate from what is internal, is evident from the signification of “gathering themselves together,” as being to turn themselves; and from the representation of Aaron, as here being the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, separate from the internal.  This is here represented by Aaron, because during the absence of Moses, he was the head of that nation, and by Moses, who was absent, is represented the Word, from which the church and worship are derived in both the internal and the external sense (n. 9372). That such is the representation of Aaron is plain also from each and all things related of Aaron in what follows; namely, that it was he who made the calf and proclaimed a feast and made the people lax, all of which coincides with the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, separate from the internal. He who separates the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship from the external, separates from it the holy Divine.  For the internal of these is their spirit; but the external is the body of this spirit, and the body without the spirit is dead; and accordingly to worship what is dead is to worship an idol, in this case to worship the golden calf and to proclaim a feast to it, and so to make the people lax.  From all this it can be seen what is signified by “Aaron” in this chapter.  What the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship is, and what their external, has been shown in what goes before.

AC 10398. And they said unto him.  That this signifies exhortation, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when said of something of a religious nature to which the people were inclining, as being exhortation. That “saying” also denotes exhortation, (n. 5012, 7090, 7215, 8178). The religious inclination of this people was to worship what is external without what is internal.

AC 10399. Rise, make us gods which shall go before us.  That this signifies falsities of doctrine and of worship, thus things idolatrous, is evident from the signification of “gods,” as being truths (n. 4295, 4402, 7010, 7268, 7873, 8301), and in the opposite sense falsities (n. 4402, 4544, 7873), consequently “to make gods” denotes to make falsities of doctrine, or doctrine from falsities; and from the signification of “which shall go before us,” as being which they may follow, thus according to which they may institute worship. That “to make gods which shall go before us” denotes idolatrous things, is evident. Moreover it is idolatrous to worship external things separate from internal ones (n. 4825, 9424). Concerning this kind of idolatry a few words shall here be said. The externals of the church that was to be instituted with the Israelitish nation were all those things which were commanded Moses by the Lord on Mount Sinai, which were the Tent of meeting with the ark therein, the propitiatory over it, the table upon which were the breads of faces, the lampstand, the altar of incense, likewise the altar of burnt offering, the garments of Aaron and of his sons, especially the ephod upon which was the breast plate, besides also the oil of anointing, the incense, the blood of the burnt-offering and of the sacrifice, the wine for a drink-offering, the fire upon the altar, besides many other things. The Israelitish and Jewish nation worshiped all these things as holy, without the holy which they represented, and thought nothing whatever about the Lord, about heaven, about love, about faith, about regeneration, thus about those things which were signified. As their worship was of such a nature, it was a worship of wood, of bread, of wine, of blood, of oil, of fire, of garments, but not of the Lord in these. That relatively to these things such worship is not Divine worship, but idolatrous, is manifest.

AC 10400. For as for this Moses, the man that made us come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him. That this signifies that it is altogether unknown what other Divine truth there is in the Word, which raises man from what is external into what is internal, and makes the church, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word, thus as being Divine truth (n. 9372); consequently doubt and denial that there is any other Divine truth than that which stands forth in the sense of the letter, is signified by the words, “as for this man Moses, we know not what hath become of him.” It is said “this man,” because by “man” in the Word is signified truth (n. 3134, 3309, 3459, 7716, 9007). And from the signification of “bringing the sons of Israel up out of the land of Egypt,” as being elevation out of the natural or external man to the internal or spiritual man, in order that he may become the church; for by “the land of Egypt” is signified the natural or the external of the church; by “making to come up” is signified elevation; and by “the sons of Israel” is signified the church. That “the land of Egypt” denotes the natural or external of the church, (n. 9391); also that “making to come up” denotes to raise from the external to the internal, (n. 3084, 4539, 4969, 5406, 5817, 6007); thus from the natural man to the spiritual; and that “the sons of Israel” denote the church, (n. 9340).

[2] From all this it is evident that by the words, “as for this Moses, the man that made us to come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him,” is signified that it is altogether unknown what other Divine truth there is in the Word, which raises man from what is external into what is internal, and makes the church, than that which stands forth in the sense of the letter.  So likewise do all those think and speak who are in external things without internal; and all those are in external things without internal who are in the loves of self and of the world. For with such the internal man is closed, and only the external man is open; and that which the external man without the internal sees when he reads the Word, he sees in thick darkness, because in spiritual things natural light, without light from heaven, is mere thick darkness, and light from heaven enters through the internal man into the external and enlightens it. From this it is that so many heresies have arisen, and that the Word is called by some the Book of Heresies, and that it is wholly down that there is anything internal in the Word; and those who think that there is such an internal still do not know wherein it lies. That it is such who are meant by the dragon which drew with its tail the third part of the stars from heaven and cast them to the earth (Rev. 12), will of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be shown elsewhere.

[3] Let such observe as will, whether at the present day anyone knows otherwise than that the Divine itself of the Word is the sense of its letter. But let them consider also whether anyone can know the Divine truths of the Word in this sense except by means of doctrine therefrom, and that if he has not doctrine for a lamp he is carried away into errors, whithersoever the obscurity of his understanding and the delight of his will lead and draw him. The doctrine which must be for a lamp is what the internal sense teaches, thus it is the internal sense itself, which in some measure lies open to everyone (even if he does not know what the internal sense is) who is in what is external from what is internal, that is, whose internal man is open. For heaven (which is in the internal sense of the Word) flows in with such a man when he reads the Word, enlightens him, and gives him perception, and thus teaches him.  Nay, if you will believe it, with man the internal man is of itself in the internal sense of the Word, because it is a heaven in the least form, and consequently when it is open it is with the angels in heaven, and is therefore also in like perception with them. This can also be seen from the fact that the interior intellectual ideas of man are not such as are his natural ideas, to which nevertheless they correspond.

[4] But of the nature of these ideas man is not aware so long as he lives in the body; but he comes into them spontaneously when he comes into the other life, because they are implanted in him, and by means of them he is forthwith in fellowship with the angels. From this it is evident that the man whose internal is open, is in the internal sense of the Word, although he is not aware of it. From this he has enlightenment when he reads the Word, but according to the light that he can have by means of the knowledges which he has.  But who these are, (n. 9025, 9382, 9409, 9410, 9424, 9430, 10105, 10324).

AC 10401. And Aaron said unto them. That this signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, without what is internal, is evident from the representation of Aaron here, as being the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship without the internal (n. 10397).  That with the Israelitish and Jewish nation there was not a church, but only the representative of a church, thus an external without an internal, is very evident from Aaron, who although of such a character was nevertheless made the high priest, to whom were committed the most holy things of the church, and who therefore was accounted holy above all others. For it is said of Aaron that he made a golden calf, built an altar before it, proclaimed a feast to jehovah before it; that he thus brought this sin upon the people, and that he made them lax (verses 2, 4, 5, 21, 25, 35). And in another place it is said that Jehovah was moved with anger against Aaron exceedingly, to destroy him, and that Moses prayed for him (Deut. 9:20). These things imply that Aaron was like the people, who at heart were idolaters (n. 4208, 4281, 4820, 5998, 6877, 7401, 8301, 8882). But as with this nation there was merely the external of the church without the internal, and yet there was thereby communication with heaven, the character of the man was a matter of indifference, provided that when he was in externals he acted according to the statutes and revered them.  That representatives did not regard the person, but the thing that was represented, (n. 665, 1097, 3670, 4208, 4281, 4288, 4444, 8588).

AC 10402. Tear off the golden earrings that are in the ears of your women, of your sons, and of your daughters. That this signifies the drawing out from the sense of the letter of the Word of such things as favor external loves and the principles thence derived, is evident from the signification of “tearing off,” as being to draw out, here from the sense of the letter of the Word, because this is the subject treated of, from the signification of “the golden earrings that were in their ears,” as being representative tokens of obedience and of the noticing of the delights of external loves; for by the “ears” is signified obedience and noticing; by “gold,” the good of love, here the delight of external loves, wherefore golden earrings are representative tokens of these loves. That by the “ears” is signified obedience and noticing, (n. 2542, 4652-4660, 8990, 9397, 10061); and that by “gold” is signified the good of love, (n. 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9510, 9874, 9881). Therefore when it is predicated of external loves, which are the loves of self and of the world, by “gold” is signified the delight of these loves, thus evil (n. 8932); and that from this “earrings” are representative tokens of obedience and of noticing, see (n. 4551). From the signification of “women,” as being the goods of the church (n. 3160, 4823, 6014, 7022, 8337), consequently in the opposite sense its evils (n. 409); from the signification of “sons,” as being truths, and in the opposite sense falsities (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257, 6583, 6584, 9807); and from the signification of “daughters,” as being the affections of truth and good, and therefore in the opposite sense the affections of falsity and evil (n. 2362, 3963, 6729). From this it is evident that by, “tear off the golden earrings that are in the ears of your women, of your sons, and of your daughters,” is signified the drawing out from the literal sense of the Word of such things as are noticed to obey or favor the delights of external loves and the principles thence derived.

[2] That earrings are tokens of obedience and of noticing is evident in Hosea

Strive with your mother, for she is not My wife, that she may put away her whoredoms from her faces, lest perchance I strip her naked, and make her as a wilderness, and have no pity on her sons. For she had, I will go after my lovers, that give me my bread and my waters, my wool and my lax. For she had not known that I gave her the grain, and the new wine, and the oil, and multiplied unto her the silver; and the gold they made into a baal. And I will lay waste her vine and her fig-tree; and I will visit upon her the days of the baals to which she burned incense, and put on her earring and her adornment, and went after her lovers, and forgot Me (Hosea 2:1-13);

“to burn incense, and to put on an earring to the baals,” denotes to worship the baal gods and to obey them.

[3] The things that precede in this chapter have also been adduced to the end that it may thereby be known what is the nature of the external sense of the Word without the internal, and what it is together with the internal, thus in what manner those perceive the Word who are in externals without an internal, and in what manner those perceive it who are in externals from an internal. Those who are in externals separate from what is internal cannot apprehend these words otherwise than according to the letter, which is, that they should strive with the mother of the sons of Israel, that she was no longer loved by Jehovah as a wife, and that if she put not away her whoredoms from her she would be stripped naked and be made as a wilderness, and Jehovah would have no pity on her sons, because she said that she would go after her lovers who give her bread and water, wool and flax, and that she knew not that Jehovah gave her grain, wine, and oil, and multiplied her silver, that they made gold into a baal; and that on this account her vine was laid waste and her fig-tree, and that it will be visited upon her because she burned incense to the baals, and put on her earring and adornment, and went after her lovers or adulterers, forgetting Jehovah.

[4] This is the sense of the letter, and so is the Word understood by those who are in externals without what is internal, for so it is understood by the Jews at this day, and also by some Christians. But that this is not the sense of the Word can be seen by all those who are in some enlightenment. When these persons, by the “mother” of whom all those things are said, do not understand a mother, but the church, such as it was with that nation, they then comprehend that something of the church is signified by all the particulars which are said of her. For these are such as follow in order from the first thing said, or from the first subject; as by “whoredoms,” by “lovers,” by “sons,” and by “bread,” “water,” “wool,” “flax,” “grain,” “new wine,” “oil,” “silver,” “gold,” and by “vine and fig-tree,” and likewise by “incense” and by “earring.”

[5] What each of these things signifies cannot be known from any other source than the internal sense, in which by “mother” and “wife” is signified the church; by “making her naked, and as a wilderness,” is signified to be without the goods of love and the truths of faith. The truths of faith and the goods of love, of which she shall be bereaved, are signified by “sons,” by “bread and water,” by “wool and flax,” by “grain,” “new wine,” “oil,” “silver,” “gold,” and finally by “vine and fig-tree.” The worship itself from obedience to falsities and evils, which succeed in the place of truths and goods, is signified by “burning incense and putting on her earring and adornment for the baals.” That “mother” denotes the church, (n. 289, 2691, 2717, 4257, 5581); also a “wife,” (n. 252, 253, 409, 749, 770, 7022); that “to be made naked” denotes to be deprived of the goods of love and the truths of faith, (n. 9960); that a “wilderness” denotes a state devoid of the truth and good of the church, (n. 2708, 3900, 4736, 7055); that “whoredoms” denote falsifications of truth, (n. 2466, 2729, 4865, 8904), consequently “lovers” denote those who falsify; that “sons” denote truths and in the opposite sense falsities, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257, 6583, 6584, 9807); that “bread and water” denote the good of love and the truth of faith, (n. 9323); that “wool” denotes good in the external man, (n. 9470); “flax” truth therein, (n. 7601, 9959); “grain” the good from which is truth, (n. 5295, 5410, 5959); “new wine” the truth thence derived, (n. 3580); and “oil” celestial good, (n. 9780, 10261); that “silver” denotes truth, and “gold” good in general, (n. 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9881); that a “vine” denotes the internal spiritual church, (n. 1069, 6376, 9277); and a “fig-tree” the external good of this church, (n. 217, 4231, 5113); that “to burn incense” denotes worship, (n. 10177, 10298); and that an “earring” is a representative token of obedience, (n. 4551); consequently “to put it on” denotes to obey.

[6] When these things are understood instead of the literal statements, or together with them, it is then apparent what is the nature of the Word when it is spiritually perceived, thus what its nature is in respect to its spirit. In this sense all who read the Word are kept by the Lord, but it is not received by any except those with whom the interiors have been opened; and as it is received in knowledges, therefore it is received according to their understanding, in the degree and in the manner that this can be enlightened by means of the knowledges they have. Besides this, they are affected in a general way with the holy influence that comes from the Word.

AC 10403. And bring them unto me. That this signifies a bringing together into a one, is evident from the signification of “bringing to Aaron,” as being to bring into a one from the sense of the letter of the Word such things as favor external loves and the principles thence derived. That this is signified by “bringing to Aaron the golden earrings that were in the ears of their women, of their sons, and of their daughters,” is evident from what was shown just above (n. 10402).

AC 10404. And all the people tore off the golden earrings that were in their ears, and brought them unto Aaron. That this signifies the effect, is evident without explication.

AC 10405. And he received them from their hand. That this signifies things that favor what is their own, is evident from the signification of “receiving from the hand” of anyone, as being to receive such things as are his, thus which belong to, or that favor, what is one’s own; for by the “hand” is signified the power or ability of man, and consequently whatever is his (n. 10019, 10082, 10041)

AC 10406. And formed it with a graving tool. That this signifies from their own intelligence, is evident from the signification of “forming with a graving tool,” when said concerning an idol, as being to prepare false doctrine from one‘s own intelligence, which is effected by the application of the sense of the letter of the Word in favor of the loves of self and of the world; for when these loves reign, the man is not in any enlightenment from heaven, but takes all things from his own intelligence, and confirms them from the sense of the letter of the Word, which he falsifies by a wrong application and a perverted interpretation, and afterward favors such things because they are from himself.

[2] In the Word throughout mention is made of “graven images” and “molten images.” They who apprehend the Word merely according to the letter suppose that idols only are meant by these images. Nevertheless idols are not meant, but false doctrinal things of the church, such as are formed by man himself under the guidance of some love of his. The forming of these falsities to cohere, and to appear as if they were truths, is signified by a “graven image.” The joining of them together to favor external loves, so that evils may appear as goods, is signified by a “molten image.” As both are meant by the “golden calf,” therefore it is here said that Aaron “formed it with a graving tool,” by which is meant the forming of falsities so as to appear as if they were truths; and by its being said that he “made the gold a molten calf.” And afterward that he “cast it into the fire, and it came forth a calf” (verse 24), means the joining together to favor external loves so that evils may appear as goods. Such moreover is the case with all doctrine that is made from man, and not from the Lord; and it is made from man when he has as his end his own glory or his own profit; but it is from the Lord when the good of the neighbor and the good of the Lord’s kingdom are regarded as the end.

[3] Such things are signified by “graven images” and “molten images” in the following passages.  In Isaiah:--

Ye shall judge unclean the covering of the graven images of thy silver, and the clothing of the molten image of thy gold (Isa. 30:22);

“the covering of the graven images of silver” denotes the appearing of falsities as if they were truths; “the clothing of the molten image of gold” denotes the appearing of evils as if they were goods; for “covering” and “clothing” denote outward appearances which are put on, or with which things are invested.  “Silver” denotes truth, and therefore graven images are said to be “of silver;” and “gold” denotes good (n. 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9874, 9881).

[4] Again:--

The artificer casteth a graven image, and the metal-caster spreadeth it over with gold, and casteth silver chains. He seeketh unto him a wise artificer to prepare a graven image that shall not be moved (Isa. 40:19, 20);

there is here described the forming of falsities so as to cohere and to appear as if they were truths; a“ graven image” denotes this falsity; an “artificer” denotes a man who forms it from his own intelligence; “the metal-caster spreadeth it over with gold” denotes when he causes it to appear as good; “he casteth silver chains” denotes by means of coherence; “that shall not be moved” denotes which on this account cannot be weakened and destroyed.

[5] Again:--

They that form a graven image are vanity, and their most desirable things do not profit. Who hath formed a god, and cast a molten image that profiteth not? All his fellows shall be ashamed; and the workmen themselves.  He fashioneth the iron with the tongs, he both worketh in the coals and formeth it with sharp hammers, so he worketh it with his strong arm; he fashioneth wood; he stretcheth out a line; he marketh it out with a rule; he maketh it into its corners; and he marketh it out with the compasses; and maketh it into the form of a man, according to the beauty of a man, to dwell in the house (Isa. 44:9-13);

here also is described in what manner false doctrinal things are formed so that they may cohere, and appear as truths and as goods.  By every detail is here described how this is effected, when done from man‘s own intelligence under the guidance of pleasure, of cupidity, and of love.  That this is so can be seen by those who know that all things in the Word have an internal sense, by which they are spiritually understood. Otherwise to what purpose would be such a description of the forming of a graven image? That it may appear as truth and as good is signified by “making it in the form of a man (vir) according to the beauty of a man (homo);” for in the internal sense “a man (vir)” denotes truth, and “a man (homo),” the good of this truth.

[6] In Jeremiah:--

Every man is become a fool from knowledge; every metal-caster is put to shame by his graven image; for his molten image is a lie, and there is no breath in them (Jer. 10:14; 51:17);

that a “graven image” here denotes that which is from man’s own intelligence; and a “molten image” that which is according to the love, is very manifest; for it is said that “every man is become a fool by knowledge, and every metal-caster is put to shame by his graven image,” and that “his molten image is a lie;” “knowledge” here denotes man‘s own intelligence, and “a lie,” the falsity of evil; because there is not what is Divine in them, it is said that “there is no breath in them.”

[7] Again:--

O sword against her horses, and against her chariots, against her treasures, that they may be plundered; a drought is upon her water that they may dry up; for a land of graven images is this (Jer.  50:37, 38);

that “a land of graven images” denotes the church where falsities reign, is also plainly evident from every detail there understood in its spiritual sense; without which sense, what would be “a sword against horses, against chariots, against treasures,” and “a drought upon waters,” but sounding words without any spirit in them? whereas from every detail understood in its internal sense it is plain that the destruction of the church as to truths is here described, and thus that falsities would reign therein, which are “a land of graven images.” For a “sword” denotes falsity fighting with and destroying truths; “horses” denote an understanding which is enlightened; “chariots” denote doctrinal things; “treasures,” the knowledges of truth and good;“ waters upon which is a drought,” denote truths, that they are no more; and “land” denotes the church. That a “sword” denotes truth fighting against falsity; and in the opposite sense falsity fighting against true and destroying them, (n. 2799, 6353, 7102, 8294); that “horses” denote an understanding which is enlightened, (n. 2760-2762, 3217, 6534); that “chariots” denote doctrinal things, (n. 5321, 8146, 8148, 8215); “treasures,” the knowledges of truth and of good, (n. 10227); “waters,” truths, (n. 2702, 3058, 3424, 4976, 5668, 8137, 8138, 8568, 9323, 10238); and “land” or “earth,” the church, (n. 9325). From this it is evident what is meant by “ a drought upon the waters that they may dry up,” and what by “a land of graven images.”

[8] In Habakkuk:--

What profiteth the graven image, that the maker thereof hath graven it, and the molten image and the teacher of a lie, that the maker of his invention trusteth thereupon? (Habakkuk 2:18);

from these words it is also evident that by a “graven image” and a “molten image” are not meant a graven and a molten image; but falsity which is invented, and evil which falsity defends; for it is said “the maker of his invention,” and “the teacher of a lie.”

[9] Like things are signified by a “graven image” and a “molten image” in the following passages:--

Babylon is fallen; and all the graven images of her gods he hath cast forth unto the ground (Isa. 21:9).

They shall all be greatly ashamed that trust in a graven image, that say unto a molten image, Ye are our gods (Isa.  42:17).

I have declared it to thee, and I made thee hear it, lest thou shouldest say, Mine idol hath done this; my graven image, and my molten image, hath commanded them (Isa. 48:5).

They called themselves, and they went from their faces; they sacrificed to the baals, and burned incense to graven images (Hos. 11:2).

All the graven images of Samaria shall be ground to pieces, and all her harlot hires shall be burned with fire, and all her Idols will I make a waste (Micah 1:7).

[10] Inasmuch as falsities and evils of doctrine, which are signified by “graven and molten images,” are fabricated by man’s own intelligence under the guidance of his love, therefore also in the Word they are called “the work of man‘s hands,” “the work of the hands of the artificer,” and “the work of the hands of the workman;” as in the following passages:--

They sin more and more, they make them a molten image of their silver, idols in their own intelligence, all of them the work of the artificers  Cursed be the man that maketh a graven or molten image, an abomination unto Jehovah, the work of the hands of the artificer (Deut. 27:15).

Their idols are silver and gold, the work of man’s hands (Ps. 115:4; 135:15).

They have burned incense unto other gods, and have bowed themselves to the works of their own hands (Jer. 1:16).

One cutteth wood out of the forest, the work of the hands of the workman with the axe. They deck it with silver and with gold; they fasten it with nails and with hammers (Jer. 10:3, 4).

[11] “the work of the hands” denotes that which is from man‘s own, thus that which is from his own understanding and his own will; and those things are from his own, of both understanding and will, which are of the love of self; this is the origin of all the falsities in the church. As all falsities are from what is man’s own, and by “the work of the hands” is signified that which is from this, it was therefore forbidden to move an iron, an axe, or a graving tool, upon the stones of which the altar was built, and also the temple, as is evident in these passages:--

If thou wilt make Me an altar of stones, thou shall not build it of hewn stones; for if thou move thy tool upon it, thou shalt profane it (Exod. 20:25).

If thou shalt build to Jehovah an altar of stones, thou shalt not move an iron upon them (Deut. 27:5).

The house was built of entire stone, as it was brought; for there was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any instrument of iron, heard in the house, while it was being built (1 Kings 6:7).

These things have been adduced in order that it may be known what is meant by Aaron‘s “forming the gold with a graving tool, and making it a molten calf.”

AC 10407. And made it a molten calf. That this signifies according to the delight of the loves of that nation, is evident from the signification of “a calf,” as being external or natural good; and from the signification of “molten,” as being worship performed in favor of external loves (n. 10406).  And as the Israelitish nation is the subject treated of in this chapter, and that nation was in externals without an internal, thus in external loves, therefore it is said, “according to the delight of the loves of that nation;” for by a “calf” as an idol is signified this delight.

[2] The ancients, who were in representative worship, knew what was signified by the various kinds of animals; for each animal has its signification, and according to this they appear in heaven, consequently according to this they are mentioned in the Word, and also according to this they were employed in burnt-offerings and sacrifices.  By a “calf” is signified the good of innocence and of charity in the external or natural man (n. 9391, 9990, 10132); but when there is no good of innocence and of charity, as is the case with those who are in externals without what is internal, then by a “calf” is signified natural and sensuous delight, which is the delight of pleasures, of cupidities, and of the loves of self and of the world. It is this delight in which are those who are in externals without an internal, and which they worship, for a man worships that which he loves above all things.  They do indeed say that they worship the God of the universe, but they say this with the mouth and not with the heart.  Such persons are meant by those who worship a molten calf.

[3] The Egyptians were such above all others, and they, being in the science of correspondences and of representations above all other nations, consequently made for themselves various idols, as is evident from the Egyptian idols which remain to this day.  But their chief idol was a calf, whereby they wished to signify their external good in worship. When however the science of correspondence and of representations, wherein they were versed above others, was turned among them into magic, then a calf put on the opposite signification, which is the delight of external loves; and when a calf was placed in their temples and worshiped as a god, it signified such a delight in worship.

[4] As the Israelitish nation brought with it from Egypt this idolatrous thing, therefore as applied to that nation, when a calf was worshiped by them as a god, it signified the delight of the loves of that nation in worship.  Of what quality their loves were can be seen from what was shown in the places cited above (n. 10396); for they were then, as they are at this day, in the love of self and in the love of the world above all others. It is known that at this day they are in a love most earthly, for they love silver and gold not for the sake of any use, but for the sake of the silver and gold itself, which love is of all loves the most earthly, for it is sordid avarice. The love of self is not conspicuous with them so as to appear; but lies hidden within their hearts, as is usual with all who are sordidly avaricious.  It is also known that they have no love of the neighbor; and in so far as there is no love of the neighbor with anyone, so far the love of self is in him.  From this it can now be seen what is signified by the molten calf made by Aaron for that nation.

[5] The like is signified by a “calf” in the following passages:--

Egypt is a very fair calf; destruction cometh out of the north, and her hired men in the midst of her are like fatted calves of the stall (Jer. 46:20, 21).

They made a calf in Horeb, and bowed themselves unto the molten image, and they changed their glory into the likeness of an ox that eateth herbage (Ps. 106:19, 20).

They sin more and more, and make them a molten image from their silver, idols in their own intelligence, all of them the work of the artificers; speaking to them; they sacrifice a man, they kiss the calves (Hos. 13:2).

The unicorns shall come down with them, and the calves with the strong ones; and their land shall be drunken with blood, and their dust shall be made fat with fatness (Isa. 34:7).

The fenced city is solitary, a habitation deserted and forsaken, there shall the calf feed, and there shall he lie down, and shall consume the branches thereof, and the harvest thereof shall wither (Isa. 27:10, 11).

[6]

Rebuke the wild beast of the reed, the congregation of the strong ones, among the calves of the peoples, trampling on the pieces of silver; he hath scattered the peoples (Ps.  68:30).

I will give the men that have transgressed My covenant, who have not established the words of the covenant which they struck before Me, of the calf which they cut in twain that they might pass between the parts thereof; the princes of Judah, and the princes of Jerusalem, the royal ministers, and the priests, and all the people of the land, that pass between the parts of the calf; and I will give them into the hand of their enemies, that their carcass may be food to the fowl of the heavens and to the beast of the earth (Jer. 34:18-20).

They have made a king, but not by Me; they have made princes, and I knew it not; their silver and their gold have they made idols, that it may be cut off. Thy calf hath deserted, O Samaria. For from Israel is even this; the workman made it, and it is no god; for the calf of Samaria shall come to pieces (Hos.  8:4-6).

All these passages may be seen unfolded above (n. 9391).

AC 10408. And they said, These are thy gods, O Israel. That this signifies which is to be worshiped above all things, is evident from the signification of “gods,” as being those things which are worshiped. In the genuine sense by “strange gods” are signified falsities, here both falsities and evils, because by a “graven image,” which is meant by Aaron forming the gold with a graving tool, is signified falsity, and by a “molten image” is signified the evil of this falsity. That “strange gods” denote falsities and the consequent evils in worship, (n. 4402, 4544, 7873, 8867, 8941).

AC 10409. Who made thee to come up out of the land of Egypt. That this signifies which had led them, is evident from the signification of “making to come up out of the land of Egypt,” when said of those who are in external things without what is internal, as being to lead one’s self; for by “the land of Egypt,” when such are treated of, is signified servitude; and by “making to come up” is signified to lead one‘s self by it. For by these words is here signified the opposite to that which is signified by them when they are said of those who are in what is internal and at the same time in external things. When said of the latter, by these words is signified to be led by the Lord, thus to be raised out of the natural man to the spiritual, or out of the world into heaven, consequently out of servitude into freedom; but when they are said of those who are in external things without what is internal, the words signify to be led by self, which is not to be raised to heaven, but to cast one’s self down to hell, consequently from freedom into servitude. That it is servitude to be led by self, and freedom to be led by the Lord, (n. 2892, 9096, 9586, 9589-9591).

[2] But as the latter believe that the Divine works nothing with man, and that man leads himself, and also that this is freedom, a few words shall here be said about this. All those are of this opinion, and also in this persuasion, who love themselves and the world above all things, for that which men love above all things they worship as a god. At the present day there are very many such persons in the Christian world; but of what quality they are it has been given me to know chiefly from such in the other life. For after his life in the world, when a man becomes a spirit, he is then exactly like himself, such as he had been when he lived in the body, in respect to the affections of his love, and in respect to his thoughts and persuasions. They said that they had confirmed themselves in this belief from the fact that a man does not arrive at dignities and wealth by any Divine aid and providence, but by his own intelligence and prudence, and sometimes by fortune, and even then from such causes as they see to proceed from men, saying that common experience testifies this, because the evil, the cunning, and the impious are often raised to dignities and become rich in preference to the good, which would not be the case if the Divine ruled.

[3] But it was given me to say to them that confirmation from such things is reasoning from man‘s own intelligence and from his own love, and this reasoning is from mere fallacies, and is reasoning about causes in thick darkness.  For they believe that to be exalted to dignities and to gain wealth above others is the very good which the Divine gives to man, and thus that the Divine blessing (as they call these things) consists in these alone; when yet such things are rather a curse to those who love themselves and the world above all things, for in so far as they are exalted to honors and gain wealth by their own effort and their own skill, so far are they uplifted in the love of self and of the world, so that at last they place their whole hearts in these things, and regard them as the only goods, thus as the only satisfactions and happinesses of man; although these things come to an end together with the life of man in the world; whereas the goods, the satisfactions, and the happiness that are given and provided for man by the Divine are eternal and have no end; and consequently these are true blessings.  What is temporary bears no ratio to what is eternal; as what is finite in time bears no ratio to the infinite of time.  What endures to eternity, this is; but what has an end, this relatively is not. That which is, the Divine provides; but not that which is not, except in so far as it conduces to that which is; for Jehovah, which is the Divine Itself, is, and that which is from Him also is.  From this it is evident what is the quality of that which is given and provided for man by the Divine, and what is the quality of that which a man himself procures for himself.

[4] Moreover every man is led by the Divine by means of his understanding; if he were not led thereby, no man could be saved; and from this it is that the Divine leaves this with man in its freedom, and does not check it.  From this cause it comes to pass that the machinations and cunning devices of the evil (which are from their understanding) succeed; but the favorable results thus obtained come to an end together with their life in the world, and become unfavorable; whereas those things which are provided by the Divine for the good have no end, and become favorable and happy to eternity.

[5] I have spoken in this way with those who had been such in the world, who replied that they had then thought nothing about what is good, favorable, and happy to eternity, and that when they were in their loves they had utterly denied the life of man after death; and that in so far as they had attained to honors and to riches, so far they had believed that there are no other goods; nor in deed any heaven, or Divine; consequently that they had not known what it is to be led by the Divine.

[6] They who in the world have confirmed themselves in these ideas in doctrine and in life, remain such in the other life also.  Their interiors are closed, so that they have no communication with heaven, and their exteriors alone are open, by which they then have communication solely with the hells. Such of them as by machinations, arts, and cunning devices have attained to honors or to riches, there become magicians.  They appear beneath the buttocks, sitting at a table with a cap pressed down to the eyebrows, and thus as it were earnestly meditating they gather together such things as are serviceable for magic art, supposing that they can lead themselves by means of them. Their speech falls between the teeth with a kind of hissing, and afterward when they are being vastated they are cast into a pit with a broad bottom where there is thick darkness.  The light of their understanding is there obscured even to foolishness. I have seen some cast in there who in the world had been accounted very superior in intellect.

AC 10410. And Aaron saw. That this signifies approval, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being approval.  That “seeing” here denotes approval is evident from what now follows, namely, that Aaron built an altar and proclaimed a feast before it. For by Aaron is represented the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, separate from the internal (n. 10397); and this approves all that which is done from man’s own intelligence, and from his own love, which things are signified by the molten calf formed by Aaron from gold with a graving tool, of which in what precedes.

AC 10411. And he built an altar before it. That this signifies worship, is evident from the signification of “an altar,” as being the chief representative of Divine worship (n. 4541, 8935, 8940, 9714, 10242, 10245), but here of diabolical worship, because those who are in external things without what is internal communicate with the hells, and not with the heavens. For the internal of man is his heaven, and his external is his world.  Moreover his internal has been formed according to the image of heaven, thus for the reception of such things as are there; and his external according to the image of the world, thus for the reception of such things as are there, (n. 9279, 10156). Therefore when the internal is closed, heaven also is closed, and then the external is no longer directed from heaven, but from hell; and therefore their worship is not Divine, but is diabolical. They do indeed make mention of the Divine, and they also worship it, but in the external form and not in the internal, which is to do so from the mouth and not from the heart; and those who act differently do not worship the Divine for the sake of the Divine, but for the sake of self and the world.  Where the heart is, there is the worship. From this it is evident that by “building an altar before the golden calf,” is signified the worship of the devil.

AC 10412. And Aaron made proclamation, and said, Tomorrow is a feast to jehovah.    That this signifies that this is a very essential of the church, which is to be celebrated, and a very divine which is to be perpetually adored, is evident from the signification of a “feast,” as being the worship of the church in respect to celebration, for a celebration was made on the feast days; thus by “proclaiming a feast” is signified some very essential thing of the church which is to be celebrated. That it denotes a very divine that is to be adored, is signified by that feast being called “a feast to jehovah.” And from the signification of “to-morrow,” as being what is eternal and perpetual (n. 3998, 7140, 9939).

[2] Moreover those who are in external things without what is internal desire to be worshiped as a god, and to have what is their own adored as Divine, in so far as they dare, on account of the common people.  From this it may be concluded that in their heart they deny the Divine, and that they themselves are continually aspiring to loftier things, and in so far as obstacles are not presented, to the loftiest things, thus at last to the throne of God; as is very plain from those who in the Word are meant by “Babel,” who take away from the Lord all power in heaven and on earth, and arrogate it to themselves, opening and shutting heaven at their pleasure. That they are of such a character is evident in Isaiah:--

Utter this parable concerning the king of Babel. Hell below has been moved on thine account; how hast thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer! thou hast been cut off to the earth, thou hast been weakened beneath the nations; and thou saidst in thine heart, I will ascend into the heavens, I will exalt my throne above the stars, and I will sit on the mount of assembly, I will ascend above the heights of the cloud, I will become like the Most High. Howbeit thou hast been let down to hell (Isa. 14:4, 9, 12-15).

[3] That the king of Babel did indeed command that he should be worshiped as a god, is evident in Daniel vi. By “Babel” are meant those who are holy in externals but profane in internals, thus those who use the holy things of the church as means that they themselves may be worshiped as gods, which also all those do who by the holy things of the church as means are desirous of rising to dignities above others, and to wealth above others, as their ends.  With such persons the case is similar in the other life.  There also at heart they deny the Divine, and by wicked arts labor to make themselves gods. They set themselves aloft upon mountains, and proclaim some one from amid them as a god, and also adore him. But when they are in this profane worship, the mountain opens into a chasm, and they are swallowed up, and are thus cast down into hell. That it is so has been granted me to see several times.

AC 10413. And they rose up in the morning on the morrow. That this signifies incitement by their loves, is evident from the signification of “rising up in the morning,” as being incitement by their loves; for by “the morning” is signified a state of love, and by“ rising up” is signified elevation thereto. That “morning” denotes a state of love, (n. 5962, 8426, 8812, 10114, 10134); and that “to rise up” denotes elevation, (n. 2401, 2785, 2912, 2927, 3171, 4103). But when “rising up in the morning” is said of those who are in external things without what is internal, thus of the evil, then by “rising up” is not signified elevation, but incitement; and by “morning” is not signified a state of heavenly love, but a state of infernal love.  For when the evil are in this state they are then in their morning, because they are then in the delight of their life, because in their loves. The difference between elevation to a state of the loves in the case of the good, and the same in the case of the evil, is this: that the good then ascend, and that the evil descend. For the loves of the good are heavenly loves which elevate them, and increase according to the ascent to heaven; but the loves of the evil are infernal loves, which weigh them down, and increase according to the descent to hell From this it is evident that“ rising up in the morning” has a contrary signification when it is said of the evil, from what it has when it is said of the good. Moreover in the other life the states of spirits and of angels vary in respect to love and faith, as the times of the day and of the year vary in respect to heat and light. When it is morning with those who are in the heavens, they are then in a state of heavenly loves, and consequently are in their joy; but in the morning of the hells they are in a state of infernal loves, and consequently are in their torment; for everyone then wishes to be greatest and to possess all that belongs to others, from which come intestine hatreds, ferocities, and cruelties, which are the things signified by the fires of hell.

AC 10414. And offered burnt-offerings, and brought peace-offerings. That this signifies the worship of their loves, thus of the delights of these loves, and of the falsities thence derived, is evident from the signification of “burnt-offerings” and “sacrifices,” as being all worship in general (n. 6905, 8936, 10042); and that “burnt-offerings” denote worship from the good of love, and “sacrifices” worship from the truths of faith, see (n. 8680, 10053); thus in the opposite sense by “burnt-offerings” is signified worship from their own loves, which worship is from the delights of these, which are evil; and by “sacrifices” is signified worship from the falsities thence derived. It is said  “the worship of the loves,” because that is worshiped which is loved, and love worships.

AC 10415. And the people sat down to eat and to drink. That this signifies the appropriation of these things, is evident from the signification of “eating and drinking,” as being appropriation; “eating,” the appropriation of evil; and “drinking,” the appropriation of falsity. That “eating” denotes the appropriation of good, (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 3832, 9412), consequently that in the opposite sense it denotes the appropriation of evil, (n. 4745); and that “drinking” denotes the appropriation of truth, and consequently in the opposite sense the appropriation of falsity, (n. 3069, 3168, 3832, 8562, 9412).

AC 10416. And rose up to play. That this signifies the consequent festivity of their interiors, and consent, is evident from the signification of “playing,” as being the festivity of the interiors; for play comes from this, because it is an activity of the body which comes forth as an effect from gladness of mind; and all festivity and gladness are from the delights of the loves in which the man is. That consent also is signified, is because all interior festivity has consent in it; for if anything dissents and is contradictory, the festivity perishes. Interior festivity is in man‘s freedom; and all freedom is from love that is not opposed.

[2] As in the Word internal things are described by external, so likewise the joys and gladnesses which are in the interiors of man are described by plays and dances, as in the following passages:--

The city shall be builded upon its own heap, then shall confession go forth from them, and the voice of them that play (Jer. 30:18, 19).

Anew will I build thee, that thou mayest be built, O virgin of Israel; anew shalt thou deck thy timbrels, and shalt go forth into the dance of them that play. Their soul shall be as a watered garden, and they she not sorrow any more at all; and the virgin shall rejoice in the dance, and the young and the old together, for I will turn their mourning into joy (Jer. 31:4, 12, 13).

The streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls, playing (Zech. 8:5).

Praise ye the name of Jehovah with the timbrel and dance (Ps. 149:2, 3; 150:4).

Thou hast turned for me my mourning into dancing (Ps. 30:11).

The joy of our heart hath ceased; our dance is turned into mourning (Lam. 5:15).

[3] As “plays” and “dances” signified the joys and gladnesses of the interiors which are from love, therefore after the Egyptians were sunk in the sea Suph, Miriam with the women went forth with timbrels into dances (Exod. 15:20); and therefore also David, when the ark was brought out of the house of Obededom, into the city of David, leaped and danced before Jehovah (2 Sam. 6:12, 16).

[4] That interior things are set forth and described in the Word by exterior ones, is evident from these words in David:--

Thou madest the sea, great and wide in spaces, there go the ships; Leviathan whom Thou hast formed to play therein (Ps.  104:25, 26);

he who does not know that there is a spiritual sense in every detail of the Word, knows no otherwise than that by the “sea” and by “ships” are here meant the sea and ships, by “Leviathan,” the whales which are therein, and by “playing,” their races and associations together. Yet the Word, which is Divine in respect to every jot, does not consist of such things; but when instead of these there are understood the spiritual things which are signified, then it becomes Divine.  In the internal sense the “sea” denotes a gathering together of memory-truths, thus what is external with man and in the church; “ships” denote knowledges and doctrinal things from the Word; “Led than” denotes memory-knowledge in general; and “playing” denotes the delight from these things. That the “sea” denotes a gathering together of memory-truths, (n. 28, 2850, 8184, 9340); that “ships” denote knowledges and doctrinal things from the Word, (n. 1977, 6385); and that “Leviathan” denotes memory knowledge in general, (n. 7293). Thus “to play” denotes the delight and festivity from these things, which results when memory-knowledges confirm spiritual things, and are in agreement with them.

AC 10417. Verses 7-14.  And Jehovah spake unto Moses, Go, get thee down; for thy people have corrupted themselves which thou madest to come up out of the land of Egypt; they have gone back suddenly from the way which I commanded them; they have made them a molten calf, and have adored it, and have sacrificed to it, and said, These are thy gods, O Israel, which made thee to come up out of the land of Egypt.  And Jehovah said unto Moses, I have seen this people, and behold it is a stiffnecked people.  And thou, suffer Me, that Mine anger may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them; and I will make thyself into a great nation.  And Moses besought the faces of Jehovah his God, and said, Wherefore, O Jehovah, shall Thine anger wax hot against Thy people, which Thou has brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a strong hand?  Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying, Into evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains, and to consume them from upon the faces of the earth? Turn back from the wrath of Thine anger, and repent Thee of the evil to Thy people.  Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel Thy servants, to whom Thou swarest by Thyself and spake unto them, I will multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens, and all this land that I have said will I give to your seed, and they shall inherit it for an age.  And Jehovah repented of the evil which He said He would do to His people.  “And Jehovah spake unto Moses,” signifies perception and instruction concerning the Israelitish nation as to its quality within; “Go, get thee down,” signifies to look at their external; “for thy people have corrupted themselves,” signifies that they have completely turned themselves away from the Divine; “which thou madest to come up out of the land of Egypt,” signifies whom thou didst believe to be led to the Divine; “they have gone back suddenly from the way which I commanded them,” signifies that they have removed themselves from Divine truth; “they have made them a molten calf,” signifies worship according to the delight of the loves of that nation; “and have adored it, and have sacrificed to it,” signifies that they worship this as good itself and as truth itself; “and said, These are thy gods, O Israel,” signifies that this is to be worshiped above all things; “which made thee to come up out of the land of Egypt,” signifies which have led them; “and Jehovah said unto Moses,” signifies further instruction; “I have seen this people,” signifies what is foreseen; “and behold it is a stiffnecked people,” signifies that they do not receive influx from the Lord; “and thou, suffer Me,” signifies that there should not be so stubborn an insistence; “that Mine anger may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them,” signifies that thus they turn themselves away from internal things, thus from things Divine, so that they must needs perish; “and I will make thyself into a great nation,” signifies that the Word elsewhere would be good and excellent; “and Moses besought the faces of Jehovah his God,” signifies that the Lord in mercy remembered; “and said, Wherefore, O Jehovah, shall Thine anger wax hot,” signifies the turning away of that nation; “against Thy people which Thou hast brought forth out of the lad of Egypt,” signifies elevation even from this; “with great power and with a strong hand,” signifies by virtue of Divine power; “wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying,” signifies those who are in mere external things concerning those who are being raised into internal things; “into evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains,” signifies that those who are in good will perish; “and to consume them from upon the faces of the earth,” signifies that those who are of the church will perish; “turn back from the wrath of Thine anger,” signifies that thus the turning away of that nation will not be hurtful; “and repent Thee of the evil to Thy people,” signifies mercy for them; “remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel Thy servants,” signifies for the sake of heaven and of the church; “to whom Thou swarest by Thyself,” signifies confirmation by the Divine; “and spake unto them,” signifies foresight and providence; “I will multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens,” signifies goods and truths, and the knowledges of these; “and all this land that I have said will I give to your seed,” signifies from which are heaven and the church; “and they shall inherit it for an age,” signifies eternal life; “and Jehovah repented of the evil which He said He would do to His people,” signifies mercy for them.

AC 10418. And Jehovah spake unto Moses.  That this signifies perception and instruction concerning the Israelitish nation as to its quality within, is evident from the signification of “speaking,” when by Jehovah, as being perception and instruction (n. 10280, 10290).  That it signifies concerning the Israelitish nation, as to its quality within, is evident from what follows, for that nation is here treated of, and its quality in respect to worship.

AC 10419. Go, get thee down. That this signifies to look at their external, is evident from the signification of “going down from Mount Sinai,” as being to look at, survey, and examine; for by “Mount Sinai” is signified heaven from which is Divine truth (n. 9420), and therefore in the spiritual sense “to go down” does not mean to go down with the body, but with the mind; thus it denotes to look at and survey.

AC 10420. For thy people have corrupted themselves.  That this signifies that they have completely turned themselves away from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “corrupting one’s self,” when said of worship, as being to turn away from the Divine, for all corruption and transgression in worship are a turning back and away from the Divine.  As mention is made of “turning away,” a few words shall be said about this. All those who are in external things separate from what is internal turn themselves away from the Divine, for they look outward and downward, and not inward and upward.  For a man looks inward or upward when his internal is open, thus when it is in heaven; but he looks outward or downward when his internal is closed and only his external is open, for this is in the world.  Wherefore when the external is separated from the internal, the man cannot be raised upward, because that is not present into which heaven should work, for it is closed. From this it is that to all such persons the things of heaven and of the church are thick darkness, and therefore these things are not believed by them; but at heart are denied, and with some are denied with the mouth also.

[2] When heaven works in a man, as is the case when the internal has been opened, it withdraws him from the loves of self and of the world, and from the falsities that spring from this source; because when the internal is raised, the external also is raised, for the latter is then kept looking the same way, because it is in subordination. But when on account of its being closed, the internal cannot be raised, then the external looks solely toward itself and the world, because the loves of self and of the world then reign. This is also called looking downward, because it is looking to hell, for these loves reign there, and the man who is in them is in consociation with those who are there, although he is unaware of it.  Moreover in respect to his interiors he actually turns himself away from the Lord, for he turns his back to Him and his face to hell. This cannot be seen in the man while he lives in the body; but as it is his thought and will that do this, it is his spirit which thus turns itself, for the spirit is that which thinks and wills in man.

[3] That this is the case is plainly seen in the other life, where spirits turn themselves according to their loves. Those who love the Lord and the neighbor look continually to the Lord; nay, wonderful to say, they have Him before the face in every turning of their bodies. For in the spiritual world there are no quarters such as are in the natural world; but the quarter there is determined by each person‘s love, which turns him. But those who love themselves and the world above all things, turn away the face from the Lord, and turn themselves to hell, and everyone to those there who are in a similar love with himself, and this likewise in every turning of their bodies. From this it can be seen what is meant by turning one’s self away from the Divine, and also what is properly signified in the Word by “turning one‘s self away,” as in the following passages:--

They turn themselves backward that trust in graven images (Isa. 42:17).

The heart hath turned itself backward (Ps. 44:18).

Their transgressions are multiplied, and their turnings away are made strong (Jer. 5:6).

They turn themselves away, so that they do not return; this people turneth itself away, Jerusalem is perpetually turned away; they refuse to return (Jer. 8:4, 5).

They have turned themselves away; into the deep they have let themselves down to dwell (Jer. 49:8);

and in many other passages.

AC 10421. Which thou madest to come up out of the land of Egypt.  That this signifies whom thou didst believe to be led to the Divine, is evident from the signification of “making to come up out of the land of Egypt,” as being to raise from what is external to what is internal, thus to lead to the Divine, for by “making to come up” is signified to raise from what is external to what is internal; and by “Egypt” is signified the natural or external man, from which is the raising. That “making to come up” denotes to raise from what is external to what is internal, (n. 3084, 4539, 4969, 5406, 5817); and that “Egypt” denotes what is natural or external, (n. 9391).

AC 10422. They have gone back suddenly from the way which I commanded them. That this signifies that they have removed themselves from Divine truth, is evident from the signification of “going back from the way,” as being to remove themselves from truths; for “to go back” denotes to remove, because those who are in external things separate from what is internal remove themselves; and “way” denotes truth.  That it is Divine truth from which they remove themselves, is because it is said, “from the way which Jehovah commanded them.”

[2] That “way” denotes truth is from the appearance in the spiritual world, where also there are ways and paths; and in the cities, there appear streets and avenues, and spirits go nowhere else than to those with whom they are consociated by love. From this it is that the quality of the spirits there in regard to truth is known from the way in which they go; for all truth leads to its own love, because that is called truth which confirms what is loved. From this it is that in common human speech “way” denotes truth; for the speech of man has derived this, like many other things, from the spiritual world.

[3] From this then it is that in the Word by “way,” “path (semita),” “path (trames),” “track (orbitam),” “street (plateam),” and “lane (vicum),” are signified truths, and in the opposite sense falsities, as is plain from the following passages:--

Stand ye beside the ways and see, ask ye for the ways of an age, which way is the best (Jer. 6:16).

Make your ways good, and your works; trust ye not upon the words of a lie (Jer. 7:3-5).

Learn ye not the way of the nations (Jer. 10:2).

I will give to every man according to his ways, according to the fruit of his works (Jer. 17:10).

They have caused them to stumble in their ways, in the paths of an age, that they might go away in the paths, in a way not paved (Jer. 18:15).

I will give them one heart and one way (Jer. 32:39).

Make known to me Thy ways, O Jehovah; teach me Thy paths; lead me in Thy truth (Ps. 25:4, 5).

In the days of Jael the ways ceased, and those going in the paths went through crooked ways (Judges 5:6).

Go ye back from the way, cause ye to turn aside from the path. Thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, This is the way, go ye in it (Isa. 30:11, 21)

The ways have been laid waste; he that passeth through the way hath ceased (Isa. 33:8).

A path shall be there, and a way, which shall be called the way of holiness; the unclean shall not pass through it, but it shall be for those; he that walketh in the way, and fools, shall not err (Isa. 35:8).

[4]

The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of Jehovah, make plain in the solitude a path for our God. With whom took He counsel, that he might teach Him the way of judgment, and show Him the way of intelligence? (Isa. 40:3, 14).

To say to them that are in darkness, Be ye revealed; they shall feed on the ways.  I will make all My mountains a way; and My paths shall be exalted (Isa. 49:9, 11).

The way of peace they have not known; and there is no judgment in their tracks; they have perverted their paths for themselves; whosoever treadeth on it shall not know peace (Isa.  59:8).

Prepare ye the way for the people; pave ye, pave ye, the path; say ye to the daughter of Zion, Behold thy salvation cometh (Isa. 62:10, 11).

I put a way in the sea, a path in the mighty waters; I will put a way in the wilderness (Isa. 43:16, 19).

Cursed be he that maketh the blind to wander in the way (Deut. 27:18).

Go ye unto the outlets of the ways, and whomsoever ye shall find, call ye to the wedding (Matt. 22:9).

Jesus said, I am the way, the truth, and the life (John 14:6).

In these passages, and in many others, by “way” is signified truth, and in the opposite sense falsity.

AC 10423. They have made them a molten calf. That this signifies worship according to the delight of the loves of that nation, is evident from what was shod above (n. 10407), where similar words occur.

AC 10424. And have adored it, and have sacrificed to it.  That this signifies that they worship this as good itself and as truth itself, is evident from the signification of “adoring,” as being to worship as good itself; and from the signification of “sacrificing,” as being to worship as truth itself.  That “to adore” is predicated of the good which is of love, and “to sacrifice” of the truth which is of faith, is because in the Word where good is spoken of, truth also is spoken of, because of the heavenly marriage in every detail of it (n. 9263, 9314); that “to sacrifice” is said of truth, (n. 8680, 10053); and that “to adore” is said of good, is plain from the passages in the Word where the expression occurs.

AC 10425. And said, Thee are thy gods, O Israel. That this signifies that it is to be worshiped above all things, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10408), where similar words occur.

AC 10426. Which made thee to come up out of the land of Egypt. That this signifies which have led them, may be seen above (n. 10409).

AC 10427. And Jehovah said unto Moses. That this signifies further instruction, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Jehovah, as being perception and instruction (n. 10280, 10290).

AC 10428. I have seen this people. That this signifies what is foreseen, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” when said of Jehovah, as being foresight (n. 2807, 2837, 2839, 3686, 3863); for that which Jehovah sees He sees from eternity, and to see from eternity is foresight and providence.

AC 10429. And behold it is a stiffnecked people. That this signifies that they do not receive influx from the Lord, is evident from the signification of “stiffnecked,” as being not to receive influx; for by the “neck” (cervix and collum) is signified the conjunction and communication of things higher and lower, thus influx (n. 3542, 3603, 3695, 3725, 5320, 5328, 5926, 6033, 8079, 9913, 9914), and by “stiff” is signified that which resists and refuses, thus that which does not receive. This people is so called because they were in external things without what is internal; and they who are such, refuse all influx out of heaven or from the Lord, for influx comes through what is internal into what is external. Therefore when the internal is closed, there is not any reception of the Divine in the external, for only that is received which flows in from the world, thus only what is worldly, bodily, and earthly. Moreover in the other life, when such persons are seen in the light of heaven, there appear as it were grates of teeth, or as it were something hairy, or as it were a bony substance without life, instead of a head and face; for the face corresponds to those things which are of the internal man, and the body to those things which are of the external man, and the neck to the conjunction of these.

[2] It shall here be briefly explained what is meant by being in external things without what is internal, as is said of that nation.  Every man has an internal and an external, for the internal is his thought and his will, and the external is his speech and his action; but the internal with the good differs very much from the internal with the evil.  Each has an internal which is called the internal man, and an external which is called the external man; the internal man being formed according to the image of heaven; but the external man according to the image of the world (n. 9279).  With those who are in the good of love and in the truths of faith, the internal man is open, and by means of it they are in heaven; but with those who are in evils and in the consequent falsities, the internal man is closed, and by means of the external they are in the world only. These are they of whom it is said that they are in external things without what is internal.

[3] These indeed also have interiors, but the interiors with them are the interiors of their external man which is in the world, and not the interiors of the internal man which is in heaven.  These interiors (namely, those of the external man when the internal is closed), are evil, nay, filthy, for such persons think solely of the world and of themselves, and wish for those things only which are of the world and of self; and think nothing at all about heaven and the Lord, nor do they wish for them.  From this it can be seen what is meant by being in external things without what is internal.

[4] As such was the nature of the Israelitish nation, therefore when they were in a holy external their interiors were closed, because these were loathsome and unclean, that is, were full of the love of self and of the world; thus of contempt for others in comparison with themselves, of hatred against all who offended them, of ferociousness against them, and of cruelty, avarice, rapine, and other like things.  That this nation was of such a character is very evident from the song of Moses in (Deuteronomy 32:15-43); where it is described by the command of Jehovah; and also from Jeremiah throughout; and lastly from the Lord Himself in the Gospels.

AC 10430. And thou, suffer Me.  That this signifies that there should not be so stubborn an insistence, is evident from the signification of “to suffer,” when said by Jehovah of that nation, as being that there should not be so stubborn an insistence; for that nation was not chosen by the Lord, but was accepted because of its stubborn insistence (n. 4290, 4293, 7051, 7439). For that nation, more than all other nations in the whole world, could practice fasting, lie on the ground, roll themselves in ashes, and be in mourning for whole days together, and not desist till they obtained what they wanted.  But this insistence was solely for their own sake, namely, from a most ardent love of self and of the world, and not for the sake of the Divine. They who are such are indeed heard, and yet they do not receive into themselves anything of heaven and the church; but only such things as are of the world, provided they persevere in the statutes and laws in their outward form.  From this it is that in the other life they are among the infernals, except some who have been in good, and except their little children. From this it is evident that by “thou suffer Me” is signified that there should not be so stubborn an insistence.

AC 10431. That one anger may wax hot against them, and that I may consume them.  That this signifies that in so doing they turn themselves away from internal things, thus from things Divine, so that they must needs perish, is evident from the signification of “anger waxing hot,” when said of Jehovah, as being a turning away on the part of man, and from the signification of “consuming,” when also said of Jehovah, as being to perish in consequence of their own evil. In many passages of the Word it is said of Jehovah that He burns with anger and is wroth, and also that He consumes and destroys.  But it is so said because it so appears to the man who turns himself away from the Lord, as is the case when he does evil; and as then he is not heard, and is even punished, he believes that the Lord is in anger against him; although the Lord is never angry, and never consumes, for He is mercy itself and good itself.  From this it is evident what is the nature of the Word as to the letter, namely, that it is according to the appearance with man.  In like manner it is said that “Jehovah repents,” as in what follows, when yet Jehovah never repents, for He foresees all things from eternity; from which it can be seen into how many errors those fall who when reading the Word do not think beyond the sense of the letter, thus who read it without doctrine from the Word to teach them how the case really is.  For they who read the Word in accordance with doctrine know that Jehovah is mercy itself and good itself, and that it cannot possibly be said of infinite mercy and infinite good that it burns with anger and consumes. Wherefore from this doctrine they know and see that it is so said according to the appearance presented to man. That anger and evil are from man, and not from the Lord, and that nevertheless they are attributed to the Lord, (n. 9306); and that “anger,” when said of the Lord, denotes man’s turning away from the Lord, (n. 5034, 5798, 8483, 8875).

AC 10432. And I will make thee into a great nation. That this signifies that the Word elsewhere would be good and excellent, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372); and from the signification of “nation,” as being those who are in good, thus abstractedly from person, good (n. 1258, 1260, 1416, 1849, 6005, 8771). Mention is made in the Word throughout of “nation” and “people,” and by “nation” are signified those who are in good, and by “people” those who are in truth, or abstractedly from persons, by “nation” is signified good, and by “people,” truth (n. 10288). When therefore the Word is signified by “Moses,” then by “a nation from him” is signified good from the Word.

[2] The case herein is this: The sons of Israel were accepted because the Word could be written among them, the external or literal sense of which consists of mere external things to which internal things correspond. Such were all the representatives among the Israelitish nation, and as that nation was of such a nature in externals, therefore the Word could be written among them. From this it is evident that when by “Moses” is meant the Word, and when it is said of the Israelitish nation that it should be consumed or perish, and that then Jehovah would make Moses into a great nation, this signifies that the Word might be written elsewhere so as to be good and excellent.

[3] That this is the sense of these words does not appear in the letter, and yet it may be known from the fact that the names of persons do not enter heaven, but are there turned into the things which they signify.  For example, when the names “Abraham,” “Isaac,” “Jacob,” “Moses,” “Aaron,” “David,” and those of others are mentioned, it is quite unknown there that these persons are understood by man.  They at once vanish away there and put on a spiritual sense, which is the sense of the things signified by these persons. From this it is evident what is the sense of these words in heaven concerning Moses, that “he should become a great nation.”

AC 10433. And Moses besought the faces of Jehovah his God. That this signifies that the Lord in mercy remembered, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 10432); from the signification of “faces,” when said of Jehovah, as being mercy and all good (n. 222, 223, 5585, 7599, 9306, 9546); and from the signification of “to beseech,” as being to remember, for when by “Moses” is meant the Word, then “beseeching” does not signify beseeching, but that which is in accord with that of which it is said, here the Word. That “Jehovah” in the Word denotes the Lord, (n. 9373).

AC 10434. And said, Wherefore O Jehovah shall Thine anger wax hot.  That this signifies the turning away of that nation, is evident from the signification of “waxing hot with anger,” when said of Jehovah, as being the turning away of the man who is in evil (n. 10431).

AC 10435. Against Thy people which Thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt.  That this signifies elevation even from this, is evident from the signification of “to bring forth out of the land of Egypt,” as being to be raised from external things to internal (n. 10421).

AC 10436. With great power and with a strong hand. That this signifies by virtue of Divine power, is evident from the signification of “great power and a strong hand,” when said of Jehovah, as being Divine power (n. 7188, 7189, 8050, 8069, 8153).  How the case is herein and heretofore, can be seen from the series of things in the internal sense, which is that although the Israelitish nation was in external things without what is internal, insomuch that they could not be raised at all toward interior things, still the representative of a church could be instituted among them, and the Word could be written there, for the reason that by virtue of the Divine power, there could nevertheless be communication with heaven by external things without what is internal; and thus a similar effect could be produced as if they were at the same time in what is internal (on which see what was shown concerning that nation in the places cited above, (n. 10396); as that by the external things with them, which were representative of interior things, there was communication with heaven by virtue of the Divine power of the Lord, (n. 4311, 4444, 6304, 8588, 8788, 8806).

[2] Be it known that the church is not the church from external worship, but from internal worship; for external worship is of the body, but internal worship is of the soul.  Consequently external worship without internal is of the outward act only, thus is worship without life from the Divine.  Through the interior things of worship the man of the church communicates with the heavens, to which the external serves as a plane upon which the interior things may subsist, as a house upon its foundations; and when it so subsists it is complete and firm, and the whole man is directed by the Divine.

[3] Such was the man of the ancient Church, which also was a representative church, and therefore that church was accepted by the Lord, as is evident from many passages in the Word; for example, it is described in the song of Moses (Deut. 32:3-14).  But such a church could not be instituted among the Israelitish and Jewish nation, for the reason, as before said, that their interiors were filthy, thus were utterly contrary to the good of celestial love and the good of faith, which are the interior things of worship. Therefore when they so obstinately insisted that they should come into the land of Canaan, which was the same thing as representing the church, it was provided by the Lord that there should nevertheless be communication with heaven by means of their merely external worship; for the end of all worship is communication with heaven, and thereby the conjunction of the Lord with man.  These are the things here treated of in the internal sense.

AC 10437. Wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying. That this signifies those who are in mere external things concerning those who are being raised into internal things, is evident from the representation of the Egyptians, as being those who are in mere external things; and from the signification of “speak, saying,” as being concerning those who are being raised into internal things, for in the internal sense these are treated of in what presently follows. The reason why by the Egyptians are represented those who are in mere external things, is that in ancient times the Egyptians were of those with whom there was a representative church; for this church was spread through many regions of Asia, and at that time the Egyptians were above all others in the science of correspondences and representations belonging to that church, for they were acquainted with the internal things which the external ones represented and consequently signified. But in course of time the like befell them as befell others among whom the church was instituted, in that from being internal men they became external, and at last did not care about internal things, but made all worship to consist in external things.

[2] When this came to pass with the Egyptians also, the science of correspondences and of representations, in which they were versed above all the rest of the nations of Asia, was turned into magic, as is the case when the internal things of worship, which are of love and faith, are blotted out, the external representative worship still remaining, together with the knowledge of the interior things which are represented. As the Egyptians became such, therefore by them in the Word is signified the memory-knowledge of such things, and also what is external or natural; and as this without what is internal is either magical or idolatrous, both of which are infernal, therefore by “Egypt” is also signified hell. From this it is evident whence it is that by “wherefore should the Egyptians speak, saying,” are signified those who are in mere external things.

[3] That in Egypt also there was a representative church, (n. 7097, 7296, 9391); and that “Egypt” denotes the memory-knowledge of such things in both senses, (n. 1164, 1165, 1186, 1462, 2588, 4749, 4964, 4966, 5700, 5702, 6004, 6015, 6125, 6651, 6673, 6679, 6683, 6750, 7926); that “Egypt” denotes what is natural or external, (n. 4967, 5079, 5080, 5095, 5160, 5276, 5278, 5280, 5288, 5301, 5799, 6004, 6015, 6147, 6252, 7353, 7355, 7648); and that “Egypt” denotes hell, (n. 7039, 7097, 7107, 7110, 7126, 7142, 7220, 7228, 7240, 7278, 7307, 7317, 8049, 8132, 8135, 8138, 8146, 8148, 8866, 9197).

AC 10438. Into evil did He bring them forth, to slay them in the mountains. That this signifies that those who are in good  will perish, is evident from the signification of “bringing forth to slay,” as being to destroy; but when said of Jehovah who never destroys anyone, it denotes to perish by their own evil; and from the signification of “mountains,” as being heaven, and from this the good of love. That by “mountains” is signified heaven, is from the representatives in the other life; for there, as upon earth, appear mountains, hills, rocks, valleys, and many other things; and upon the mountains are those who are in celestial love, upon the hills those who are in spiritual love, upon the rocks those who are in faith, and in the valleys those who have not as yet been carried up to the good of love and of faith.

[2] From this it is that by “mountains” are signified those who are in the good of celestial love, thus who are in the inmost heaven, and in the abstract sense the goods of celestial love, thus the heaven which is in this love; that by“ hills” are signified those who are in the good of spiritual love, thus who are in the middle heaven, and in the abstract sense the good of this love and the heaven which is in it; that by “rocks” are signified those who are in the good of faith and from this are in the ultimate heaven, and in the abstract sense this good and this heaven; and that by “valleys” are signified those who have not yet been carried up to these goods, thus to heaven. As such things appear in the other life, consequently such things are signified by them, therefore similar things are signified by them in the Word, and similar things are signified by the mountains, hills, rocks, and valleys in the land of Canaan, by which land was therefore represented heaven in its complex.

[3] That “mountains” signify the heaven where is the good of celestial love, is manifest from many passages in the Word, as from the following:--

In the futurity of days the mountain of Jehovah shall be at the head of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills (Isa. 2:2; Micah 4:1).

The mountains shall bring peace, and the hills in righteousness (Ps. 72:3).

Praise Jehovah ye mountains, and all hills (Ps. 148:9).

A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan; a mountain of hills is the mountain of Bashan. Why leap ye, ye mountains, ye hills of mountains; God did desire to dwell in it; Jehovah also shall dwell forever (Ps. 68:15, 16).

Concerning the chief things of the mountains of the east, and concerning the precious things of the hills of an age; let them come on the head of Joseph (Deut. 33:15, 16).

Besides in other places (n. 795, 6435, 8327, 8658, 8758, 9422, 9434). It is for this reason that the Lord descended upon Mount Sinai, and it is for this reason that the city of David was built upon a mountain, and that this mountain, which was called “Mount Zion,” signifies the inmost heaven; and for this reason also it is that the ancients performed the holy rites of worship upon mountains and hills (n. 2722).

AC 10439. And to consume them from upon the faces of the earth. That this signifies that those who are of the church will perish, is evident from the signification of“ consuming,” as being to destroy, but when it is said of Jehovah, who does not destroy anyone, it denotes to perish by their own evil; and from the signification of “the earth,” as being the church (n. 9325, 10373).

AC 10440. Turn back from the wrath of Thine anger. That this signifies that thus the turning away of that nation will not be hurtful, is evident from the signification of “the wrath of anger,” when said of Jehovah, as being a turning away on the part of man (n. 10431). Thus “to turn back from the wrath of anger” denotes that the turning away will not be hurtful. How the case herein is, is evident from what has been said and shown in what precedes.

AC 10441. And repent Thee of the evil to thy people. That this signifies mercy for them, is evident from the signification of “repenting,” when said of Jehovah, as being to be merciful. That “to repent” denotes to be merciful is because Jehovah never repents, for He foresees and provides all things from eternity.  Repentance is applicable only to him who does not know the future, and who, when the thing comes to pass, finds that he has erred. Yet it is so said in the Word concerning Jehovah, because the sense of the letter is taken from such things as appear with man, because it is for the very simple, and for little children, who at first go no further. Both the simple and little children are in the most external things, with which they begin, and in which afterward their interiors terminate. Wherefore the Word in the letter is to be understood differently by those who have become wiser.

[2] In this respect the Word resembles man, whose interiors terminate in flesh and bones, which contain them, insomuch that man could not subsist unless these served as a basis or support, for he would have no ultimate in which interior things might terminate, and on which they might rest.  The case is similar with the Word. It must have an ultimate in which interior things may terminate; and this ultimate is the sense of the letter; while its interiors are the heavenly things which are of the internal sense.  From this it is now plain why from the appearance presented to man it is said that “Jehovah repents,” when yet He does not repent.

[3] That “repenting” is said of Jehovah is evident from many passages in the Word, as from the following:--

If (that nation) do evil in My eyes, that it obey not My voice, I will repent of the good wherewith I said I would benefit them (Jer. 18:10).

It may be they will hearken, and turn every man from his evil way, and it repent Me of the evil which I purpose to do unto them because of the wickedness of their works (Jer. 26:3).

When Mine anger is consummated, and I make My wrath to rest upon them, it shall repent Me (Ezek. 5:13).

Jehovah repented, and said, It shall not be (Amos 7:3, 6).

Jehovah shall judge His people, and shall repent Him for His servant (Deut. 32:36).

The king of Nineveh said, Who knoweth whether God will not turn back and repent, that He may turn back from the heat of His anger, that we perish not? And they turned from their evil way; therefore it repented God of the evil which He had said He would do to them, that He did it not (Jonah 3:9, 10).

It repented Jehovah that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart (Gen. 6:6).

It repenteth Me that I have made Saul to be king; for he hath turned away from following Me (1 Sam. 15:11, 35).

[4] In these passages Jehovah is said to have “repented,” when yet it cannot be that He repents, because He knows all things before He does them; from which it is evident that by “repenting” is signified mercy.  That Jehovah never repents is also evident from the Word, as in these passages:--

Jehovah is not a man that He should lie, nor the son of man that He should repent. Hath He said, and shall He not do? or hath He spoken, and shall He not establish it? (Num. 18:19).

The unconquered One of Israel doth not lie, nor repent; for He is not a man that He should repent (1 Sam. 15:29).

That “repenting,” when said of Jehovah, denotes mercy, is plain in these passages:--

Jehovah is gracious and merciful, long suffering, and great in compassion, who is wont to repent of the evil (Joel 2:13).

God is gracious and merciful, and great in kindness, and repenteth Him of the evil (Jonah 4:2).

AC 10442. Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel Thy servants. That this signifies for the sake of heaven and the church, is evident from the signification of “Abraham, Isaac, and Israel,” as being the Lord in respect to the Divine Human, thus to His Divine in heaven and in the church. And as the Divine of the Lord makes heaven and the church, therefore by these names are also signified heaven and the church. That these things are signified in the Word by “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob,” (n. 1965, 3305, 4615, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6589, 6804, 6847); and likewise by “Israel,” (n. 4286, 4570, 8805, 9340). That such things are signified by “Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob” is evident from the Lord‘s words in Matthew:--

I say unto you that many shall come from the east and the west, and shall recline with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of the heavens (Matt. 8:11);

where “to recline with them” denotes to be in heaven where the Lord is. That such is the signification is evident also from the fact that names do not enter heaven, but the heavenly and Divine things which are signified by them (n. 10216, 10282).

AC 10443. To whom Thou swarest by Thyself. That this signifies confirmation by the Divine, is evident from the signification of “swearing,” when said of the Lord, as being irrevocable confirmation by the Divine (n. 2842).

AC 10444. And spake unto them. That this signifies foresight and providence, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when said of confirmation by the Divine, as being foresight and providence (n. 5361, 6946, 5951, 8095).

AC 10445. I will multiply your seed as the stars of the heavens.  That this signifies goods and truths, and the knowledges of these, is evident from the signification of “seed,” when said of heaven and the church, as being the good and truth therein (n. 1940, 3038, 3310, 3373, 3671, 6158, 10249); and from the signification of “stars,” as being the knowledges of good and truth (n. 2495, 2849, 4697).  In the sense of the letter, by “multiplying the seed of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel as the stars of the heavens,” is meant to multiply without number the Israelitish and Jewish nation.  But as by the names in the Word are signified spiritual and celestial realities, and by the above names heaven and the church, therefore by their “seed” are signified the goods and truths which are in heaven and in the church.  It is said “as the stars of the heavens” for the reason that the comparatives also in the Word are from significatives (n. 3579, 8989); in this case comparison is made with the stars of the heavens, because by these are signified goods and truths in respect to knowledges.

AC 10446. And all this land that I have said will I give to your seed. That this signifies from which are heaven and the church, is evident from the signification of “land” or “earth,” as being the church (n. 9325), and as the church is signified by “land” or “earth,” heaven also is signified, for the church is the Lord’s heaven upon earth, and the church also acts as one with heaven, because the one comes forth and subsists from the other; and from the signification of “seed,” as being the good and truth therein (n. 10445).

AC 10447. And they shall inherit it for an age.  That this signifies eternal life, is evident from the signification of “inheriting,” when said of heaven, as being to have the Lord‘s life, thus to have the life of heaven (n. 2658, 2851, 3672, 7212, 9338); and from the signification of “an age,” as being what is eternal (n. 10248).

AC 10448. And Jehovah repented of the evil which He said He would do to His people. That this signifies mercy for them, may be seen above (n. 10441).

AC 10449. Verses 15-20.  And Moses looked back, and came down from the mountain, and the two tables of the Testimony were in his hand; the tables were written on the two crossings, hereupon and hereupon were they written.  And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.  And Joshua heard the voice of the people in their shouting, and he said unto Moses, There is a voice of war in the camp. And he said, It is not the voice of a cry for victory, neither is it the voice of a cry for being overcome: the voice of a miserable cry do I hear. And it came to pass, as he came nigh unto the camp, that he saw the calf and the dances; and Moses waxed hot with anger, and he cast the tables out of his hand, and brake them beneath the mountain. And he took the calf which they had made, and burnt it with fire, and ground it even to powder, and strewed it upon the faces of the waters, and made the sons of Israel drink. “And Moses looked back and came down from the mountain,” signifies the Word let down from heaven; “and the two tables of the Testimony were in his hand,” signifies the Word of the Lord in special and in general; “the tables were written on the two crossings, hereupon and hereupon were they written,” signifies by which there is the conjunction of the Lord with the human race, or of heaven with the world; “and the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables,” signifies that the external and the internal sense of the Word were from the Divine, and are Divine truth; “and Joshua heard the voice of the people in their shouting,” signifies survey and taking notice in respect to the quality of the interiors of that nation; “and he said unto Moses, There is a voice of war in the camp,” signifies an assault upon the truth and good which are of heaven and of the church, by falsities and evils which are from hell; “and he said, It is not the voice of a cry for victory, neither is it the voice of a cry for being overcome,” signifies heaven acting on one side and hell on the other, thus falsity against truth and truth against falsity; “the voice of a miserable cry do I hear,” signifies the lamentable state of their interiors; “and it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp,” signifies hell, in which that nation then was; “that he saw the calf and the dances,” signifies infernal worship, which was according to the delight of the external loves of that nation, and its consequent interior festivity; “and Moses waxed hot with anger,” signifies the turning away of that nation from the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship; “and he cast the tables out of his hand, and brake them beneath the mountain,” signifies the external sense of the Word changed and different on account of that nation; “and he took the calf which they had made,” signifies the delight of the idolatrous worship of that nation; “and burnt it with fire,” signifies derived altogether from the loves of self and the world, which are condemned to hell; “and ground it even to powder,” signifies the infernal falsity therefrom; “and strewed it upon the faces of the waters,” signifies commixture with truths; “and made the sons of Israel drink,” signifies conjoined and appropriated to that nation.

AC 10450. And Moses looked back, and came down from the mountain. That this signifies the Word let down from heaven, is evident from the signification of “looking back and coming down,” when said concerning the Word, as being to be let down; from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372); and from the signification of “Mount Sinai,” as being heaven, out of which comes Divine truth (n. 9420).

AC 10451. And the two tables of the Testimony were in his hand. That this signifies the Word of the Lord in special and in general, is evident from the signification of “the tables” upon which the ten commandments were written, as being the Word in the whole complex (n. 9416); and from the signification of “the Testimony,” as being the Lord in respect to Divine truth (n. 9503). The reason why by these tables is signified the Word in the whole complex, thus in special and in general, is that upon them was written the law of life, and by the law in a restricted sense are meant the ten commandments, in a less restricted sense is meant the Word written by Moses, in a broader sense the historic Word, and in the broadest sense the whole Word (n. 6752). Moreover because Mount Sinai, where the law was written upon these tables, signified heaven, out of which comes Divine truth, and Moses represented the Word, which is Divine truth itself from the Lord, therefore as a sign of this representation the tables were in his hands.

AC 10452. The tables were written on the two crossings, hereupon and hereupon were they written. That this signifies whereby there is the conjunction of the Lord with the human race, or of heaven with the world, is evident from the signification of “the tables upon which the law was written,” as being the Word in the whole complex (n. 10451).  That the writing was “on the two crossings, hereupon and hereupon,” signifies the conjunction of the Lord with the human race, as you will see unfolded in (n. 9416, 10375); wherefore also these tables were called “the tables of the covenant,” for “covenant” denotes conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778, 9396).

[2] As the conjunction of the Lord with the human race by means of the Word is here spoken of, or that of heaven with the world, it must be told how the case is with regard to this.  They who do not know the nature of the Word, cannot possibly believe that by means of it there is a conjunction of the Lord with the human race, and of heaven with the world; and still less they who despise the Word, or make no account of it.  But let them know that the heavens subsist by means of Divine truth, and that without it there would be no heavens, and that the human race subsists by means of heaven; for unless heaven flowed in with man, man would not be able to think at all, thus not to will anything rationally. In order therefore that heaven may subsist, and the human race by conjunction with it, the Word has been provided by the Lord, wherein is Divine truth for angels and for men, the Word in its spiritual and celestial sense being of such a nature as to contain within it angelic wisdom itself in so surpassing a degree that it is scarcely possible for a man to form any conception of its excellence, although in the letter it appears very simple and unpolished.

[3] From this it is evident that heaven is in its wisdom from the Word when it is being read by man, and then at the same time the man is in conjunction with heaven. To this end has such a Word been given to man. From this it follows that if this medium of conjunction were not in the world, conjunction with heaven would perish, and with this conjunction all good of the will and all truth of the understanding in man, and with these that very humanity which consociates man with man; consequently evil and falsity would be in full possession, whereby one society would perish after another. For it would be as when a man walks in thick darkness and stumbles wherever he goes; and it would be as when the head is in a delirium, in consequence of which the body is carried madly and insanely even to its destruction; and it would be as when the heart fails, causing the organs and members to cease to perform their uses, until the whole body dies.

[4] Such would be the state of man unless heaven were conjoined with him, and heaven would not be conjoined with him unless there were the Word; or unless Divine truth were communicated immediately through angels, as in ancient times.  When heaven is mentioned, the Divine also is meant, for the Divine of the Lord makes heaven; so that to be conjoined with heaven is to be conjoined with the Lord; and to be disjoined from heaven is to be disjoined from the Lord; and to be disjoined from the Lord is to perish; for the whole disposal of things for good, which is called Providence, is from this source; and were such disposal removed, all things would rush into evil, and so into devastation. From all this it can be seen what is the use of the Word; but few will believe that the Word is of such a nature and of so great a use.

AC 10453. And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God, graven upon the tables.  That this signifies that the external and the internal sense of the Word were from the Divine, and are Divine truth, is evident from the signification of “the tables,” as being the Word in the whole complex (n. 10452), but here the external of the Word; from the signification of “the work of God,” as being that it was from the Divine; from the signification of “the writing,” as being the internal of the Word, consequently “the writing of God,” denotes the internal of the Word from the Divine; and from the signification of “graven upon the tables,” as being the internal above the external, thus within it.

[2] That “the tables” here signify the external of the Word, is because they are here distinguished from the writing, which denotes its internal.  But when they are not distinguished from the writing, then by “the tables” is signified the internal and the external of the Word together, thus the Word in the whole complex (n. 10452).  The reason why they are here distinguished, is that the tables were broken, and yet the same words were afterward written by Jehovah upon other tables which were hewn out by Moses.  The external of the Word is the sense of its letter.  This sense of the letter is signified by “the tables” because this sense is like a table, or a plane, upon which the internal sense has been written.

[3] That the tables which were the work of God were broken by Moses when he saw the calf and the dances, and that by command of Jehovah other tables were hewn out by Moses, and on these were afterward written the same words, and thus that the tables were no longer the work of God, but the work of Moses, whereas the writing was still the writing of God, involves a secret as yet unknown.  The secret is that the sense of the letter of the Word would have been different if the Word had been written among a different people, or if that people had not been such as it was. For the sense of the letter of the Word treats of that people, because the Word was written among them, as is plain from both the historic and the prophetic parts of the Word, and that people was in evil, because at heart it was idolatrous; and yet in order that the internal and the external sense might agree together, that people had to be lauded, and to be called the people of God, a holy nation, a peculiar possession; consequently the simple, who were to be instructed by the external sense of the Word, had to believe that that nation was such as it is called; as also that nation itself believes, and as also believe very many of the Christian world at this day.  Moreover also many things are present in the external sense of the Word, and make it, that were permitted them on account of the hardness of their hearts, such as those mentioned in (Matthew 19:8), and other things also which are here passed by.

[4] As therefore the sense of the letter of the Word was made such for the sake of that people, therefore those tables which were the work of God were broken, and at the command of Jehovah others were hewn out by Moses. But whereas the same Divine holiness was still within, therefore the same words which had been written upon the former tables were written by Jehovah on the latter, as is plain from these words in Moses:--

Jehovah said unto Moses, New thee two tables of stone like unto the first, that I may write upon the tables the words that were on the first tables, which thou brakest.  And Jehovah wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten words (Exod.  34:1, 4, 28).

At that time Jehovah said unto me, Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first, and I will write on the tables the words that were on the first tables which thou brakest. And Jehovah wrote on the tables, according to the first writing, the ten words, and Jehovah gave them unto me (Deut. 10:1-4).

[5] That Jehovah did not acknowledge that people as His own people (although it was so said for the sake of the agreement of the internal sense with the external), but as the people of Moses, is evident in these passages:--

Thy people have corrupted themselves, which thou madest to come up out of the land of Egypt. Go, lead the people unto the place I told thee (Exod. 32:7, 34).

Jehovah spake unto Moses, Go up, thou and the people which thou hast made to come up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. And I will send an angel before thee; for I will not go up in the midst of thee, for thou art a stiffnecked people (Exod. 33:1-3).

[6] The like is signified by Moses being put in a cleft of the rock, and not being allowed to see the faces of Jehovah, but only the back parts (Exod. 33:22, 23); and in like manner by Moses, when the skin of his face shone, putting a veil over his face when he spake to the sons of Israel (Exod. 34:30-35). What the quality of that people was to be, is foretold by Jehovah to Abraham, when it was His will that his seed should inherit the land of Canaan, and it is said:--

After Abraham had divided a heifer of three years old, and a she-goat of three years old, and a ram of three years old, in the midst, which were for entering into a covenant, a deep sleep fell upon Abraham, and behold a terror of great darkness falling upon him. And when the sun was set, there was thick darkness; and behold a furnace of smoke, and a torch of fire that passed between those pieces (Gen. 15:9, 10, 12, 17).

AC 10454. And Joshua heard the voice of the people in their shouting.  That this signifies survey and taking notice in respect to the quality of the interiors of that nation, is evident from the signification of “hearing,” as being survey and taking notice, for the subject now treated of is that nation in respect to its quality interiorly, thus in respect to the quality of its interiors; from the representation of Joshua, as being the truth of the Word surveying and taking notice, for he was the minister of Moses, and by Moses was represented the Word, consequently by the minister is represented truth, for all truth is of the Word, here truth surveying, exploring, and taking notice; and from the signification of “the voice of the people in their shouting,” as being what was the quality of that nation interiorly, thus what was the quality of its interiors.  For by “voice” in the Word is signified interior voice, which is thought, consequently the interior quality in respect to truth or falsity, because thought is from the one or the other (n. 219, 220, 3563, 7573, 8813, 9926).  But by “shouting” is signified what is articulate of sound, whether of speech, or of singing, or of shouting, that proceeds from the thought, which is the interior voice. Therefore by “hearing the voice in their shouting” is signified a taking notice, from the sound as an index, in respect to the quality of the interiors. For the tone, or sound, whether of speech, or of singing, or of shouting, proceeds from the interior affection and thought; these are both in the sound, and are also noticed by those who attend and reflect; as for example whether it is angry, threatening, friendly, gentle, glad, mournful, and so forth.  In the other life this is perceived so exquisitely that from the sound of one word the angels perceive what the quality of anyone is in respect to his interiors. This then is what is signified by “hearing the voice of the people in their shouting.”

AC 10455. And he said unto Moses, There is a voice of war in the camp.  That this signifies an assault upon the truth and good which are of heaven and of the church, by falsities and evils which are from hell, is evident from the signification of “voice,” as being the thought and affection which are the interiors of the voice, thus the quality of the interiors (n. 10454); from the signification of “war,” as being the combat of truth from good with falsity from evil; and in the opposite sense, the combat of falsity from evil against truth from good; and from the signification of “the camp,” as being the church and heaven, for these were represented by the camp of the sons of Israel (n. 10038). From this it is evident that by “a voice of war in the camp” is signified an assault upon the truth and the good of the church and of heaven by falsities and evils which are from hell. It is said “from hell,” because all falsities and evils are from thence, and because here by “the camp,” when the golden calf was worshiped in it, is signified hell (n. 10458).

[2] That these things are signified by “a voice of war in the camp,” is because the subject now treated of in the internal sense is the interiors of the Israelitish nation, which were so opposed to the truths and goods of the church and of heaven as utterly to reject them.  For the interiors of that nation were possessed by the loves of self and of the world, and where these loves reign, there the truths and goods of the church are continually being assaulted, however much in worship the externals appear to be holy. With such persons the holiness of worship is a means, and eminence and wealth are the ends. Thus those things which are of heaven and the church are means, and those things which are of the world and of self are ends; and the end regarded has command in a man, and the means serve; from which it follows that with such persons heaven serves and the world rules; consequently that the world is in the highest place, thus in the place of the head; and heaven is in a lower place, thus in the place of the foot. Wherefore if heaven does not favor their loves, it is then cast down beneath the feet, and is trodden and trampled upon. Such is the inversion with those among whom the loves of self and of the world reign.  From this also it is that when such persons are viewed by the angels, they appear upside down, with the head downward and the feet upward.

[3] The reason why “war” denotes the combat with truth and falsity, and in the opposite sense the combat of falsity against truth, is that in the spiritual sense “war” is nothing else. Such combats are also signified in the internal sense by “wars” in the historicals of the Word; also by “wars” in the propheticals, as can be seen from passages above adduced from the Word (n. 1664, 8273). He who does not know that by “wars” in the Word are signified wars in a spiritual sense, cannot know what is involved in the things related concerning wars in Daniel 7, 8, 9; and the Apocalypse throughout; and in the Gospels, where the last times of the church are foretold (Matt.  24:5-7; Mark 13:7, 8). Hence also it is that all instruments of war, such as swords, spears, shields, bows, arrows, and many others, signify such things as belong to spiritual combat (of which throughout in these explications).

AC 10456. And he said, It is not the voice of a cry for victory, neither is it the voice of a cry for being overcome. That this signifies heaven acting on the one side and hell on the other, thus falsity against truth and truth against falsity, is evident from the signification of “the voice of a cry,” or of “the voice in shouting,” as being the quality of the interiors of that nation (n. 10454); and from the signification of “not for victory, and not for being overcome,” as being the hanging of the combat between falsity and truth, and no decision.  And whereas all falsity is from hell, and all truth is from heaven, by the same words is signified that heaven acts on one side and hell on the other. That a “cry” denotes falsity, (n. 2240); that it denotes thought with the full intention of acting, (n. 7119); and that it denotes interior lamentation, (n. 7782). By these words is described the state of the interiors of that nation, in which they are when hell acts with them against heaven, and heaven against hell, thus when they are held between the two, which was the case when they were in external worship while their internal was closed.  The latter was closed to the intent that nevertheless there might be a communication with heaven by means of external things, which were representative of interior ones, which subject has been treated of above.

AC 10457. But the voice of a miserable cry do I hear. That this signifies the lamentable state of their interiors, is evident from the signification of “the voice of a miserable cry,” as being what is lamentable; for in the original tongue this is expressed by a term which means “a cry,” and “affection,” and also “misery,” thus which means “a miserable cry;” and when “voice” signifies the quality of the interiors (n. 10454), then “the voice of a miserable cry” signifies the lamentable state of the interiors.

AC 10458. And it came to pass, as soon as he came nigh unto the camp.  That this signifies hell, in which that nation then was, is evident from the signification of “the camp of the sons of Israel,” as being heaven and the church (n. 4236, 10038) consequently when they were in idolatrous worship, adoring a calf instead of Jehovah, by their “camp” is signified hell; for what is representative of heaven and of the church is turned into what is representative of hell when the people turn themselves from Divine worship to diabolical worship, such as was the worship of the calf.  The like is signified by “camp” in Amos:--

I have sent among you the pestilence in the way of Egypt; your young men have I slain with the sword, with the captivity of your horses; so that I have made the stink of your camp to come up even into your nose (Amos 4:10);

the vastation of truth is here treated of, and when this is vastated, the “camp” signifies hell.  That the vastation of truth is treated of is evident from the details of the passage as viewed in the internal sense; for “pestilence” denotes vastation (n. 7102, 7505); “way” denotes truth, and in the opposite sense falsity (n. 10422); “Egypt” denotes what is external, and also hell (n. 10437); “a sword” denotes falsity fighting against truth (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); “young men” denote the truths of the church (n. 7668); “to be slain” denotes to perish spiritually (n. 6767, 8902); “captivity” denotes the privation of truth (n. 7990); “horses” denote an understanding which is enlightened (n. 2760-2762, 3217, 5321, 6125, 6534); and “a stink” denotes what is abominable exhaling from hell (n. 7161).  From this it is evident that in this sense a “camp” denotes hell.  Hell is also signified by the “camp” of the enemies who were against Jerusalem, and in general against the sons of Israel, in the historicals of the Word.

AC 10459. That he saw the calf and the dances.  That this signifies infernal worship, which was according to the delight of the external loves of that nation, and its consequent interior festivity, is evident from the signification of “the calf,” as being the delight of the external loves of that nation (n. 10407); that it here denotes worship according to this delight, is because when Moses came nigh unto the camp, that nation was in such worship; and that such worship is from hell, is evident from what was shown above; and from the signification of “the dances,” as being interior festivity (n. 10416).

AC 10460. And Moses waxed hot with anger.  That this signifies the turning away of that nation from the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship, is evident from “to wax hot with anger,” when said concerning the Lord, as being the turning away of man from things internal, thus from things Divine (n. 10431). The like is signified by “waxing hot with anger” when predicated of Moses, because by Moses is represented the Word, or the Divine truth which is from the Lord; or what is the same, the Lord in respect to Divine truth. Concerning which representation see (n. 9372). It is said “from the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship,” for he who turns himself away from the internal of the Word, also turns himself away from the internal of the church, and likewise from the internal of worship, because the internal of the church and the internal of worship are from the internal of the Word. For the Word teaches what must be the quality of the man of the church, or what must be the quality of the church with man, and likewise what must be the quality of worship with the man of the church; because it is the goods and truths of love and of faith that make the internal church, and also internal worship. The Word teaches these goods and truths, and these are the internal things of the Word.

AC 10461. And he cast the tables out of his hand, and brake them beneath the mountain. That this signifies the external sense of the Word changed and different on account of that nation, is evident from the signification of the “tables” upon which the law was written, as being the external sense of the Word, or the sense of its letter (n. 10453); from the signification of “casting them out of the hand and breaking them,” as being to destroy the genuine external sense, thus also to change and make it different (that the external sense of the Word was changed and made different on account of the Israelitish nation, (n. 10453); and from the signification of “Mount Sinai,” as being heaven from which is Divine truth (n. 9420). It is said “beneath the mountain,” because the external sense of the Word is beneath heaven, whereas the internal sense is in heaven.

AC 10462. And he took the calf which they had made. That this signifies the delight of the idolatrous worship of that nation, is evident from the signification of “the calf,” as being the delight of the external loves of the Israelitish nation, from which and according to which was their worship, which was idolatrous (n. 10407, 10459).

AC 10463. And burnt it with fire. That this signifies derived altogether from the loves of self and of the world, which are condemned to hell, is evident from the signification of “fire,” as being heavenly love, which is love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor; and in the opposite sense infernal love, which is the love of self and the love of the world (n. 4906, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324, 7575, 10055); consequently to be “burned with fire” denotes to be completely filled with the loves of self and of the world, thus to be condemned to hell; for when these loves reign they are hell in man.  From all this it is evident what is signified by the “hell fire” spoken of in the Word throughout.

AC 10464. And ground it to powder.  That this signifies the infernal falsity thence derived, is evident from the signification of “to grind to powder,” or into what is most minute, as being to form falsity from infernal delight, thus as being infernal falsity. That this is signified by “grinding,” when said of evil, (n. 4335, 9995, 10303).

AC 10465. And strewed it upon the faces of the waters.  That this signifies commixture with truths, is evident from the signification of “ waters,” as being truths (n. 10238); and as it is said that the powder into which the calf was ground was “strewed upon the waters,” therefore it is signified that falsity from infernal delight was mixed with the truths which are from heaven.  The reason why by these “waters” are signified truths which are from heaven, is that these waters descended from Mount Sinai, and by “Mount Sinai” is signified heaven from which is Divine truth (n. 9420) That these waters were from thence is evident elsewhere in Moses:--

I took your sin, the call which ye had made, and burnt it with fire, and pounded it, grinding it well, until it was as fine as dust; and I cast the dust thereof into the brook that descended out of the mountain (Deut. 9:21).

AC 10466. And made the sons of Israel drink.  That this signifies conjoined and appropriated to that nation, is evident from the signification of “drinking,” as being to conjoin and appropriate to one’s self truth, and in the opposite sense falsity (n. 3089, 3168, 8562), here, the falsity of evil.  By “the sons of Israel” is meant that nation without any other meaning, because that which is its own is here treated of.  From these considerations it can now be seen what was the quality of that nation in respect to their interiors, because these are described in this chapter.

AC 10467. Verses 21-25. And Moses said unto Aaron, What did this people to thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them?  And Aaron said, Let not thine anger wax hot, my lord; thou knowest the people, that it is in evil; and they said unto me, Make us gods which shall go before us; for as for this Moses, the man that made us come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him. And I said to them, Whosoever hath any gold, tear ye it off; and they gave it me; and I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf. And Moses saw that the people was lax, for Aaron had made them lax unto annihilation by those rising up against them. “And Moses said unto Aaron,” signifies perception from the internal concerning such an external; “What did this people to thee, that thou hast brought so great as in upon them?” signifies whence is it that this nation has so turned itself away from the Divine; “and Aaron said,” signifies that it was perceived; “Let not thine anger wax hot, my lord,” signifies let not the internal turn itself away on this account; “thou knowest the people, that it is in evil,” signifies that that nation is in an external separate from a holy internal; “and they said unto me,” signifies exhortation; “Make us gods which shall go before us,” signifies falsities of doctrine and of worship, thus things idolatrous; “for as for this Moses, the man that made us come up out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him,” signifies that it is altogether unknown what other Divine truth there is in the Word, which raises man from what is external to what is internal, and makes the church; “and I said to them, whosoever hath any gold, tear ye it off,” signifies the drawing forth of such things from the sense of the letter as favor the delight of external loves and the principles thence derived; “and they gave it to me,” signifies a bringing together into a one, and the effect; “and I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf,” signifies the loves of self and of the world, from which and according to which is such worship; “and Moses saw the people that it was lax,” signifies that it was perceived by the internal that that nation had turned away from what is internal, thus from the Divine; “for Aaron had made them lax,” signifies that this was from the external things which they loved; “unto annihilation by those rising up against them,” signifies that they lacked all power to resist the evils and falsities which are from hell.

AC 10468. And Moses said unto Aaron.  That this signifies perception from the internal concerning such an external, is evident from the signification of “saying,” as being perception (n. 10290); from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372), here its internal; and from the representation of Aaron, as being the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10397). That “Moses” here denotes the internal is because he speaks to Aaron, by whom is represented the external. Whether you say the internal and the external of the Word, or simply the internal and the external, it is here the same thing, for the Word is Divine truth, from which man has perception, here perception concerning such an external as there was with the Israelitish nation, whether in worship, or in everything of the church, or in everything of the Word.  Be it known that all perception about the external is from the internal, for that which is in the external can be seen from the internal; but not from the external what is in itself; and still less from the external what is in the internal. From this it is that those who are in external things without what is internal do not acknowledge internal things, because they do not feel and see them; and also that some deny them, and, together with them, things heavenly and Divine.

AC 10469. What did this people to thee, that thou hast brought so great a sin upon them?  That this signifies whence is it that this nation has so turned itself away from the Divine, is evident from the signification of “what did this people to thee,” which signifies whence is it that this nation is such; for by “doing” is not here signified doing, because by “Aaron” is not signified Aaron, but the external which is being surveyed by the internal in respect to its quality; and therefore when understood abstractedly from persons, by “what did they to thee” is signified whence is it; and from the signification of “sin,” as being a turning away from the Divine (n. 5841, 9346).

AC 10470. And Aaron said. That this signifies that it was perceived, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when said of the internal surveying and exploring what is in the external, as being to perceive; thus conversely, when said of the external, as being that which is perceived.

AC 10471. Let not thine anger wax hot, my lord. That this signifies let not the internal turn itself away on this account, is evident from the signification of “waxing hot with anger,” when said of Moses, by whom is signified the internal, as being to turn one‘s self away; here, let it not turn itself away; and from the representation of Moses, who here is “my lord,” as being the internal (n. 10468). Moses is here called “my lord” by Aaron, because relatively the internal is a lord, and the external is a servant; for the internal with man is in heaven, and consequently when it is open it is the man’s heaven; while the external with him is in the world, thus is his world; and the world was made to serve heaven as a servant his lord. It is similar with the external of worship, and likewise with the external of the church, and also of the Word, relatively to their internal.

AC 10472. Thou knowest the people, that it is in evil. That this signifies that that nation is in an external separate from a holy internal, is evident from the signification of “evil,” and “sin,” as being disjunction, separation, and a turning away from the Divine (n. 4997, 5746, 5841, 9346). It is said “separate from a holy internal,” because the external separate from the internal is also separate from what is holy, for what is holy of man is in his internal. That is called “holy” which flows into man out of heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord. Heaven flows into the internal of man, and through this into his external, because the internal of man has been formed according to the image of heaven, thus for the reception of the spiritual things which are there; and the external has been formed according to the image of the world, thus for the reception of the natural things which are there (n. 9279, 10156). From this it is evident what is the quality of the man with whom the external is separate from the internal, namely, that he is in worldly, earthly, and bodily things only. They who are in these only, do not apprehend what the internal is, thus neither what it is to be in things heavenly and Divine.  They suppose that when they engage in those things which belong to the external worship of the church, they are also in things Divine. Nevertheless it is not so; for at such times they are either in a bodily delight to which they have been accustomed from infancy, or are acting for the sake of the world and appearances, or from the duty of their office for the sake of profit and honor; thus they are in worldly, earthly, and bodily things; and not in things heavenly and Divine.  It is otherwise with those who are in things external from what is internal.

AC 10473. And they said unto me.  That this signifies exhortation, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when said of those who are in things external separate from what is internal, as being exhortation (n. 10398).

AC 10474. Make us gods which shall go before us.  That this signifies falsities of doctrine and of worship, thus things idolatrous, may be seen above (n. 10399).

AC 10475. For as for this Moses, the man that made us come out of the land of Egypt, we know not what hath become of him. That this signifies that it is altogether unknown what other Divine truth there is in the Word, which raises man from what is external to what is internal, and makes the church (n. 10400).

AC 10476. And I said to them, Whosoever hath any gold, tear ye it off. That this signifies the drawing forth of such things from the sense of the letter of the Word as favor the delight of external loves and the principles thence derived, is evident from what was unfolded and shown above (n. 10402).

AC 10477. And they gave it me, signifies a bringing together into a one, and the effect (n. 10403, 10404).

AC 10478. And I cast it into the fire, and there came out this calf. That this signifies the loves of self and of the world from which and according to which is such worship, is evident from the signification of “fire,” as being love in both senses (n. 4906, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324, 7575, 10055), here the love of self and the love of the world, because that nation was in these loves, seeing that it was in external things separate from what is internal; consequently “to cast into the fire” denotes to be in these loves, and to draw forth such things from the sense of the letter of the Word as favor them; and from this to make doctrine; and from the signification of a “calf,” as being worship from these loves, and according to them, which is infernal (n. 10459)

AC 10479. And Moses saw the people that it was lax. That this signifies that it was perceived by the internal that that nation had turned away from what is internal, thus from the  Divine, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being  to perceive; from the representation of Moses, as being the internal (n. 10468); and from the signification of “lax,” as being to be turned away, here from what is internal, thus from the Divine, according to what was unfolded above (n. 10472). Moreover by this word in the original tongue is signified to be turned away and to go back, and also to be stripped; I and by being “stripped” is signified to be deprived of the good of love and the truth of faith, which are the internals of the church and of its worship (n. 9960).

AC 10480. For Aaron had made them lax. That this signifies that this was from the external things which they loved, is evident from the signification of “making lax,” as being to be turned away from what is internal, thus from the Divine (n. 10479); and from the representation of Aaron, as being what is external (n. 10468). That it denotes which they loved, is because those who are in external things separate from what is internal, love external things only. The reason why by “making lax,” is here signified to be turned away, and not to cause to turn away, is that by “Aaron” in the internal sense is not meant Aaron, but abstractedly from person, what is external (n. 10469).

AC 10481. Unto annihilation by those rising up against them. That this signifies that they lacked all power to resist the evils and falsities which are from hell, is evident from the signification of “annihilation,” as being that they lacked all power to resist evils and falsities, for in the spiritual world this is to have no power; and from the signification of “those rising up against,” or enemies, as being evils and the derivative falsities, for in the spiritual sense these are the enemies which rise up.  Wherefore also these are signified in the Word by “enemies,” and “those who rise up against,” as in David:--

O Jehovah, how greatly are mine enemies multiplied! Many are those who rise up against me, saying of my soul, There is no salvation for him in God (Ps. 3:1, 2).

Make wonderful Thy mercy, O Saviour of the confiding, from those who rise up against me, by Thy right hand. Keep me from the wicked, who compass me about against my soul (Ps. 17:7-9).

Deliver me not into the desire of mine enemies; for witnesses of a lie have risen up against me, and he that breathes out violence: unless I had believed to see good in the land of life (Ps. 27:12, 13).

O God, command salvations for Jacob. Through Thee will we strike our enemies; in Thy name will we trample on those who rise up against us (Ps. 44:4, 5).

Strangers have risen up against me, and the violent have sought my soul; they have not set God before them. The Lord is among those who uphold my soul (Ps. 54:3, 4).

Deliver me from mine enemies O my God; set me on high from those who rise up against me. Deliver me from the workers of iniquity. Lo, they lie in wait for my soul (Ps. 59:1-3).

In these and many other passages, by “enemies” and “those who rise up against” are signified evils and falsities which are from hell. They are called “those who rise up against,” because evils and falsities rise up against goods and truths; but not the reverse.

[2] That those who are in external things separate from what is internal have no power to resist the evils and falsities which are from hell, is because all power to resist these is from the Divine. Wherefore they who have been separated from what is internal, who also have been separated from what is Divine, have no power; consequently they are borne along by evils and falsities whithersoever hell carries them, like a flock and a straw by the wind; as is very evident from the evil who come from the world into the other life. This was also represented by that nation‘s conquering their enemies so long as they remained in the worship which was commanded them, and being conquered as often as they fell away from this worship, thus as often as they were in evil, according to these words in Moses:--

If ye shall reject My statutes, the sound of a driven leaf shall chase you, and ye shall flee as fleeing from a sword; and ye shall fall when none pursueth. They shall fall a man on his brother, as before a sword, when none pursueth (Lev. 26:15, 36, 37).

One shall chase a thousand, and two ten thousand, because their Rock hath sold them, and Jehovah hath shut them up (Deut.  32:30).

From all this it is evident what is signified by “to be for annihilation by those who rise up against them.”

AC 10482. Verses 26-29.  And Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and said, Who is for Jehovah? come unto me. And all the sons of Levi were gathered together unto him. And he said to them, Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel, Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and pass ye through and return from gate to gate in the camp, and slay ye, a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor. And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses; and there fell of the people that day up to three thousand men. And Moses said, Fill ye your hand this day to Jehovah, for a man is against his son, and against his brother; that He may bestow upon you a blessing this day. “And Moses stood in the gate of the camp,” signifies where the opening to hell is; “and said, Who is for Jehovah? come unto me,” signifies those who are in external things from what is internal; “and all the sons of Levi were gathered together unto him,” signifies those who are in truths from good; “and he said unto them,” signifies exhortation; “Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel,” signifies by the Lord; “Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh,” signifies truth from good fighting against falsity from evil; “and pass ye through and return from gate to gate in the camp,” signifies wheresoever there is anything open from what is internal into what is external; “and slay ye, a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor,” signifies a closing in respect to the influx of good and truth and of all that is related thereto, in order to prevent any reception and communication; “and the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses,” signifies this accomplished by those who are in truths from good; “and there fell of the people that day up to three thousand men,” signifies a full and complete closing of what is internal; “and Moses said, Fill ye your hand this day to Jehovah,” signifies that which is communicative and receptive of Divine truth in the heavens; “for a man is against his son, and against his brother,” signifies when the internal has been closed in order to prevent truth and good from heaven from entering into what is external; “that He may bestow upon you a blessing this day,” signifies the reception of Divine truth from the Word, and thereby conjunction with the Lord.

AC 10483. And Moses stood in the gate of the camp.  That this signifies where the opening to hell is, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the internal (n. 10468); from the signification of “in the gate,” as being where there is an opening; and from the signification of “the camp,” as being hell (n. 10458). The reason why Moses stood in the gate of the camp, and did not enter into the camp itself, was in order that it might be represented that what is internal cannot enter Into hell; for by Moses was represented what is internal, and by the camp was represented hell.  For all who are in hell are in things external separate from what is internal, because they are in the loves of self and of the world, and therefore what is internal cannot enter there, because it is not received, but is at once rejected by some who are there; with some it is suffocated and extinguished; and with others it is perverted.  Whether you say “what is internal,” or “heaven,” it is the same, because heaven is in what is internal; it is in the internal of the Word, and in the internal of the church and of worship; consequently it is in the internal of the man who is in celestial and spiritual love; that is, in love to the Lord and in charity toward the neighbor.

[2] It shall be briefly told what is this opening of hell which is signified by “the gate of this camp.” Every hell is closed round about; but is opened above according to necessity and need. This opening is into the world of spirits, which world is midway between heaven and hell, for there the hells terminate upward, and the heavens downward (n. 5852). It is said that they are opened according to necessity and need, because every man has with him spirits from hell and angels from heaven.  The spirits from hell are in his bodily and worldly loves, and the angels from heaven are in his heavenly and spiritual loves, for without the presence of spirits no man can possibly live.  If spirits were removed from him, he would fall down as dead as a stone. Consequently in order that man may have life according to his loves, the hells are of necessity opened, and according to need, and from them such spirits come forth to him as are in similar loves.

[3] This opening is what is meant by “the gate of hell,” and such openings it has sometimes been granted me to see.  The gates are guarded by the Lord by means of angels, to prevent more spirits coming forth than is needful. From this it is evident what is signified in the Word by “the gates of hell,” and by “the gates of enemies,” as in Matthew:--

Jesus said unto Peter, Upon this rock I will build My church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it (Matt. 16:18);

“the gates of hell not prevailing” denotes that the hells will not dare to go forth and destroy the truths of faith; “the rock upon which the church is built” denotes faith from the Lord in the Lord, which faith is the faith of charity, because charity is in this faith and thus is one with it. That a “rock” denotes this faith, see (n. 2760, 8581, 10438); and that real faith is charity, (n. 654, 1162, 1176, 1608, 2228, 2343, 2349, 2419, 2839, 3324, 4368, 6348, 7039, 7623-7627, 7752-7762, 8530, 9154, 9224, 9783).

[4] The like is also signified by the words:--

Thy seed shall inherit the gate of thine enemies (Gen. 22:17; 24:60);

“to inherit the gate of enemies” denotes to destroy the evils and falsities which are from hell; and this was also represented by the driving out and destruction of the nations in the land of Canaan; for the nations there represented evils and falsities which are from hell (n. 1573, 1574, 1868, 4818, 6306, 8054, 8317, 9320, 9327).  Also in David:--

They that dwell in the gate plot against me; they that drink strong drink sing and dance (Ps. 69:12).

Happy is the man that hath filled his quiver; they shall not be ashamed, for they shall speak with the enemies in the gate (Ps. 127:5).

[5] But in a good sense “gates” denote an opening into heaven, as in David:--

Lift up your heads, O ye gates; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; and the King of glory shall come in (Ps.  24:7-10).

Moreover by “gates” in the Word is signified entrance into heaven and into the church by means of truth and good; and also the influx of truth and good with man.

AC 10484. And said, Who is for Jehovah? come unto me. That this signifies those who are in external things from what is internal, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the internal (n. 10468). And whereas the internal of man is in heaven, and his external is in the world; and heaven enters with man through the internal into the external, it is evident that by “those who are for Jehovah” are meant those who are in external things from what is internal. When it is said that heaven enters, the meaning is that the Lord enters, because the Divine of the Lord makes heaven. That these are signified is evident also from the fact that these are here opposed to those who are in external things separate from what is internal; and also that by the sons of Levi who were gathered together unto Moses are represented those who are in truths from good; and those who are in truths from good are in external things from what is internal.

AC 10485. And all the sons of Levi were gathered together unto him. That this signifies those who are in truths from good, is evident from the signification of “the sons of Levi,” as being those who are in spiritual love, or in charity toward the neighbor (n. 3875, 4497, 4502, 4503). Whether you say charity toward the neighbor, or truth from good, it is the same thing, because those who are in charity are in the life of truth, and a life of truth, that is, a life according to truths Divine, is charity.

AC 10486. And he said unto them. That this signifies exhortation, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when fighting, to which they are incited, is treated of, as here, as being exhortation.

AC 10487. Thus saith Jehovah the God of Israel. That this signifies by the Lord, is evident from the fact that “Jehovah” and “the God of Israel” in the Word denote the Lord. That “Jehovah” denotes the Lord (n. 9373); and that “God” and “the Holy One of Israel” do so, (n. 7091).

AC 10488. Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh. That this signifies truth from good fighting against falsity from evil, is evident from the signification of a “sword,” as being truth fighting against falsity (n. 2799, 8294); and from the signification of the “ thigh,” as being the good of love (n. 3021, 4277, 4280, 5050-5062, 9961). It is said “sword upon thigh,” because truth fighting against falsity and evil, and conquering, must be from good; because all the power of truth is from this source. Indeed truth without good is not truth, for it is only memory-knowledge devoid of life; consequently truth without good has no power. By truth from good is meant a life according to truth, for good is of the life. From this it is evident why it is said “put the sword upon the thigh,” as also in David, where it is said of the Lord,

“Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O Hero! in Thy comeliness, and in Thine honor” (Ps. 45:3).

AC 10489. Pass ye through and return from gate to gate in the camp. That this signifies wheresoever there is anything open from what is internal into what is external, is evident from the signification of “passing through and returning,” as being to survey and look around from one end to the other; from the signification of “gate,” as being an opening (n. 10483); thus “from gate to gate” denotes wheresoever there is anything open; and from the signification of “the camp,” as being hell (n. 10483), thus also what is external; for what is external separate from what is internal is hell With man. From this it is evident that by “pass ye through and return from gate to gate in the camp” is signified that they must survey and look around to see wheresoever there is anything open from what is internal into what is external. How the case herein is shall be told in the following article. That what is external separate from what is internal in man is hell, is because what is internal in him is heaven (n. 10472); consequently what is external, when separated from heaven, is hell, as can be seen further from the fact that with those who are in external things separate from internal there reign infernal loves, which are the loves of self and of the world.  Moreover the man whose external is separated from what is internal is actually in hell, although he is unaware of this while he lives in the world.

AC 10490. And slay ye, a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor. That this signifies a closing in respect to the influx of good and truth and of that which is related thereto, in order to prevent any reception and communication, is evident from the signification of “slaying,” as being to take away the spiritual life, thus the good of love and the truth of faith, here therefore to close, in order to prevent any reception and communication of these; for when these are taken away, the spiritual life also is taken away, and only the natural life remains. That “slaying” denotes to take away the spiritual life, (n. 3387, 3395, 3607, 6767, 7043, 8902). And from the signification of “brother,” as being the good of love and of charity (n. 3815, 4121, 4191, 5409, 5686, 5692, 6756); from the signification of “companion,” as being the truth of this good; and from the signification of “neighbor,” as being that which has been conjoined with these (n. 5911, 9378), thus that which is related; for relations are neighbors.  From this it is evident that by “slay ye a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor,” is signified the closing of the internal with that nation in respect to the influx of good, of truth, and of the things related to these, in order to prevent with them any reception and communication of these.

[2] In regard to this the case is, that inasmuch as that nation was at heart idolatrous and wholly in the loves in which is hell, and yet a worship representative of heavenly things was to be instituted among them, therefore their internals were completely closed. There were two reasons for this; one, in order that there might be conjunction with heaven by means of their external things devoid of what is internal; the other in order to prevent the holy things of the church and of heaven from being profaned. For if that nation had acknowledged the internal things of worship, which are the holy things of the church and of heaven that were represented, they would have defiled and profaned them.  Hence it was that so little was revealed in light to that nation concerning heaven and the life after death, and hence it was that they did not at all know that the kingdom of the Messiah is in heaven.

[3] That at the present day that nation is also of the same character, is known; but see what has been shown concerning it at the places cited above (n. 10396); as, That they were altogether in external things without anything internal (n. 4293, 4311, 4459, 4834, 4844, 4847, 4865, 4868, 4874, 4903, 4913, 9320, 9373, 9380, 9381): That consequently their worship was merely external (n. 3147, 3479, 8871): That they did not wish to know the internal things of worship and of the Word (n. 3479, 4429, 4433, 4680): That if they had known holy internal things they would have profaned them (n. 3398, 3489, 4289): That therefore it was not granted them to know them (n. 301, 302, 304, 2520, 3769): That nevertheless there was communication with heaven by means of the externals of worship with them, which were representative of heavenly things (n. 4311, 4444, 6304, 8588, 8788, 8806). These then are the things which are meant and signified by the words, “slay ye a man his brother, and a man his companion, and a man his neighbor.”

[4] He who does not know that by “brethren,” “companions,” “neighbors,” and many other names of relationship are signified the goods and truths of the church and of heaven; and their opposites, which are evils and falsities; cannot know what is involved in many other passages in the Word where these names occur, as in the following:--

Think not that I am come to send peace on the earth; I am not come to send peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man at variance against his father, and the daughter against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law; and a man’s foes shall be those of his own household. Whosoever loveth father or mother more than Me is not worthy of Me; and whosoever loveth son or daughter more than Me is not worthy of Me; and whosoever doth not take up his cross and follow after Me, is not worthy of Me (Matt. 10:34-38);

spiritual combats are here treated of, which are temptations to be undergone by those who are to be regenerated, thus the contentions arising in man between the evils and falsities which are with him from hell, and the goods and truths which are with him from the Lord. Because these combats are here described, it is said, “whosoever doth not take up his cross, and follow after Me, is not worthy of Me;” by the “cross” being meant the state of man when in temptations. He who does not know that such things are signified by “man” and “father,” by “daughter” and “mother,” by “daughter-in-law” and “mother-in-law,” must believe that the Lord came into the world in order to take away peace in homes and families, and introduce dissension; and yet He came to give peace and to take away dissensions, according to His own words in (John 14:27).

[5] That the dissension of the internal and the external man is described in this passage, is evident from the signification in the internal sense of “man” and “father,” of “daughter” and “mother,” and of “daughter-in-law” and “mother-in-law,” in which sense “man (homo)” denotes the good which is from the Lord; “father” denotes the evil which is from man‘s own; “daughter” denotes the affection of good and truth; “mother” denotes the affection of evil and falsity; “daughter-in-law” denotes the truth of the church adjoined to its good; and “mother-in-law” denotes falsity adjoined to its evil. And because the combat between goods and evils, and between falsities and truths, with man is described, it is also said that “a man’s foes shall be those of his own household,” for by “those of his own household” is signified the things that appertain to man, thus which are his own; and “foes” in a spiritual sense denote the evils and falsities which assault goods and truths. That such things are signified by “man,” “father,” “daughter,” “mother,” “daughter-in-law,” and “mother-in-law,” has been shown throughout in these explications.

[6] In like manner is it with these words:--

The brother shall deliver up the brother to death, and the father the son; and children shall rise up against their parents, and shall give them to death (Matt. 10:21).

If any man cometh unto Me, and hateth not his father, and mother, and wife, and children, and brethren, and sisters, yea, and his own soul also, he cannot be My disciple. And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after Me, cannot be My disciple. So therefore whosoever he be of you that renounceth not all that he hath, he cannot be My disciple (Luke 14:26, 27, 33).

Who does not see that these words are to be understood otherwise than according to the letter, at least from the fact of its being said without restriction that father, mother, wife, children, brethren, sisters, are to be hated, in order that it may be possible for a person to be a disciple of the Lord? and yet it is according to the Lord‘s commandments that no one is to be hated, not even an enemy (Matt. 5:43, 44).

[7] It is evident that things belonging to man, which are evils and falsities in their order, are meant by these names, for it is also said that he must hate his own soul, and that he must renounce all that he hath, that is, the things that belong to him.  A state of temptation, that is, of spiritual combat, is also here described, for it is said, “whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after Me, cannot be My disciple.” To be a disciple of the Lord is to be led by Him and not by self, thus by the goods and truths which are from the Lord, and not by the evils and falsities which are from man.

[8] In like manner is the Word to be understood elsewhere, where these names are mentioned, as in these passages:--

They do not attend unto My words; and as for My law, they reject it. Therefore thus said Jehovah, Behold I will lay stumbling blocks before this people; so that the fathers and the sons together shall stumble against them, the neighbor and his companion, and they shall perish (Jer. 6:19, 21).

I will scatter them, a man with his brother, even the fathers and the sons together; I will not pity, nor spare, nor have compassion, that I should not destroy them (Jer. 13:14).

Jehovah hath multiplied those who stumble; yea, they fell a man upon his companion (Jer. 46:16).

I will commingle Egypt with Egypt; and they shall fight a man against his brother, and a man against his companion (Isa.  19:2).

In these passages also similar things are meant by “fathers,” “sons,” “brothers,” and “companions.”

AC 10491. And the sons of Levi did according to the word of Moses.  That this signifies this accomplished by those who are in truths from good, is evident from the representation of the sons of Levi, as being those who are in truths from good, and in the abstract sense, truths from good (n. 10485); and from the signification of “doing according to the word of Moses,” as being the accomplishment.

AC 10492. And there fell of the people that day up to three thousand men. That this signifies a full and complete closing of the internal, is evident from the signification of “falling” or being slain, as being to be closed (n. 10490); and from the signification of “three thousand,” as being what is full and complete; for by “three” is signified what is full and complete (n. 2788, 4495, 7715, 8347, 9198, 9488, 9489), in like manner by “three thousand,” because the larger numbers signify the like as the smaller numbers from which they arise by multiplication (n. 5291, 5335, 5708, 7973).  That all numbers in the Word signify real things, see the places cited in (n. 9488; 10127, 10217, 10253).

[2] As the closing of the internal with the Israelitish and Jewish nation has here been treated of, something further may be said about the closing of the internal.  Evils and falsities are what close the internal man, or what is the same thing, worldly, earthly, and bodily loves, when they prevail, for all evils and falsities are from this source.  The reason why the internal is closed by these loves, is that they are opposed to heavenly loves, or what is the same thing, evils and falsities are opposed to goods and truths; and when things that are opposed act against each other, that which is injured contracts almost as does a fiber when it is pricked, and as in other circumstances every part of man will shrink when in pain.  It is well known that an injury, and also a troubled state of mind, will cause the face to wrinkle; and will also cause the abdomen, together with the lungs and their respiration, to contract.  Such also is the case with the internal man, when evils and falsities enter into the thought and into the will.  That there is then an aversion, and from this a contraction, is perceived, and is also apparent.

[3] This is the general reason why the internal is closed; but the special reason is to prevent goods and truths from entering from heaven through the internal man into the external man, and there being defiled and profaned; and therefore in order to prevent this with the Israelitish nation, with whom was the Word together with the holy things of the church, the internal was with them fully and completely closed.  That it was fully and completely closed is evident from the fact that although they live among Christians, and although the Lord is plainly treated of in the prophecies, they nevertheless do not at all acknowledge Him; nay, they are of such a nature that they cannot even think anything which is confirmatory; such is the interior repugnance and aversion.

[4] Be it known moreover that in the Christian world also the internal is closed with those who know the truths of faith from the Word and do not live according to them, for it is precisely a life in accordance with these truths that opens the internal man; for otherwise the truths reside merely in the memory of the external man. But in very deed with those who deny these truths the internal is completely closed; and, wonderful as it may seem, the internal is closed in more of the intelligent than of the simple.  The reason is that the intelligent are in the cupidities of attaining to eminence and to wealth, and consequently are in the loves of self and of the world, more than are the simple; and are also able to confirm, by means of memory-knowledges, in which the intelligent excel the simple, the evils and falsities which are from these loves. An additional reason is that most of the intelligent think of the soul from some hypothesis that prevails in the learned world, from which they conceive no other idea of the soul than as of breath or of wind in which perchance there is a living principle; while on the other hand the simple do not think from such an idea, but only from the idea that the soul is the man who lives after death. From this it is that with the latter the internal is opened; but with the former it is closed.  whether you say that the internal is opened or closed, or whether you say that heaven is so, is the same.

AC 10493. And Moses said, Fill ye your hand this day to Jehovah.  That this signifies that which is communicative and receptive of Divine truth in the heavens, is evident from the signification of “filling the hand to Jehovah,” as being a representative of the Divine power of the Lord in the heavens by means of the Divine truth that proceeds from His Divine good, and that which is communicative and receptive of it there (n. 10076), here, that which is communicative of Divine truth with the heavens by means of representatives, such as were the external things of worship with that nation, after their internal had been closed. That with that nation, when the internal was closed, there was, by virtue of the Divine power, a communication with heaven by means of the external things of worship, which were representative of heavenly things, (n. 4311, 4444, 6304, 8588, 8788, 8806).

AC 10494. For a man is against his son, and against his brother. That this signifies when the internal has been closed, in order to prevent truth and good from heaven from entering into the external, is evident from the signification of “a man against his son and against his brother,” that is, after he has slain them, as being the closing of the internal in respect to the influx of truth and good (n. 10490, 10492). That a “son” denotes truth, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2628, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257, 9807); and a “brother,” good, (n. 3815, 4121, 4191, 5409, 5686, 5692).

AC 10495. That He may bestow upon you a blessing this day. That this signifies the reception of Divine truth from the Word and thereby conjunction with the Lord, is evident from the signification of “a blessing” as being in general that which is given to man by the Lord; and as everything the Lord gives bears relation to the good of love and the truth of faith, this and everything from this is what is signified by “blessing;” here therefore the reception of Divine truth from the Word and thereby conjunction with the Lord (n. 1096, 2846, 3017, 3406, 4216, 4981, 6298, 8674, 8939); and that “blessing” denotes conjunction with the Lord, (n. 3504, 3514, 3530, 3565, 3584, 6091, 6099). How the case herein is has been shown in what precedes; and that through the Word there is conjunction of the Lord with man, and of heaven with the world, see (n. 10452).

AC 10496. Verses 30-35. And it came to pass on the day after, that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin; and now I will go up unto Jehovah, perchance I shall make expiation for your sin.  And Moses returned unto Jehovah and said, I beseech Thee! this people hath sinned a great sin, and they have made them gods of gold. And now if Thou wilt forgive their sin!  and if not, blot me I pray out of Thy book which Thou hast written.  And Jehovah said unto Moses, He that hath sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book. And now go, lead the people unto that which I said to thee; behold Mine angel shall go before thee, and in the day of My visitation I will visit their sin upon them. And Jehovah smote the people, because they had made the calf which Aaron made. “And it came to pass on the day after,” signifies the duration of such worship even to the end of the church; “that Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin,” signifies a complete turning away and estrangement; “and now I will go up unto Jehovah,” signifies the raising of the interiors to the Lord; “perchance I shall make expiation for your sin,” signifies a possibility by virtue of the Divine power of the Lord with those who have so completely turned themselves away; “and Moses returned unto Jehovah,” signifies conjunction; “and said, ”I beseech Thee! this people hath sinned a great sin,“ signifies that although this nation has completely turned away and removed itself from the Divine; ”and they have made them gods of gold,“ signifies, and they worship infernal delight; ”and now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin,“ signifies that nevertheless this turning away from the Divine will not hinder; ”and if not, blot me I pray out of Thy book which Thou hast written,“ signifies the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship, that it will not perish; ”and Jehovah said unto Moses, He that hath sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book,“ signifies the reply, that those will perish who turn themselves away from the Divine; ”and now go, lead the people unto that which I said to thee,“ signifies that this nation is to represent the church, and not that the church is in it; ”behold Mine angel shall go before thee,“ signifies that nevertheless Divine truth will lead; ”and in the day of My visitation I will visit their sin upon them,“ signifies their last state in particular and in general, when is the Judgment; ”and Jehovah smote the people,“ signifies the devastation of truth and of good with the Israelitish nation; ”because they had made the calf,“ signifies on account of the worship from infernal love; ”which Aaron made,“ signifies that this comes from the external things which alone they loved.

AC 10497. And it came to pass on the day after.  That this signifies the duration of such worship even to the end of the church, is evident from the signification of ”on the day after,“ as being what is perpetual and eternal, but when said concerning the Jewish nation, as being even to the end of the church. The reason why ”the day after“ denotes what is perpetual and eternal, is that by ”the morrow,“ when said of such things as signify Divine, celestial, and spiritual things, is signified what is perpetual and eternal (n. 3998, 9939); but the reason why it denotes duration even to the end of the church, is that it is said of the Jewish nation and its worship, which worship came to an end when the Lord came into the world, according to the prediction in Daniel:--

Seventy weeks have been decreed upon thy people and upon thy city of holiness, to consummate the transgression, and to seal up sins, and to expiate iniquity, and to bring in the righteousness of the ages, and to seal up vision and prophet, and to anoint the holy of holies. In the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease; finally upon the bird of abominations shall be desolation; and even with the consummation and the decree, it shall drop upon the devastation (Daniel 9:24, 27).

And that the residue of the worship of that nation will come to an end together with the end of the present church in Europe, is foretold by the Lord in Matthew:--

Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not pass away until all these things come to pass (Matt. 24:34);

the subject treated of in this chapter is the consummation of the age, which is the end of this church, as can be seen shown in the introductions to Genesis, chapters 26 to 40.

AC 10498. That Moses said unto the people, Ye have sinned a great sin.  That this signifies a complete estrangement and turning away, is evident from the signification of ”sin,“ as being a turning away and estrangement from the Divine (n. 5229, 5474, 5841, 7589, 9346), here a complete turning away and estrangement, because it is called ”a great sin.“ Turning away and estrangement from the Divine is complete when there is no longer received anything of truth and good from heaven, for the truth and good from heaven is the Divine with man. That with that nation there was no reception of truth and good from heaven, consequently that there was a complete turning away from the Divine, is described by these words in Isaiah:--

Say to this people, Hearing hear ye, but understand not; and seeing see ye, but know not. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and blot out their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and their heart should understand, and be converted, that they may be healed (Isa. 6:9, 10; John 12:37-40);

it is said, ”lest they be converted that they may be healed,“ by which is signified that if they were to understand the internal things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, they would profane them (n. 10490).

AC 10499. And now I will go up unto Jehovah.  That this signifies the raising of the interiors to the Lord, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the internal (n. 10468); and from the signification of ”going up,“ as being a raising toward interior things (n. 3084, 4539, 4969, 5406, 5817, 6007), here a raising to the Lord, because it is said, ”I will go up unto Jehovah,“ and by ”Jehovah“ in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 9373).  How the case herein is can be seen from what has been shown concerning the raising of the internal things of the Word, of the church, and of worship into heaven or unto the Lord, from the external things with the Israelitish nation (n. 4311, 4444, 6304, 8588, 8788, 8806).

AC 10500. Perchance I shall make expiation for your sin.  That this signifies a possibility by virtue of the Divine power of the Lord with those who have so completely turned themselves away, is evident from the signification of ”to expiate,“ as being to cause that it be no longer reflected upon, thus that their worship be nevertheless accepted and heard. That ”to expiate“ also denotes the hearing and reception of all things of worship, (n. 9506); here therefore the possibility that it can be done with those who have turned themselves away. And from the signification of ”sin,“ as being a complete turning away from the Divine (n. 10498). That these things are signified by these words is because the subject treated of in this chapter throughout is the turning away of the Israelitish nation from the Divine, and the possibility notwithstanding that a communication might be effected with heaven by means of the external things in which alone they were.

[2] A few more words shall be said in order to make known how the case herein is.  The church on earth is instituted for the sole end that there may be a communication of the world, or of the human race, with heaven, that is, through heaven with the Lord; for without the church there would be no communication; and without communication the human race would perish (n. 10452).  But the communication of man with heaven is effected by means of the spiritual and celestial things with man, and not by means of worldly and bodily things without these; or what is the same, it is effected by means of internal things, and not by external things without these.  And as the Israelitish nation were in external things without internal, and yet something of a church was to be instituted among them, it was therefore provided by the Lord that nevertheless communication with heaven might be effected by means of representatives, such as were the externals of worship with that nation.  This communication, however, was effected miraculously (n. 10499).

[3] But in order that this might be done, two things were requisite; first, that the internal with them should be completely closed; and second, that they might be in a holy external when in worship.  For when the internal has been completely closed, then the internal of the church and of worship is neither denied nor acknowledged, being as though it did not exist; and then there can be a holy external, and it can also be raised, because nothing opposes and stands in the way. For this reason also that nation was in full and complete ignorance about internal things, which belong to love and faith in the Lord and to eternal life thereby.  But as soon as the Lord came into the world, and revealed Himself, and taught love and faith in Himself, then that nation, when they heard these things, began to deny them, and thus could no longer be kept in such ignorance as before. They were therefore then driven out of the land of Canaan, lest they should defile and profane internal things by denial in that land, where from the most ancient times all the places had been made representative of such things as belong to heaven and the church (n. 1585, 3686, 4447, 5136, 6516).

[4] For the same reason, in so far as at this day they are acquainted with internal things, and confirm themselves intellectually against them, and deny them, so far they can no longer be in a holy external, because denial not only closes up the internal, but also takes away what is holy from the external, thus that which is communicative with heaven. The case is similar with Christians who from the Word or from the doctrine of the church are acquainted with internal things, and yet at heart deny them, as is the case when they live evilly, and think in themselves what is evil, however much their externals may seem to be in devotion and piety while they are engaged in worship.

AC 10501. And Moses returned unto Jehovah.  That this signifies conjunction, is evident from the signification of ”returning unto Jehovah,“ as being conjunction. The reason why conjunction is here signified by” returning unto Jehovah,“ is that by ”going up unto Jehovah“ (n. 10499) is signified the raising of the internal to the Lord.

AC 10502. And said, I beseech Thee, this people hath sinned a great sin.  That this signifies that although this nation has completely turned away and removed itself from the Divine, is evident from the signification of ”sinning a great sin,“ as being to completely turn away and estrange itself from the Divine (n. 10498).  It is said ”although it has turned itself away“ for the sake of the connection of the subject in the internal sense, for those who are in this sense do not attend to the letter, but to the sense of the things in their order.

AC 10503. And have made them gods of gold.  That this signifies, and they worship infernal delight, is evident from the signification of ”making them gold,“ as being worship; and from the signification of ”gold,“ as being the delight of external loves, thus infernal delight (n. 10402).  Mention is made in the Word of four kinds of idols, namely, idols of stone, of wood, of silver, and of gold Idols of stone signify worship from falsities of doctrine; those of wood signify worship from evils of doctrine; those of silver signify worship of falsity both in doctrine and in life; and those of gold signify worship of evil both in doctrine and in life.  Consequently idols of gold signified worship the worst of all.  They who were in this worship not only falsified truths, but also adulterated goods; for evils they called goods, and the derivative falsities they called truths.  All those are in such worship who are in the love of self and yet believe the Word, for they apply the sense of the letter of the Word in favor of all the things which they think and do, thus in favor of the worship of self.

AC 10504. And now, if Thou wilt forgive their sin.  That this signifies that nevertheless this turning away from the Divine will not hinder, is evident from the signification of ”sin,“ as being a turning away from the Divine (n. 10498, 10502); and from the signification of ”forgiving“ it, as being nevertheless not to hinder the internal things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, from being raised from their externals, thus effecting communication with the heavens. For when this communication is nevertheless effected, the turning away is not attended to, and that which is not attended to is said to be ”forgiven.“

AC 10505. And if not, blot me I pray out of Thy book which Thou hast written.  That this signifies the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship, that it will not perish, is evident from the representation of Moses, who says these things, as being the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10468); from the signification of ”which Thou hast written,“ as being that which is there from the Lord; for by the ”book“ is signified that which is in the internal; and by ”writing,“ when said with respect to Jehovah, that is, the Lord, as being that which is there from the Lord; and from the signification of ”being blotted out of it,“ as being to perish; but here not to perish, because it is replied ”he who hath sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book,“ by which is signified that the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship will not perish; but that those will perish who turn themselves away from the Divine, thus who are in things external without what is internal.

[2] That the book which Jehovah wrote, which in the following verse is called ”My book,“ or the book of Jehovah, and elsewhere the ”book of life,“ denotes what is internal, is because the internal of man is in heaven, thus where the Lord is, and consequently those things which are in his internal are out of heaven from the Lord, all which are Divine celestial and spiritual things. These can be received by the internal of man, but not by his external separate from the internal, because the external is in the world, and is formed to receive the natural things which are in the world, and which without influx through internal things have no heavenly life, and consequently are called dead.

[3] From all this it can be seen what is meant in the Word by the ”book of life,“ and who they are who are said to be ”written in this book,“ namely, those who are in the life of truth and good, thus who do the Divine commandments from love and faith. For a life according to these commandments opens the internal man and forms him, and what is written therein is written by the Lord, and remains to eternity.  These are meant by ”those who are written in the book of life,“ in the following passages:--

At that time Thy people shall be rescued, everyone that shall be found written in the book (Dan. 12:1).

He that overcometh shall be clothed in white garments; and I will not blot his name out of the book of life (Rev. 3:5).

None shall enter into the New Jerusalem, except those who are written in the Lamb’s book of life (Rev. 21:27).

I saw that the books were opened; and another book was opened, which is the book of life, and the dead were judged out of the things which were written in the book, according to their works. And if anyone was not found written in the book of life, he was cast into the lake of fire (Rev. 20:12, 15).

All shall adore the beast whose names are not written in the Lamb‘s book of life (Rev. 13:8; 17:8);

besides in other places.

[4] Be it known that all things that have been written in the internal man have been written by the Lord, and that the things there written make the very spiritual and celestial life of man; also that each and all things that have been written there, have been written on the love (n. 2474, 8620, 9386).

AC 10506. And Jehovah said unto Moses, He that hath sinned against Me, him will I blot out of My book.  That this signifies the reply, that those will perish who turn themselves away from the Divine, is evident from the signification of ”Jehovah said unto Moses,“ as being the reply; from the signification of ”sinning against Jehovah,“ as being to turn one’s self away from the Divine (n. 10498); and from the signification of ”being blotted out of the book of Jehovah,“ as being not to appear in heaven, thus to perish in respect to the spiritual life.  That this is signified by ”being blotted out of the book of Jehovah,“ is because those who are in things external separate from what is internal cannot receive anything from heaven; for it is the internal which receives from heaven, and the external without the internal does not receive from any other source than hell. That heaven with man is in his internal, and that the internal is the book of life, and that what is in the internal is out of heaven from the Lord, (n. 10505).

AC 10507. And now go, lead the people unto that which I said to thee.  That this signifies that this nation is to represent the church, and not that the church is in it, is evident from the signification of ”leading the people unto the land of Canaan,“ as being to cause that there be a church, for by the ”land of Canaan“ is signified the church, and in the spiritual sense by ”leading the people unto it“ is signified to institute the church among them; for that nation was led into that land to the end that it might become a church; but here it denotes merely to represent it, because it is said, ”lead the people unto that which,“ and not ”unto the land.“ That with the Israelitish and Jewish nation there was not a church, but only the representative of a church, (n. 4281, 4288, 4311, 4500, 4899, 4912, 6304, 7048, 9320); and that the ”land of Canaan“ denotes the church, (n. 3686, 3705, 4447, 5136, 6516); and that consequently ”land“ or ”earth“ in the Word denotes the church, (n. 9325).

AC 10508. Behold Mine angel shall go before thee.  That this signifies that nevertheless Divine truth will lead, is evident from the signification of ”the angel of Jehovah,“ as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine Human, and in the relative sense the Divine which is of the Lord with the angels in the heavens (n. 1925, 2821, 4085, 6831, 9303); and that consequently it signifies Divine truth (n. 8192). And from the signification of ”going before thee,“ as being to lead.

AC 10509. And in the day of My visitation I will visit their sin upon them.  That this signifies their last state in particular and in general, when is the Judgment, is evident from the signification of ”the day of visitation,“ as being the last state of the church in particular and in general (n. 2242, 6588); and from the signification of ”visiting sin,“ as being to be judged and condemned.  It is said ”in particular and in general,“ because the day of visitation to everyone, thus in particular, is when he comes into the other life, which is when he dies, and it is also to the church in general when the church ceases to be.  Then all are explored in respect to their quality, and are separated, those who are in evils being cast down into hell, and those who are in goods being raised into heaven.  This however is not effected on earth, but in the other life.  But how the exploration is accomplished there, and how the separation, and also how the condemnation and the casting down into hell, and the raising into heaven, shall of the Lord‘s Divine mercy be told elsewhere.

AC 10510. And Jehovah smote the people.  That this signifies the devastation of truth and of good with the Israelitish nation, is evident from the signification of ”smiting,“ as being to destroy (n. 6761), and in the spiritual sense ”to destroy“ denotes to deprive some one of the truths and goods of faith and love, which in the Word is called ”desolation“ and ”vastation.“  The reason why devastation is here signified by ”smiting,“ is that in this chapter the subject treated of is the closing of the internal with the Israelitish nation; and the closing of the internal is devastation in respect to truth and good.

AC 10511. Because they had made the calf.  That this signifies on account of the worship from infernal love, is evident from the signification of ”the calf,“ as being the delight of the love of self (n. 10407); consequently ”to make a calf“ denotes worship from the delight of this love, or what is the same, worship from this love. That this love is infernal love has been frequently shown. That by ”making the calf“ is signified worship, is because ”to make it“ involves all those things which are said concerning the adoration and worship of it in (verses 4, 5, and 6) of this chapter.

AC 10512. Which Aaron made.  That this signifies that this comes from the external things which alone they loved, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10397, 10468, 10480); and when the external only is loved, then the external is said to ”make it,“ but there is meant the nation which loves external things only.

CONTINUATION ABOUT THE THIRD EARTH IN THE STARRY HEAVEN

AC 10513. There were represented before the spirits of that earth magnificent palaces, after the likeness of those in which kings and princes dwell on our earth; for such things can be represented before spirits, and when represented they appear exactly as if they were real.  But the spirits from that earth held them in no estimation, calling them marble effigies. And then they told us that with them there are things more magnificent, but that these are their holy edifices, not of stone, but of wood. And when it was said to them that these too are earthly things, they answered that they are not earthly, but heavenly, because when they behold them they have not an earthly idea, but a heavenly one, believing that they will see the like in heaven after death.

AC 10514. They also represented their holy edifices before the spirits of our earth, who said that they had never seen anything more magnificent.  They were also represented to me, and the manner of their construction was consequently seen. They are constructed of trees, not cut down, but growing in their native soil. They said that on that earth there are trees of extraordinary growth and height. These they set in rows when young, that they may serve for porticoes and arboreal walks;   and while their branches are tender they adapt and prepare them by means of cuttings and prunings to entwine one with another and join themselves together, so as to form the groundwork and floor of the edifice to be constructed; and other branches at the sides rise to serve as walls; and yet others bend into arches above to form the roof. In this manner they construct the edifice with wonderful art, raised high above the ground. They also prepare an ascent into it by means of continuous branches of trees, stretched out and firmly connected together. Moreover they adorn this edifice in various ways, both without and within, by fastening the leaves together into forms. So do they build an entire grove. But it was not granted me to see the nature of the interior of these edifices, except that the light of their sun is let in through openings between the branches, and is everywhere transmitted through crystals, whereby the light all round the walls is variegated into colors like those of the rainbow, especially the colors blue and orange, which they love more than the other colors. Such is the nature of their architecture, which they prefer to the most magnificent palaces of our earth, and which was also esteemed and praised above these by the spirits of our earth.

AC 10515. They said further that the inhabitants do not dwell in high places, but upon the ground in low cottages, because high places are for the Lord who is in heaven, and low ones are for men who are on earth. Their cottages were also shown me. They were oblong, having within along the walls a continuous bench on which they lie, one behind another. On the side opposite to the entrance, where it is rounded, there is a table, and behind it a fireplace, from which the whole chamber is illuminated. In the fireplace however, there is no fire burning, but luminous wood which emits from itself as much light as does the flame of a fireplace. They said that in the evening these logs appear as if there were in them a fire of burning coal.

AC 10516. They said that they do not live in societies, but each household by itself, and that they are in societies when they come together for worship; and that then those who teach walk beneath the edifice in the porticoes, and the rest at the sides, and that in these meetings they have interior joys, from the sight of the edifice, and from the worship therein.

AC 10517. Besides all this they are upright, insomuch that they may be called probities.  They bear the injuries done them without any revengeful feeling.  They become anxious as soon as they approach those who think about bodily and earthly things, but glad and cheerful on approaching those who think about heavenly things.  The anxiety excited in them by the spirits of our earth who were about me, on account of these being of a contrary nature, was plainly perceived.  For the spirits of our earth think little about heavenly things, and much about bodily and earthly things; and when they think about heavenly things, they think about truths, and not about good; whereas the spirits from that earth think about good, and but little about truths. From this it is that the inhabitants of that earth love plantations of trees, and their sacred edifice made of trees; and that they hold in aversion works of stone and houses of stone; for trees and wood from the correspondence signify goods, whereas stones and houses built of stone signify truths (n. 3720).  Moreover man is such that he loves those things which correspond to his interior affections, although during his life in the world he does not know this.

AC 10518. A fourth earth in the starry heaven, together with its spirits and inhabitants, will be described at the end of the following chapter.


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