HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 33

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH

AC 10519. The Holy Supper was instituted by the Lord in order that by means of it there may be a conjunction of the church with heaven, thus with the Lord. It is therefore the most holy thing of the church.

AC 10520. But in what manner conjunction is effected by means of it, is not apprehended by those who do not know anything of the internal or spiritual sense of the Word; for they do not think beyond its external sense, which is the sense of the letter. From the internal or spiritual sense of the Word it is known what is signified by the ”body“ and the ”blood,“ and what by the ”bread“ and the ”wine,“ and also what by ”eating.“

AC 10521. In this sense the Lord’s ”body“ or ”flesh“ denotes the good of love, in like manner the ”bread;“ and the Lord‘s ”blood“ denotes the good of faith, in like manner the ”wine;“ and ”eating“ denotes appropriation and conjunction. The angels who are with a man when he comes to the sacrament of the Supper perceive these things no otherwise; for they apprehend all things spiritually. From this it is that there then flows in from the angels to the man, thus through heaven from the Lord, a holy feeling of love and of faith. From this comes the conjunction.

AC 10522. From all this it is evident that when a man takes the bread, which is the body, he is conjoined with the Lord through the good of love to Him from Him; and when he takes the wine, which is the blood, he is conjoined with the Lord through the good of faith to Him from Him. But be it known that conjunction with the Lord through the sacrament of the Supper is effected solely with those who are in the good of love and of faith to the Lord from the Lord. The Holy Supper is the seal of this conjunction.

EXODUS 33:1-23

1. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, Go, go up from hence, thou and the people which thou hast made to come up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, To thy seed will I give it:

2. And I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite:

3. Unto a land flowing with milk and honey; for I will not go up in the midst of thee; because thou art a stiff-necked people. Perchance I should consume thee in the way.

4. And the people heard this evil word, and they mourned; and they put not any man his ornament upon him.

5. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Say unto the sons of Israel, Ye are a stiff-necked people; I will come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and will consume thee; therefore now bring down thine ornaments from upon thee, and I shall know what I will do to thee.

6. And the sons of Israel stripped themselves of their ornament, by Mount Horeb.

7. And Moses took a tent, and stretched it for himself without the camp, afar off from the camp; and he called it the tent of meeting. And it was that everyone requiring of Jehovah went out unto the tent of meeting that was outside the camp.

8. And it was that when Moses went out unto the tent, all the people rose up, and stood every man at the door of his tent, and looked after Moses, until he had entered into the tent.

9. And it was that when Moses entered into the tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the tent, and spake with Moses.

10. And all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the door of the tent; and all the people rose up and bowed themselves, every man at the door of his tent.

11. And Jehovah spake unto Moses faces to faces, as a man speaketh unto his neighbor. And he returned unto the camp; and his minister Joshua the son of Nun, a boy, moved not out of the midst of the tent.

12. And Moses said unto Jehovah, See, Thou sayest unto me, Make this people come up; and Thou hast not made known to me whom Thou wilt send with me. And Thou hast said, I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in Mine eyes.

13. And now I pray, if I have found grace in Thine eyes, make known to me I pray Thy way, that I may know Thee, because I have found grace in Thine eyes; and see that this nation is Thy people.

14. And He said, My faces shall go, and I will make thee to rest.

15. And he said unto Him, If Thy faces go not, do not make us go up from hence.

16. And wherein shall it ever become known that I have found grace in Thine eyes, I and Thy people? is it not in Thy going with us? and we shall be rendered prominent, I and Thy people, above all the people that are upon the faces of the ground.

17. And Jehovah said unto Moses, I will do this word also that thou hast spoken; because thou hast found grace in Mine eyes, and I know thee by name.

18. And he said, Make me see, I pray, Thy glory.

19. And He said, I will make all My good pass by over thy faces, and will call on the name of Jehovah before thee; and I will show grace to whom I show grace, and I will show mercy to whom I show mercy.

20. And He said, Thou canst not see My faces; because a man shall not see Me and live.

21. And Jehovah said, Behold a place with Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock:

22. And it shall be when My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover the palm of My hand over thee, until I have passed by.

23. And I will remove the palm of My hand, and thou shalt see My back parts; and My faces shall not be seen.

THE CONTENTS

AC 10523. In this chapter in the internal sense the subject of the Israelitish nation is further continued; but here its quality in respect to worship, thus its quality in respect to those things which are of the church. From (verses 1 to 6) there is contained: That although they could be in representatives, which are the external things of worship and of the church, still there was not with them anything Divine, because not anything internal. From (verses 7 to 17): That in the worship itself, regarded in itself, thus separate from them, there could be what is Divine. From (verses 18 to 23): That nevertheless this was not seen nor perceived by them.

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 10524. Verses 1-3. And Jehovah spake unto Moses, Go, go up from hence, thou and the people which thou hast made to come up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, To thy seed will I give it; and I will send an angel before thee, and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite; unto a land flowing with milk and honey; for I will not go up in the midst of thee; because thou art a stiff-necked people. Perchance I should consume thee in the way. ”And Jehovah spake unto Moses,“ signifies instruction concerning the quality of the worship and of the church with the Israelitish nation; ”Go, go up from hence, thou and the people which thou hast made to come up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land,“ signifies that this nation is to represent the church, but that no church shall be in it, because it cannot be raised from external things; ”of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, To thy seed will I give it,“ signifies that it is promised to those who from the Lord are in the good of love and in the truths of faith; ”and I will send an angel before thee,“ signifies the Divine of the Lord from which is the church and its worship; ”and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite,“ signifies the casting out thence of all evils and falsities; ”unto a land flowing with milk and honey,“ signifies what is pleasant and delightful from the good of faith and of love; ”for I will not go up in the midst of thee,“ signifies that nevertheless the Divine was not with the nation itself; ”because thou art a stiff-necked people,“ signifies that they do not receive any influx from the Divine; ”perchance I should consume thee in the way,“ signifies that if what is Divine were to flow in with this nation it would perish.

AC 10525. And Jehovah spake unto Moses.  That this signifies instruction concerning the quality of the worship and of the church with the Israelitish nation, is evident from the signification of ”speaking,“ when by Jehovah, as being instruction (n. 10280). The reason why it signifies instruction concerning the quality of the worship and of the church with the Israelitish nation, is that this is the subject treated of in this chapter, as can be seen from its contents as given above (n. 10523).

AC 10526. Go, go up from hence, thou and the people which thou hast made to come up out of the land of Egypt, unto the land. That this signifies that this nation is to represent the church, but that no church shall be in it, because it cannot he raised from external things, is evident from the signification of ”going up unto the land,“ as being to institute the church, for by ”land“ or ”earth“ in the Word is signified the church (n. 9325); and by ”going up unto it“ is signified to institute the church, because for this reason they were led there, or ”went up.“ But here it does not signify to institute the church, but only to represent it, because that nation was in external things without what is internal, and the church with man is in his internal. As in this case it does not signify to institute a church, but only to represent those things which are of the church, therefore it is said, ”Go, go up from hence, both thou and the people which thou hast made to come up out of the land of Egypt,“ thus which Moses made to come up, but not Jehovah; and in a subsequent verse, ”I will not go up in the midst of thee, because thou art a stiff-necked people,“ by which is signified that the Divine is not with them; and where the Divine is not received in the internal, there is not the church, but only an external that is representative of the church. And from the signification of ”making to come up out of the land of Egypt,“ as being to be raised from external things to what is internal, but here, not to be raised, because it is said that Moses made them to come up, and not that Jehovah did so. That this is signified by ”making to come up out of the land of Egypt,“ see in n. 10421. That there was not a church with the Israelitish nation, but only the representative of a church, (n. 4281, 4288, 4311, 4500, 4899, 4912, 6304, 7043, 9320); and everywhere in the preceding chapter.

AC 10527. Of which I sware unto Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, saying, To thy seed will I give it.  That this signifies that it is promised to those who from the Lord are in the good of love and in the truths of faith, is evident from the signification of ”swearing,“ when by Jehovah, as being confirmation by the Divine in the internal man (n. 2842, 3375, 9166), thus also a promise from the Divine, for that which is promised by the Divine is also confirmed; from the representation of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, as being in the supreme sense the Lord in respect to the Divine Itself and the Divine Human, and in the relative sense, as being heaven and the church (n. 3245, 3251, 3305, 4615, 6098, 6185, 6276, 6804, 10445); and from the signification of their ”seed,“ as being those who are in the good of love and in the truths of faith from the Lord: thus in the abstract sense the good of love and the truth of faith (n. 3373, 10445).

AC 10528. And I will send an angel before thee.  That this signifies the Divine of the Lord from which is the church and its worship, is evident from the signification of ”an angel,“ as being in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine Human, and in the relative sense the Divine of the Lord in heaven with the angels, as also in the church with men; and from the signification of ”sending before thee,“ as being to prepare.  That in the supreme sense ”an angel“ denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human, (n. 1925, 3039, 6280, 6831, 9303); that in the relative sense it denotes the Divine of the Lord in heaven with the angels, (n. 1925, 2821, 4085, 6831, 8192). From this it follows that ”an angel“ also signifies the Divine of the Lord with the men who receive it; for men who are in the good of love and in the truths of faith in the Lord from the Lord, after death become angels; and those who do so are angels inwardly even while they live in the world. From this it is that in the Word John the Baptist is called an ”angel,“ as in Luke:--

This is he of whom it is written, Behold I send Mine angel before Thy face, who shall prepare Thy way before Thee (Luke 7:27);

that here ”angel“ denotes the Divine of the Lord with him is plain in Malachi:--

Behold I send Mine angel, who shall prepare the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to His temple, even the ark of the covenant, whom ye desire (Mal. 3:1);

that the Divine of the Lord is there meant by ”angel“ is because John the Baptist represented the Lord in respect to the Word, even as Elijah did, and the Word is Divine truth which is from the Lord. That Elijah represented the Word, see (n. 2135a, 2762, 5247); and that John the Baptist did so, (n. 9372). And whereas in the supreme sense the Lord as to the Divine Human is the ”Angel,“ therefore it is said, ”the Lord shall come to His temple, even the Angel of the covenant;“ ”the temple“ denotes His Divine Human, as is evident in (John 2:18-22).  The reason why He is called both ”Lord“ and ”Angel,“ is that He is called ”Lord“ from Divine good, and ”Angel“ from Divine truth.  As ”Jehovah“ in the Word denotes the Lord Himself, therefore it is said, ”I send Mine Angel, who shall prepare the way before Me.“  This is said by Jehovah.

AC 10529. And I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.  That this signifies the casting out thence of all evils and falsities, is evident from the representation of the nations in the land of Canaan, as being the evils and falsities of the church and of worship (n. 9320, 9327); but what particular evil and falsity is signified by each nation may be seen in the explications given, where they are treated of; as, concerning the Canaanite, (n. 1573, 1574, 4818); concerning the Amorite, (n. 1857, 6306, 6859); concerning the Hittite, (n. 2913, 6858); the Perizzite, (n. 1573, 1574, 6859); the Hivite and the Jebusite, (n. 6860).

AC 10530. Unto a land flowing with milk and honey.  That this signifies what is pleasant and delightful from the good of faith and of love, is evident from the signification of ”land,“ as being the church (n. 9325); from the signification of ”milk,“ as being spiritual good, which is the good of faith (n. 2184); from the signification of ”honey,“ as being celestial good, which is the good of love; and from the signification of ”flowing,“ as being to be full. And because these things are signified by ”a land flowing with milk and honey,“ that which is pleasant and delightful from the good of faith and of love is also signified (n. 5620).  It is said what is pleasant and delightful from these, because heavenly pleasantness and delight itself is in the good of faith and of love; for every good has its delight, for that is called good which is loved, and all delight is of love. The delight which is meant by heavenly joy, and by eternal happiness, is from no other source than the love of truth and of good.  That this delight is superior to any delight of any love whatsoever that is to be found in the world, is quite unknown to those who make all delight to consist in worldly, bodily, and earthly things.

AC 10531. For I will not go up in the midst of thee.  That this signifies that nevertheless the Divine was not with the nation itself, is evident from the signification of ”not going up in the midst of the people,“ when this is said by Jehovah, as being that the Divine was not in the nation itself; thus that there was no church; for the Divine is where the church is; for ”to go up unto the land“ denotes to constitute the church (n. 10526); and ”in the midst of thee“ denotes in its internal.

AC 10532. For thou art a stiff-necked people.  That this signifies that they do not receive any influx from the Divine, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10429), where like words occur.

AC 10533. Perchance I should consume thee in the way.  That this signifies that if what is Divine were to flow in with this nation it would perish, is evident from the signification of ”consuming,“ as being to perish.  That that nation would perish if what is Divine were to flow in with them, is evident, for it is said, ”I will not go up in the midst of thee; perchance I should consume thee in the way.“ The case herein is this. They who are in external things without what is internal, thus in the loves of self and of the world, cannot possibly receive anything Divine; and therefore the internal with them is kept closed. If the internal were opened with them, and what is Divine were to flow in, they would utterly perish; for their life is from the loves of self and of the world, and there is a perpetual opposition and contrariety between these loves and heavenly loves, and heavenly loves are what is Divine; and therefore their life would be extinguished by the influx of what is Divine. That the Israelitish nation was in external things without what is internal, thus was in these loves, has frequently been shown above.

AC 10534. Verses 4-6. And the people heard this evil word, and they mourned; and they put not any man his ornament upon him. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Say unto the sons of Israel, Ye are a stiff-necked people; I will come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and will consume thee; therefore now bring down thine ornament from upon thee, and I shall know what I will do to thee.  And the sons of Israel stripped themselves of their ornament by Mount Horeb.  ”And the people heard this evil word, and they mourned,“ signifies their grief at not being pre-eminent to others; ”and they put not any man his ornament upon him,“ signifies the quality of their external, that it was devoid of what is Divine; ”and Jehovah said unto Moses,“ signifies instruction; ”Say unto the sons of Israel, Ye are a stiff-necked people,“ signifies that that nation would not receive influx from the Divine; ”I will come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and will consume thee,“ signifies that they would perish if what is Divine were to flow in with them; ”therefore now bring down thine ornament from upon thee,“ signifies the quality of their external, that it was devoid of what is Divine; ”and I shall know what I will do to thee,“ signifies that in this way something may come forth with them; ”and the sons of Israel stripped themselves of their ornament,“ signifies the deprivation of Divine truth in the external things with them; ”by Mount Horeb,“ signifies in the external things of worship, of the church, and of the Word.

AC 10535. And the people heard this evil word, and they mourned.  That this signifies their grief at not being pre-eminent to others, is evident from the signification of ”hearing this evil word and mourning.“ That it denotes grief at not being pre-eminent to others, is plain from what has been already shown concerning that nation, namely, that they were insistent that a church should be instituted among them, but merely in order that they might be pre-eminent to all the nations in the whole world; for they were in the love of self more than other nations, and they could not be raised to eminence above them in any other way than by Jehovah being with them, thus also the church, for where Jehovah is, that is, the Lord, there is the church. That this was their end is evident from many passages in the Word, as also from these words in this chapter:--Moses said, And wherein shall it ever be known that I have found grace in Thine eyes, I and Thy people? Is it not in Thy going with us? so that we be rendered pre-eminent, I and Thy people, above all the people that are upon the faces of the earth (verse 16). That it was not by choice, but by permission, that a church was instituted among them, and yet that in the nation itself there was not a church, but only the representative of a church, (n. 10396).

AC 10536. And they put not any man his ornament upon him.  That this signifies the quality of their external, that it was devoid of what is Divine, is evident from the signification of ”ornament,“ as being what is Divine in external things. Thus, ”not to put his ornament upon him“ denotes to be devoid of what is Divine in external things. The reason why this is signified by ”ornament“ is that ornament bears relation to garments, and by ”garments“ in general are signified Divine truths. That this is the signification of ”garments“ in general, originates in the representatives in the other life, where all, both angels and spirits, appear clothed in garments, and each one according to his truths. They who are in genuine Divine truths appear clothed in white shining garments, and others in other garments.  Spirits do not know whence their garments come, but are clothed with them without knowing this. Moreover their garments vary according to the changes of their state in respect to truths.  In a word, it is their understanding which is presented to view and represented by their garments, for each person’s understanding is formed by means of truths, and becomes such as are the truths from which it is formed.  With the angels of heaven their understanding is in their internal, and consequently they have white shining garments. The shining is from Divine good, and the whiteness is from the light of heaven, which is Divine truth But the garments of those who are in external things without what is internal are dusky and tattered, like those of beggars in the streets and of robbers in the woods. From this it can be seen what is signified by ”ornaments,“ namely, the holy truths of the church, and consequently ”not putting on their ornament“ denotes to be devoid of the holy truths of the church; and in application to the Israelitish nation, which was in external things without what is internal, it denotes the quality of the external without truths from the Divine. That ”garments“ denote truths, (n. 2132, 2576, 4545, 4763, 5248, 5319, 5954, 6378, 6914, 6917, 6918, 9093, 9158, 9212, 9216, 9814, 9827, 9952); as also what is signified by the ”garments of Aaron and of his sons,“ (n. 9814, 10068). That in the Word, ”ornament“ signifies the holy truths of the church, will be seen in the following article (n. 10540).

AC 10537. And Jehovah said unto Moses.  That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ when by Jehovah, as being instruction (n. 10280), here instruction that Divine truth was not with the nation itself, which is signified by their ”bringing down their ornament from upon them“.

AC 10538. Say unto the sons of Israel, Ye are a stiff-necked people.  That this signifies that that nation would not receive influx from the Divine, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10429), where like words occur.

AC 10539. I will come up into the midst of thee in a moment, and will consume thee. That this signifies that they would perish if what is Divine were to flow in with them, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10531, 10533), where also like words occur.

AC 10540. Therefore now bring down thine ornament from upon thee.  That this signifies the quality of their external, that it was devoid of what is Divine, is evident from the signification of ”ornament,“ when the subject treated of is the church, as being holy truth, that is, what is Divine in the externals (n. 10536); and from the signification of ”bringing it down from upon them,“ as being to strip it off, thus to be devoid of it. That what is Divine in the externals, that is, holy truth, is signified by ”ornament,“ is evident from the following passages.  In Ezekiel:--

I clothed thee with broidered work, and I shod thee with badger,   and I girded thee with fine linen, and I covered thee with silk; and I adorned thee with ornament, and I put bracelets upon thy hands, and a chain upon thy throat. And I put a nose-jewel upon thy nose, and earrings in thine ears, and a crown of comeliness upon thine head. Thus wast thou adorned with gold and silver; and thy garments were of fine linen, silk and broidered work; whence thou hast become exceeding beautiful and thou wast prospered unto a kingdom; wherefore thy name went forth among the nations concerning thy beauty; for this was perfect in Mine ornament, which I had put upon thee (Ezek. 16:10-14).

[2] This is said of Jerusalem, by which is signified the church which was set up by the Lord after the flood, and which was succeeded by the Israelitish and Jewish Church. The quality of this latter church is also described in the same chapter. But the quality of that Ancient Church is described in the above passage, and its holy truths by the ornaments there mentioned. Everyone can see that such things as are of the church are signified by the several particulars, and that something special is signified by each thing. Otherwise to what purpose would be such a description of Jerusalem?

[3] But what of the church each particular signifies can be seen from the internal sense only, for this sense teaches what thing in the spiritual world corresponds to each particular; from which it can be seen that ”broidered work“ denotes memory-truth (n. 9688); ”fine linen,“ intellectual truth which is from the Divine (n. 5319, 9469, 9596, 9744); ”bracelets,“ truths in respect to power (n. 3103, 3105); ”a chain,“ truth from good in respect to influx, and the consequent conjunction of things interior and exterior (n. 5320); ”a nose-jewel,“ truth in respect to perception; and ”earrings,“ truths in respect to obedience (n. 4551, 10402); ”a crown of comeliness,“ spiritual good, which is the good of truth, a ”crown“ denoting good (n. 9930), and ”comeliness,“ what is spiritual (n. 9815); ”gold and silver,“ good and truth in general (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 9874); ”fine flour, honey, and oil“ denote truths and goods external and internal; ”fine flour,“ truth from good (n. 9995); ”honey,“ external good (n. 10530), and ”oil,“ internal good (n. 886, 4582, 4638, 9474, 9780, 10254, 10261); ”beauty“ denotes the form of truth from good (n. 3080, 3821, 4985, 5199). That ”Jerusalem,“ of which these things are said, denotes the church, (n. 402, 2117, 3654). From this it is evident what is meant by ”ornament,“ namely, holy truth in the whole complex.

[4] Like things are signified by the ”ornaments of the daughters of Zion,“ which are enumerated in Isaiah:--

In that day the Lord will take away the ornament of the anklets, and of the little nets, and of the little moons, and of the ointment-boxes, and of the little chains, and of the gold-plates; and the tiaras, and the legbands, and the bindings, and the soul-houses, and the enchantments, and the rings, and the nose-ornaments, the changes of garments, and the mantles, and the veils, and the hairpins, the mirrors, and the muslins, and the headdresses, and the cambrics. And it shall come to pass that instead of spice there shall be rottenness; and instead of a girdle a rent; and instead of braided work baldness; and instead of a gown a girding of sackcloth; and burning instead of beauty.  Thy men shall fall by the sword, and thy strength in the war (Isa. 3:18-25).

Those who do not think beyond the sense of the letter know no otherwise than that all those things with which the daughters of Zion are said to have been adorned, are to be understood according to the letter; and that the men of that kingdom would perish on account of their adornment and their consequent haughtiness and pride; for it is said that ”their men shall fall by the sword, and their strength in the war.“ But those who raise their minds somewhat above the letter are able to know that such things are not meant.

[5] From various passages in the Word these know that by ”the daughters of Zion“ are not meant the daughters of Zion, but such things as belong to the church; as also by ”the daughters of Jerusalem,“ ”the daughters of Israel,“ ”the daughters of Judah,“ and many others. That by these are signified the church and the things that belong to the church, (n. 6729, 9055). As therefore the church, and the things that belong to the church, are signified by ”the daughters of Zion,“ it follows that by their ornaments as here enumerated are signified the truths and goods of the church, and that each ornament signifies some specific truth and good; for in the Word nothing is said without a meaning, not even one syllable.

[6] And as that church was to be bereft of its truths and goods, which are signified by these ornaments, thee fore it is said that ”instead of spice there shall be rottenness, instead of a girdle a rent, instead of braided work baldness, instead of a gown a girding of sackcloth, and a burning instead of beauty;“ and also that ”the men shall fall by the sword, and their strength in the war;“ for by ”spice“ is signified Divine truth in respect to its perceptivity (n. 10199, 10291); by ”rottenness,“ the privation of it; by ”a girdle,“ the bond holding together truths and goods in their connection (n. 9341, 9828, 9837); ”a rent instead thereof“ denotes their dissolution and dispersion; by ”braided work“ is signified memory-truth (n. 2831); by ”baldness,“ the deprivation of the intelligence of truth and of the wisdom of good (n. 9960); by ”a burning,“ their consumption through the evils of the love of self (n. 1297, 2446, 7852, 9055, 9141); by ”beauty,“ the form of truth from good in the church, thus its perfection (n. 3080, 3821, 4985, 5199); and by ”a sword whereby men shall fall,“ falsity destroying truth and good (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294); by no ”strength in the war“ is signified not any resistance against evil and falsity; for ”war“ denotes spiritual combat and temptation (n. 1659, 1664, 2686, 8273, 8295, 10455). From all this it is now evident that by ”ornament“ in general is signified the Divine truth of the church.

[7] The like is signified by ”ornament“ in the following passage:--

Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in double dyed with pleasant things, who put an ornament of gold upon your garment (2 Sam. 1:24);

these words occur in the lamentation of David over Saul, which he wrote to teach the sons of Judah the bow (2 Sam. 1:18), where by ”bow“ is signified the doctrine of truth fighting against the falsities of evil (n. 2686, 2709, 6422); consequently by the ”daughters of Israel“ are signified the affections of truth that belong to the church (n. 2362, 3963, 6729, 6775, 6788, 8994); to be ”clothed with double-dyed with pleasant things,“ denotes with the interior truths of the church which are from good (n. 4922, 9468); to ”put an ornament of gold upon the garment“ denotes to make truths beautiful from good.  That ”gold“ denotes good, see at the places cited in (n. 9874); and that ”garment“ denotes truth in general, (n. 10536). That the lamentation of David over Saul treats of the doctrine of truth fighting against the falsity of evil, which doctrine is signified by a ”bow,“ was because by a king, or by the royalty which belonged to Saul, is signified Divine truth in respect to protection and to judgment (n. 1672, 2015, 2069, 3009, 4575, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148).

[8] The like is signified by ”ornament“ elsewhere:--

Give unto Jehovah the glory belonging to His name; bow down before Jehovah in the ornament of holiness (Ps. 29:2);

”in the ornament of holiness“ denotes in the genuine truths of the church. In like manner in Isaiah:--

Thy sons shall make haste. Lift up thine eyes round about, and see all gathered together. As I live, said Jehovah, thou shalt be clothed with all as with an ornament, and be girded round with them as a bride (Isa. 49:17, 18);

also speaking of Zion, by which is signified the celestial church; by the ”sons who shall make haste“ are signified the truths of that church. That ”sons“ signify truths, (n. 489, 491, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257, 9807). From this it is that it is said that she shall ”be clothed with them as an ornament, and shall be girded round with them as a bride,“ which can be said of the truths of the church, but not of the sons of Zion.

[9] As almost all things in the Word have also an opposite sense, so likewise have those which belong to ornament, by which are signified truths falsified, as in these passages:--

When thou art laid waste, what wilt thou do? Though thou clothest thyself with double-dyed, though thou deckest thee with an ornament of gold, though thou forcest open thine eyes with antimony, in vain shalt thou make thyself beautiful (Jer. 4:30).

I will visit upon her the days of the baals, to which she burned incense, and put on her earring and her ornament, and went after her lovers, and forgot Me (Hos. 2:13).

AC 10541. And I shall know what I will do to thee. That this signifies that in this way something may come forth with them, is evident from the series of things in the internal sense, for that nation could be in a holy external and at the same time not in a holy internal. And as in this way the external of the church could be with that nation, though not the internal, therefore by ”I shall know what I will do,“ is signified that in this way something may come forth with them.

AC 10542. And the sons of Israel stripped themselves of their ornament.  That this signifies the deprivation of Divine truth in the external things with them, is evident from the signification of ”stripping one‘s self,“ as being to be bereft and deprived; and from the signification of ”ornament,“ as being holy truth, or what is Divine (n. 10536, 10540).

AC 10543. By Mount Horeb. That this signifies in the external things of worship, of the church, and of the Word, is evident from the signification of ”Mount Horeb,“ as being Divine truth in the external things, for Horeb was a mountainous region around Mount Sinai; and by ”Mount Sinai“ is signified Divine truth.  Consequently ”Horeb,“ being a mountainous region round about it, signifies Divine truth in external things; for that which is in the midst and which is high above the things that lie round about, signifies what is internal; and consequently by that which is round about and beneath is signified what is external. That ”Mount Sinai“ signifies Divine truth, (n. 8805, 9420); that ”the midst“ denotes what is internal, (n. 1074, 2940, 2973, 5897, 6084, 6103, 9164); in like manner what is high, (n. 2148, 4210, 4599, 9489, 9773, 10181); and that ”roundabout“ denotes what is external, (n. 2973); in like manner ”beneath.“) As the people were in external things, and not in what is internal, therefore when the Law was promulgated from Mount Sinai, they stood in Horeb beneath the mountain, and the mountain was hedged about to prevent its being touched by the people (Exod. 19:12, 13, 21-24; 20:18; Deut. 4:10-12). It is said ”the external of worship, of the church, and of the Word,“ because the external of one is the external of the other, for worship belongs to the church, and the truths and goods of the church and of its worship are from the Word; and therefore those who are in the externals of worship and of the church are in the externals of the Word.

AC 10544. Verses 7-11. And Moses took a tent, and stretched it for himself without the camp, afar off from the camp; and he called it the tent of meeting. And it was that everyone inquiring of Jehovah went out unto the tent of meeting that was outside the camp. And it was that when Moses went out unto the tent, all the people rose up, and stood, every man at the door of his tent, and looked after Moses, until he had entered into the tent. And it was that when Moses entered into the tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the tent, and spake with Moses. And all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the door of the tent; and all the people rose up and bowed themselves, every man at the door of his tent. And Jehovah spake unto Moses faces to faces, as a man speaketh unto his neighbor. And he returned unto the camp; and his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a boy, moved not out of the midst of the tent. ”And Moses took a tent,“ signifies what is holy of worship, of the church, and of the Word; ”and stretched it for himself without the camp, afar off from the camp,“ signifies remote from the external things in which the nation itself was; ”and he called it the tent of meeting,“ signifies the external of worship, of the church, and of the Word, in which are internal things; ”and it was that everyone inquiring of Jehovah went out unto the tent of meeting that was outside the camp,“ signifies that all instructions concerning the truths and goods of the church and of worship would be given to everyone by means of the external of the Word remotely from the external things in which that nation was; ”and it was that when Moses went out unto the tent, all the people rose up, and stood, every man at the door of his tent,“ signifies that that nation was not in the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, but was outside of it; ”and looked after Moses, until he had entered into the tent,“ signifies that they see the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, but that it vanishes from their apprehension; ”and it was that when Moses entered into the tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the tent, and spake with Moses,“ signifies that after the Word had vanished from their apprehension a dense obscurity took possession of them from without, and yet there was a clear perception from within; ”and all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the door of the tent,“ signifies a dense obscurity taking possession of them from without; ”and all the people rose up and bowed themselves, every man at the door of his tent,“ signifies that that nation adored their external in a holy manner; ”and Jehovah spake unto Moses faces to faces,“ signifies the Divine things in the Word conjoined together; ”as a man speaketh unto his neighbor,“ signifies the conjunction of truth and good; ”and he returned unto the camp,“ signifies unto the external in which that nation was; ”and his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a boy, moved not out of the midst of the tent,“ signifies Divine truth meanwhile ministering in the holy things of the church and of worship in the place of Moses.

AC 10545. And Moses took a tent. That this signifies what is holy of worship, of the church, and of the Word, is evident from the signification of ”a tent,“ as being in the supreme sense the Lord, and also heaven and the church, and in the relative sense all that is holy of heaven and of the church, consequently also what is holy of worship and of the Word, for these are of the church and are of the Lord, because they are from Him.  The reason why ”a tent“ signifies these things, is that the most ancient people dwelt in tents, and also had therein their holy worship.  Among these people existed the celestial church, which was the most holy of all the succession of churches, for they adored the Lord, who with them was Jehovah; and as He was their Leader, they had intercourse with the angels of heaven, and consequently were in celestial wisdom from the Lord.  It is the setting up of this church which is described by the creation of heaven and earth in the first chapter of Genesis, and their wisdom by paradise.  For by ”heaven and earth“ in the Word is signified the church, by ”paradise“ intelligence and wisdom, and by ”man“ the church itself; in like manner by the ”ground“ from which he was named ”Adam.“ (That ”heaven and earth“ in the Word denote the church, ”heaven“ the internal church and ”earth“ the external church, see (n. 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 3355, 4535, 10373); that intelligence and wisdom are described by paradises and gardens, (n. 100, 108, 2702, 3220); that ”man“ denotes the church, (n. 478, 768, 4287, 9276); in like manner ”ground,“ (n. 566, 1068); and that ” creating man“ denotes the setting up of the church, (n. 16, 88, 10373); see also (n. 8891, 9942).

[2] In consequence of that church being loved above all others, and from the Lord dwelling with them in tents, for the Lord is said ”to dwell“ with the man who is in love to Him, (John 14:23), therefore in memory of these things the Tabernacle or Tent of meeting was constructed among the Israelitish nation, wherein was held what is holy of worship; and for the same reason the feast of tabernacles or of tents was instituted.

[3] That by ”tent“ are signified these holy things, and specifically what is holy of worship, is evident from the following passages:--

Sing, O barren, that did not bear, enlarge the place of thy tent, and let them stretch forth the curtains of thine habitations (Isa. 54:1, 2);

”to enlarge the place of the tent“ denotes to do so with the things which are of the church, and consequently which are of worship; ”to stretch forth the curtains of the habitations“ denotes to multiply truths. That ”curtains“ denote the truths of the church, (n. 9595, 9596, 9606, 9756); ”the barren“ denotes one who has not previously been in the truths and goods of the church (n. 3908, 9325).

[4] In Jeremiah:--

The whole land has been laid waste, suddenly have My tents been laid waste, and My curtains in a moment (Jer. 4:20);

that ”land“ denotes the church (n. 9325); and as the church is the church from the goods of love and the truths of faith, therefore it is said that ”the tents and the curtains are laid waste;“ ”tents“ denoting the goods of the church, and ”curtains“ its truths.

[5] Again:--

My tent hath been laid waste, and all My curtains have been plucked out; My sons are gone forth from Me, and they are not; there is none to stretch forth My tent any more, or to raise up My curtains. For the shepherds are become fools (Jer. 10:20, 21);

like things are here signified by ”tent“ and by ”curtains;“ the ”cords plucked out“ denotes that there is no longer any conjunction of good and truth, and of truths one with another; and therefore it is said, ”My sons are gone forth,“ because by ”sons“ are signified truths. That ”cords“ denote conjunction (n. 9777, 9854, 9880); and that ”sons“ denote truths, (n. 489, 491, 533, 2623, 2803, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257, 9807).

[6] In David:--

Jehovah, who shall abide in Thy tent, who shall dwell in the mountain of Thy holiness? He that walketh blameless, and who doeth righteousness, and speaketh the truth in his heart (Ps.  15:1, 2);

”to abide in the tent of Jehovah“ denotes to do so in heaven and in the good of love there. Again:--

I will abide in Thy tent to eternities (Ps. 61:4);

where the meaning is the same.

[7] In Amos:--

In that day I will raise the tent of David that is fallen, and I will close up the breaches thereof, and I will restore its ruins (Amos 9:11);

the ”tent of David“ denotes the church of the Lord and what is holy of the worship of Him; ”to close up the breaches, and restore the ruins“ denotes to restore these by removing falsities. That ”David“ in the Word denotes the Lord, see (n. 1888, 9954); hence it is that ”the tent of David“ denotes the church of the Lord, and that which is holy of worship. In Jeremiah:--

Behold I bring back the captivity of Jacob’s tents, and I will have compassion on his dwelling places (Jer. 30:18);

where ”the tents of Jacob,“ and ”his dwelling places,“ denote the goods and truths of the church.

[8] As by ”tents“ are signified the goods of the church and of worship, therefore by ”tents“ in the opposite sense are signified the evils of worship and of the church, as can be seen from the following passages:--

I will liken the daughter of Zion to a comely woman; shepherds and their flocks shall come unto her, and they shall fix their tents against her round about (Jer. 6:2, 3).

Go up against Arabia, and lay waste the sons of the east.  Their tents and their flocks they shall take, their curtains, and all their vessels (Jer. 49:28, 29).

What will ye do in the day of the solemnity, and in the day of the feast of Jehovah? For lo they are gone away because of the laying waste; the desirable things of their silver, the nettle shall possess them; thorns shall be in their tents (Hos. 9:5, 6).

He smote all the firstborn of Egypt, the beginning of strengths in the tents of Ham (Ps. 78:51).

AC 10546. And stretched it for himself without the camp, afar off from the camp.  That this signifies remote from the external things in which the nation itself was, is evident from the signification of ”stretching the tent,“ as being to provide, dispose, and set in order the things which are of the church and of worship; for by the ”tent“ is signified what is holy of the church, of worship, and of the Word (n. 10545), consequently by ”stretching it“ is signified to provide, dispose, and set in order these things; and from the signification of ”the camp,“ as being the heavenly order from which and according to which are heaven and the church; and as all the truths and goods of heaven and of the church belong to this order, there is consequently signified their containant also. The reason why these things are signified by ”the camp,“ is that by ”the sons of Israel,“ who formed the camp, are signified all truths and goods in the complex. But when the sons of Israel worshiped the calf instead of Jehovah, then by their ”camp“ was signified the opposite, thus infernal order, and also the containant of falsity and evil, which make hell.  Whether you say ”the external of worship and of the church without the internal,“ or ”hell,“ it is the same thing; for they who are in the external of worship without the internal are in the loves of self and of the world, and the loves of self and of the world are from hell. From this it is evident why Moses took his tent and stretched it without the camp afar off from the camp; for as before said by the ”tent“ was signified what is holy of worship, of the church, and of the Word; and also why by these words is signified what is remote from the external things in which the Israelitish nation was.

[2] That by ”the camp“ is signified heavenly order, and by ”encamping“ the disposing of good and truth according to heavenly order, (n. 4236, 8103, 8130, 8131, 8155, 8193, 8196); and that consequently by ”the camp“ is signified heaven and the church in so far as they are the containant of these, (n. 10038); and in the opposite sense hell, (n. 10458); moreover that the external of worship and of the church separate from what is internal is hell, (n. 10483, 10489); for the reason that those who are in external things separate from what is internal never receive any Divine influx, (n. 10429, 10472); and consequently have nothing of faith in and of love to the Lord, (n. 10396, 10400, 10411); because they look solely to their own loves, thus to hell, (n. 10422); and consequently worship themselves for a god, (n. 10407, 10412); that the Israelitish nation was in external things separate from what is internal, (n. 9380, 9373, 9391, 10396, 10401, 10407, 10492, 10498, 10500, 10533).

AC 10547. And he called it the tent of meeting. That this signifies the external of worship, of the church, and of the Word, in which are internal things, is evident from the signification of ”the tent of meeting,“ as being the external of worship, of the church, and of the Word, in which are things internal; for by ”tent“ is signified what is holy of worship, of the church, and of the Word (n. 10545), and by ”meeting“ is signified where internal things are, for all internal things are together in external things (n. 6451, 9216, 9828, 9836). In the sense of the letter by ”meeting“ is meant the meeting of the sons of Israel; but in the internal sense there is signified the meeting of the truths and goods of the church, because by the sons of Israel in a good sense are signified the truths and goods of the church in the complex (n. 5414, 5879, 5951, 7957), in like manner by the ”congregation“ and the ”assemblage“ of the sons of Israel (n. 7830, 7843). And the truths and goods of the Word, of the church, and of worship are in their own internal; for in the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship are celestial and spiritual things; but in the external are natural and worldly things; and all celestial and spiritual things flow into natural and worldly things, and terminate in them, and form and constitute them. From this it is that what is external is signified by ”meeting.“ This is the case with the external sense of the Word, which is called the sense of its letter, thus also with the externals of the church and of worship, for these are from the Word.

AC 10548. And it was that everyone inquiring of Jehovah went out unto the tent of meeting that was outside the camp. That this signifies that all instructions concerning the truths and goods of the church and of worship would be given to everyone by means of the external of the Word remotely from the external things in which that nation was, is evident from the signification of ”inquiring of Jehovah,“ as being to be instructed concerning the truths and goods of the church and of worship, for all inquiring of Jehovah is for the sake of instruction in these; from the signification of ”the tent of meeting,“ as being the external of the church and of worship (n. 10547); and from the signification of ”outside the camp,“ as being that which is remote from the external things in which that nation was (n. 10546). From this it is evident that by ”everyone inquiring of Jehovah went out unto the tent of meeting that was outside the camp,“ is signified that all instruction concerning the truths and goods of the church and of worship would be given by means of the external of the Word remotely from the external things in which that nation was.

[2] It is said ”by means of the external of the Word,“ because all instruction concerning the truths and goods of faith and of love which make the church and enter into worship, is from this source, and because to inquire of the Lord is to consult the Word; for in the Word the Lord is present, seeing that the Word is the Divine truth which is from Him, and that He is with the angels in His Divine truth, and also with the men of the church who receive Him.

[3] It is said ”by means of the external of the Word,“ because in the external of the Word all internal things are together, thus all the truths and goods of heaven and of the church (n. 10547). From this it is that answers and revelations were made in ultimates (n. 9905). Moreover all the doctrinal things of the church that are of service to worship, are given by means of the external of the Word; but they are given to those only who are in enlightenment from the Lord when they are reading the Word, for then light flows into them from heaven through the internal sense (n. 9025, 9382, 9409, 9424, 9430, 10105, 10324, 10402, 10431).

[4] The reason why it denotes remotely from the external things in which the Israelitish nation was, is that with that nation the external of the Word appears quite different, and consequently is differently unfolded, as can be seen from the fact that they see nothing therein about faith in the Lord and love to Him, nor indeed about the Lord, and about heaven from Him. But the things which they see are solely about worldly and earthly things, and especially about their own preeminence to others. The reason is that they are in external things without what is internal, and they who are of such a character can see nothing from the internal. To see from the internal is to see from heaven from the Lord. From all this it is evident that the external of the Word, and consequently of the church and of worship, with that nation, was remote from the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, as regarded in itself. As far as (verse 11), the external worship of that nation is now described in the internal sense.

AC 10549. And it was that when Moses went out unto the tent, all the people rose up, and stood, every man at the door of his tent.  That this signifies that that nation was not in the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, but was outside of it, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372); from the signification of ”the tent,“ as being what is holy of worship, of the church, and of the Word (n. 10545); and from the signification of ”rising and standing before the door of the tent,“ as being to be outside of it, for ”door“ denotes entrance, introduction, and communication (n. 2145, 2152, 8989); consequently ”to stand before it“ denotes not to enter, be introduced, and have communication.

AC 10550. And looked after Moses, until he had entered into the tent.  That this signifies that they see the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, but that it vanishes from their apprehension, is evident from the signification of ”looking after Moses,“ as being to see the external of the Word; for by ”Moses“ is signified the Word (n. 10549); and by ”looking after him“ is signified to see its external; for that which is before signifies that which is within; and that which is after signifies that which is without; consequently to see the back parts of Jehovah, and not the face, denotes to see what is external and not what is internal, as shown in the last verse of this chapter. And from the signification of ”until he had entered into the tent,“ as being to vanish from their apprehension; for when he entered he was no longer seen.

AC 10551. And it was that when Moses entered into the tent, the pillar of cloud descended, and stood at the door of the tent, and spake with Moses.  That this signifies that after the Word had vanished from their apprehension a dense obscurity took possession of them from without, and yet there was a clear perception from within, is evident from the signification of ”when Moses entered into the tent,“ as being that after the Word had vanished from their apprehension (n. 10550); from the signification of ”the pillar of cloud,“ as being a dense obscurity relatively to that nation, for by a ”cloud“ is signified the external of the Word (n. 2135a, 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8443, 8781); and also the obscurity of the Word with those who are not in enlightenment, and dense obscurity with those who are in the external of the Word separate from the internal (n. 6832, 8106, 8814, 8819, 9430); from the signification of ”standing at the door,“ as being to be outside (n. 10549); from the signification of ”speaking with Moses,“ as being to perceive clearly from within, for by ”Moses“ is signified the Word as regarded in itself, (n. 9372), and by ”speaking“ is signified to perceive, (n. 10290). That it denotes from within is because Moses, with whom the pillar of cloud spake, was within the tent.

[2] It must here he told what it is to see from without, and what to have perception from within. Those who when reading the Word are in enlightenment, see it from within, for their internal is open, and when the internal is open it is in the light of heaven.  This light flows in and enlightens, although the man is unaware of it.  The reason why he is unaware of it, is that this light flows into the knowledges that are in the man‘s memory, and these knowledges are in natural light.  And as the man thinks from these knowledges as from himself, he cannot perceive the influx, nevertheless from various indications he is able to know that he has been in enlightenment. But yet everyone is deceived who believes himself to be in enlightenment, unless he loves to know truth for the sake of truth and for the sake of the good of life, thus unless he loves Divine truth for the sake of life, because to live according to Divine truths from the Word is to love the Lord, and all enlightenment comes from the Lord when He is loved.

[3] But those cannot possibly be in any enlightenment who have not as their end a life according to Divine truths from the Word; but who have as their end honor, gain, and reputation; and who thus regard the Divine truths of the Word as means; for this end is worldly and bodily, and not spiritual and heavenly; and it therefore closes the internal man, and when this is closed, no light can flow in from heaven and enlighten.  If such persons, when reading the Word, believe that they are in enlightenment, they are quite mistaken; for they do not think from heaven, but from the world; thus not from the Lord, but from themselves; and in so far as they think from themselves and from the world, so far they think from natural light separate from heavenly light, and in spiritual things natural light separate from heavenly light is mere thick darkness. If these persons persuade themselves that they have seen something from enlightenment, it is a fallacy, for they perceive whether a thing is true solely from others by means of confirmations, which is to see truth from without and not from within, or to see it from persuasive faith, the nature of which may be seen in (n. 9363-9369).  Such persons are able to see falsity as truth, and truth as falsity; also evil as good, and good as evil.

[4] From all this it is evident what it is to see the Word from without; and also what it is to perceive it from within. To see it from without is signified by the people ”standing at the door of the tent and looking after Moses;“ also by their ”seeing the pillar of cloud standing at the door of the tent;“ and by their ”bowing themselves at the door of their tents.“ But to perceive the Word from within is signified by ”Moses entering into the tent;“ and by ”the pillar of cloud, which was at the door of the tent, speaking with Moses.“

[5] It shall also be briefly stated how the influx from which comes enlightenment is effected. Equally with men, the angels also perceive the Word when it is read; but the angels perceive it spiritually, and men perceive it naturally. The man whose internal is open also perceives the Word spiritually; but while he lives in the world he is unaware of this, because his spiritual thought flows into the natural thought in the external man, and there presents itself to view. Nevertheless it is this interior thought which enlightens, and by means of which the influx from the Lord is effected. By looking into their thoughts, and by reflections thereon, some of the learned have noticed that there is in man an interior thought which does not appear, and therefore they have called the ideas of this thought immaterial and intellectual, and they have made a distinction between these ideas and those of the exterior thought which appear; and they have called these latter natural and material. But they have not known that the ideas of the interior thought are spiritual; and that when these flow down they are turned into natural ideas, and appear under a different shape, and under a different condition.  From all this it can in some measure be seen how the influx through which comes enlightenment is effected.

AC 10552. And all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the door of the tent.  That this signifies a dense obscurity taking possession of them from without, is evident from what has been unfolded just above (n. 10551).

AC 10553. And all the people rose up and bowed themselves, every man at the door of his tent.  That this signifies that that nation adored their external in a holy manner, is evident from the signification of ”rising and bowing themselves,“ as being to adore in a holy manner; and from the signification of ”at the door of his tent,“ as being the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10549).  In these words is described the genius of that nation, in that although they are outside the genuine sense of the Word, and are in very dense obscurity concerning it, they nevertheless adore it in a holy manner. But this holiness is an idolatrous holiness arising from the love of self altogether separated from the Divine holiness.  That that nation was in such a holiness when in worship, (n. 3479, 4281, 6588, 9377, 10430, 10500).

AC 10554. And Jehovah spake unto Moses faces to faces.  That this signifies the Divine things in the Word conjoined together, is evident from the signification of ”speaking faces to faces,“ as being to be conjoined, for by ”faces“ are signified the interiors, and when the interiors mutually regard each other and see alike, they conjoin themselves together. This is signified by ”speaking faces to faces“ when said of Jehovah speaking unto Moses, by whom is meant the Word; for by ”speaking“ is signified perception, and by ”faces to faces“ is signified mutually, consequently the mutual perception of the one in that of the other, which is conjunction.

[2] This means that such is the nature of the Word, because here ”Moses“ denotes the Word. For such is the nature of the Word in its internal and in its external. In its internal, and also in its external, each and all things have been conjoined together; moreover those which are in its internal are conjoined by means of correspondences with those which are in its external. These conjunctions cannot be described, and if they were described, they could not be apprehended by any idea of thought. It is celestial and spiritual things which are there thus conjoined together, and it is these which by means of correspondences are conjoined with the natural and worldly things which constitute the sense of the letter. The nature of these conjunctions may in some measure be presented to the idea by comparison with the conjunctions of the angelic societies in the heavens, which taken together are a one, just as are the members, viscera, and organs with man, which though various, and each of them inwardly consisting of countless various things, nevertheless make a one. Such also is the Word in respect to its truths and goods. That such is the nature of the Word is quite unknown to man; but the angels know it, for they perceive the connection of the interior things of the Word.

[3] From all this it can be seen that by ”Jehovah speaking unto Moses faces to faces“ is signified the Divine things in the Word conjoined together. That one thing is signified by ”speaking faces to faces,“ and another by ”seeing Jehovah face to face,“ is evident from what follows in this chapter, where Jehovah says unto Moses, ”Thou canst not see My faces, because a man doth not see Me and live. But I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee over with the palm of My hand, until I have passed by; and I will take away the palm of My hand, and thou shalt see My back parts, and My faces shall not be seen“ (verses 20, 22, 23). That ”Moses“ denotes the Word, (n. 10549); that” the faces“ denote the interiors, (n. 9546); and also that ”speaking“ denotes perception, (n. 10290).

AC 10555. As a man speaketh unto his neighbor. That this signifies the conjunction of truth and good, is evident from the signification of ”speaking,“ as being a mutual perception and the consequent conjunction (n. 10554); from the signification of ”man (vir),“ as being truth (n. 3134, 3459, 4823, 7716, 9007); and from the signification of ”neighbor,“ as being the good with which truth is conjoined. In the Word throughout mention is made of ”man and neighbor,“ or of ” man and companion;“ and thereby is signified what is mutual, as also by ”man and brother.“ And when what is mutual is signified, there is meant mutual conjunction, such as is that between truth and good; for truth mutually conjoins itself with good, for the reason that truth has its being from good, and good has its quality in truth.  In heaven there is not any truth which is not conjoined with good, for the reason that truth is not anything without good, nor is good anything without truth. For truth without good is like manifestation (existere) without being (esse), and good without truth is like being without manifestation; that is, truth without good is like a body without life; and good without truth is like life without a body. Wherefore unless they are conjoined together, they are not anything from which comes anything, that is, they are not anything of which anything of heaven and of the church can be predicated.

[2] The case herein is like what understanding would be in man without will, or like what will would be without understanding. One is indeed possible separate from the other, as for example to understand what is true and good, and not to will it. But in this case to understand has its will from some other source than good; it has it from willing for one’s self, or for the sake of one‘s self, to which the understanding of truth and of good serve as a means. He who reflects well is able to know that understanding with man has its life from his willing; and that without willing it is not anything; and also that understanding and willing mutually regard each other, and are conjoined together. The case is the same with truth and good, consequently with faith and love. Unless truth is conjoined with good, or faith with love, there is no truth or good, nor faith or love. These things have been said in order that it may be known what is meant by the mutual conjunction which in the spiritual sense is signified by ”man and companion,“ or by ”man and neighbor,“ and also by ”man and brother.“

AC 10556. And he returned unto the camp. That this signifies unto the external in which that nation was, is evident from the signification of ”the camp,“ as being the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, in which the Israelitish nation was (n. 10546). Now when Moses has returned unto the camp, he no longer represents the Word, but the head of the Israelitish nation, for to be in the camp with those who were in external things separate from what is internal, denotes to be in a similar state. It was otherwise when he was without that camp and stretched the tent there, afar off from the camp. In what manner therefore Moses represents the head of that nation can be seen from the internal sense of what follows in this chapter down to the end. As Moses puts on this representation, it is therefore said that ”his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a boy, moved not out of the midst of the tent,“ by which is signified that the representative is still continued in the tent that was outside the camp.

AC 10557. And his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a boy, moved not out of the midst of the tent. That this signifies Divine truth meanwhile ministering in the holy things of the church and of worship in the place of Moses, is evident from the representation of Joshua the minister of Moses, as being Divine truth ministering in the place of Moses, and who was called ”the son of Nun“ from truth, and ”a boy“ from good; and from the signification of ”not moving out of the midst of the tent,“ as being meanwhile not ceasing to be in the holy things of the church and of worship. By ”not moving out“ is signified not ceasing meanwhile, and by ”the tent“ is signified what is holy of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10545). In the last article (n. 10556), it was said that Moses now begins to represent the head of the Israelitish nation; and therefore lest the connection of things in the internal sense should be broken, it was provided that when Moses was absent, Joshua should remain in the tent; for by Joshua is represented Divine truth in respect co some function; as for example Divine truth fighting (n. 8595); Divine truth surveying and taking notice (n. 10454); and here Divine truth ministering in the absence of Moses.  Therefore he is called ”the minister of Moses.“

AC 10558. Verses 12-17.  And Moses said unto Jehovah, See, Thou sayest unto me, Make this people come up; and Thou hast not made known to me whom Thou wilt send with me. And Thou hast said, I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in Mine eyes.  And now I pray, If I have found grace in Thine eyes, make known to me, I pray, Thy way, that I may know Thee, because I have found grace in Thine eyes; and see that this nation is Thy people. And He said, My faces shall go, and I will make thee to rest. And he said unto Him, If Thy faces go not, do not make us to go up from hence. And wherein shall it ever become known that I have found grace in Thine eyes, land Thy people? is it not in Thy going with us? and we shall be rendered pre-eminent, and Thy people, above all the people that are upon the faces of the ground.  And Jehovah said unto Moses, I will do this word also that thou hast spoken; because thou hast found grace in Mine eyes, and know thee by name. ”And Moses said unto Jehovah,“ signifies indignation that the Divine, thus the church itself, was not with them; ”See, Thou sayest unto me, Make this people come up,“ signifies a solemn promise that the church should be with that nation; ”and Thou hast not made known to me whom Thou wilt send with me,“ signifies that this cannot be done without the Divine auspices; ”and Thou hast said, I know thee by name,“ signifies his quality; ”and thou hast also found grace in Mine eyes,“ signifies that he was accepted because he could preside over that nation; ”and now I pray if I have found grace in Thine eyes,“ signifies if he was accepted on this account; ”make known to me I pray Thy way, that I may know Thee,“ signifies instruction concerning what would be the nature of the Divine with them; ”because I have found grace in Thine eyes,“ signifies because he was received to preside over the people; ”and see that this nation is Thy people,“ signifies that they are the only ones in the world with whom is the Divine which is over all things; ”and He said, My faces shall go, and I will make thee to rest,“ signifies that the Divine of the church, of worship, and of the Word shall be there, but with the nation itself what is external without it; ”and he said unto Him, If Thy faces go not, do not make us go up from hence,“ signifies if the Divine be not there, there will not be anything of the church; ”and wherein shall it ever become known that I have found grace in Thine eyes, I and Thy people? is it not in Thy going with us?“ signifies reception above others if the Divine be manifested among them; ”and we shall be rendered pre-eminent, I and Thy people, above all the people that are upon the faces of the ground,“ signifies their consequent pre-eminence to all in the whole world where the church is; ”and Jehovah said unto Moses, I will do this word also that thou hast spoken,“ signifies that the Divine shall be in the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, which is with them; ”because thou hast found grace in Mine eyes, and I know thee by name,“ signifies that he is accepted on account of his quality.

AC 10559. And Moses said unto Jehovah.  That this signifies indignation that the Divine was not with them, thus not the church itself, is evident from the signification of ”saying,“ as here being indignation, for ”saying“ involves the things which follow, because these are what he said, and the things which follow are things of indignation on this account, that the Divine would not be with them, thus that the church would not be with them, whereby they might be rendered pre-eminent to all that were upon the face of the earth, as is plain from verse sixteen which follows. The reason why the words of Moses to Jehovah were words of indignation on that account, was that Moses here bears relation to the head of the Israelitish nation (n. 10556); wherefore he speaks for himself and for that nation, for he says, ”I and the people“ (verse 16).  And because he here hears relation to that nation as its head, therefore by ”Moses said unto Jehovah“ is signified indignation; for a man who is such as was that nation, is indignant against God if he does not obtain his desires.

[2] This is done by all those who are in external things without what is internal, for if they reverence and adore God, and as it were love Him, it is not for His own sake, but for the sake of themselves, because they desire nothing else than eminence above others and wealth beyond others, this being the fire which excites their reverence and adoration, and as it were their love.  But if they do not obtain what they desire, they forsake God.  That that nation was of such a character is very evident from the historicals of the Word.  The like is signified by the words of Jacob:--

Jacob vowed a vow, saying, If God will be with me, and will keep me in this way wherein I walk, and will give me bread to eat, and a garment to put on, and I return in peace to my father’s house, then Jehovah shall be to me for God (Gen.  28:20, 21);

these words mean that if he should receive these things, he would acknowledge Jehovah for his God; but if he should not receive them, he would not acknowledge Him.  Such also was the nation descended from him.  From this it is that that nation so often fell away, and worshiped other gods, until at last they were for this reason cast out from the land of Canaan, first the Israelitish nation, and afterward the Jewish.  It is evident that the cause of the indignation above spoken of was that if Jehovah did not go with them they would not become preeminent to all in the whole world.

[3] That it was also a cause of indignation that the church itself was not with them, follows from the fact that to be brought by Jehovah into the land of Canaan denotes to become the church.  The reason of this is that the church had been in the land of Canaan from the most ancient times, and that the Word could not have been written elsewhere, thus except with the nation which possessed that land; and where the Word is, there is the church.  That the Word could not have been written anywhere else was because all the places that were in the whole of that land, and that were round about it, such as the mountains, the valleys, the rivers, the forests, and all the rest, had become representative of celestial and spiritual things; and it was necessary that the sense of the letter of the Word, in both the historical and the prophetical parts, should consist of such things, because the interior things of the Word, which are celestial and spiritual, must close in such things, and as it were stand on them like a house upon its foundation; for unless the Word in respect to the sense of the letter, which is its ultimate, stood upon such things, it would be like a house without a foundation.  That this is so is evident from the Word, in that mention is so often made of the places of that land, all of which, having become representative, signify the things of heaven and of the church.

[4] From this it is that to be brought into the land of Canaan signifies the setting up of the church, and that the indignation of Moses involves this also, although he did not think of it. That the church was in the land of Canaan from the most ancient times, and that consequently all the places therein became representative, (n. 3686, 4447, 4454, 4516, 4517, 5136, 6306, 6516, 8317, 9320, 9325); and that from this ”the land of Canaan“ in the Word signifies the church, (n. 9325).

AC 10560. See, Thou sayest unto me, Make this people come up. That this signifies a solemn promise that the church should be with that nation, is evident from the signification of ”Thou sayest unto me,“ when the saying is by Jehovah, as being a solemn promise; and from the signification of ”making this people come up,“ as being that the church should be set up with that nation.  These are the things which are signified in the internal sense by these words.  But in the sense nearest the letter is signified that they should be brought into the land of Canaan and should possess it. That to be brought into the land of Canaan and to possess it denotes to set up the church, (n. 10559). How the case is in regard to these things has been shown throughout in the preceding pages, namely, that no church could be instituted with that nation, but only the representative of a church, because they were in external thing separate from what is internal, and those who are of such a character cannot receive any influx from the Divine; and get the church with man is in his internal, but not in what is external separate therefrom.  They who are of such a character can indeed represent the church, but cannot be the church. To represent the church and not be the church is to worship external things, and to call them holy and Divine; but not to acknowledge and perceive them in faith and love from heaven. See what has been said above concerning the signification of ”making the people come up into the land,“ (n. 10526).

AC 10561. And Thou hast not made known to me whom Thou wilt send with me.  That this signifies that this cannot be done without the Divine auspices, is evident from the signification of ”sending with Moses and with that nation,“ when sending by Jehovah is meant, as being that the Divine shall lead, because Moses knew that he could indeed bring the people into the land of Canaan; but that if this were done without the Divine leading and auspices, they would not come into possession of it; which involves and signifies that the church would not be instituted with that nation (n. 10559, 10560).  From this it is evident that by ”make this people come up, but Thou hast not made known to me whom Thou wilt send with me,“ is signified that the church could not be instituted with that nation without the Divine auspices.  Thus do the angels perceive these words, howsoever they may be perceived by men; for the angels perceive all things of the Word according to its internal sense; but men according to the external sense, in which nevertheless is the internal.  That ”sending with them,“ when said of Jehovah, denotes that the Divine shall lead, is because by being ”sent by Jehovah“ is signified the Divine leading, and also the Divine proceeding.  Therefore in the original tongue angels are so called from ”sent,“ and therefore the Lord so frequently spoke of Himself as being ”sent“ by the Father, by which is signified the Divine proceeding (n. 4710, 6831).  From all this it is evident what is meant in the internal sense by ”whom Thou wilt send with me.“

AC 10562. And Thou hast said, I know thee by name.  That this signifies his quality, is evident from the signification of ”knowing,“ when said of Jehovah, as being to know and foresee from eternity (n. 5309); and from the signification of ”name.“ as being the quality of a state, thing, or man (n. 144, 145, 1754, 1896, 2009, 2724, 3004-3011, 3421, 6674, 6887, 8274, 8882, 9310).  The quality of Moses is involved in the things which follow.  From this it is evident that by, ”I know thee by name,“ when said by Jehovah, is signified to know and foresee from eternity what is his quality.

AC 10563. And thou hast also found grace in Mine eyes.  That this signifies that he was received because he could preside over that nation, is evident from the signification of ”finding grace in the eyes of Jehovah,“ as being to be received, here on account of his quality, which is signified by ”I know thee by name.“ His quality was that he could preside over that nation, for Moses was foreseen by the Lord to preside over the Israelitish people.  That this was foreseen is evident from the fact that he was brought up in the palace of king Pharaoh, where there were lordships, and from this he acquired the disposition of being preeminent to others; on which account he was received to preside over his people.  His quality likewise was such that he could receive speech from the Divine better than others of that nation, for he was not so much in what is external separate from what is internal as they were. These therefore are the things which are signified by, ”I know thee by name, and thou hast also found grace in Mine eyes.“

AC 10564. And now I pray, if I have found grace in Thine eyes. That this signifies if he was accepted, is evident from what was said just above (n. 10562, 10563).

AC 10565. Make known to me I pray Thy way, that I may know Thee.  That this signifies instruction concerning what would be the nature of the Divine with them, is evident from the signification of ”making known the way of Jehovah,“ as being instruction concerning the Divine, for by ”making known“ is signified instruction, and by ”the way of Jehovah“ is signified the Divine truth leading; and from the signification of ”knowing Jehovah,“ as being to know the quality of the Divine with them.  That ”way“ denotes truth, (n. 627, 2333, 10422); here Divine truth leading.  Because I have found grace in Thine eyes, signifies because he was received to preside over the people and to lead them (n. 10563, 10564).

AC 10566. And see that this nation is Thy people.  That this signifies that they are the only ones in the world with whom is the Divine which is over all things, is evident from the signification of ”the nation of Jehovah,“ as being where the Divine Itself dwells, and in the spiritual sense where the church of the Lord is, for all those who acknowledge the Lord in faith and love, taken together, are ”the nation of Jehovah.“ But at that time the sons of Israel thought nothing of the church; but only of the possession of the land of Canaan, and of eminence over others. And as it was told Moses that the name of their God was Jehovah, which however they had not previously known (Exod.  3:13, 14); and because they saw such great miracles wrought by Him in Egypt, and at the Red Sea, and in the wilderness, they therefore acknowledged Jehovah for their God. Nevertheless in their hearts they did not believe in Him, for they believed that there were many gods, as can be sufficiently well seen from the golden calf which, while Moses tarried, they adored as their god, yea as jehovah; and afterward from the gods to whom they so often turned aside, as is evident from the historical parts of the Word.  From all this it can be seen that they worshiped Jehovah merely on account of the miracles, and not because He alone was God; and he who worships God merely on account of miracles, only worships the name of God, and not God, and falls away whenever he does not obtain his desires. That the Israelitish nation worshiped Jehovah merely in respect to the name, (n. 3732, 4299, 6877); and that at heart they were idolaters, (n. 4208, 4281, 4820, 5998, 6877, 7401, 8301, 8882); and that they were the worst nation, (n. 4314, 4316, 4317, 4444, 4503, 4750, 4751, 4815, 4820, 4832, 5057, 7248, 8819, 9320, 10396). From all this it can now be seen what is signified by the words ”this nation is Thy people,“ namely, that they were the only ones among whom was Jehovah, and that in this way they would become preeminent to all other nations.  But although in the proximate sense, these things are signified by these words, nevertheless by the same words in the internal sense is signified that the Divine was with them, consequently the church.

AC 10567. And he said, My faces shall go, and I will make thee to rest.  That this signifies that the Divine of the church, of worship, and of the Word shall be there, but with the nation itself what is external without it, is evident from the signification of ”faces,“ as being the interiors (n. 9546), and when said concerning Jehovah, as being things Divine, here the Divine things of the church, of worship, and of the Word; from the signification of ”going,“ as being to live (n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605, 8417, 8420, 9440), but when said of Jehovah, it denotes to give life, to be present, and to lead; for from this does man live; and from the signification of ”making Moses rest,“ as being the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, in which interior Divine things close; for by Moses is represented this external (n. 10563), and by ”resting“ is signified to rest and to close, thus that in which interior Divine things rest or in which they close; moreover in the original tongue this word means to rest and close. That the interior things of the church, of worship, and of the Word close in their external, and that they rest upon it as upon their plane, or as a house upon its foundation, (n. 9216). That these things are signified by ”making Moses rest,“ is evident from what follows in this chapter in the internal sense, in which the interiors of the Word, of the church, and of worship are treated of, and the external wherein they close.  This external is that which is represented by Moses.

AC 10568. And he said unto Him, If Thy faces go not, do not make us go up from hence.  That this signifies that if the Divine be not there, there will not be anything of the church, is evident from the signification of the ”faces of Jehovah,“ as being the interior Divine things of the church, of worship, and of the Word (n. 10567); and from the signification of ”not making us go up hence,“ as being that there will not be anything of the church.  The reason why this is signified by these words, is that by being ”brought into the land of Canaan“ is signified the setting up of the church; thus by ”not making us go up from hence“ is signified that thus there will not be anything of the church.  That by being ”brought into the land of Canaan“ is signified the setting up of the church, may be seen above (n. 10560, 10561); and this is signified for the reason that by ”the land of Canaan“ in the Word nothing else is understood in heaven but the church, for in heaven all things of the Word are spiritually perceived.  Wherefore when mention is made of any land, they think there of such things as are of the church in that land, or with the nation there. The angels of heaven cannot keep the mind in the idea of any land, because the idea of land is material; nor in the idea of any nation, for this idea also is material.  Wherefore a spiritual idea at once occurs to them, which idea is about the church. In general a spiritual idea is about the Lord, His kingdom, heaven, the church, love to and faith in the Lord, and about countless things that belong to faith and love, thus that belong to the church.  And if you will believe it, it is impossible for any material idea to enter heaven; it is put off at the first threshold.  Such is the case with the whole and every part of the Word.  From this then it is that by being” brought into the land of Canaan“ is signified the setting up of the church; and by ”not being brought,“ as here, is signified no setting up of it.

AC 10569. And wherein shall it even become known that I have found grace in Thine eyes, I and Thy people? is it not in Thy going with us?  That this signifies reception above others if the Divine be manifested among them, is evident from the signification of ”becoming known,“ when said of the Divine among them, as being to be revealed; from the signification of ”finding grace in the eyes of Jehovah,“ as being to be received (n. 10563), here, above others, because there follows, ”and we shall be rendered preeminent, I and Thy people, above all the people that are upon the faces of the ground;“ and from the signification of ”going with us,“ when said of Jehovah, as being the Divine leading, here into the land of Canaan (n. 10567). From this it is evident that by ”wherein shall it ever become known that I have found grace in Thine eyes, I and Thy people? is it not in Thy going with us?“ is signified reception above others if the Divine be manifested among them.

[2] It is said ”in the eyes of Jehovah,“ and thereby is signified the Divine presence of the Lord in the truths and goods of faith and of love with men on earth and with angels in the heavens.  The reason why the presence of the Lord is in the truths and goods of faith and of love, is that these are from the Lord Himself; and when the Lord is present in these with men and with angels, He is then present in His own with them, and not in what is their own, for this is evil.  From this also it is that by ”eyes“ in the Word, when said of men who receive the Divine things of the Lord, is signified faith and also a recipient understanding; for the understanding is the internal eye; and faith is truth which is seen and perceived. That the ”eyes,“ when said in the Word of men, signify faith and also understanding, (n. 2701, 4407-4421, 4523-4534, 9051).

[3] It shall also be told whence comes this sight.  There is a real light which illumines the understanding, and which is quite distinct from the light which illumines the sight of the body. The light which illumines the understanding is from heaven; but that which illumines the sight of the body is in the world. The light of heaven is from the Lord as a sun there, and is in its essence the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine good.  From this it is evident whence it is that by the ”eyes,“ when said of Jehovah, is signified the Divine presence of the Lord; and by the ”eyes,“ when said of men who receive the Divine truth of the Lord, or His light, is signified faith and an enlightened understanding.

[4] That it is a real light which illumines minds, and effects understanding with men, is not known in the world, although men attribute sight and light to the understanding, and although in the Word the Lord is often called ”the Light,“ by which is meant that He is seen by faith and the light thereof. That it is a real light which illumines minds, and that the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord as a sun is this light, and that where it is received it gives the understanding of truth, (n. 9548, 9684, 9570, 9571, 9594).

[5] From all this it can be seen what is signified in the Word by ”the eyes of Jehovah,“ as in these passages:--

Incline Thine ear, O Jehovah, and hear; open Thine eyes, O Jehovah, and see (Isa. 37:17).

I will set Mine eye upon them for good, and I will bring them back upon their own land, and I will build them (Jer.  24:6).

Behold the eye of Jehovah is upon them that fear Him (Ps.  33:18).

Jehovah is in the temple of His holiness, the throne of Jehovah is in heaven; His eyes behold, His eyelids try, the sons of man (Ps. 11:4).

AC 10570. And we shall be rendered preeminent, I and Thy people, above all the people that are upon the faces of the ground. That this signifies their consequent pre-eminence to all in the whole world where the church is, is evident from the signification of ”being rendered preeminent above all the people that are upon the faces of the ground,“ as being preeminence to all in the whole world.  That it also denotes where the church is, is because by ”the ground“ is signified the church.

[2] That this end, that they might be rendered preeminent above all in the whole world, was the end for which the Israelitish nation worshiped Jehovah, and for the sake of which they could be in a holy external, is evident from what has been already shown concerning that nation. That such can be in a holy external, and appear to others as worshipers of God, is evident from the idolaters spoken of in the historical parts of the Word, who in like manner could be in external things. But that they had no holy internal can be known and inferred by everyone from the fact that it is the Divine truths revealed in the Word which cause worship to be internal, provided that men know them and live according to them.  For if a man could worship God in a holy manner without them, there would be no need of any doctrine of the church, nor of any preaching.

[3] As that nation was of such a nature that they could be in a holy external for the sake of preeminence to others as their end in view; and as with such people the representatives of celestial and spiritual things, which are the externals of worship, can be in communication with the angels, and thereby there may be conjunction with heaven, therefore that nation was received. But he who believes that they were thereby worshipers of God, is very much mistaken, for they were worshipers of self and of the world, and at heart were idolaters.  And as they were of such a character, the interior things of worship which belong to faith and love to the Lord were not revealed to them, as is plain from the books of the Old Testament, and also from the fact that they did not acknowledge the Lord when He came into the world, nay, do not yet acknowledge Him, and if instructed from the prophetic utterances concerning the Lord, still they do not receive it.  They wish for a Messiah who shall exalt them above all in the whole world, and not a Messiah whose kingdom is in the heavens, and who consequently provides also for the salvation of all upon the earth. From all this it can be seen what was the character of that nation from the earliest ages, and why it is here said that by ”Jehovah going with them they would be rendered preeminent above all the people that are upon the faces of the ground“

[4] It is said ”upon the faces of the ground,“ and thereby is meant wheresoever the church is, for by ” ground,“ in like manner as by ”land“ or ”earth“ is signified the church. That it is signified by ”land“ or ”earth,“ (n. 9325). But ”ground“ signifies the church for a similar reason as does ”field,“ thus from the reception of various seeds, and their growth and produce, by which are signified the truths and goods of faith and of love, of which man is such a receptacle as the ground is of seeds. But the church is called ”land“ or ”earth“ from the people with whom the church is who dwell therein. But as ”ground“ involves extension in respect to space, equally as does ”land“ or ”earth,“ therefore instead of ”ground“ the translators say ”earth;“ as here ”upon the faces of the earth,“ instead of ”upon the faces of the ground “ as also in other passages. And yet in the original tongue the word which means ”ground“ is from a totally different origin from that of the word which means ”earth.“ That ”the ground“ signifies the church equally as does ”land“ or ”earth,“ is evident from various passages in the Word, of which only a few may be adduced.

[5] In Jeremiah:--

Their grandees have sent their little ones for water; they came unto the pits, and found no waters; they returned with their vessels empty; because the ground hath been broken to pieces, in that no rain hath been in the land (Jer. 14:3, 4);

here ”ground“ denotes the church, and so does ”land,“ for the subject treated of in the internal sense is the lack of truth, and the consequent vastation of the church; ”waters“ denote truths; ”pits“ denote where these are, thus doctrine; ”vessels“ denote the recipients; ”rain“ denotes influx from heaven; ”land“ denotes where the church is; and ”ground“ denotes the church itself, which on account of the drought is said to be ”broken to pieces,“ thus on account of the lack of truth from heaven.

[6] And in Isaiah:--

It shall come to pass at the end of seventy years, that Jehovah will visit Tyre, and she shall return unto her harlot hire, and shall commit whoredom with all the kingdom of the earth upon the faces of the ground; at last her merchandise and her harlot hire shall be holiness to Jehovah (Isa. 23:17, 18);

by ”Tyre“ is signified the church in respect to the knowledges of truth and good, thus in the abstract sense these knowledges, which are called ”harlot hire“ when they are taught for the sake of gain, of honor, and of reputation for the sake of these, and are thus as it were sold, and are not taught for the sake of truth itself.  In the Word this is called ”harlotry,“ and ”whoredom.“ ”To commit whoredom with all the kingdoms of the earth“ denotes to do so with all the truths of the church; ”upon the faces of the ground“ denotes wheresoever the church is.  As the knowledges of truth and good still remain knowledges of truth and good in themselves, thus Divine, although to the man who teaches and ”sells“ them they are for profit, and consequently are ”harlot hire,“ therefore it is said that ”her merchandise and her harlot hire shall be holiness to Jehovah.“ Everyone who thinks beyond the sense of the letter can see that harlot hire is hot meant here, nor whoredom with all the kingdoms of the earth, nor that such things shall be holiness to Jehovah.

[7] In David:--

Thou sendest forth Thy spirit; they are created; and Thou renewest the faces of the ground (Ps. 104:30);

”the spirit of Jehovah“ denotes the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord (n. 9818); ”to be created“ denotes to be created anew, that is, to be regenerated (n. 10373); ”to renew the faces of the ground“ denotes to reform and to set up the church; ”the faces of the ground“ denote wheresoever anything of the church can be received.  In like manner in other passages where ”the faces of the ground“ are mentioned (Gen. 7:4; 8:8, 13; Exod. 32:12; Num. 12:3; Deut. 6:15; 7:6; 1 Sam. 20:15; 2 Sam. 14:7).

AC 10571. And Jehovah said unto Moses, I will do this word also that thou hast spoken. That this signifies that the Divine shall be in the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, which is with them, is evident from the representation of Moses, in that as the head of that nation he denotes the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, not so separate from the internal as was the external of these with the nation itself (n. 10557, 10563); and from the signification of ”doing the word which Moses spake,“ when said by Jehovah, as being that the Divine shall be in the external; for by ”doing the word“ is meant to go with them and bring them into the land of Canaan, and by ”going with them and bringing them into the land of Canaan“ is signified that the Divine shall be manifested among them (n. 10569).  The secret hidden in these and the following verses can with difficulty be described, unless there is some idea of the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, which Moses represents; and of the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, in which was the nation itself.  The one is distinguished from the other in the fact that the external which Moses represents is an external not so separate from the internal as is the external in which was the nation itself.  From this it is that at one time mention is made of ”Moses and the people,“ at another time of ”Moses“ without the people, and at another of ”the people“ without Moses; and that when Moses speaks to Jehovah, he says, ”I and the people,“ and when Jehovah speaks to Moses, He speaks of Moses alone (verses 12, 14, 17, 19-23), or of the people separately from him as in (Exodus 34:2, 3).

AC 10572. Because thou hast found grace in Mine eyes, and I know thee by name.  That this signifies that he was received on account of his quality, is evident from what was said and shown above (n. 10562, 10563), where are the like words.

AC 10573. Verses 18-23. And he said, Make me see I pray Thy glory. And He said, I will make all My good pass by over thy faces, and will call on the name of Jehovah before thee; and I will show grace to whom I show grace, and I will show mercy to whom I show mercy; and He said, Thou canst not see My faces, because a man doth not see Me and live. And Jehovah said, Behold a place with Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock; and it shall be when My glory passeth by that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover the palm of My hand over thee until I have passed by. And I will remove the palm of My hand, and thou shalt see My back parts; and My faces shall not be seen. ”And he said, Make me see I pray Thy glory,“ signifies the noticing of internal Divine truth in the external; ”and He said, I will make all My good pass by over thy faces,“ signifies all the Divine of heaven and of the church above the external separate from the internal; ”and will call on the name of Jehovah before thee,“ signifies what is holy of Divine worship there; ”and I will show grace to whom I show grace, and I will show mercy to whom I show mercy,“ signifies that Divine truth and good shall be revealed to those who receive; ”and He said, Thou canst not see My faces,“ signifies that the interior Divine things of the church, of worship, and of the Word, cannot appear to the Israelitish nation; ”because a man doth not see Me and live,“ signifies that the Divine Itself cannot be seen such as it is in itself, but such as it is through the Lord in heaven; ”and Jehovah said, Behold a place with Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock,“ signifies a state of faith in God; ”and it shall be when My glory passeth by,“ signifies the interior things of the Word, of the church, and of worship; ”that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock,“ signifies the obscurity and falsity of faith such as are with those who are in external things without what is internal; ”and will cover the palm of My hand over thee until I have passed by,“ signifies the closing of the internal; ”and I will remove the palm of My hand, and thou shalt see My back parts, and My faces shall not be seen,“ signifies that they should see the external things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, but not the internal things.

AC 10574. And he said, Make me see I pray Thy glory.  That this signifies the noticing of internal Divine truth in the external, is evident from the representation of Moses here, as being the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, not so separate from the internal as with the nation itself (n. 10563, 10571); from the signification of ”making see,“ as being to take notice (n. 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723, 5400); and from the signification of ”the glory of Jehovah,“ as being the internal of the Word (n. 2135a, 5922, 9429).  From this it is evident that by ”Moses said, Make me see I pray Thy glory“ is signified the noticing of the internal in the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship.

[2] That these things are signified by the above words can also be seen from the preceding verses of this chapter, for the subject treated of there in the internal sense is the Israelitish nation, and that the church could not be instituted with it, for the reason that they could not receive anything internal. To receive the internal of the church is to receive Divine truth from heaven, and thereby heavenly love.  As this is treated of in the internal sense, and yet Moses insisted that Jehovah should bring them into the land of Canaan, whereby is signified the setting up of the church, therefore now Moses says, ”Make me see Thy glory,“ by which is therefore signified the noticing of internal Divine truth in the external.

[3] That by ”the glory of Jehovah“ is meant such a Divine as could not be noticed by Moses, is very evident from the verses which follow in this chapter, where it is said that he ”could not see the faces of Jehovah“ - so is His glory there called out that after He had passed by he should see His back parts, and this from a cleft of the rock; by which is signified that he would take notice only of the external things of the church, of worship, and of the Word, but not of the internal things.  That such is the signification of ”the glory of Jehovah“ is evident from the fact that it is sometimes said that they ”saw the glory of Jehovah“ when it was a cloud that was so called, as upon Mount Sinai, and over the Tent, and in it (Exod. 16:10; 24:16, 17; 40:34, 35; Num. 16:42). By the ”cloud“ in these passages, which was called ”the glory of Jehovah“ is signified the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word; or the sense of the letter of the Word (n. 2135a, 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8781, 9430, 10551).

[4] The reason why ”the glory of Jehovah“ signifies the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship, is that the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, such as it is in heaven, is ”the glory of Jehovah;“ for the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord appears there as light; and the appearance of the Lord in this light is what is meant in the genuine sense by ”the glory of Jehovah.“ By the appearance of the Lord are meant all things there which are from the Lord, which are innumerable, and are called by the general term ”celestial and spiritual.“ That the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship, is signified by ”the glory of Jehovah,“ is because it is in this light: but the external is in the light of the world, and therefore this is signified in the Word by a ”cloud.“ From this it is now evident that the internal sense of the Word is the ”glory.“

[5] From all this it can now be seen what is signified by ”the glory of Jehovah,“ and by His ”light,“ in the following passages; as in Isaiah:--

Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of Jehovah is risen upon thee. Behold darkness covereth the earth, and thick darkness the peoples; but Jehovah shall arise upon thee, and His glory shall be seen upon thee. The nations shall walk to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising. Thy sun shall no more go down, and thy moon shall not be withdrawn, for Jehovah shall be unto thee an everlasting light (Isa. 60:1-3, 20);

the coming of the Lord is here treated of; the ”light“ denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; and ”His glory,“ and ”the brightness of His rising,“ denote all that which appears in this light concerning the Lord, and concerning faith and love to Him; ”the darkness and thick darkness which cover the earth and the peoples,“ denote the obscurities of faith and of love; for these words are said of the setting up of the church among the nations.  Hence it follows that by ”the light and the glory which were to arise and were to be seen, and to which they should walk,“ are signified Divine truths concerning the Lord and concerning faith and love to Him from Him.

[6] Again:--

I Jehovah have called thee in righteousness, and have given thee for a covenant to the people, for a light of the nations; I am Jehovah; this is My name; and My glory will I not give to another (Isa. 42:6, 8);

here also the Lord is treated of, who is called ”the light of the nations“ because from Him is all Divine truth; and He is called ”the glory of Jehovah“ because in Him is everything of faith and of love.  Again:--

Thy light shall break forth as the dawn; My righteousness shall walk before thee; the glory of Jehovah shall gather thee (Isa. 58:8);

where the meaning is similar.

[7] Again:--

Rejoice ye with Jerusalem, be ye delighted with the brightness of her glory (Isa. 66:10, 11);

”Jerusalem“ in this passage, as in others, denotes the church; and ”the brightness of her glory“ denotes the love of truth from the Lord in Zechariah:--

I will be to them a wall of fire round about, and I will be the glory in the midst of her (Zech. 2:5);

speaking here also of Jerusalem, which denotes the church; ”the glory in the midst of her“ denotes the Lord Himself as to all things of truth and good, which are of faith and love.  It is evident that by ”glory“ in the above passages are meant those things which belong to Divine light.

[8] In like manner as in John:--

The holy Jerusalem had the glory of God; and her luminary was like unto a stone most precious. The glory of God did lighten it, and the lamp thereof is the Lamb. And the nations which are saved shall walk in the light of it, and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory and honor into it. And the gates thereof shall not be shut by day, for there shall be no night there (Rev. 21:10, 11, 23-25);

”the holy Jerusalem“ here denotes the church which will succeed that of this day.  The things that belong to the church, and which are of faith in and love to the Lord from the Lord, are described by the ”luminary,“ by the ”light,“ and by the ”glory.“  As by ”glory“ are meant the things of the light, it is said that ”the glory of God shall lighten it.“ Everyone who reflects and who looks at the things themselves, and does not stick in the mere words, can see that by all these things are signified such as belong to the church; but the internal sense teaches what is signified by each particular; for in the Word nothing is said in vain, not even a syllable.

[9] In Luke:--

Mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples, a light for the unveiling of the nations, and the glory of Thy people Israel (Luke 2:30-32);

these words occur in the prophecy of Simeon concerning the Lord who was then born; ”a light for the unveiling of the nations“ denotes the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord; and ”the glory of Thy people Israel“ denotes all that which was revealed by the Lord concerning Himself, and concerning faith in and love to Him with those who receive.  All this is called ”glory“ because it appears in heaven and in the light there, which light is Divine truth.  By ”the sons of Israel“ are meant those who are in faith and love to the Lord.

[10] That ”the light,“ denotes the Lord as to Divine truth, and that so also does ”the glory“ which is of the light, is evident from the words of the Lord Himself in John:--

They loved the glory of men more than the glory of God. I am come a light into the world, that whosoever believeth in Me may not abide in darkness (John 12:43, 46).

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. That was the true Light, which enlighteneth every man that cometh into the world. And the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only-begotten of the Father (John 1:1, 9, 14);

”the Word“ denotes the Divine truth, and so also does ”the Light;“ and ”the glory“ denotes all that which appears concerning the Lord in this light.

[11] These passages have been quoted from the Word because in them ”the glory“ and ”the light“ are mentioned together, and they have been quoted to the end that it may be known that ”the light“ denotes the Divine truth from the Lord, thus the Lord Himself as to Divine truth; and that ”the glory“ denotes everything which is of the light, consequently everything from Divine truth which makes intelligence and wisdom with the angels, and with men who receive the Lord in faith and love.  The like is signified by ”glory“ elsewhere, as in these passages:--

I will that where I am, they also may be with Me; that they may see My glory (John 17:24).

Ought not Christ to suffer this, and to enter into His glory? (Luke 24:26)

Then shall appear the sign of the Son of man; and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matt.  24:30);

[12] by the ”clouds“ here is meant Divine truth such as it is in the light of the world, thus such as it is with men; and by ”glory“ is meant Divine truth such as it is in the light of heaven, thus such as it is with the angels.  And as Divine truth is meant by ”cloud“ and by ”glory,“ therefore the Word is meant in respect to the external sense and to the internal sense; in respect to the external sense by ”cloud,“ and in respect to the internal sense by ”glory.“ Moreover that which appears in the light of the world is a cloud relatively to that which appears in the light of heaven. That a ”cloud“ has this signification (n. 2135a, 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8443, 8781, 9430, 10551).

[13] From this it is that a cloud also is called ”glory“ in the Word; as in these passages:--

The glory of Jehovah appeared in the cloud (Exod. 16:10).

The glory of Jehovah dwelt upon Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days.  But the appearance of the glory of Jehovah was like a devouring fire on the head of the mountain before the eyes of the sons of Israel (Exod. 24:16, 17).

The cloud covered the Tent of meeting, and the glory of Jehovah filled the Habitation. And Moses was not able to enter, because the cloud dwelt thereon and the glory of Jehovah filled the Habitation (Exod. 40:34, 35).

When the assembly was gathered together against Moses and against Aaron, and looked toward the Tent of meeting, behold the cloud covered it, and the glory of Jehovah appeared (Num. 16:42).

The cloud filled the house of Jehovah, so that the priests could not stand to minister by reason of the cloud; because the glory of Jehovah filled the house of Jehovah (1 Kings 8:10, 11).

The temple was filled with smoke and the glory of God (Rev.  15:8).

[14] As the Divine appeared like a cloud, therefore by a ”cloud“ is signified the Divine presence, and where the Divine presence is, there is the Divine truth, for without this truth the Divine does not appear, because it is in it, and is it.  Hence it is that in these passages a cloud is called ”glory,“ nor could it appear otherwise to the Israelitish nation, because they were in external things without what is internal (n. 6832, 8814, 8819, 10551). Nevertheless ”cloud“ and ”glory“ are distinguished from each other as are the light of the world and the light of heaven, or as are the sense of the letter of the Word and its internal sense, and as are human wisdom and angelic wisdom.  From all this it can now be seen that by Moses saying, ”Make me see I pray Thy glory,“ is signified that the internal Divine might be shown him; and as Moses represented the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, there is signified the noticing of internal Divine truth in this external.

AC 10575. And He said, I will make all My good pass by over thy faces.  That this signifies all the Divine of heaven and of the church above the external separate from the internal, in which external were Moses and the nation over which he presided, is evident from the signification of ”making pass by over his faces,“ as being above the external separate from the internal in which were Moses and the nation over which he presided, for by ”thy faces“ is signified the external of worship, of the church, and of the Word, in which there is an internal, and by ”making pass by“ is signified above it; and from the signification of ”all the good of Jehovah“ as being all the Divine of heaven and of the church.  How the case herein is can be seen from what has been said and shown above concerning Moses and the nation over which he presided, namely, that they were in external things separate from what is internal, by which is meant that while in worship they were in holy external things without anything internal; and as there was nevertheless present a holy internal, but which did not enter into their holy external, it is therefore plain what is signified by ”Jehovah making all His good to pass by over his faces.“ There was indeed an internal in that nation, but it was filthy and full of uncleanness from the love of self and of the world.  This however was closed when they were in worship, to the end that the internal Divine of heaven, of the church, and of the Word should not be defiled; for if this had been defiled by the internal of that nation, there would have been no communication whatever of their external with heaven while they were engaged in worship and in reading the Word (n. 10454-10457, 10462-10466, 10492, 10498, 10500, 10533, 10549-10551, 10570), where these things have been more fully unfolded.

AC 10576. And I will call on the name of Jehovah before thee. That this signifies what is holy of Divine worship therein, is evident from the signification of ”calling on the name of Jehovah,“ as being what is holy of worship (n. 440, 2724); and from the signification of ”before thee,“ as being before the external, which Moses now represents (10563, 10571).  How the case herein is can be seen from what has been said above (n. 10575), and at the places there adduced.

AC 10577. And I will show grace to whom I show grace, and I will show mercy to whom I show mercy.  That this signifies that Divine truth and good shall be revealed to those who receive, is evident from the signification of ”showing grace,“ as being to endow with spiritual truth and good, here to reveal it, because the subject treated of is the internal and the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word; and from the signification of ”showing mercy,“ as being to endow with celestial truth and good, here to reveal it. That it signifies with those who receive, is because the internal things of the Word, of the church, and of worship are revealed to none but those who receive.

[2] That ”to show grace“ denotes to endow with spiritual truth and good, and ”to show mercy“ to endow with celestial truth and good, is because ”grace“ is predicated of filth, and ”mercy“ of love; and the good of faith is spiritual good, and the good of love is celestial good. (What spiritual good is and what celestial good is, and what the difference, may be seen in the places cited in (n. 9277); and that those who are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom speak of ”grace;“ and those who are in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom speak of ”mercy,“ (n. 598, 981, 5929). Unless there were such a difference between grace and mercy, it would not have been said, ”show grace“ and ”show mercy.“ From this it is that Jehovah is called ”gracious and merciful“ in (Exodus 34:6; Joel 2:13; Psalms 103:8; 145:8); and in Isaiah:--

Therefore will Jehovah wait to show grace unto you, and therefore will He exalt Himself to have mercy upon you (Isa. 30:18).

[3] As there are two things to which all things of the church bear relation, namely, love and faith; and as mercy belongs to love; and grace, and also truth, belong to faith, therefore in the Word it is said ”mercy and grace“ when the Lord is implored, and it is said ”mercy and truth“ when the Lord is described, as in the following passages:--

Thy mercy is before mine eyes, and I walk in Thy truth (Ps. 26:3).

Thy mercy, O Jehovah, is in the heavens; and Thy truth is unto the skies (Ps. 36:5).

God shall send from the heavens His mercy and His truth. Thy mercy is great unto the heavens, and Thy truth unto the skies (Ps. 57:3, 10).

Mercy and truth shall meet together; righteousness and peace shall kiss (Ps. 85:10).

I will sing of the mercy of Jehovah forever; Thy truth with my mouth to generation and generation; because I have said, Mercy shall be built up forever; Thy truth shalt Thou confirm in the very heavens; righteousness and judgment are the foundation of Thy throne; mercy and truth shall stand before Thy faces (Ps.  89:1, 2, 14).

In these passages ”mercy“ denotes love; and ”truth“ denotes faith.

AC 10578. And He said, thou canst not see My faces.  That this signifies that the interior Divine things of the church, of worship, and of the Word cannot appear to the Israelitish nation, is evident from the signification of ”the faces of Jehovah,“ as being the interior Divine things of the church, of worship, and of the Word (n. 10567, 10568); and from the signification of ”seeing them,“ as being to appear.  That these interior Divine things cannot appear to the Israelitish nation, is evident from the fact that this is said to Moses, and Moses here bears relation as the head of the Israelitish nation (n. 10556). That the ”faces of Jehovah“ denote the interior Divine things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, is also evident from the fact that the like is signified by the ”faces of Jehovah“ as by the ”glory of Jehovah,“ for Moses said, ”Make me see I pray Thy glory;“ and Jehovah said, ”Thou canst not see My faces;“ and by ”the glory of Jehovah“ are signified the interior Divine things of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10574).

[2] How the case herein is can be seen from what has been frequently said before, namely, that the Israelitish nation could not possibly see the interior things of worship, of the church, and of the Word, because they were in external things separate from what is internal, thus neither could they ”see the faces of Jehovah.“ But those who are in external things not separate from what is internal, can all see the interior things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, thus they can ”see the faces of Jehovah.“ From this it follows that those can see them who are in love to the Lord, and also those who are in charity toward the neighbor; for love to the Lord and charity toward the neighbor open the internal man, and when this is open, the man in respect to his interiors is in heaven among the angels where the Lord is.

[3] But it shall here be briefly told what love to the Lord is, or what it is to love the Lord.  He who believes that he loves the Lord, and does not live according to His commandments, is very much mistaken, for to live according to the Lord’s commandments is to love Him.  These commandments are truths which are from the Lord, thus in which the Lord is; and therefore in so far as they are loved, that is, in so far as men live according to them from love, so far the Lord is loved.  The reason is that the Lord loves man, and from love wills that he may be happy forever, and man cannot become happy except by a life according to His commandments, because by means of these a man is regenerated and becomes spiritual, and in this way can be raised into heaven.  But to love the Lord without a life according to His commandments is not to love Him, for then there is not anything with the man into which the Lord may flow and raise him to Himself; because he is like an empty vessel; there being nothing of life in his faith, and nothing of life in his love. The life of heaven, which is called eternal life, is not poured into anyone immediately, but mediately.  From all this it can be seen what it is to love the Lord, and also what it is to see the Lord, or His faces, namely, that He is seen from such faith and love.

[4] To live according to the commandments of the Lord is to live according to the doctrine of charity and of faith, which doctrine may be seen in what is prefixed to the several chapters of the Book of Exodus.  That this is the case the Lord also teaches in John:--

He that hath My commandments, and doeth them, he it is that loveth Me; and he that loveth Me shall be loved by My Father; and I will love him, and will manifest Myself to him. If a man love Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will came unto him, and make Our abode with him. He that loveth Me not keepeth not My words (John 14:21, 23, 24).

What is further signified by ”the faces of Jehovah“ shall be told in the article which now follows.

AC 10579. Because a man doth not see Me and live.  That this signifies that the Divine Itself cannot be seen such as it is in itself, but such as it is through the Lord in heaven, can be seen from the fact that no one has ever seen Jehovah the Father, but that when He has been seen, it was the Lord who was seen, for the Lord is the very ”face“ of Jehovah. That no one has ever seen Jehovah the Father, is evident from the words of the Lord Himself in these passages:--

No man hath ever seen God; the only-begotten Son who is in the bosom of the Father, He hath set Him forth (John 1:18).

Ye have never heard the voice of the Father, nor seen His shape (John 5:37).

No man knoweth the Father, save the Son, and he to whom the Son willeth to reveal Him (Matt. 11:27).

[2] That when Jehovah the Father has been seen, it is the Lord who has been seen, the Lord also teaches in John:--

Jesus said, If ye have known Me, ye have known My Father also; and from henceforth ye have known Him, and have seen Him.  Philip said, Lord, show us the Father. Jesus said unto him, Am I so long time with you, and hast thou not known Me, Philip? He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father; how then sayest thou, Show us the Father? (John 14:7-9).

Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day; and he saw it, and was glad. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am (John 8:56, 58).

From this it can be seen that the Lord as to the Divine Human is Jehovah who is seen, and thus that He is the ”face of Jehovah.“

[3] That the Lord is the ”face of Jehovah“ is also evident from the Word, as in these passages:--

He became their Saviour; the angel of the faces of Jehovah delivered them, in His love and in His gentleness; He redeemed them, and He took them, and carried them all the days of eternity (Isa. 63:8, 9).

Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring thee to the place which I have prepared. Take heed of his face, provoke him not; for he will not bear your transgression; because My name is in the midst of him (Exod.  23:20, 21).

[4] For when Jehovah appeared before the coming of the Lord into the world, He appeared in the form of an angel, because when He passed through heaven He clothed Himself with this form, which is the human form.  For from the Divine there, the universal heaven is like one man, as has been abundantly shown in treating of the Grand Man, which is heaven; and from this at that time was the Divine Human and as Jehovah appeared in the human form as an angel, it is evident that nevertheless it was Jehovah Himself, and that that very form also was His, because it was His Divine in heaven.  This was the Lord from eternity.  But as that human form was assumed by passing through heaven, and yet in order to save the human race it was necessary to be really and essentially a man, it therefore pleased Him to be born, and thereby actually to assume the human form, in which was Jehovah Himself.  That this is so, the Lord teaches in John:--

Believe Me that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me (John 14:11).

I and the Father are one (John 10:30).

[5] That the Lord was from eternity, He also teaches in John:--

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and God was the Word. All thing were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made. And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us (John 1:1, 3, 14).

I came forth from the Father, and am come into the world; again I leave the world, and go unto the Father (John 16:28).

Jesus said, Father, glorify Thou Me with Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was (John 17:5).

Verily, Verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am (John 8:58).

[6] From these passages it can be clearly known that the Lord is Jehovah even as to His Human, thus that His Human is Divine.  For this reason it is said in John, ”God was the Word, and the Word was made flesh;“ and also, ”Before Abraham was, I am“ - not, ”I was“ - for the ”I am“ is Jehovah (Exod. 3:14).  From all this it can now be seen that by ”a man doth not see Me and live,“ is signified that the Divine Itself cannot be seen such as it is in itself, but such as it is through the Lord in heaven.  It is said ”through the Lord in heaven,“ because the Lord is above the heavens, for He is the sun of heaven; but still He is present in the heavens, being the Divine truth there, and the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord as a sun, is the Lord in heaven; wherefore the Divine truth there is His ”face.“

[7] It was said above that by ”the faces of Jehovah“ are signified the interior Divine things of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10567, 10568).  The reason is that the interior Divine things of the Word, of the church, and of worship are the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord, thus are the Lord in heaven.  This is signified by the ”face of Jehovah,“ where it is mentioned in the Word, as in these passages:--

See that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, that their angels in the heavens do always see the face of My Father who is in the heavens (Matt. 18:10).

The throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in the holy Jerusalem; and His servants shall minister to Him. And they shall see His faces (Rev. 22:3, 4).

Jehovah shall make His faces to shine upon thee, and shall have pity on thee; Jehovah shall lift up His faces upon thee, and shall give thee peace (Num. 6:25, 26).

Many there be that say, Who will show us good? O Jehovah lift Thou up the light of Thy faces upon us (Ps. 4:6).

O Jehovah how long wilt Thou hide Thy faces from me? (Ps.  13:1)

To thee said my heart, Seek ye My faces, Thy faces O Jehovah I seek (Ps. 27:8).

God will be merciful unto us, and bless us, and will cause His faces to shine upon us (Ps. 67:1).

Bring us back O God, and cause Thy faces to shine, that we may be saved (Ps. 80:3, 7, 19).

Blessed is Thy people who walk in the light of Thy faces (Ps. 89:15).

O Jehovah hide not Thy faces from me (Ps. 102:1, 2).

Thou hidest Thy faces, they are troubled (Ps. 104:29).

[8] Everyone can comprehend what is here meant by ”the faces of Jehovah,“ namely, the Divine, and whatever belongs to the Divine, thus mercy, peace, and all good; but in the universal sense the Divine truth, because all good is in the Divine truth.  Both with man and with angel the Divine good is in the Divine truth, and without the latter there is not the former; for truth is the recipient of good, thus also of mercy and peace. From this then it follows that where Divine good is not in Divine truth, there the face of Jehovah is not; and it also follows that where there is evil in falsity, the Divine does not appear. This is meant by Jehovah ”hiding and turning away His faces“ in the following passages:--

Your sins have hidden the faces of Jehovah from you (Isa.  59:2).

For their wickedness I have hid My faces from this city (Jer. 33:6).

I do turn away My faces from them, and they profane My secret (Ezek. 7:22).

Jehovah will hide His faces from them, according as they have rendered in their works evil (Micah 3:4).

[9] But be it known that Jehovah, that is, the Lord, never turns away His faces from man; but that the man who is in evil turns away his face from the Lord.  And as the Divine is then behind him, it appears as if this hides or turns itself away.  Moreover it is an actual fact that all infernal spirits turn their backs to the Lord as a sun, whereas the angels always turn their faces to Him.  It is the same with a man, in respect to his spirit, during his life in the world.

AC 10580. And Jehovah said, Behold a place with Me, and thou shalt stand upon the rock.  That this signifies a state of faith in God, is evident from the signification of ”place,“ as being state (n. 2625, 2837, 3356, 3387, 4321, 4882, 5605, 7381, 9440, 9967, 10146); and from the signification of ”rock,“ as being faith (n. 8581, 10438). That it signifies a state of faith in God is because it is said, ”a place with Me.“  No one can know that this is signified by these words, except from the internal sense, thus unless he knows what is meant in this sense by ”place,“ and what by ”rock.“ For otherwise what could be meant by there being ”a place with Jehovah upon a rock?“  It could only mean that Jehovah dwelt there, and gave Moses a place with Him; when yet Jehovah dwells in heaven with the angels, and in the church with men. That a ”rock“ denotes faith is from the appearances in the other life. There they who are in faith dwell upon rocky heights, but they who are in love dwell upon mountains. The rocky heights there appear of stone, but the mountains not of stone, because they are elevations of earth From this it is that a ”rock“ signifies faith.

AC 10581. And it shall be when My glory passeth by.  That this signifies the interior things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, is evident from the signification of the ”glory of Jehovah,“ as being the interior Divine things of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10574).

AC 10582. That I will put thee in a cleft of the rock.  That this signifies the obscurity and falsity of faith such as is with those who are in external things without what is internal, is evident from the signification of ”a cleft of the rock,“ as being what is obscure and false of faith; for by ”rock“ is signified faith (n. 10580); and by a ”cleft,“ its obscurity and also its falsity. It is said ”such as is with those who are in external things without what is internal,“ because with such all the truth which is of faith is in obscurity, and is also attended with falsity. For such of them as believe the Word, believe it everywhere according to the letter, and not according to its interior meaning; and those who so believe cannot be in any light, for light from heaven flows in through the internal into the external. Moreover what they believe without light from heaven appears as truth, but nevertheless with them it is falsity, for they have a material and earthly idea about truth, and not at the same time a spiritual and heavenly idea, and every material and earthly idea abounds in fallacies unless there is in it light from heaven. For example: as James and John had an earthly idea about the Lord‘s kingdom, they asked that they might sit the one on His right hand and the other on the left in His kingdom; but Jesus said:--

Ye know not what ye ask. Ye know that the princes of the nations lord it over them. Not so shall it be among you; but whosoever would become great among you must be your minister; and whosoever would be first must be your servant (Matt. 20:21, 22, 25-27).

[2] People of this character, like the men of those days, do not know what the heavenly kingdom is, nor what the glory there is, not what love is, nor even what faith is; in general, not what good is; for they base their judgment on bodily and earthly things, and call good all the delight of the body and its senses; and eminence over others they call glory; the love of the world and the love of self they call heavenly love; and memory-knowledge made persuasive they call faith. When they think about God, they think materially, and therefore either deny God and regard nature as God; or else they worship idols, or dead men.  From this it is evident how obscure is faith, and also how false it is, with those who are in merely external things.

[3] In such obscurity and falsity of faith are those who believe the Word solely as to the sense of its letter, without doctrine made from it by one who is enlightened. They who read the Word without doctrine are like those who walk in darkness without a lamp. Such are all merely sensuous men. That such is the Jewish nation is evident, for they explain all things of the Word according to the sense of the letter, because they are in external things separate from what is internal. In the other life such people do not dwell upon the rocks; but either in caves there, or in clefts of the rocks.

[4] That a ”cleft of the rock“ denotes what is obscure and false of faith, is evident also from other passages in the Word, as in Isaiah:--

In that day Jehovah shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria. And they shall come, and shall rest all of them in the rivers of desolations, and in the clefts of the rocks (Isa. 7:18, 19);

in this passage is described the coming of the Lord and the state of the church at that time, that there would be desolation of all things that belong to spiritual truth and good. For by these words is signified that the man of the church would then have receded from internal things, and would have become altogether external, thus merely sensuous.  To become sensuous is not to apprehend and believe anything but what the external senses assert.  ”The By in the uttermost part of the rivers of Eat“ denotes the falsity of the wholly external or merely sensuous man; ”the bee in the land of Assyria“ denotes the falsity of reasoning therefrom; ”the rivers of desolations“ denote the truths of doctrine altogether desolated; and ”the clefts of the rocks“ denote the falsities of faith thence derived. Who would divine that these words signify such things which, unless disclosed by the internal sense, would be completely hidden.

[5] Again:--

In that day a man shall cast away the idols which they had made for themselves to bow down to, to the moles and to the bats; to enter into the clefts of the rocks, and into the fissures of the ragged rocks (Isa. 2:20, 21);

”to bow down to the moles and to the bats“ denotes to worship such things as are in thick darkness and in the shade of night, that is, external things without anything internal; ”to enter into the clefts of the rocks, and into the fissures of the ragged rocks,“ denotes into the obscurities and darknesses of faith, thus into falsities.

[6] In Jeremiah:--

I will bring back the sons of Israel upon their land; and send unto many fishers, who shall fish them; and unto hunters, who shall hunt them from upon every mountain, upon every hill, and out of the holes of the rocks (Jer 16:15, 16);

the restoration of the church is here treated of, which is signified by ”bringing back the sons of Israel upon their land;“ ”to fish them“ denotes to instruct in the external things of the church; ”to hunt them“ denotes to instruct in the internal things thereof; they who are ”upon mountain and upon hill“ denote those who are in love and in charity; those in ”the holes of the rocks“ denote those who are in faith not yet enlightened, thus who are in what is obscure of faith.

[7] Again:--

I have made thee smallest among the nations; the pride of thine heart O thou that dwellest in the holes of the rock holding the height of the hill (Jer. 49:15, 16).

The pride of thine heart hath deceived thee, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rocks, in the height of thy seat; who saith in his heart, Who shall pull me down to the earth?  Though thou exalt thee as the eagle, and though thou set thy nest among the stars, from thence I will pull thee down (Obad. 1:3, 4).

”To dwell in the holes of the rock“ denotes in falsities of faith. The subject here treated of is those who exalt themselves above others, believing that they are more learned than all others, when yet they are in falsities, and even cannot see truths.  In the other life such persons dwell in the holes of rocks, and sometimes they project themselves upon the rocks; but they are cast down therefrom into their holes, and into the caves which are beneath the rocks.  This is meant by ”holding the height of the hill,“ and ”exalting thyself as an eagle,“ and ”setting the nest among the stars,“ and yet being ”pulled down.“  From all this it can now be seen that by ”putting Moses in a cleft of the rock“ is signified such obscurity and falsity of faith as is with those who are in external things without what is internal; for by Moses is here meant the people, because he here bears relation to their head (n. 10556).

AC 10583. And I will cover the palm of My hand over thee until I have passed by.  That this signifies the closing of the internal, is evident from the signification of ”covering Moses with the palm of the hand,“ as being to close the internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word, which is above their external.  The reason why it is their internal which is signified, is because ”covering with the palm“ involves preventing them from seeing the glory and the faces of Jehovah; and by ”the glory of Jehovah“ is signified the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10574); in like manner by ”the faces of Jehovah“ (n. 10567, 10568, 10578).

AC 10584. And I will remove the palm of My hand, and thou shalt see My back parts, and My faces shall not be seen.  That this signifies that they should see the external things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, but not the internal things; is evident from the signification of the ”back parts of Jehovah,“ as being the external things of the Word, of the church, and of worship; and from the signification of the ”faces of Jehovah,“ as being the internal things of these (n. 10578); consequently by ”seeing the back parts and not the faces of Jehovah“ is signified seeing the external things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, and not the internal things.  That such was the Israelitish and Jewish nation, and that such it is at this day also, has been known in all that precedes of this chapter, and of the preceding one.

[2] The reason why the ”back parts of Jehovah“ signify the external things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, is that the ”faces“ signify the internal things (n. 10578).  And those are said to ”see the back parts of Jehovah and not the faces,“ who believe and adore the Word; but only its external, which is the sense of the letter, and do not penetrate more interiorly, as do those who have been enlightened, and who make for themselves doctrine from the Word, by which they may see its genuine sense, thus its interior sense. That the Word cannot be apprehended without doctrine, and that doctrine drawn from the Word by one who is enlightened must be for a lamp to the understanding, (n. 9382, 9409, 9410, 9424, 9430, 10105, 10324, 10400, 10431); and that the internal sense of the Word teaches this doctrine, (n. 9430). From all this it can be seen what it is to ”see the back parts of Jehovah and not His faces.“

[3] But those who do not believe in the Word, do not even see the back parts of Jehovah; but turn themselves backward from Jehovah, and see only themselves and the world.  These are they who are meant by those in the Word who are said to ”turn their back parts to the temple, and to adore the sun,“ of whom it is written in Ezekiel:--

I was brought into the court of the house of Jehovah, and behold five and twenty men, whose back parts were toward the temple of Jehovah, and their faces toward the east; and the same bowed themselves toward the rising of the sun (Ezek. 8:16);

by ”the sun and its rising“ is meant the sun of the world and its rising, and thereby is signified the love of self, which love is diametrically opposite to love to the Lord.  From this it is that the sun of the world is presented in the idea of the angels as something at the back quite dark; whereas the Lord, who is the sun of heaven, appears before the face (n. 7078).  Of such men it is said that they ”turn their back parts to the temple,“ and also that they ”go backward,“ in Jeremiah:--

Thou hast forsaken Jehovah, thou art gone backward (Jer.  15:6).

They have gone away in the stubbornness of their evil heart, and have come backward, and not forward (Jer. 7:24).

CONCERNING THE FOURTH EARTH IN THE STARRY HEAVEN

AC 10585. To this earth, now to be described, I was not conveyed as to other earths; but the spirits themselves who were from that earth were brought to me.  And when they were at a distance they were seen as a roll stretched out in length, not continuous, but in distinct parts; for there were many of them, and they were in companies.  At first they were carried toward the lower parts, and it was perceived that they were trying to rise up from thence, and thus to come to me; but that they could not.  Wherefore they proceeded a little to the left in front even to the earth Mars, and there they strove to rise up, which was done, but with difficulty.  The reason of this was that they were of a totally different genius from the spirits of our earth; and those who are of a different genius are conveyed through various ways, so that spirits may be associated with them by means of whom conjunction may be effected.  For it is the affections and thoughts that conjoin and disjoin spirits and angels.  In so far as they differ in respect to these, so far they appear separated from one another; but still they are conjoined by means of intermediate spirits, when it so pleases the Lord.  This was the reason why they were brought as far as the earth Mars.

AC 10586. After they had been conjoined with them, they immediately appeared above the head, thus near me, for by means of this conjunction there was effected a consociation of the affections and derivative thoughts with the spirits of our earth who were about me; and presence appears according to the consociation in respect to these, as can be seen from what has been said above.  They then spoke with me, and said that they had there found consociate spirits.

AC 10587. The discourse at first was about their speech on their own earth.  They said that they discourse together among themselves by an internal way; and not like others by an external way; and this by means of the atmosphere, and by means of sight, which is effected in the following way.  They think within themselves, and the ideas of thought are communicated to the other by a certain flowing into the interiors of the ears unknown on this earth, although it is known to those who are learned in anatomy. For there is a certain canal within the mouth, called the Eustachian tube, which is open in the mouth, and ends in the chamber of the ear, and is encompassed with a thin membrane.  Through this channel the air of the breath inflows with a gentle sound, and so the speaking thought is communicated. As already said, this is effected by means of the atmosphere. Moreover when they are speaking among themselves in this way they also move the lips both in general and in particular, and these little motions advance toward the eyes, especially toward the left eye, and their interior thought and its life there manifests itself. As before said, this is effected by means of sight. From this it was evident that their face acts as a one with their thoughts; for the face has been wholly formed to portray and represent the things the man is thinking and loving. From this the face is also called the index of the mind. But this is the case with the sincere; but it is very different with the insincere, with pretenders, and with hypocrites. To confirm me that such is the case, they were allowed to move my lips and my face in a similar way; and then to perceive the objects of their thought by means of the accordance. They were asked whether any speak there by means of sonorous words, or articulated sound. They said that they do not know what is meant by the articulation of sound, but that they know what sound is. On hearing these things, I perceived the reason why they were conducted to the spirits of the earth Mars, and were consociated with them before they came to me; for a similar speech prevails among them, as can be seen where the inhabitants and spirits of Mars have been treated of (n. 7359-7362).

AC 10588. From hearing their discourse, a doubt occurred concerning their respiration, whether it was similar to that of the men of our earth; and it was said that it is indeed similar, but that it is not articulated on the way as it is going forth into sound, as is done with us in the trachea and the larynx; and also that their lips are moved not only by the influx of ideas into their fibers, but also by an inward breathing of the lungs.

AC 10589. Some of the spirits of our earth suggested a doubt whether these were from the starry heaven; wherefore it was given to the angels to explore whence they were; and it was  found that they were from a star, which is their sun, very far distant from the sun of our world; and that its situation is beneath, near the milky way; and that this star is among the lesser stars.

AC 10590. A continuation concerning this fourth earth in the starry heaven will be found at the end of the following chapter.


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