HEAVENLY SECRETS
Emanuel Swedenborg

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AC EXODUS Chapter 34

THE DOCTRINE OF CHARITY AND FAITH

AC 10591. Man has been so created that he cannot die in respect to his Internal, because he is able to believe in God and also to love God, and thus to be conjoined with God in faith and love; and to be conjoined with God is to live forever.

AC 10592. This Internal is in every man who is born.  His External is that by means of which he brings into effect the things that belong to faith and love, thus that belong to the Internal.  The Internal is what is called the ”soul,“ and the External is what is called the ”body.“

AC 10593. The external which man carries about in the world has been accommodated to uses in the world.  This external is what is laid aside when the man dies; but the external which has been accommodated to uses in the other life does not die. This latter external together with the internal is called a ”spirit;“ a good spirit and an angel if the man had been good in the world; and an evil spirit if he had been evil.

AC 10594. In the other life the spirit of man appears in the human form absolutely as in the world.  He also enjoys the capability of seeing, of hearing, of speaking, and of feeling, as in the world; and is endowed with every capability of thinking, of willing, and of acting, as in the world.  In a word, he is a man in respect to each and all things, except that he is not encompassed with that gross body with which he was encompassed in the world.  This he leaves behind when he dies, nor does be ever resume it.

AC 10595. It is this continuation of life which is meant by Resurrection.  The reason why men believe that they will not rise again until the Last Judgment, when also every visible thing of the world will perish, is that they have not understood the Word, and that sensuous men place the very life itself in the body, and believe that unless this were to live again it would be all over with man.

AC 10596. The life of man after death is the life of his love, and the life of his faith; consequently such as has been his love, and such as has been his faith, during his life in the world, such his life remains forever.  The life of hell is for those who have loved themselves and the world above all things; and the life of heaven for those who have loved God above all things and the neighbor as themselves.  These are they who have faith; but the former are they who have not faith. The life of heaven is what is called eternal life; and the life of hell is what is called spiritual death.

AC 10597. The Word teaches that man lives after death, as where it is said that ”God is not the God of the dead but of the living“ (Matt 22:32); that after death Lazarus was taken up into heaven, but the rich man was cast into hell (Luke 16:22, 23); that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are there (Matt. 8:11; 22:32; Luke 16:23-25, 29); that Jesus said to the thief, ”This day shalt thou be with Me in paradise“ (Luke 23:43); and in other places.

EXODUS 34:1-35

1. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stones like the former ones, and I will write upon the tables the words that were upon the former tables, which thou brakest.

2. And be thou ready against the morning, and come up in the morning unto Mount Sinai, and stand for Me there on the head of the mountain.

3. And no man shall come up with thee, and moreover no man shall be seen in all the mountain; and no flock or herd shall feed over against this mountain.

4. And be hewed two tables of stones like the former ones, and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto Mount Sinai, as Jehovah commanded him and took in his hand the two tables of stones.

5. Add Jehovah descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and called on the name of Jehovah.

6. And Jehovah passed by over his faces, and called, Jehovah, Jehovah, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering with angers, and great in goodness and in truth

7. Keeping goodness unto thousands, bearing iniquity, and transgression, and sin; and in absolving will not absolve; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, and upon the sons’ sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths.

8. And Moses made haste, and bowed himself to the earth, and adored.

9. And he said, If I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes O Lord, let the Lord I pray go in the midst of us; for it is a stiffnecked people; and be propitious unto our iniquity and unto our sin, and make us Thine inheritance.

10. And he said, Behold I make a covenant; before all thy people I will do wonderful things, such as have not been created in all the earth, and in all nations; and all the people in the midst of whom thou art shall see the work of Jehovah, because this is a wonderful thing that I do with thee.

11. Keep thou that which I command thee this day; behold, I drive out from thy faces the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.

12. Take heed to thyself, lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land upon which thou comest, lest perchance it become a snare in the midst of thee

13. Wherefore ye shall overturn their altars, and shall break their pillars, and shall cut down their groves:

14. Wherefore thou shalt not bow thyself to another god; for Jehovah, whose name is Jealous, a jealous God is He.

15. Lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land, and they commit whoredom after their gods, and sacrifice to their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice.

16. And thou take of his daughters for thy sons, and his daughters commit whoredom after their gods, and make thy sons commit whoredom after their gods.

17. Thou shalt not make for thee molten gods.

18. The feast of unleavened things shalt thou keep.  Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened things, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed of the month Abib; because in the month Abib thou wentest forth from Egypt.

19. Everything that openeth the womb is Mine; and of all thy cattle thou shalt give the male, that openeth of ox and of small cattle.

20. And that which openeth of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, thou shalt break its neck.  Every firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And My faces shall not be seen empty.

21. Six days thou shalt work, and on the seventh day thou shall rest; in plowing and in harvest thou shalt rest.

22. And the feast of weeks thou shalt make to thee of the firstfruits of wheat harvest, and the feast of in gathering at the revolving of the year.

23. Three times in the year shall every male of thine be seen before the faces of the Lord Jehovah, the God of Israel.

24. Because I drive out nations from thy faces, and I will enlarge thy border; and no one shall covet thy land, when thou goest up to see the faces of Jehovah thy God three times in the year.

25. Thou shalt not slay the blood of My sacrifice upon what is leavened; and the sacrifice of the feast of the passover shall not stay all night unto the morning.

26. The firstfruits of the first things of thy ground thou shalt bring into the house of Jehovah thy God.  Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother‘s milk.

27. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Write for thee these words; because upon the mouth of these words I make a covenant with thee and with Israel.

28. And he was there with Jehovah forty days and forty nights; he did not eat bread, and he did not drink water.  And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten words

29. And it was, as Moses went down from Mount Sinai, and the two tables of the Testimony in Moses’ hand, as he went down from the mountain, that Moses knew not that the skin of his faces shone when he spake with Him.

30. And Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses, and behold the skin of his faces shone; and they feared to come near unto him.

31. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the princes in the assemblage returned unto him; and Moses spake unto them.

32. And afterward all the sons of Israel came near; and he commanded them all things that Jehovah had spoken with him in Mount Sinai.

33. And Moses left off from speaking with them, and he put a veil upon his faces.

34. And when Moses entered in before Jehovah to speak with Him, he removed the veil until he went out; and he went out, and spake unto the sons of Israel that which was commanded:

35. And the sons of Israel saw the faces of Moses, that the skin of Moses‘ faces shone; and Moses drew back the veil upon his faces until he entered in to speak with Him.

THE CONTENTS

AC 10598. In the internal sense of this chapter there is treated of the church that was to be instituted among the Israelitish nation. But as that nation was of such a character that it could not receive the Divine interiorly, it was received in order that there might be with it the representative of a church, and not a church. This is the subject treated of in (verses 1-9).

AC 10599. Afterward in the internal sense there are treated of the chief things of the church, which were wholly to be observed, in order that they might represent a church. This is the subject treated of in (verses 10-28).

AC 10600. Lastly, there is treated of the shining through of the Divine internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship, through their external; but not before that nation. This is signified by the shining of the skin of Moses’ face, and by the interposition of a veil when he was speaking with the people.  Treated of in (verses 29 to 35).

THE INTERNAL SENSE

AC 10601. Verses 1-9. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Hew thee two tables of stones like the former ones, and I will write upon the tables the words that were upon the former tables, which thou brakest.  And be thou ready against the morning, and come up in the morning unto Mount Sinai, and stand for Me there upon the head of the mountain.  And no man shall come up with thee, and moreover no man shall be seen in all the mountain; and no flock nor herd shall feed over against this mountain. And he hewed two tables of stones like the former ones, and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto Mount Sinai, as Jehovah commanded him, and took in his hands the two tables of stones.  And Jehovah descended in the cloud, and stood with him there, and called on the name of Jehovah.  And Jehovah passed by over his faces, and called, Jehovah, Jehovah, God, merciful and gracious, long-suffering with angers, and great in goodness and in truth; keeping goodness unto thousands, bearing iniquity, and transgression, and sin; and in absolving will not absolve; visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, and upon the sons‘ sons, upon the thirds and upon the fourths. And Moses made haste, and bowed himself to the earth, and adored. And he said, If I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes O Lord, let the Lord, I pray, go in the midst of us for it is a stiff-necked people; and be propitious unto our iniquity and unto our sin, and make us Thine inheritance.  ”And Jehovah said unto Moses,“ signifies the conclusion about the Israelitish nation; ”Hew thee two tables of stones like the former ones,“ signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, such as it was on account of that nation; ”and I will write upon the tables the words that were upon the former tables, which thou brakest,“ signifies that the interior Divine celestial and spiritual things (of the Word, of the church, and of worship) are in these externals also; ”and be ready against the morning, and come up in the morning unto Mount Sinai,“ signifies a new beginning of the revelation of Divine truth; ”and stand for Me there upon the head of the mountain,“ signifies from the inmost heaven where is the Divine love; ”and no man shall come up with thee,“ signifies that the Israelitish nation cannot be in Divine truth; ”and moreover no man shall be seen in all the mountain,“ signifies that they have been quite removed from it, thus outside of it; ”and no flock nor herd shall feed over against this mountain,“ signifies that neither could they be instructed about the interior and exterior good of the church, of worship, and of the Word; ”and he hewed two tables of stones like the former ones,“ signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, such as it was on account of the Israelitish nation; ”and Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto Mount Sinai,“ signifies a new beginning of the revelation of Divine truth; ”as Jehovah commanded him,“ signifies that it was so done because they insisted; ”and took in his hand the two tables of stones,“ signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, such as it was on account of the Israelitish nation; ”and Jehovah descended in the cloud, and stood with him there,“ signifies the external of the Word in which is the Divine; ”and called on the name of Jehovah,“ signifies the worship of the Lord from the truths and goods of faith and love; ”and Jehovah passed by over his faces,“ signifies internal Divine things over external ones; ”and called, Jehovah, Jehovah, God, merciful and gracious,“ signifies the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Divine proceeding, from which is all good; ”long-suffering with angers,“ signifies the Divine clemency; ”and great in goodness and in truth,“ signifies that He is good itself and truth itself; ”keeping goodness unto thousands,“ signifies forever; ”bearing iniquity, and transgression, and sin,“ signifies the removal of evil and of its falsity so that it does not appear; ”and in absolving will not absolve,“ signifies bearing even to the consummation; ”visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons, and upon the sons’ sons,“ signifies the rejection and condemnation of evils and the derivative falsities in a long series; ”upon the thirds and upon the fourths,“ signifies (the rejection and condemnation) of falsities and the derivative evils; ”and Moses made haste, and bowed himself to the earth, and adored,“ signifies reception then from flux into the external, and worship from humiliation; ”and he said, If I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes O Lord,“ signifies because such an external was received; ”let the Lord I pray, go in the midst of us,“ signifies that the Divine may be within it; ”for it is a stiffnecked people,“ signifies although the Israelitish nation does not receive the Divine interiorly; ”and be propitious unto our iniquity and unto our sin,“ signifies that their interiors may be removed which abound in falsities and evils; ”and make us Thine inheritance,“ signifies that nevertheless the church may be there.

AC 10602. And Jehovah said unto Moses.  That this signifies the conclusion about the Israelitish nation, is evident from the signification of ”said,“ when by Jehovah unto Moses, as being the answer, but here the conclusion, because ”said“ involves the things which follow, for they are the things He said, or that are said; here therefore by ”said“ is signified the conclusion about the Israelitish nation, which has been treated of in the two preceding chapters. The conclusion is that a church might indeed be instituted among them, and the Word be written among them, but that they would be merely in external things, and not at all in what is internal. To be in external things and not in what is internal is to worship external things as holy without any acknowledgment of the Lord, and without love to God for the sake of God, but for the sake of self; which is to love self and not God; nay, it is to turn one‘s self away from God, and not to turn one’s self toward God. But as they could be in a holy external for the sake of self, and this could be miraculously converted by the spirits with them into a holy external for the sake of God, and as it could be received from these spirits by the angels, and thus be raised into a holy internal, therefore that nation was nevertheless received (n. 10500, 10570). This is the conclusion contained in this chapter, thus which is signified by ”Jehovah said unto Moses.“

AC 10603. Hew thee two tables of stones like the former ones. That this signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, such as it was on account of that nation, is evident from the signification of the ”tables of stones,“ as being the external of the Word (n. 10453, 10461).  The external of the Word is the sense of its letter.  That it also denotes the external of the church, and of worship, is because the church is from the Word, and also worship; for all the truth that is of faith and the good that is of love, which make the church and also worship, must be from the Word; consequently as there are in the Word an external and an internal, there are also an external and an internal in the church, and in worship.  And from the signification of ”hewing“ them, when done by Moses, as being to make the external such on account of that nation; and from the signification of ”like the former ones,“ as being in imitation, for the former ones were made by Jehovah, but these by Moses.

[2] That the former ones, made by Jehovah, were broken by Moses when he saw the worship by that nation of the golden calf as jehovah, was of Providence, because the external of the Word, which is signified by the ”two tables of stones,“ could not be so written among that nation, which at heart was merely idolatrous. Hence it was that the former tables were broken, and that it is now said to Moses that he should hew others in imitation of the former ones.  It is said ”in imitation,“ because the internal sense remained the same, and the external sense was changed.  The internal sense is signified by Jehovah writing upon these tables the same words that were upon the former ones.

[3] That this subject may appear in clearer light, it may here be explained in what manner the external sense, or sense of the letter, was changed for the sad of that nation.  On account of that nation, altars, burnt-offerings, sacrifices, meat-offerings and drink-offerings were commanded, and therefore in both the historic and the prophetic Word these things are mentioned as the most holy things of worship; when yet they were allowed merely because they were first instituted by Eber, and had been quite unknown in the ancient representative church (n. 1128, 2180, 2818).

[4] It was on account of that nation also that there was Divine worship in Jerusalem alone, and that for this reason that city was esteemed holy, and was also called holy in both the historic and the prophetic Word.  The reason was that that nation was at heart idolatrous, and therefore unless they had all come together unto that city at each feast, everyone in his own place would have worshiped some god of the Gentiles, or else a graven and molten image. On account of that nation also it was forbidden to have holy worship upon mountains and in groves, as had the ancients; which was done to prevent them from placing idols there, and worshiping the trees themselves.

[5] On account of that nation also a plurality of wives was permitted, a thing quite unknown in ancient times; and likewise the putting away of their wives for various causes.  Consequently laws were enacted relating to such marriages and divorces, which otherwise would not have entered into the external of the Word. Wherefore this external is spoken of by the Lord as given by Moses; and as having been granted because of the hardness of their hearts (Matt. 19:8). On account of that nation mention is so often made of Jacob, and likewise of the twelve sons of Israel, as the only elect and heirs (Rev.  7:4-8), although they were such as are described in the Song of Moses (Deut. 32:15-43), and also in the prophets throughout, and by the Lord Himself. Not to mention other things whence comes the external of the Word on account of that nation.

[6] This is the external which is signified by the two tables hewn by Moses. That nevertheless within this external the Divine internal is not changed, is signified by Jehovah writing upon these tables the same words that were upon the former tables.

AC 10604. And I will write upon the tables the words that were upon the former tables, which thou brakest. That this signifies that the interior Divine celestial and spiritual things (of the Word, of the church, and of worship) are in these externals also, is evident from the signification of these ”tables,“ as being the externals of the Word, of the church, and of worship (n. 10603) and from the signification of ”the words that Jehovah wrote upon them,“ as being the Divine interior things, thus the things which are of the internal sense (n. 10453, 10461), which are called celestial and spiritual because they appear in heaven before the angels, and in light there. The celestial things there are those which are of love, and the spiritual are those which are of faith from love. From all this it is evident that by the words, ”I will write upon the tables the words that were on the former tables which thou brakest,“ is signified that the interior Divine celestial and spiritual things of the Word, of the church, and of worship are in these externals also. How the case herein is may be seen in the article immediately preceding.

[2] As at this day it is quite unknown that there is an internal sense in the Word, or even what the internal sense of the Word is, something further shall be told about it. The ideas of thought of the angels are not natural, as are the ideas of thought of men; but are spiritual. But the quality of their spiritual ideas can with difficulty be comprehended by man except by means of interior thought and reflection upon the first beginnings of his thoughts. That these are devoid of words of speech is known from the fact that they are of such a nature that a man can in a moment comprehend more things than he is able to express by speech within a considerable time. These ideas of thought belong to his spirit. But the ideas of thought which man comprehends, and which fall into words, are natural, and by the learned are called material; whereas the former, or interior ideas, are called spiritual, and by the learned, immaterial. Into these ideas man comes after death when he becomes a spirit, and by means of these ideas he engages in discourse with other spirits. There is a correspondence between these two classes of ideas; and by means of this correspondence the spiritual ideas are turned into natural ones when the man is speaking. This is not known to the man, because he does not reflect upon it, and none are able to reflect upon it except those who think interiorly, that is, who think in their spirit abstractedly from the body. Sensuous men are quite unable to do this.

[3] Now as there is a correspondence between spiritual thought and natural thought, and as the angels are in spiritual thought, they consequently perceive spiritually what man perceives naturally, and this in an instant, without any reflection upon the difference. This is chiefly done when a man is reading the Word, or when he is thinking from the Word; for the Word has been so written that there is a correspondence in the whole and in every detail; as for example when a man reads these words of the Lord in Matthew:--

Alter the affliction of those days, the sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken. And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man; and then shall all the tribes of the earth wail; and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and glory (Matt. 24:29, 30).

[4] The angels perceive these words quite differently from man.  By ”the sun which shall be darkened“ they do not perceive the sun, but love to the Lord; by ”the moon“ they do not perceive the moon, but faith in the Lord; by ”the stars,“ not stars, but the knowledges of good and truth; by ”the Son of man“ they perceive the Lord as to Divine truth; by ”the tribes of the earth,“ all the truths of the church; by ”the clouds of heaven,“ the Word in the sense of the letter; and by ”power and glory,“ the Word in the internal sense. When a man is reading these words, the angels come into the understanding of them in a moment by virtue of the correspondence; nor do they know that the man is thinking of the sun, the moon, the stars, the clouds of heaven, and all the other things. The reason is that the angels are in a spiritual idea; and a spiritual idea is of such a character that the things of nature are turned into things of heavenly light, which is Divine truth from the Lord.

[5] That the angels so perceive the Word, when a man is reading it, is also because the angels are with men, and dwell in their affections; and because as to his spirit a man is in society with spirits; and as to interior thought, which is spiritual, with the angels of heaven. It is also from this that man has the capability of thinking. These things have been said in order that it may be known what the internal sense of the Word is; or what are the interior things of the Word, of the church, and of worship which are called celestial and spiritual.

AC 10605. And be thou ready against the morning, and come up in the morning unto Mount Sinai. That this signifies a new beginning of the revelation of Divine truth, is evident from the signification of ”morning,“ as being a rising state or beginning, here a new beginning; and from the signification of ”Mount Sinai,“ as being heaven from which comes Divine truth, thus from which comes revelation (n. 8805, 8931, 9420). That ”morning“ denotes a rising state or beginning, is because all times signify states, for the reason that in heaven time is not thought of, but only changes of state in respect to the affections and derivative thoughts, and also because the changes of state there are like the times of the day, which are morning, noon, evening, and night; and the morning is that from which they begin. It may seem strange that in heaven there are no times, when yet they live there one with another like men in the world; nevertheless with a difference in respect to intelligence, wisdom, and happiness.  But the reason is that the light there from the sun, which is the Lord, does not undergo daily alternations like the light from the sun in the world, but is varied in accordance with the states of love and faith with the angels, which states undergo alternations like the states of heat, of light, and of shade every day in the earth. The reason of this is that the light from the sun there, which is the Lord, is Divine truth; and the heat from that sun is love, with which the angels are affected as are men with the state of light and heat in the world. That the light in heaven is from the Lord as a sun there, (n. 9548, 9684): That this light is the Divine truth from which angels and men have intelligence and wisdom, (n. 9548, 9571, 9684, 10569): That times signify states, (n. 10133: That in heaven states vary like the times of day and year in the world, (n. 5962, 8426): That ”morning“ denotes the beginning of these states, thus a new beginning, (n. 8427, 10114): And that in heaven there is a state of evening and twilight, but not a state of night, (n. 6110).

AC 10606. And stand for Me there upon the head of the mountain. That this signifies from the inmost heaven where is the Divine love, is evident from the signification of ”Mount Sinai,“ as being heaven from which comes revelation (n. 8805, 8931, 9420); and from the signification of its ”head,“ or summit, as being the inmost heaven (n. 9422, 9434).  That it signifies where is the Divine love, is because in the inmost heaven there reigns celestial love, which is love to the Lord from the Lord; but in the lower heavens there reigns spiritual love, which is charity toward the neighbor (n. 10438).  From this it is evident that by ”be thou ready against the morning, and come up unto Mount Sinai, and stand for Me there on the head of the mountain,“ is signified a new beginning of the revelation of Divine truth from the inmost heaven where is the Divine love; thus from the Divine love.  Moreover the Word, which is Divine revelation, comes down from thence.

AC 10607. And no man shall come up with thee. That this signifies that the Israelitish nation cannot be in Divine truth, is evident from the signification of ”not coming up,“ here into Mount Sinai with Moses, as being not to be in heaven from which is the revelation of Divine truth, thus not to be able to be in Divine truth, for by ”Mount Sinai“ is signified heaven from which comes the revelation of Divine truth (n. 8805, 8931, 9420, 10605); and by Moses is represented that external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, which receives Divine truth. It is evident that the Israelitish nation is meant, because it is said of it, ”no man shall come up with thee,“ and ”neither let any man be seen in the whole mountain.“

[2] That Moses here represents that external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, which receives Divine truth, is evident from every detail of this chapter, as that Moses should go up into Mount Sinai, and should stand there on the head of it, and that the people should be removed therefrom. In what follows also Jehovah speaks unto Moses as unto him, and not unto the people; as in (verse 10), ”All the people in the midst of whom thou art shall see that this is a wonderful thing that I do with thee;“ in (verse 11), ”Keep thou that which I command thee this day; behold I drive out from thy faces;“ in (verse 12), ”Take heed to thyself, lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land upon which thou comest;“ in (verse 14), ”Thou shalt not bow thyself to another god;“ in (verse 15), ”Lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land, and he call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice;“ in (verse 16), ”Take thou not of his daughters for thy sons;“ and so on. Afterward it is said that the skin of Moses‘ face shone; and that the people were afraid to come near him; and that on this account he put a veil on his face when he spoke with the people.

[3] From all this it is evident that Moses in this chapter represents that external of the Word, of the church, and of worship which receives Divine truth, thus through which internal Divine truth shines. That Moses represents this external, and not the internal, is also evident from everything in this chapter; as that Jehovah descended in the cloud, and stood with him, for by a ”cloud“ is signified the external of the Word; and then that Jehovah commanded to him the external things of the church and of worship, which were to be observed, and not the internal things.  The like external was represented by Moses in the preceding chapter, (Exod. 33:7-11, 17-23); (n. 10563, 10571). But the external which did not receive the internal appertained to the Israelitish nation.

AC 10608. And moreover no man shall be seen in all the mountain.  That this signifies that they have been quite removed from it, thus outside of it, is evident from the signification of ”the mountain,“ here Mount Horeb, as being heaven in the whole complex, thus also Divine truth; for whether you say heaven, or Divine truth, it is the same, because the angels, of whom heaven consists, are receptions of Divine truth.  The whole extension of that mountain was called ”Horeb,“ and the more elevated mountain in the midst of it was called ”Mount Sinai.“ Consequently by ”Horeb“ is signified heaven, or what is the same, Divine truth, in the whole complex; its internal by ”Mount Sinai,“ and its external by the mountainous part round about. Hence it is that by ”Horeb,“ when the surrounding mountainous part also is meant, is signified what is external (n. 10543). As the Israelitish nation was in an external that did not receive the internal, thus was in an external separate from the internal, or what is the same, was outside of that in which is the internal, it was therefore commanded that no man should be seen in the whole mountain.  The like is signified by that nation standing at the door of the tent in which Moses was, and bowing themselves unto it, in the preceding chapter (Exodus 32:8-10), (n. 10545-10555).

[2] It shall here be briefly told whence it is that ”Mount Horeb,“ and ”Sinai,“ signify heaven and Divine truth. It is believed in the world that the angels are in a region above that of the atmosphere, and that they subsist there as aerial beings, and that they have no plane to stand upon The reason why there is such an opinion in the minds of many men, is that they do not apprehend that angels and spirits are in a like form to that of men on earth, thus that they have faces, that they have arms and hands, that they have feet, in a word, that they have a body, and still less that they have dwellings or abodes; when yet angels and spirits dwell among themselves upon land, just as do men on the earth; the celestial angels upon mountains, and the spiritual angels upon rocks, and those who have not yet become angels, in the plains between the mountains, and between the rocks; while infernal spirits dwell beneath the mountains and the rocks.

[3] These things have been said in order that it may be known whence it is that ”mountains“ in the Word signify heaven, and specifically ”Horeb,“ and ”Mount Sinai.“  Moreover the interior angels dwell higher upon the mountains; and the higher they dwell, the more interior and perfect they are.  From this it is evident why Jehovah descended upon the top of Mount Sinai when the law was being promulgated, and why Moses was ordered to stand with Him on the head of the mountain. The mountains on earth are not heaven, but represent the mountains upon which are the angels in heaven.

AC 10609. And no flock nor herd shall feed over against this mountain. That this signifies that neither could they be instructed about the interior and exterior good of the church, of worship, and of the Word, is evident from the signification of a ”flock,“ as being interior good; and from the signification of a ”herd,“ as being exterior good (n. 5913, 6048, 8937); from the signification of ”feeding,“ as being to be instructed (n. 5201, 6277); and from the signification of the ”mountain,“ here Mount Horeb, as being the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word (n. 10543). From this it is evident that by these words is signified that neither could that nation be instructed about the interior and exterior good of the church, of worship, and of the Word, because they were outside of this external, and not in any manner within it. The reason why they could not be instructed about this, was that they were in the loves of self and of the world, and they who are in these loves cannot possibly know what celestial and spiritual good is, thus what is the good of the church, for this good is spiritual and celestial, because Divine. If this good were described to them, they would not at all apprehend it, because with them, the internal, where is the perception of this good, is closed.

[2] That such things are signified by the ”flock and herd not feeding over against the mountain,“ may seem strange to those who keep the mind solely in the historical sense of the Word, and think no further than that these words signify something that appertains to the nation itself. Nor do those know anything further who are not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word, in which sense ”flock and herd“ do not signify flock and herd, but interior and exterior good with man.  For what has the Word (which is Divine) in common with flock and herd, or with any beast? It has to do with men, their worship, love, and faith, thus with such things as make the church with men. In this is the Word Divine.

[3] That ”flock and herd“ signify such things, and that they do not signify a flock and a herd, is evident from the passages in the Word where they are mentioned; as in David:--

Thou hast made Him to have dominion over the Works of Thy hands, and Thou hast put all things under His feet; all flock and herds, and also the beasts of the fields (Ps. 8:6, 7);

this is said of the Lord, and of His power over all things in heaven and on earth; by ”flocks and herds“ are signified the interior and exterior goods with men; and by ” beasts,“ the affections with them. Otherwise of what use would it be to describe the Lord’s power, which is Divine, over flocks, herds, and beasts? That ”beasts“ denote the affections with man, (n. 9280).

[4] In Joel:--

The day of Jehovah is near, as a devastation from Shaddai shall it come. The beast sigheth, the droves of the herd are perplexed, because they have no pasture; yea, the droves of the flock are made desolate (Joel 1:15, 18);

here also ”beasts“ denote the affections with man; ”the droves of the herd and of the flock“ denote interior and exterior goods.  For the subject here treated of is the coming of the Lord, which is signified by ”the day of Jehovah;“ and of the church at that time as being vastated, that is, there being no longer any good of love or good of faith.  These goods are what is signified by ”beasts,“ ”herds,“ and ”flocks.“ Otherwise what could be meant by ”the beast sighing, the droves of the herd being perplexed, and the droves of the flock being made desolate“? for what has this to do with the church? By the ”pasture which they then had not“ is signified that there is no truth by which they may be instructed.

[5] In Jeremiah:--

Shame hath devoured the labor of our fathers from our youth; their flocks and their herds, and their sons and their daughters (Jer. 3:24);

here also by ”flocks“ and ”herds“ are signified the goods of the church, which are the goods of love and of faith, interior and exterior.

[6] In Isaiah:--

I will bring forth a seed out of Jacob, and out of Judah an inheritor of My mountains; then shall Sharon be a habitation of the flock, and the valley of Achor a couch of the herd, for My people that have sought Me (Isa. 65:9, 10);

”Jacob“ and ”Judah“ here do not mean the people of Jacob and of Judah, but the celestial church external and internal; ”Jacob“ the external church; and ”Judah“ the internal church. The internal good of this church is signified by ”a habitation of the flock;“ and the external good by ”a couch of the herd.“ ”Sharon“ denotes the internal where is this good; and ”the valley of Achor“ denotes the external. That ”Sharon“ denotes the internal of the celestial church, is evident from the passages where ”Sharon“ is mentioned, as in (Isaiah 33:9, 35:2); and that ”the valley of Achor“ denotes the external of this church, is evident in (Hosea 2:15).

[7] In Hosea:--

Israel, Ephraim, and Judah shall go with their flocks and with their herds to seek Jehovah; and they shall not find Him (Hosea 5:6);

here also ”flocks and herds“ signify the interiors and the exteriors with those who are meant by ”Israel, Ephraim, and Judah.“ Otherwise what could be meant by their ”going with flocks and herds to seek Jehovah“?

AC 10610. And he hewed two tables of stones like the former ones, signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, such as it was on account of the Israelitish nation.

AC 10611. And Moses rose up early in the morning, and went up unto Mount Sinai. That this signifies a new beginning of the revelation of Divine truth, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10605), where are the like words.

AC 10612. As Jehovah commanded him.  That this signifies that it was so done because they insisted, is evident from the signification of”Jehovah commanded,“ when said of the external of the Word such as it was on account of the Israelitish nation, which is signified by the two tables of stones hewn by Moses, as being that it was so done because they insisted.  In the Word throughout, where the Israelitish nation and the representative worship instituted among them are treated of, it is said that ”Jehovah commanded,“ and by this is not signified what is well-pleasing, but permission that it should be so done because they insisted; for they insisted on being brought into the land of Canaan, and that Jehovah should be with them, consequently that a church should be instituted among them. That they so insisted, (n. 10430, 10535).  Take for example that they were to offer upon the altars burnt-offerings, sacrifices, meat-offerings, and drink-offerings, concerning which many laws were delivered; and of which it is also said that Jehovah commanded them; when yet these things were not commanded or ordered, but were permitted, as can be seen from the passages adduced from the Word in (n. 2180).  In like manner that they were allowed to marry a number of wives, and to give a bill of divorce for any cause whatever; when yet Jehovah did not command this, although it is so said; but only permitted it on account of the hardness of their hearts (Matt. 19:7, 8); and so with many other things.

AC 10613. And he took in his hand the two tables of stones. That this signifies the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, such as it was on account of the Israelitish nation, is evident from what was shown above (n. 10603) concerning the signification of the two tables which were hewn by Moses.

AC 10614. And Jehovah descended in the cloud, and stood with him there.  That this signifies the external of the Word in which is the Divine, is evident from the signification of ”the cloud,“ as being the sense of the letter of the Word, thus its external (n. 2135a, 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8106, 8781, 9430, 10574); and from the signification of ”standing with Moses there,“ when said of Jehovah, as being the Divine therein.  The reason why Jehovah appeared unto Moses in a cloud, is that by Moses in this chapter is represented that external of the Word which receives the internal (n. 10607), for the Lord appears to everyone according to his quality (n. 6832, 8814, 8819, 9434, 10551).

[2] It shall here be briefly told what that external is which receives the internal, and what that external is which does not receive it. In the Word there is an external sense, there is an internal sense, and there is an inmost sense. The Word in the external sense is such as it appears in the letter; this sense is natural, because it has been accommodated to the apprehension of men, for men think naturally.  But the Word in the internal sense is spiritual, because it has been accommodated to the understanding of the angels in the Lord‘s spiritual kingdom, for these angels think spiritually. And the Word in the inmost sense is celestial, because it has been accommodated to the perception of the angels in the Lord’s celestial kingdom, for the angels in this kingdom think super-spiritually. The Word being of this nature, it follows that one thing is in another in the like order; the inmost in the internal, and the internal in the external. From this there is a connection of all things, and an influx according to the connection, and a consequent subsistence of one thing from another. From all this it is evident that the interior things are in order in what is external; in a like manner as what is prior is, successively, in what is posterior, or as the end is in the cause, and the cause in the effect; or as with man will is in thought, and thought in speech.

[3] When therefore a man is of such a character that he perceives within himself a holiness in the externals of the Word, of the church, and of worship, he has an external in which is an internal, for this holiness is from the internal, because it is from heaven. This is the external which Moses here represents. But when a man is of such a character that he does not perceive any internal holiness in the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, he then has an external separate from the internal. In this external was the Israelitish nation (n. 10396).

AC 10615. And called on the name of Jehovah. That this signifies the worship of the Lord from the truths and goods of faith and of love, and thus preparation for reception, is evident from the signification of ”calling on the name of Jehovah,“ as being the worship of the Lord from the truths and goods of faith and love; for by ”calling on“ is signified worship (n. 440, 2724), and by ”the name of Jehovah“ is signified everything in one complex by which the Lord is worshiped, thus everything of faith and of love (n. 2724, 6674, 9310) That ”the name of Jehovah“ denotes the Lord as to the Divine Human, (n. 2628, 6887); and that ”Jehovah“ in the Word denotes the Lord, see at the places cited in (n. 9373). From this it is evident that by ”calling on the name of Jehovah“ is signified the worship of the Lord from the truths and goods of faith and of love.  That it also signifies preparation for reception, is because the subject treated of in what now follows is the receiving of the Israelitish nation, for which Moses intercedes.

AC 10616. And Jehovah passed by over his faces.  That this signifies internal Divine things over external ones, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being that external which receives the internal (n. 10607, 10614); consequently by ”Jehovah passing by over his faces“ is signified the internal Divine over the external.

AC 10617. And called, Jehovah, Jehovah, God, merciful and gracious.  That this signifies the Divine Itself, the Divine Human, and the Divine proceeding, from which is all good, is evident from the signification of ”calling on Jehovah,“ as being the worship of the Lord (n. 440, 2724).  And as the Divine of the Lord is a trine, namely, the Divine Itself, which is called ”the Father;“ the Divine Human, which is called ”the Son;“ and the Divine proceeding, which is called ”the Holy Spirit,“ therefore it is here said ”Jehovah, Jehovah, God.“ The reason why the Divine Itself which is the Father, and the Divine Human, which is the Son, is called ”Jehovah, Jehovah;“ and the Divine proceeding is called ”God,“ is that in respect to the Divine Itself and the Divine Human the Lord is Divine good; and in respect to the Divine proceeding He is Divine truth. Wherefore in the Word where the Divine good is treated of, the Lord is called ”Jehovah;“ and where the Divine truth is treated of, He is called ”God“ (n. 2769, 2807, 2822, 3921, 4402, 9167, 10158). And from the signification of ”merciful and gracious,“ as being that from Him is all good; for by ” showing mercy“ is signified to endow with celestial good; and by ”showing grace“ is signified to endow with spiritual good (n. 10577). What celestial good is, and what spiritual good, (n. 10577).

AC 10618. Long-suffering with angers.  That this signifies the Divine clemency, is evident from the signification of ”long-suffering with angers,“ when said of Jehovah, as being that He long endures the evils of man, for to be ”long-suffering“ denotes to endure and bear for a long time; and ”angers“ denote the evils with man.  The reason why ”angers,“ when said of Jehovah, denote the evils with man, is that evil becomes angry, and good never; and evil is with man and never with the Lord, for the Lord is good itself.  Nevertheless anger is attributed to the Lord, because it so appears to a man when he does not obtain what he desires, and when he is punished on account of evil.  As then ”long-suffering with angers,“ when said of Jehovah, denotes long to endure the evils with man, it follows from this that thereby is signified the Divine clemency.

[2] As regards anger, be it known further that evil becomes angry, and good never, for the reason that to be angry is to will evil to another, which good cannot do, for good consists in willing the good of another.  All evil has within it enmity, hatred, revenge, and cruelty; in these and from these evil has its delight.  Moreover evil hates good, because good is opposed to its delights.  Consequently when evil cannot injure good, which it is always in the endeavor to do, it is first indignant, and afterward is angry. Whether you say evil, or an evil man, it is the same, for evil is in man as in its subject.  And as such is the nature of evil against good, such it is against the Divine, for all good is the Divine with man, because it is from the Divine.  From this it is that an evil man is always angry against the Divine, although outwardly he speaks differently before men.

[3] That he speaks differently is either from hypocrisy, or from the fact that he wishes the Divine to favor him in all things by granting whatsoever he desires, even to enabling him on his own account to take vengeance on all against whom he bears hatred.  But as soon as he sees that this is not done, and especially if he himself is punished on account of his evil, he is then angry against God, even to denying Him and also blaspheming Him in his heart.  That this is so is clearly shown in the other life, where a man acts according to his interiors, and not, as in the world, according to his exteriors; and in that life the penalty adheres to its evil, and is as it were inherent in it. That ”anger“ denotes evil, (n. 6358, 6359); and that anger and evil are attributed to God, when yet they belong to man, and that nothing of evil is from God, (n. 9306, 10431); and that evil is attended with its punishment, (n. 1857, 8214, 8223, 8226, 9048).

AC 10619. And great in goodness and in truth. That this signifies that He is good itself and truth itself, is evident from the fact that the Divine is infinite, and concerning the infinite nothing else can be said than that it is The Itself or that It Is, thus is good itself; and because it is good itself, it is also truth itself, because all truth belongs to good. But this Itself is expressed in the sense of the letter by ”great in goodness and in truth,“ thus finitely, on account of the state of finite perception with man. That the Divine is good itself, is evident in Matthew:--

Jesus said unto the young man, Why callest thou Me good?  there is none good but one, God (Matt. 19:17);

by which is meant that it is the Lord who alone is good, thus good itself. And that He is truth itself is evident in John:--

Jesus said, I am the way, and the truth, and the life (John 14:6).

AC 10620. Keeping goodness unto thousands.  That this signifies forever, is evident from the signification of ”goodness,“ when said of Jehovah, as being good itself (n. 10619); and from the signification of ”unto thousands,“ as being forever and to eternity (n. 2575, 8715).

AC 10621. Bearing iniquity, and transgression, and sin. That this signifies the removal of evil and of its falsity so that it does not appear, is evident from the signification of ”bearing“ or taking away, as being to remove so that it does not appear; and from the signification of ”iniquity, transgression, and sin,“ as being evils, and because evils, their falsities also, for every evil is conjoined with its own falsity; but what evil is signified by ” iniquity,“ what by ”transgression,“ and what by ”sin,“ see at (n. 9156). That ”bearing“ and ”taking away evil“ denotes to remove it so that it does not appear, is because the evils with man cannot be taken away, but only removed so as not to appear; and when they do not appear, it is believed that they have been taken away.  Therefore in the sense of the letter of the Word it is said that they are taken away, and altogether cast out. That the evils with man are not taken away, but only removed so as not to appear, (n. 10057).

AC 10622. And in absolving will not absolve. That this signifies bearing even to the consummation, is evident from the signification of ”absolving,“ as being to forgive sin; but when it is added, ”will not absolve“ it denotes to bear. That it denotes even to the consummation, is because evil is borne by the Lord even until it is consummated or fulfilled. In the Word throughout mention is made of the ”consummation of the age,“ and it is said of evil that it has been ”consummated,“ or ”not consummated;“ and when it is consummated, that then there is ”visitation.“ As this is signified by the words, ”in absolving will not absolve,“ it shall be briefly told what is meant thereby. In general, by ”consummation“ is meant the end of the church; and the end of the church is when there is no longer any charity or any faith, because then the church turns itself completely away from the Lord, and is no longer in any good, but in evil.  Then is its ”consummation,“ and then takes place its ”visitation.“ When visitation takes place, all those who are in evil are rejected, and all those who are in good are received.  Visitation takes place in the other life, where all those who have been of the church, from its beginning even to its end, are together. The rejection at that time of the evil into hell, and the salvation of the good, is what is called the ”Last Judgment.“

[2] Consummation takes place in particular with every man in almost the same way. Every person, when he comes into the other life, which takes place immediately after death, is tolerated among the good, even if he is evil. But after some lapse of time his interiors are opened, and if these are evil he is then gradually carried into his evil, until he becomes his evil in respect to the will, and the falsity of his evil in respect to the understanding. When this is done, evil is said to be ”consummated“ with him, and he is then cast into hell. These are the things which are meant by ”in absolving will not absolve.“  The like is signified by what Jehovah said unto Moses: ”Now go, lead the people unto that which I said to thee; behold, Mine angel shall go before thee; and in the day of My visitation, I will visit their sin upon them“ (Exod. 32:34).

[3] That ”consummation“ denotes the end of the church, is evident from the following passages:--

With Israel and with Judah I will not make a consummation; nor rendering will I render thee innocent, because thy breach is despaired of, thy wound is sick, thou hast no healing medicines (Jer. 30:4, 11-13; 46:28).

Thine iniquity is consummated, O daughter of Zion; He will visit thine iniquity, O daughter of Edom; He will make plain thy sins (Lam. 4:22).

Seventy weeks have been decreed upon thy people, to consummate the transgression, and to seal up sins, and to expiate iniquity. At last upon the bird of abominations shall be desolation, and even unto the consummation (Dan. 9:24, 27).

The harvest is the consummation of the age; as the tares are gathered together and burned with fire, so shall it be in the consummation of the age (Matt. 13:39, 40).

The disciples said unto Jesus, Tell us what is the sign of Thy coming, and of the consummation of the age (Matt. 24:3).

Jesus said, Lo, I am with you all the days even unto the consummation of the age (Matt. 28:20).

AC 10623 Visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons and upon the sons‘ sons.  That this signifies the rejection and condemnation of evils and the derivative falsities in a long series, is evident from the signification of ”visiting,“ as being the casting out and condemnation of evils; from the signification of ”fathers,“ as being goods, and in the opposite sense, evils (n. 3703, 5902, 6050, 10490); and from the signification of ”sons,“ as being truths, and in the opposite sense, falsities (n. 1147, 10490); consequently ”sons’ sons“ denote falsities from evils in a long series.  By the casting out and condemnation of evils and the derivative falsities is meant the casting out and condemnation of those who are in evils and the derivative falsities; for evils and falsities have no existence except in subjects, which are men.  Be it known that falsities of evil are meant by ”sons,“ because the ”fathers“ from whom they are, denote evils. What falsities of evil are, and falsities not of evil, (n. 10109).

[2] He who is not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word might easily believe that Jehovah visits the iniquity of the fathers upon the sons and upon the sons‘ sons, consequently that the sons are to suffer punishment for the evils of their fathers; but that this is not the meaning is very evident from the Divine law that the fathers are not to die for their sons, nor the sons for their fathers, but every man for his own evil (Deut. 24:16). From this it is evident that these words are to be understood otherwise than according to the letter. That it is those who are in evils and from this in falsities in a long series who are signified by ”fathers,“ and their ”sons and sons’ sons,“ is evident from the internal sense, in which ”fathers“ and ”sons“ signify evils and falsities. The angels, who also perceive the Word when it is being read by a man, here understand nothing else by ”fathers,“ and by ”sons;“ because in heaven, where the angels are, it is not known, as it is with men, what a father is, and what a son is, for there no one acknowledges anyone for his father, nor anyone for his son, because no one is born there as in the world; and therefore when mention is made in the Word of ”father“ and ”son,“ the angels perceive these expressions as relating to spiritual births, which are those of good and truth, or of evil and falsity; and therefore by ”fathers“ they perceive goods or evils, and by ”sons“ truths or falsities, because good is the father of truth, and evil is the father of falsity.

[3] The reason why ”visitation“ signifies casting out and damnation, is that it follows the consummation of evils, and precedes the condemnation itself which is meant in the Word by the ”Last Judgment.“ For visitation is the searching out of a man in respect to his character. But this is reflected in the other life; in particular, with everyone who comes there from the world; and in general, with all at the end of the church (n. 10622). Concerning visitation, (n. 6588, 6895, 10509).

AC 10624. Upon the thirds and upon the fourths. That this signifies the condemnation of falsities and of the derivative evils, is evident from the signification of ”sons,“ as being the falsities of evil (n. 10623). The reason why it is said ”upon the thirds and upon the fourths,“ is that ”three“ is predicated of truths or falsities, and ”four“ is predicated of goods or evils. For in the Word all numbers signify things, some numbers belonging to the spiritual class, and some to the celestial class. The numbers three, six, and twelve belong to the spiritual class, and the numbers two, four, and eight to the celestial class.  The numbers which belong to the spiritual class are predicated of truths or of falsities; and those which belong to the celestial class are predicated of goods or of evils.  By ”three“ is also signified all truth in the complex; and by ”four,“ all good in the complex.  From this it is that by ”sons the thirds and the fourths“ are signified falsities and the derivative evils. But this sense of these words is the celestial sense, because it arises from the fact that they are predicated of these falsities and evils. What evils and the derivative falsities are, and what falsities and the derivative evils are, (n. 10109). Here also something shall be said about evils and the derivative falsities, and about falsities and the derivative evils.  Evils are the sources of all falsities, because falsities are what confirm evils, and evils and falsities act in a man as do the will and the understanding, for what a man wishes to do he also wishes to understand, because it is by means of the understanding that he forms his evil before himself in thought, and before others in speech.  From this it is evident what evil and the derivative falsity are, that is, the falsity of evil.  But the evil of falsity is when man has confirmed evil with himself, and has concluded that it is not evil, and consequently does it. In this case he does evil from falsity. For example, he who has confirmed with himself that adulteries are not evils, and from this does them, is in the evil of falsity, because he does them from a false principle.  The evils of falsity are chiefly to be found in religious matters, for from the falsities of doctrine a man persuades himself that a thing is good, which nevertheless is evil; and sometimes that a thing is evil, which nevertheless is good.

AC 10625. And Moses made haste, and bowed himself to the earth, and adored. That this signifies reception then from influx into the external, and worship from humiliation, is evident from the signification of ”making haste,“ as being affection (n. 7695, 7866), here reception by means of influx, because all influx from the Divine is into the affection of man, and the reception by man is also in affection; from the representation of Moses as being that external of the church, of worship, and of the Word, which receives the internal (n. 10607, 10614); from the signification of ”bowing one‘s self,“ as being exterior humiliation (n. 5682, 7068); and from the signification of ”adoring,“ as being worship.

AC 10626. And he said, If I pray I have found grace in Thine eyes O Lord. That this signifies because such an external was received, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the external which receives the internal (n. 10607, 10614); and from the signification of ”finding grace in the eyes of Jehovah,“ when said of Moses, as being that he was received because of being of this character, thus if this external was received (n. 10563).

AC 10627. Let the Lord, I pray, go in the midst of us. That this signifies that the Divine may be within it, is evident from the signification of ”going,“ as being to live (n. 3335, 4882, 5493, 5605, 8417, 8420), and when said of the Lord, as being to give life and be present; and from the signification of ”in the midst,“ as being within it (n. 1074, 5897, 6068, 6084, 6103, 9164). That by ”let the Lord go in the midst of us,“ is signified that the Divine may be within the external, is because by Moses is represented that external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, which receives the internal; and in the external of these there must be an internal, which is Divine. And there is a Divine internal in the external, when each and all things have an internal sense, which is for the angels of all the heavens. To effect this, the external sense, which is the sense of the letter, must consist of pure correspondences; and it consists of pure correspondences when all the words, and all the connections of the words, signify in the internal sense things spiritual and celestial. These are the internal Divine things in the external.

AC 10628. For it is a stiffnecked people.  That this signifies although the Israelitish nation does not receive the Divine interiorly, is evident from the signification of ”a stiffnecked people,“ as being one which does not receive influx from the Divine (n. 10429), thus not the Divine interiorly, for the Divine flows in with man from within. How the case herein is, is evident from what has been shown above concerning the Israelitish nation, namely, that they were in the externals of worship, of the church, and of the Word, and not at all in what is internal, consequently that they were outside the external and not within it. What it is to be outside the external and not within it, (n. 10551, 10605).

AC 10629. And be propitious unto our iniquity and unto our sin. That this signifies that their interiors may be removed, which abound in falsities and evils, is evident from the signification of being propitious unto iniquity and unto sin,” when said of the external of worship, of the church, and of the Word in which was that people, as being that their interiors may be removed, because they abound in falsities and evils. That these things are signified by these words follows from the connection of the things in the internal sense, in which sense the subject treated of is the church to be instituted with that people. And the church cannot be instituted with any people unless their interiors have been opened, whereby there may be communication with heaven; and the interiors have not been opened except with those who are in the truths of faith from the good of life from the Lord. But with this people the interiors could not be opened, because they thought of nothing else than obtaining eminence and opulence above others by means of the worship of Jehovah; thus they had in mind nothing else than self and the world; and these are what close the interiors toward heaven, and open them toward hell. That such were the interiors of that nation, which were closed when they were in worship, (n. 10575). These therefore are the things which are signified.

AC 10630. And make us Thine inheritance. That this signifies that nevertheless the church may be there, is evident from the signification of the “inheritance of Jehovah,” as being the reception of the life of heaven through good from the Lord (n. 9338), thus also to become a church; for to become a church is to receive the life of heaven by means of the good of love and of faith from the Lord.

AC 10631. Verses 10, 11. And He said, Behold I make a covenant; before all thy people I will do wonderful things, such as have not been created in all the earth, and in all nations; and all the people in the midst of whom thou art shall see the work of Jehovah, because this is a wonderful thing that I do with thee.  Keep thou that which I command thee this day; behold I drive out from thy faces the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite. “And He said, Behold I make a covenant,” signifies the primary things whereby there is the conjunction of the Lord with the human race by means of the Word; “before all thy people I will do wonderful things,” signifies the Word, in that it is Divine in each and all things for the sake of the church; “such as have not been created in all the earth, and in all nations,” signifies that there never was such a Divine in the world where the church is, and where the church is not; “and all the people in the midst of whom thou art shall see the work of Jehovah,” signifies that all by whom the Word is received will acknowledge the Divine therein; “because this is a wonderful thing that I do with thee,” signifies the quality of the Word in each and all things; “keep thou that which I command thee this day,” signifies if they do these primary things which are of the eternal truth; “behold, I drive out from thy faces the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite,” signifies the removal then of evils and of the falsities thence derived.

AC 10632. And He said, Behold I make a covenant. That this signifies the primary things whereby there is the conjunction of the Lord with the human race by means of the Word, is evident from the signification of a “covenant,” as being conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778), here the conjunction of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord, with the human race by means of the Word; for this conjunction is the subject treated of in what now follows. That this is the case is also evident from the connection of the things in the internal sense. The subject treated of in what precedes was the law that was delivered and promulgated from Mount Sinai, by which law in an extended sense is signified the Word (n. 6752, 7463). Moreover this law was the beginning of the Word, for the Word was promulgated afterward, first through Moses, and then through all the others. The subject next treated of was the Israelitish nation, in that it was not such that the Word could be written among them as it would otherwise have been written, because a church could not be instituted among them; and where the church is, there is the Word.

[2] But because Moses insisted that Jehovah should be in the midst of that people, and that they should be received as an inheritance, and should thus be brought into the land of Canaan; by all which things in the internal sense is signified that the church was to be instituted among that people, and thus that the Word would be written there; and because this was now granted for the reason that Moses insisted upon it, therefore now the primary precepts, which were altogether to be observed in order that this might be effected, are treated of.  These primary precepts were, that the Lord alone is to be worshiped, and no other; and that acknowledgment must be made that all good and truth are from Him; besides many other things in what presently follows. It is said that they are treated of in what presently follows, but be it known that these precepts are contained in the internal sense. In the external sense however, which is the sense of the letter, are contained such things as represent these precepts, thus which signify them, as can be seen from the explication of what follows.

[3] It is said that by this covenant which Jehovah made with Moses, is signified the conjunction of the Lord with the human race by means of the Word, and therefore it shall be here told how the case is in regard to this conjunction. In the most ancient times there was not the Word, but immediate revelation before the man of the church, and thereby conjunction. For when there is immediate revelation, there is the conjunction of heaven with man. The conjunction of heaven with man is the conjunction of the Lord with him, because the Divine of the Lord with the angels makes heaven.

[4] When this immediate revelation ceased, as was the case when man turned away from the good in which he had been, then another revelation succeeded, which was by means of representatives, whereby the man of the church then knew what is true and good. Hence this church was called a representative church. In this church there was also a Word, but one that was of service to this church only. But when this church also was vastated, as was the case when they began to worship idolatrously the things by means of which there was at that time the conjunction of the church with heaven; and when in some lands they began to turn them into magic, it was then provided by the Lord that a Word should be written which should be Divine in each and all things, down to every syllable; and which should consist of pure correspondences; and that in this way it might be accommodated to the perception of the angels in all the heavens, and at the same time to men; to the end that thereby there might be the conjunction of the Lord with the human race; for without conjunction by means of such a Word, heaven would have completely departed from man, and so man would have perished.

[5] In what follows therefore the subject treated of is conjunction by means of the Word, and the primary precepts are disclosed which must be observed, in order that a man may be in this conjunction by means of the Word. That the most ancient people had immediate revelation, (n. 2895, 3432); concerning the representative church that afterward succeeded, and its Word, (n. 2686, 2897, 3432, 10355); and that the conjunction of the Lord with the human race is by means of the Word, (n. 10375, 10452).

AC 10633. Before all thy people I will do wonderful things. That this signifies the Word, in that it is Divine in each and all things for the sake of the church, is evident from the signification of the “people of Moses,” as being where the church is, because the church was to be instituted among them; and from the signification of the “ wonderful things” that Jehovah was about to do, as being the Divine things in each and all things of the Word. For the Word is wonderful in this respect, that it is Divine as to every jot, for every word corresponds to some spiritual thing which may be said to be stored up within it, because the spiritual of the Word is made manifest with the angels, when the Word is read by man. The case herein is this.  Each and all things in the natural world have a correspondence with those which are in the spiritual world, and this down to every word.  And the Word has been so written that its words in their series involve series of spiritual things, which do not appear to a man unless he is acquainted with correspondences. In this way what is Divine lies hidden in the Word.  From this the Word is spiritual, as also it is called.  This therefore is what is here meant by a “wonderful thing,” because the subject treated of is the Word which was to be written among that people.

AC 10634. Such as have not been created in all the earth in all nations. That this signifies that there never has been such a Divine in the world where the church is, and where the church is not, is evident from the signification of “wonderful things,” as being the Divine things of the Word (n. 10633), which are said to be “created” when they are Divine from inmosts to outermosts, or from primes to ultimates; from the signification of “in all the earth,” as being wherever is the church, for by “earth” in the Word is signified the church (n. 9325); and from the signification of“ in all nations,” as being where the church is not, for by “nations” (or “Gentiles”) in the Word are signified those who are outside the church, because not in the light of truth from the Word.

[2] It is said that “Jehovah will do wonderful things such as have not been created in all the earth,” because by “creation” is signified that which is Divine from inmosts to outermosts, or from primes to ultimates; for everything which is from the Divine begins from Himself, and advances according to order down to the ultimate end, thus through the heavens down to the world, and there rests as in its ultimate, because the ultimate of Divine order is in the nature of the world. That which is such is said to be “created.” In such an order has come forth, and in such an order subsists, everything in the world that has been created. And in such an order also is the man of the church who by means of truths from the Word has been regenerated by the Lord. From this the Lord is called in the Word “the Creator,” and a man who has been regenerated is said to be “created anew” (n. 10373, 10545). In such an order also is the Word, and because it is such, it is therefore said of its wonderful things that they are “created.”

[3] By these same words, namely, “before all thy people I will do wonderful things such as have not been created in all the earth and in all nations,” in the historical sense is signified that Jehovah was about to do miracles among the Israelitish people such as had not been heard of in all the earth. But in the internal sense miracles are not meant, but wonderful things which the Lord was about to do by giving such a Word, whereby there would be the conjunction of heaven with the church; and whereby there would be universally the conjunction of the Lord with the human race. That the Word is so wonderful is not apprehended by those who do not know anything of the correspondence of natural things with spiritual, and who do not know anything about the spiritual thought in which the angels are. Such persons do not know either that there is something within every detail of the Word that has heaven in it, thus that has Divine life in it; when nevertheless every word of the Word is by its correspondence perceived spiritually by the angels, when it is perceived naturally by men.  It is from this, and from no other source, that the Word is Divine, and is so wonderful that nothing is more so.

AC 10635. And all the people in the midst of whom thou art shall see the work of Jehovah. That this signifies that all by whom the Word is received will acknowledge the Divine therein, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372); consequently by “the people in the midst of whom he is,” is signified the church where is the Word, thus all by whom the Word is received, for no others acknowledge the Divine therein; and from the signification of “seeing the work of Jehovah,” as being to acknowledge the Divine therein. It is evident that this is the signification, because all those within the church who are in the good of life acknowledge the Divine in the Word. The reason is that while they are reading the Word there flows into them from heaven a holy feeling, although they do not know that this is effected by means of correspondences; nor is it perceived otherwise than as a general holy influence, in which the mind is kept. It is otherwise with those who are not in the good of life. With these the internal through which heaven flows in has been closed.

AC 10636. Because this is a wonderful thing that I do with thee. That this signifies the quality of the Word in each and all things, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372). Consequently by the “wonderful thing that Jehovah was about to do with him” is signified that the Divine is in each and all things (n. 10633).

AC 10637. Keep thou that which I command thee this day. That this signifies if they do these primary things which are of the eternal truth, is evident from the signification of “keep thou,” as being if those do so who acknowledge the Word, for by Moses is represented the Word; and from the signification of “that which Jehovah commands this day,” as being the primary things which are of the eternal truth, for the things which Jehovah commands are Divine truths; and by “this day” is signified what is eternal (n. 2838, 3998, 4304, 6165, 6984, 9939).  These eternal truths are what are contained in the internal sense in (verses 12 to 27), which follow.  The things contained in the external sense are not eternal truths, but are things that were to be observed by the Israelitish nation for the sake of things internal; for they signify these, and thus involve them.  Moreover these things were to be kept by that nation until the internal things of the Word had been opened by the Lord; but when these had been opened, then these external things were abrogated.  For when a man worships the Lord from faith in Him and from love to Him, which are internal things, he has no need of the external things which signify these internal things, because he is then in these, and not in their symbols.  For example, the feast if unleavened bread was to be kept in the month Abib, and then unleavened bread was to be eaten seven days; everything that opens the womb was to be given to God; the firstling of an ass was to be redeemed, or its neck broken; the firstborn sons were to be redeemed; the feast of weeks was to be observed, also the feast of in gathering; three times in the year all the males were to appear before Jehovah; they were not to sacrifice upon what is leavened; a kid was not to be seethed in its mother’s milk. But although these things have been abrogated, they nevertheless are holy Divine things of the Word, because there is a holy internal in them.

AC 10638. Behold, I drive out from thy faces the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.  That this signifies the removal then of evils and of the falsities thence derived, is evident from the signification of “driving out from the faces,” as being to remove from the interiors that belong to the thought and the affection; for “to drive out” denotes to remove; and the “faces” denote the interiors (n. 9546),and the interiors of man are those things which belong to his understanding and his will, or which belong to his thought and affection; consequently “to drive out from the faces” denotes to remove from these interiors; and from the representation of the nations in the land of Canaan, as being evils and falsities (n. 9327). But what evil and falsity is represented by each nation may be seen in the explications where they are treated of; as what by the Amorite (n. 6306, 6859); what by the Canaanite (n. 1573, 1574, 4818); by the Hittite (n. 2913, 6858); by the Perizzite (n. 1573, 1574, 6859); by the Hivite and the Jebusite (n. 6860). But these things are said of the Word, because by Moses, from before whose faces these nations were to be driven out, is represented the Word, as can be seen from what goes before.

[2] How the case herein is shall be briefly told. It is said that if Moses‘ people observe that which Jehovah commands, He will drive out these nations from their faces, by which is signified that if they do the primary precepts which are of the eternal truth, evils and falsities will be removed. These precepts are the things which follow in the internal sense, the chief of which are that they should not acknowledge any other god than the Lord; and that from Him is all good and truth; and also that salvation and eternal life are from Him. With those who believe these things, and love it to be so, all evil and falsity are removed while they are reading the Word, because the Lord then enlightens them and leads them. And then they do not think from themselves, nor are they affected by the Word from themselves, but from the Lord; consequently no evil and falsity of evil enter, because the Lord removes these. These are they who understand the Word, and are affected by the truths from it, and also love to live according to them.

[3] But those who do not acknowledge these chief precepts, which are of the eternal truth, are not enlightened when they read the Word, thus do not from the Lord see the truths therein; but what they see they see from self, and to see from self is to see falsities instead of truths. And if they see truths, they nevertheless falsify them by means of principles adopted by themselves; or else by means of their own loves, to which they turn the truths, and to which they thus apply them, whence come falsities of evil. These are the things which are signified by these words in the internal sense.  The reason why these things are signified, is that the angels, who perceive the Word in its internal sense when it is being read by man, do not know what Moses is, nor what the Amorite, the Canaanite, the Hittite, the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite are, for names do not enter into heaven, but the things which are signified by them, thus by Moses the Word, and by these nations evils and falsities.

AC 10639. Verses 12-17. Take heed to thyself, lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land upon which thou comest, lest perchance it become a snare in the midst of thee.  Wherefore ye shall overturn their altars, and shall break their pillars, and shall cut down their groves.  Wherefore thou shalt not bow thyself to another god; for Jehovah, whose name is Jealous, a jealous God is He. Lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land, and they commit whoredom after their gods, and sacrifice to their gods, and one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice. And thou take of his daughters for thy sons, and his daughters commit whoredom after their gods, and make thy sons commit whoredom after their gods. Thou shalt not make for thee molten gods. “Take heed to thyself, lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land upon which thou comest,” signifies that there must be no adherence to any religious persuasion whatever that has evil in it; “lest perchance it become a snare in the midst of thee,” signifies a consequent misleading in the Word itself; “wherefore ye shall overturn their altars,” signifies that the evil of such a religious persuasion and of the consequent worship must be rejected; “and shall break their pillars,” signifies that the falsities of evil must be dispersed; “and shall cut down their groves,” signifies that their teachings must be utterly rejected; “wherefore thou shalt not bow thyself to another god,” signifies that the Lord alone is to be worshiped from faith and love; “for Jehovah, whose name is Jealous, a jealous God is He,” signifies that if another is worshiped, Divine good and Divine truth will depart; “lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land,” signifies in this manner a conjunction with the evil of any religious persuasion; “and they commit whoredom after their gods,” signifies the consequent falsities of evil; “and sacrifice to their signifies thus worship from falsities; ”and one call thee and thou eat of his sacrifice,“ signifies the allurement, reception, and appropriation of falsity from evil; ”and thou take of his daughters for thy sons,“ signifies the conjunction of the affections of evil with truths; ”and his daughters commit whoredom after their gods, and make thy sons commit whoredom after their gods,“ signifies in this manner the profanation of good and of truth; ”thou shalt not make for thee molten gods,“ signifies the worship of self and not of the Lord.

AC 10640. Take heed to thyself lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land upon which thou comest. That this signifies that there must be no adherence to any religious persuasion whatever that has evil in it, is evident from the signification of ”making a covenant,“ as being to be conjoined (n. 10632), thus also to adhere; from the signification of ”the inhabitant of the land,“ as being a religious persuasion that has evil in it, for by ”inhabitant“ is signified good (n. 2268, 2451, 2712), and consequently in the opposite sense evil; and by ”land“ is signified the church and whatever is of the church (n. 9325); thus also a religious persuasion; and from the signification of ”upon which thou comest,“ as being wherever there is a religious persuasion that has evil in it, for by the nations which were in the land of Canaan, into which they were to come, are signified evils and the derivative falsities (n. 10638). From all this it is evident that by ”lest thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land upon which thou comest,“ is signified that there must be no adherence to any religious persuasion whatever that has evil in it.

[2] As this is one of the primary things by means of which the man of the church is enlightened when he reads the Word, and as this is the subject treated of in what now follows, it shall be told how the case herein is.  The man who wishes to be enlightened by the Lord must take especial care not to appropriate to himself any teaching that supports what is evil.  A man appropriates it to himself when he confirms it with himself, for he thereby makes it of his faith, and still more so if he lives according to it. When this is done, the evil remains inscribed on his soul and on his heart. And when this has been done, he cannot possibly be afterward enlightened by the Word from the Lord, for his whole mind is in the faith and in the love of his principle, and what evil is contrary to it, he either does not see, or else rejects, or falsifies.

[3] For example: he who believes that he is saved by faith alone whatever be the quality of his life, and has confirmed this with himself, and has conjoined it with all the rest of his doctrine, insomuch that he then thinks nothing about life, but only about faith, no matter how much he may read the Word, he afterward sees nothing therein about the good of life; and at last he does not know what good is, what charity, what love; and if these are mentioned he says that faith alone is all this; when yet faith alone, or faith without these, is like an empty vessel, and a thing without a soul.  The spiritual life of such a man may be compared to the respiration of the lungs without any influx of blood from the heart; which is not life, except such as that of an image or an automaton.  These things have been said in order that it may be known how the case is with the man who reads the Word, in that he cannot possibly be enlightened thereby if he has adhered to any religious persuasion which supports what is evil.

AC 10641. Lest perchance it become a snare in the midst of thee. That this signifies a consequent misleading in the Word itself, is evident from the signification of ”being a snare,“ as being to be deluded and misled by one’s own evil and falsity (n. 7653, 9348); and from the representation of Moses, as being the Word (n. 9372); consequently ”in the midst of him“ denotes in the Word itself. How the case herein is (n. 10640).

AC 10642. Wherefore ye shall overturn their altars. That this signifies that the evil of such a religious persuasion and of the consequent worship must be rejected, is evident from the signification of an ”altar,“ as being the principal representative of the Lord and of the worship of Him from good (n. 921, 2777, 2811, 4541, 8935, 8940, 9388, 9389, 9714, 9964, 10242, 10245), and therefore in the opposite sense it is a representative of idolatrous worship, thus worship from evil; and from the signification of ”to overturn,“ as being to reject; for it is said of the altars that they are to be overturned; but of the evils of worship which are signified by the altars of the nations, that they are to be rejected.

[2] Mention is made in this verse of ”altars,“ ”pillars,“ and ”groves,“ and by these in general are signified all things of idolatrous worship; by ”altars,“ worship from evil; by ”pillars,“ worship from the falsity of evil; and by ”groves,“ the teachings of these. The reason why these things were to be extirpated, was that the Lord was not worshiped by means of these representatives; but gods were worshiped that were men, as the baals, and many others. And this worship was diabolical and infernal; for to worship men instead of God Himself, who is the Lord, is diabolical, because a man is conjoined with him whom he worships.

[3] But the case herein is this. If a man is worshiped as a god, then some one from hell is conjoined with him, for faith and love conjoin. The faith of truth and the love of good conjoin the man with the Lord; but the faith of falsity and the love of evil conjoin the man with hell; for there are with every man spirits from hell, and also angels from heaven.  Without these a man cannot live. If anyone is worshiped who had been a man, then the spirits from hell suppose that they themselves are worshiped; for everyone in hell wishes to be a god, and these spirits communicate such worship to the infernal society from which they are. In proportion therefore as these are worshiped, in the same proportion the angels who are from heaven recede; consequently the man is carried away into infernal cupidities, and finally becomes like these spirits in respect to his whole life; and moreover comes among them after death.  But on the other hand, when the Lord is worshiped, who is the God of heaven and earth, then the angels from heaven who are with the man do not claim to themselves anything of worship, because they attribute all truth of faith and good of love to the Lord, and nothing to themselves; consequently there is opened through them a way even to the Lord Himself, who conjoins them with Himself in faith and love. From all this it can be seen how important it is to worship the Lord Himself, who has all power in the heavens and on earth, as He Himself says in (Matthew 28:18).

AC 10643. And ye shall break their pillars. That this signifies that the falsities of evil must be dispersed, is evident from the signification of ”pillars,“ as being representatives of the worship of the Lord from truths (n. 4550, 4582, 9388, 9389), and in the opposite sense representatives of idolatrous worship from falsities. The reason why ”pillars“ were representative of worship, was that it was in use among the ancients to set up pillars and anoint them with oil and thus sanctify them. The ancients held their worship chiefly upon mountains, upon hills, and in groves, and there they set up pillars. That they held worship upon mountains was because mountains signified the heaven where celestial love reigns, which is love to the Lord; that they held it upon hills was because hills signified the heaven where spiritual love reigns, which is love toward the neighbor; and that they held it in groves was because groves signified heavenly wisdom and intelligence. All these things are from correspondences. The pillars that were set up there signified Divine truth; for the pillars were stones, and a stone signifies truth. Therefore in respect to Divine truth the Lord is called in the Word ”the Stone of Israel.“ From this them it is that ”pillars“ signified the worship of the Lord from truths.

[2] But when the representatives of the church which existed among the ancients began to be turned partly into idolatry and partly into magic, then such things were abrogated, especially among the Israelitish nation, which at heart was idolatrous. Hence it is that by ”pillars“ is signified idolatrous worship from falsities.  This is the case with all worship when man becomes external, as when he regards himself and the world as the end, and the Divine things of the church as the means; for then all the things of worship, with those who remain in worship, become idols, because external things are worshiped apart from internal things.  Consequently the truths of worship and of doctrine become falsities, for they are falsified by the ideas of self and of the world in them, to which are adjoined many other ideas which withdraw the Divine from these truths, and transfer them to self and to the world. This can also be seen from the altars of the nations, upon which their sacrifices were abominations, although they sacrificed in the same way as the Israelitish nation.

[3] That pillars were in use among the ancients, and signified what is holy of worship, is evident from the pillar set up by Jacob, of which we read in Genesis:--

And Jacob took the stone that he had placed for his pillows, and set it up for a pillar. And he said, if I return in peace to my father‘s house, this stone, which I have set up for a pillar, shall be God’s house (Gen. 28:18, 21, 22).

And from the twelve pillars set up by Moses under Mount Sinai, of which we read in Exodus:--

Moses wrote all the words of Jehovah, and rose up early in the morning, and built an altar under the mountain, and twelve pillars for the twelve tribes of Israel (Exod. 24:4);

 (n. 9389). And from these passages:--

In that day shall there be an altar to Jehovah in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to Jehovah (Isa. 19:19).

The sons of Israel shall sit many days without king, and without prince, and without sacrifice, and without pillar (Hos.  3:4).

In these passages by ”pillars“ is signified worship from truths, for the reason, as before said, that a ”stone“ signified Divine truth, and a ”pillar anointed with oil,“ Divine truth from Divine good.

[4] But when these representatives began to be idolatrously worshiped, it was then commanded that such things should be overturned and broken, as in this verse, and also in (Exodus 23:24; Deuteronomy 7:5; 12:3). And as the Israelitish nation was at heart idolatrous, therefore lest they should set up pillars upon mountains and hills, and in groves, and should worship them idolatrously, they were forbidden to set up pillars and to plant groves, although among the ancients such things were holy things of worship. That this was forbidden to that nation is evident in Moses:--

Thou shalt not plant thee a grove of any tree near the altar of Jehovah thy God, which thou shalt make for thee. And thou shalt not set thee up a pillar, which Jehovah thy God hateth (Deut. 16:21, 22).

And that it was forbidden because they worshiped these things idolatrously, is evident from these passages:--

Judah did evil in the eyes of Jehovah; they built them high places, and pillars, on every high hill, and under every green tree (1 Kings 14:22, 23).

The like is said of the sons of Israel in (2 Kings 17:10).

I will cut off thy graven images and thy pillars out of the midst of thee; and thou shalt no longer adore the work of thine hands. And I will root out thy groves from the midst of thee (Micah 5:13, 14).

Ye have inflamed yourselves with gods under every green tree (Isa. 57:5).

With the hoofs of his horses shall Nebuchadnezzar tread down all thy streets; he shall slay thy people with the sword, and the pillars of thy strength shall he make to go down to the earth (Ezek. 26:11);

besides other places. From these passages also it is evident what is signified by ”pillars“ in the internal sense.

AC 10644. And ye shall cut down their groves. That this signifies that their teachings must be utterly rejected, is evident from the signification of ”groves,“ as being the doctrinal things of the church, here of the religious persuasion among idolaters. which are the teachings of falsity from evil That ”groves“ signify teachings is because ”trees“ signify the perceptions and knowledges of good and truth; perceptions, with those who are in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom; and knowledges with those who are in His spiritual kingdom; and each species of tree signifies a species of perception and knowledge. From this it is that ”paradises“ and ”gardens“ signify heavenly intelligence and wisdom; and ”forests,“ the memory-knowledge of the natural man. From all this it can be seen whence it is that ”groves“ signify doctrine, and whence it is that the ancients held holy worship in groves. For the church among the ancients was representative, all the external things of which represented internal things such as are in heaven, concerning the Lord, concerning love and faith in Him, and concerning such things as are of love and faith. This signification of ”groves,“ and of ”forests,’ “gardens,” and “paradises,” and likewise of “trees” according to their species, originates in the representatives in the other life; for such things appear there in accordance with the intelligence and wisdom of the angels, the appearances there being from a celestial and spiritual origin. That “groves” signify doctrine, and that the ancients held holy worship in groves (n. 2722, 4552): That “paradises” signify heavenly intelligence and wisdom (n. 3220, 4528, 4529); and “gardens” in like manner (n. 100, 108, 1588, 2722): That “forests” signify the memory-knowledge which is of the natural man (n. 9011): That “trees” signify perceptions and knowledges of good and truth (n. 103, 2163, 2682, 2972, 7692, 8326): That the Ancient Church held worship in groves, and in gardens under trees, according to the significations of these (n. 2722, 4552).

AC 10645. Wherefore thou shalt not bow thyself to another god. That this signifies that the Lord alone is to be worshiped from faith and love, is evident from the signification of “bowing one‘s self,” as being to adore and to worship.  That it is the Lord alone who is to be worshiped, and no other, is because by “Jehovah” and by “God” in the Word is meant the Lord (n. 9315, 9373); and also because the Lord is the God of heaven and earth, and also the one only God (n. 9194).  It is said that the Lord is to be worshiped “from faith and love,” because the worship of the Lord is either from faith, or from love.  Worship from faith is called worship according to truths, for truths belong to faith; and worship from love is called worship from good, for good is of love. Those who are in the Lord’s spiritual kingdom worship Him from faith; and those who are in His celestial kingdom worship Him from love.

[2] But something must here be said in regard to the worship of the Lord from faith and from love.  Many suppose that they worship the Lord by faith when they believe the things of the doctrine of the church, and that they worship the Lord by love when they love Him.  Yet the Lord is not worshiped by merely believing, and by merely loving, but by living according to His commandments, because these persons alone believe in the Lord and love Him.  The others say that they believe in Him, and yet they do not believe; and they say that they love Him, and yet they do not love Him. The reason why those alone believe in the Lord and love Him who live according to His commandments, is that the Lord is not in the understanding of truth without the willing of it; but is in the understanding of truth together with the willing of it.  For truth does not enter into a man and become his, until the man wills it and from willing does it, because the will is the man himself, whereas the understanding is only so far the man as it partakes of the will.

[3] Moreover the Lord is present with a man in his truths which are from good, and the truths which are from good are those which the man wills, and from this does; but not those which he understands, and does without willing them; for to do without willing is hypocrisy, because it is done before men, and not before the Lord.  Moreover the Lord does not dwell with an empty man, that is, with a man who does not know His truths and do them.  The Lord is present with a man in the truths which are from good, that is, which the man wills and does, for the truths which are from good make the church with a man, and make heaven with him; in a word, make the Lord Himself to be with him.

[4] If a man reflects, he is able from reason alone to perceive that this is so; for he is able to know that a man‘s understanding is formed by means of truths, and all his will by means of goods, because all things in the universe bear relation to truth and to good, and man’s understanding has been formed to receive truths, and his will to receive goods.  Truths which are believed are called “truths of faith;” and goods which affect with delight are called “goods of love.” From this it can be seen that such as are the truths of faith by means of which the understanding is formed, and such as are the goods of love by means of which the will is formed, such is the man; for man is man from the understanding and the will. If therefore his understanding has been formed by means of truths Divine, and these truths become of his faith; and if his will has been formed by means of goods which become of his love, it follows that then heaven is in the man, and that the Lord can dwell with him as in His heaven.  For the Divine truths which make the understanding, and the Divine goods which make the will, are from the Lord, or are the Lord‘s, and the things that are the Lord’s are Himself.  From this it is evident that to believe in the Lord is to imbue one‘s understanding with the truths of faith; and that to love the Lord is to imbue one’s will with the goods of love; and that this cannot be done except by learning truths from the Lord, by willing them, and by doing them.  Whether you say willing and doing, or loving, it is the same, for that which a man loves, he wills; and that which he actually wills, he loves.

[5] From all this it can now be seen what it is to worship the Lord from faith and love.  That such is the case is also evident from the fact that the Lord wills the salvation of all.  To will the salvation of man is to will to bring him unto Himself in heaven.  This cannot be done unless the Lord is in him, and the Lord cannot possibly be in him except in such things in him as are from Himself, which things are truths from good, thus His commandments which the man does from faith and from love, because there are no other recipients in man of the Lord and of heaven, nor can be.  Heaven itself consists of no other things.

[6] That to believe in the Lord and to love Him is to do His commandments, the Lord also teaches in John:--

If ye love Me, keep My commandments. Be that hath My commandments, and doeth them, he it is that loveth Me. If a man love Me, he will keep My word; and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him, and make Our abode with him. Be that loveth Me not keepeth not My words (John 14:15, 21, 23, 24).

Abide ye in My love. If ye keep My commandments, ye shall abide in My love. Ye are My friends if ye do whatsoever I command you (John 15:9, 10, 14).

The commandments and the precepts which are to be kept, and according to which the life must be, are taught in The Doctrine of Charity and of Faith.

AC 10646. For Jehovah, whose name is Jealous, a jealous God is He. That this signifies that if another is worshiped, the Divine good and Divine truth will depart, is evident from the signification of “Jealous,” as being one who does not suffer anyone but Himself to be loved and worshiped; and from the signification of the “name of Jehovah,” as being everything by means of which the Lord is worshiped (n. 2724, 3006, 6674, 9310). And as this is the Divine truth that proceeds from His Divine Human, it is the Divine Human of the Lord which in the supreme sense is meant by the “name of Jehovah” (n. 2628, 6887, 8274); for the Divine truth is the Lord Himself in heaven, because that which proceeds from Him is Himself. From the Divine, nothing else can proceed than what is Divine, and the Divine is one. From this it is evident that by, “whose name is Jealous,” is signified that the Lord does not suffer anyone but Himself to be worshiped, because from Him alone come all the truth and all the good whereby is salvation. The Lord is called “Jealous” because as soon as another is worshiped, all truth and good depart; for a man is conjoined with the Lord by means of the good and truth which are from Him; and therefore as soon as another is worshiped, disjunction takes place, and then falsity succeeds in the place of truth, and evil in the place of good.

[2] That He is twice called “jealous” is because by “Jehovah” is meant the Divine good, and by “God” the Divine truth. That in the Word the Lord is called “Jehovah” where the Divine good is treated of, but “God” where the Divine truth is treated of, (n. 2586, 2769, 2921, 6303, 6905, 10158, 10617). And as both the Divine good and the Divine truth depart from a man when another than the Lord is worshiped, He is twice called “jealous.”

[3] It is said that the Lord alone is to be worshiped. He who does not know how the case is with the worship of the Lord, may believe that the Lord loves to be worshiped, and desires glory from man, just like a man, who in order to be honored himself, gives others what they ask for.  He who so believes has no knowledge of what love is, and still less of what love Divine is. Love Divine consists in desiring worship and glory, not for the sake of itself, but for the sake of man and his salvation; for he who worships the Lord and gives glory to the Lord is in humiliation; and what is his own departs from the man who is in humiliation; and in so far as this departs, so far the Divine is received; for what is man‘s own, because it is evil and false, is that which alone obstructs the Divine.  This is the glory of the Lord; and the worship of Him is for the sake of this end Glory for the sake of self is from the love of self, and heavenly love differs from the love of self as heaven differs from hell, and infinitely more does the Divine love differ from it.

AC 10647. Lest perchance thou make a covenant with the inhabitant of the land. That this signifies in this manner a conjunction with the evil of any religious persuasion, is evident from the signification of “a covenant,” as being conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778), thus “to make a covenant” denotes to be conjoined; and from the signification of “the inhabitant of the land,” as being a religious persuasion in which is evil (n. 10640). Whether you say a religious persuasion in which is evil, or the evil of a religious persuasion, it is the same. Its being now again said that a covenant must not be made with the inhabitant of the land, is for the sake of the connection in the internal sense.

AC 10648. And they commit whoredom after their gods. That this signifies the consequent falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of “committing whoredom after the gods of the nations,” as being to be conjoined with falsities of evil, for by “committing whoredom” is signified to be unlawfully conjoined; and by “the gods of the nations” are signified the falsities of evil. That “gods” denote falsities, (n. 4402, 4544, 7873, 8867); and that “nations” denote evils, (n. 10638). It is said “the consequent” falsities of evil, because all falsities come forth from evil.  The falsities which are not from evil are indeed falsities in the external form, but not in the internal form.  For there are falsities with those who are in the good of life, but within these falsities there is good, which causes the evil of the falsity to be removed; consequently before the angels this falsity does not appear as falsity, but as a species of truth; for the angels look at the interiors of faith, and not at its exteriors.  From this it is that everyone can be saved, from every religion whatever, and even the Gentiles who have no truths from the Word, provided they have regarded as their end the good of life (n. 2589-2604).

[2] In the Word frequent mention is made of “committing whoredom,” and thereby is signified an unlawful conjunction with truth; and by “committing adultery” is signified an unlawful conjunction with good.  Consequently by “committing whoredom” is signified the falsification of truth; and by “committing adultery,” the adulteration of good.  The falsification of truth is done in three ways.  First: If a man is in evil of life and acknowledges the truths of doctrine; for in this case evil is within the truths, and evil falsifies truth, because evil disperses what is heavenly and Divine out of the truths, and implants what is infernal; from which comes the falsification.

[3] Second: If a man is at first in truths as to doctrine, and afterward accedes to the falsity of some other doctrine; which takes place with those only who are in evil of life; for evil seeks falsity, and eagerly seizes on it as truth.  Third: If a man who is in evil as to life and in falsities as to doctrine seizes on the truths of some other doctrine, he also falsifies truths, because he does not acknowledge the truths for their own sake; but for the sake of something of gain, honor, or reputation.

[4] All these falsifications are called in the Word “whoredoms” and “harlotries,” for the reason that by “marriage” is meant a lawful conjunction, which is that of good and truth (n. 2727-2759).  Consequently unlawful conjunctions are meant by “whoredoms.” That this is so can be seen from many passages in the Word, of which I will here adduce only these two:--

Jerusalem, thou didst commit whoredom because of thy name, and pouredst out thy whoredoms on everyone that passed by. Thou didst take of thy garments, and madest for thee high places of divers colors, and didst commit whoredom upon them. Thou didst take the vessels of thine adornment of My gold and of My silver, which I had given thee, and madest for thee images of a male, and didst commit whoredom with them. Thou hast taken thy sons and thy daughters, whom thou hast borne unto Me; and these hast thou sacrificed unto them. Is this a little thing of thy whoredoms?  Thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Egypt, thy neighbors, great of flesh; and hast multiplied thy whoredom to provoke Me. Thou hast committed whoredom with the sons of Asshur, and hast committed whoredom with them and wast not sated; and thou hast multiplied thy whoredom unto the land of traffic, unto, Chaldea (Ezek. 16:15-17, 20, 26, 28, 29).

Two women, the daughters of one mother, committed whoredom in Egypt; they committed whoredom in their youth. Oholah is Samaria, and Oholibah is Jerusalem. Oholah committed whoredom under Me, and she doted on her lovers, the Assyrians her neighbors. She bestowed her whoredoms upon them, she forsook not her whoredoms from Egypt, for they lay with her in her youth.  Oholibah was more corrupt in her love than she, and multiplied her whoredoms above the whoredoms of her sister; she doted upon the sons of Asshur, she added to her whoredoms, and saw the images of the Chaldeans, she doted upon them with the look of her eyes; the sons of Babel came to her for the lying together of loves (Ezek. 23:2-17).

See also in many other passages, which may be seen explained along with these in (n. 2466, 8904).

AC 10649. And sacrifice to their gods. That this signifies thus worship from falsities, is evident from the signification of “sacrificing,” as being worship in general (n. 6905, 8680, 8936); and from the signification of “the gods of the nations,” as being the falsities of evil (n. 10648).

AC 10650. And one call thee, and thou eat of his sacrifice.  That this signifies the allurement, reception, and appropriation of falsity from evil, is evident from the signification of “calling,” as being allurement and reception, for he who follows and obeys when he is called, is allured and receives; from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (n. 3168, 3596, 4745); and from the signification of a “sacrifice,” as being worship from falsities (n. 10649), thus also the falsities of worship. That the falsities of evil are meant, is because all falsity which is falsity, is from evil (n. 10648).

AC 10651. And thou take of his daughters for thy sons.  That this signifies the conjunction of the affections of evil with truths, is evident from the signification of “taking,” when said of marriage, as being to be conjoined; from the signification of “daughters,” as being the affections of good, and in the opposite sense the affections of evil (n. 2362, 3963); and from the signification of “sons,” as being truths (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 3373, 4257, 9807, 10490).

AC 10652. And his daughters commit whoredom after their gods, and make thy sons commit whoredom after their gods.  That this signifies in this manner the profanation of good and of truth, is evident from the signification of “committing whoredom,” as being unlawful conjunction (n. 10648); from the signification of “his daughters,” or the daughters of the inhabitant of the land, as being the affections of evil; from the signification of “their gods,” as being the falsities of the affections of evil conjoined with truths, for by “their gods” are meant the gods of the daughters of the inhabitant of the land conjoined with sons of the Israelitish nation (n. 10651), which conjunction is the profanation of good; and from the signification of “making thy sons commit whoredom after their gods,” as being the conjunction of truth with falsities, which is the profanation of truth. That “gods” denote falsities, (n. 4402, 4544, 7873, 8867); and that “sons” denote truths, (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 3373, 4257, 9807, 10490).

[2] These things are so said because the first conjunction of the affections of evil with truths, which is signified by “taking the daughters of the inhabit of the land for thy sons,” is not as yet profanation; but the second conjunction is profanation, because this takes place when evil is applied to truth, and truth to evil, which is done by means of a wrong interpretation of truth, and the application of it to evil, and thus by the insertion of the one into the other.  From this, truth no longer remains truth; but is killed and profaned.

[3] This profanation is also signified by “the whoredom of the people with the daughters of Moab,” of which we read in Moses:--

Israel settled in Shittim, where the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab, and they called the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people did eat, and bowed themselves down to their gods. Therefore Jehovah said unto Moses, Take all the heads of the people, and hang them up to Jehovah before the sun. And the people were smitten; and there died from this plague twenty-four thousand (Num. 25:1, 2, 4, 5, 9);

by “Moab” are signified those who adulterate goods (n. 2468, 8315); and by his “daughters,” the affections of this evil; and by “whoredom with them,” profanation; consequently the penalty was the hanging of the heads of the people before the sun, and the death of twenty-four thousand.  For the sun of the world denotes the love of self (n. 10584); “hanging before it” denotes the total extinction of heavenly good; and “twenty-four thousand” denotes all the truths and goods of truth in the complex, in like manner as “twelve thousand” (n. 2089, 3913, 7973); their death denotes the extinction of all truths.  This takes place with those who profane.

AC 10653. Thou shalt not make for thee molten gods. That this signifies the worship of self, and not of the Lord, is evident from the signification of “making molten gods,” as being to institute worship in accord with the love of self (n. 10406, 10503); and worship that is in accord with the love of self is the worship of self, and not of the Lord; for the worship of self is the end, and the worship of the Lord is the means to this end.  That which is the end rules, and that which is the means serves, nor is the means regarded by the end in any other way than as a servant is regarded by his lord.  Such is the worship with those who regard the holy things of the church as means, and dominion as the end.

AC 10654. Verses 18-23. The feast of unleavened things shalt thou keep. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened things, as I commanded thee, at the time appointed of the month Abib; because in the month Abib thou wentest forth from Egypt. Everything that openeth the womb is one; and of all thy cattle thou shalt give the male, that openeth of ox and of small cattle. And that which cometh of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, thou shalt break its neck. Every firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem. And  My faces shall not be seen empty. Six days thou shalt work, and on the seventh day thou shalt rest; in plowing and in harvest thou shalt rest. And the feast of weeks thou shalt make to thee of the firstfruits of wheat harvest; and the feast of ingathering at the revolving of the year.  Three times in the year shall every male of thine be seen before the faces of the Lord Jehovah, the God of Israel. “The feast of unleavened things shalt thou keep,” signifies the worship of the Lord and thanksgiving on account of liberation from evil and from the falsities of evil; “seven days thou shalt eat unleavened things,” signifies a holy state then, and the appropriation of Divine truth purified from evil and from the falsities of evil; “as I commanded thee,” signifies according to Divine order; “at the time appointed of the month Abib,” signifies a new state; “because in the month Abib thou wentest forth from Egypt,” signifies because there was then liberation from hell; “everything that openeth the womb is Mine,” signifies that all the good of innocence, of charity, and of faith is to be ascribed to the Lord; “and of all thy cattle thou shalt give the male,” signifies that it is given by means of truth; “that openeth of ox and of small cattle,” signifies in the external and in the internal man; “and that which openeth of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb,” signifies that faith merely natural must not be ascribed to the Lord; “and if thou wilt not redeem it, thou shalt break its neck,” signifies that if the truth of innocence is not therein, it must be separated and cast out; “every firstborn of thy sons thou shalt redeem,”signifies that the truths of faith which are without good must not be ascribed to the Lord; “and My faces shall not be seen empty,” signifies regeneration from mercy, and thanksgiving; “six days thou shalt work,” signifies the first state of regeneration, when the man is in truths, and is at that time in combats; “and on the seventh day thou shalt rest,” signifies the second state of regeneration, when the man is in good and is then in peace; “in plowing and in harvest thou shalt rest,” signifies in respect to the implanting of truth in good and its reception; “and the feast of weeks thou shalt make to thee of the firstfruits of wheat harvest,” signifies the worship of the Lord and thanksgiving on account of the implanting of truth in good; “and the feast of ingathering at the revolving of the year,” signifies regeneration, and complete liberation from damnation; “three times in the year shall every male of thine be seen before the faces of the Lord jehovah, the God of Israel,” signifies the continuous manifestation and presence of the Lord in the truths of faith also.

AC 10655. The feast of unleavened things shalt thou keep. That this signifies the worship of the Lord and thanksgiving on account of liberation from evil and from the falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of a “feast,” as being worship and thanksgiving (n. 7093, 9286, 9287); and from the signification of “unleavened things,” as being things purified from evil and from the falsities of evil (n. 9992); consequently by “the feast of unleavened things” is signified worship and thanksgiving on account of liberation from evil and from the falsities of evil. That this was signified by this feast, (n. 9286-9292).

[2] As regards this feast, be it known that it properly signifies the glorification of the Lord’s Human, thus the remembrance of this and thanksgiving on account of it, for by means of this glorification and the subjugation of the hells by the Lord, man has liberation from evils and salvation.  For the Lord glorified His Human by combats against the hells and at the same time by continual victories over them. The last combat and victory was on the cross; wherefore He then fully glorified Himself, as He also teaches in these passages:--

After Judas had gone out, Jesus said, Now hath the Son of man been glorified, and God hath been glorified in Him. If God hath been glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself, and shall straightway glorify Him (John 13:31, 32).

Jesus lifted up His eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee. Now, O Father, glorify Thou Me with (apud) Thine own self, with the glory which I had with Thee before the world was (John 17:1, 5).

Ought not Christ to suffer these things, and to enter into His glory? (Luke 24:26).

“To glorify the Son of man” denotes to make the Human Divine. It is evident that these things were said concerning His passion of the cross.

[3] That by this last combat, which was the passion of the cross, He fully subjugated the hells, the Lord also teaches in John:--

Jesus said, The hour is come that the Son of man should be glorified. Now is My soul troubled. And He said, Father, glorify Thy name; and there went forth a voice out of heaven, saying, I have both glorified, and will glorify again. And Jesus said, Now is the judgement of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out.  And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto Me.  This He said, signifying by what manner of death He should die (John 12:23, 27, 28, 31-33);

hell in the whole complex is what is called “the prince of the world,” and “the devil.” From all this it is evident that by the passion of the cross the Lord not only conquered and subjugated the hells, but also fully glorified His Human.  From this comes salvation to the human race.  For the sake of this also the Lord came into the world, as He likewise teaches in (John 12:27). It was for the remembrance of this that the feast of unleavened things or of the passover was primarily instituted, and therefore at this feast He rose again.

[4] That it was also for the sake of liberation from evil and from the falsities of evil, is because all liberation from evil is by means of the subjugation of the hells by the Lord, and by means of the glorification of His Human; and without these there is none. For man is directed by the Lord by means of spirits from hell, and by means of angels out of heaven; and therefore unless the hells had been completely subjugated, and unless the Human of the Lord had been completely united to the Divine Itself, and thus also made Divine, no man could possibly have been liberated from hell and saved, for the hells would always have prevailed, because man has become such that from himself he thinks nothing else than what belongs to hell.  From this it is evident whence it is that by the same feast is signified worship and thanksgiving on account of liberation from evil and from the falsities of evil.

AC 10656. Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened things.  That this signifies a holy state then, and the appropriation of Divine truth purified from evil and from the falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of “seven days,” as being a holy state from beginning to end (that “days” denote states, (n. 23, 487, 488, 493, 893, 2788, 3462, 3785, 4850); and that “seven” denotes what is holy, (n. 395, 433, 716, 881, 5265, 5268); and that “seven days” denote a holy state from beginning to end, (n. 728, 6508, 9228, 10127); from the signification of “eating,” as being appropriation (n. 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745); and from the signification of “unleavened things,” as being Divine truth purified from evil and from the falsities of evil (n. 9992).

AC 10657. As I commanded thee.  That this signifies according to Divine order, is evident from the signification of “commanding,” when by Jehovah, as being according to Divine order (n. 10119).

AC 10658. At the time appointed of the month Abib.  That this signifies a new state, is evident from the signification of “the month Abib,” which was the first month of the year, as being the beginning of a new state (n. 8053, 9291).

AC 10659. Because in the month Abib thou wentest forth from Egypt. That this signifies because there was then liberation from hell, is evident from the signification of “the month Abib,” as being the beginning of a new state (n. 10658); and from the signification of “going forth from Egypt,” as being liberation from infestation by falsities, thus also from hell (n. 9292), and the places cited in (n. 8866, 9197). From all this it can be seen that the feast of the passover, which was also called the feast of unleavened things, was instituted in remembrance of man‘s liberation from hell by the Lord. That this liberation was effected by the Lord’s subjugating the hells and glorifying His Human, (n. 10655).

[2] It is believed by most persons within the church that the Lord came into the world in order to reconcile the Father by the passion of the cross, and that afterward those might be accepted for whom He should intercede, and also that He released man from damnation by His having alone fulfilled the law, which otherwise would have condemned everyone; and thus that all would be saved who held this faith with confidence and trust. But those who are in any enlightenment from heaven are able to see that it would not be possible for the Divine, which is Love itself and Mercy itself, to cast away the human race from itself and condemn it to hell; nor that it had to be reconciled by its Son‘s passion of the cross; and that in this way and in no other way it was moved with mercy; and that henceforth the life would not condemn anyone provided he had a confident faith in this reconciliation; and that all salvation is effected from mercy through faith. Those who so think and believe can see nothing at all.  They speak, but understand nothing. They therefore call these things mysteries, which are to be believed, but not apprehended by any understanding.  From this it follows that all enlightenment from the Word is rejected that shows the case to be otherwise, because light from heaven cannot enter where there reigns so great a shadow from things that are contradictory to each other.  That which is not understood at all is called a “shadow.”

[3] But to those who are in enlightenment the Lord grants that they shall understand what they believe; and when they are reading the Word, those are enlightened and understand it, who acknowledge the Lord and love to live according to His commandments; but not those who say that they believe, and do not live; for the Lord flows into the life of man and from this into his faith, but not into faith separate from life.  Consequently, those who are enlightened by the Lord through the Word understand that the Lord came into the world in order to subjugate the hells, and reduce into order all things there and in the heavens; and that this could not possibly be done except by means of the Human; for from this He could fight against the hells; but not from the Divine without the Human; and also that He might glorify His Human in order that He might thereby forever keep all things in the order into which He had reduced them.  From this comes the salvation of man, for the hells are round every man, because everyone is born into evils of every kind, and where evils are, there are the hells; and unless these were cast back by the Divine power of the Lord, no one could ever have been saved.  That this is so the Word teaches, and all those apprehend who admit the Lord into their life; and these as before said are those who acknowledge Him, and love to live according to His commandments. See what has been adduced and shown from the Word in (n. 9937, 10019, 10152, 10579).

[4] To be withdrawn from evils, to be regenerated, and thus to be saved, is mercy, which is not, as is believed, immediate, but mediate, that is, for those who desist from evils, and so admit from the Lord the truth of faith and the good of love into their life. Immediate mercy, namely, such as would be for everyone merely at God’s good pleasure, is contrary to Divine order; and that which is contrary to Divine order is contrary to God, because order is from God, and His Divine in heaven is order. To receive order into one‘s self is to be saved, and this is effected solely by living according to the Lord’s commandments Man is regenerated to the end that he may receive into himself the order of heaven, and he is regenerated by means of faith and the life of faith, which is charity. He who has order in himself is in heaven, and also is heaven in a certain image; but he who has it not is in hell, and is hell in a certain image. The one cannot possibly be changed and transferred into the other by immediate mercy, for they are opposites, because evil is opposite to good, and in good there are life and heaven, but in evil there are death and hell. That the one cannot be transferred into the other is taught by the Lord in Luke:--

Abraham said unto the rich man in hell, Between us and you there is a great gulf fixed; so that those who would pass from hence to you cannot; neither can those who are there pass over to us (Luke 16:26).

Moreover if immediate mercy were possible, all in the world would be saved, without exception, and there would be no hell, for the Lord is mercy itself, because He is love itself, which wills the salvation of all, and the death of no one.

AC 10660. Everything that openeth the womb is one. That this signifies that all the good of innocence, of charity, and of faith is to be ascribed to the Lord, is evident from the signification of “that which openeth the womb,” as being that which is born of the Lord; for a man is conceived and born naturally from his parents; but spiritually from the Lord. This latter birth is what is meant in the internal sense by “that which openeth the womb.” Otherwise what could be meant by the firstborn of cattle being Jehovah‘s, that is, the Lord’s?  Moreover the man who is being regenerated is conceived, born, and brought up anew, and in this way is withdrawn from the evils of the natural state which he had from his parents.  The subject here treated of is the firstborn of cattle, but by “cattle” are meant the goods and truths with man, for cattle of every kind correspond to affections such as belong to man (n. 9280). From all this it can be seen that by “that which openeth the womb being Jehovah‘s,” is signified the good of innocence, of charity, and of faith, which those have from the Lord who are born anew, that is, who are being regenerated. It is said that these are to be ascribed to the Lord, that is, that it is to be acknowledged that they are from Him; for unless they are acknowledged and believed to be from the Lord they are not goods, because all good is from Him, and that which is not from Him is from man, and whatever is from man is evil, although in the external form it may appear good; because what is man’s own is nothing but evil, and good cannot be brought forth from evil.

AC 10661. And of all thy cattle thou shalt give the male. That this signifies that it is given by means of truth, is evident from the signification of “male,” as being truth (n. 2046, 4005, 7838). The case herein is this. All the good that man has from the Lord is given him by means of truth. For man is born into mere ignorance, and when he advances in age, he has from himself mere thick darkness in spiritual thing, for he knows nothing about God, the Lord, heaven and hell, or the life after death. What he knows from himself is about the world and himself; and he calls that good in the world which is in favor of himself; and he calls that true which confirms this. In order thee fore that he may have heavenly good, which he will love more than himself and the world, it is necessary for him to learn truths from the Word, or from the doctrine of the church which is from the Word. He cannot love these truths until he knows them, because any affection for what is unknown is impossible. From this it is that truth is that by means of which man has good. The truth with a man becomes good when he loves it; for all that which is loved is good. To love is to will and to do, because that which a man loves, he wills and does. In this way truth becomes good. This then is what is signified by their “giving the male of all the cattle.”

AC 10662. That openeth of ox and of small cattle. That this signifies in the external and the internal man, is evident from the signification of “ox and small cattle,” or of herd and flock, as being good external and internal with man (n. 2566, 5913, 6048, 8937, 9135, 10609).

AC 10663. And that which openeth of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb. That this signifies that faith merely natural must not be ascribed to the Lord, but the truth of innocence which is therein, is evident from what has been already said and shown (n. 8078), where are the like words.

AC 10664. And if thou wilt not redeem it, thou shalt break its neck. That this signifies that if the truth of innocence is not therein, it must be separated and rejected, is evident from what has been already said (n. 8079), where are the like words.

AC 10665. Every firstborn of thy sons thou shall redeem.  That this signifies that the truths of faith which are without good must not be ascribed to the Lord, is evident from what has been previously said and shown (n. 8080), where also are the like words.

AC 10666. And My faces shall not be seen empty.  That this signifies reception from mercy, and thanksgiving, is evident from what has been shown in n. 9293, where are the like words.

AC 10667. Six days thou shall work.  That this signifies the first state of regeneration, when the man is in truths and is at that time in combats, is evident from the signification of “six days,” which are called days of labor or of work, as being the first state of regeneration, when the man is in truths, and is at that time in combats against evils and falsities (n. 8510, 8888, 9431, 10360).

AC 10668. And on the seventh day thou shall rest.  That this signifies the second state of regeneration, when the man is in good, and is then in peace, is evident from the signification of “the seventh day,” which is called the day of rest, or the sabbath, as being the second state of regeneration, when the man is in good and is then in peace, and is in heaven with the Lord (n. 8494, 8495, 9510, 8890, 8893, 9274, 9431, 10356, 10360, 10367, 10374).

AC 10669. In plowing and in harvest thou shall rest.  That this signifies in respect to the implanting of truth in good, and its reception, is evident from the signification of “plowing,” as being the implanting of truth in good; and from the signification of “harvest,” as being the reception of truth in good.  That “harvest” has this signification is because by the “standing crop” is signified truth in conception (n. 9146); by the “ear,” the containant truth; and by “wheat and barley in the ear” the recipient good, and also the received good. Here however there is meant that the man‘s labor in connection with this will cease, for it is said, “in plowing and in harvest thou shalt rest.” For by “rest on the sabbath day” is signified the second state of regeneration, when the man is in peace, and is in heaven, and is led by the Lord, because then these things come without the man’s labor and exertion. That “harvest” denotes the reception of truth by good (n. 9295); and that “the sabbath” denotes the state of peace when the man is led by the Lord, (n. 10668).

[2] That “plowing” signifies the implanting of truth in good, is because by “field” is signified the church in respect to good, thus also the good of the church; and by the “seed” which is sown is signified the truth of faith. That“ field” denotes the church as to good, (n. 2971, 3196, 3310, 3317, 7502, 9139, 9141, 9295); and that “seed” denotes the truth of faith, (n. 1940, 3310, 3373, 3671, 6158).

[3] In the Word frequent mention is made of “earth,” “ground,” “field,” “seedtime,” “harvest,” “standing crop,” “threshing-floor,” “grain,” “wheat,” “barley,” and these there signify such things as belong to the setting up of the church, and to the regeneration of the man who is in the church; thus such as bear relation to the truth of faith and to the good of love, from which is the church. That such things are signified is from correspondence, for all things in the earth, even those in its vegetable kingdom, correspond to spiritual things that are in heaven, as is very evident from the things there presented to view. For in heaven there appear fields, fallow lands, plains, beds of flowers, harvests, groves, and other like things, such as are on the earth; and it is there known that the things of heaven, and thus of the church, appear in this way before their eyes.

[4] One who is reading the Word believes that such things in it are merely comparisons, but be it known that they are real correspondences, as for example these in Isaiah:--

Hearken, and hear ye My voice. Shall the plowman plow all day to sow? shall he own and harrow his ground? When he hath made plain the faces thereof, doth he not scatter the fitches, and sow broadcast the cummin? So doth he set again the measured wheat, and the appointed barley, and the settled spelt thereof. So doth He instruct him unto judgment, his God doth teach him (Isa.  28:23-26);

these things appear like comparisons; but they are real correspondences, by which are described the reformation and the regeneration of the man of the church; and therefore it is also said, “so doth He instruct him unto judgment, his God doth teach him.” “To instruct unto judgment” denotes to give him intelligence, for by “judgment” is signified the intelligence of truth (n. 2235); and “to teach him,” when this is done by God, denotes to give him wisdom.  From this it can be seen what is meant by “plowing,” “harrowing,” “scattering the fitches,” “sowing broadcast the cummin,” “setting again the wheat, barley, and spelt;” namely, that “to plow” denotes to implant truth in good; “fitches” and “cummin” denote memory-knowledges, because these are the first things which are learned in order that man may receive intelligence. That “wheat” denotes the good of love of the internal man (n. 7605); that “barley” denotes the good of love of the external man, (n. 7602); and that “spelt” denotes the truth of it, (n. 7605).

[5] That “plowing” (not from comparison, but from correspondence) signifies the first of the church in general and also in particular, with everyone who is being regenerated, or who is becoming the church, is evident from these words in Moses:--

Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard intermixedly. Thou shalt not plow with an ox and an ass together. Thou shalt not wear a mixed garment of wool and linen together (Deut. 22:9-11).

these words involve that states of good and of truth must not be jumbled together; for a “vineyard” denotes the church as to truth; and a “field,” the church as to good; “to plow with an ox” denotes to prepare by means of good; “to plow with an ass” denotes to prepare by means of truth; “wool” also denotes good; and “linen,” truth. For the case is this. Those who are in the Lord‘s celestial kingdom are in a state of good; whereas those who are in His spiritual kingdom are in a state of truth; and he who is in the one, cannot be in the other. who cannot see that the above words signify deeper things; for otherwise what evil could there be in sowing a vineyard intermixedly; or in plowing with an ox and an ass together; or in wearing a garment made of wool and linen mixed together?

AC 10670. And the feast of weeks thou shalt make to thee of the firstfruits of wheat harvest. That this signifies the worship of the Lord, and thanksgiving, on account of the implanting of truth in good, is evident from what has been unfolded and shown above (n. 9294, 9295), where are the like words.

AC 10671. And the feast of ingathering at the revolving of the year. That this signifies worship from a grateful mind on account of the consequent implantation of good, thus on account of regeneration and complete liberation from condemnation, is evident from what has been shown concerning this feast (n. 9296).

AC 10672. Three times in the year shall every male of thine be seen before the faces of the Lord Jehovah, the God of Israel. That this signifies the continuous manifestation and presence of the Lord in the truths of faith also, is evident from the unfolding of these words above (n. 9297).

AC 10673. Verses 24-27. Because I drive out nations from thy faces, and I will enlarge thy border; and no one shall covet thy land, when thou goest up to see the faces of Jehovah thy God three times in the year. Thou shalt not stay the blood of My sacrifice upon what is leavened; and the sacrifice of the feast of the passover shall not stay all night unto the morning. The first fruits of the first things of thy ground thou shalt bring into the house of Jehovah thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Write for thee these words; because upon the mouth of these words I make a covenant with thee and with Israel. “Because I drive out nations from before thy faces,” signifies the removal of evil and of the falsities of evil; “and I will enlarge thy border,” signifies the multiplication and extension of truth from good; “and no one shall covet thy land,” signifies aversion for such things as are of the church on the part of those who are in evils and the falsities of evil; “when thou goest up to see the faces of Jehovah thy God three times in the year,” signifies when the presence of the Lord is in the truths of faith also; “thou shalt not slay the blood of My sacrifice upon what is leavened,” signifies that the worship of the Lord from the truths of the church must not be commingled with falsities from evil; “and the sacrifice of the feast of the passover shall not stay all night unto the morning,” signifies the good of worship not from man‘s own, but from the Lord always new; “the firstfruits of the first things of thy ground thou shalt bring into the house of Jehovah thy God,” signifies that all the truths of good and goods of truth are holy, because they are from the Lord alone; “thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk,” signifies that the good of innocence of an after state must not be commingled with the truth of innocence of a former state; “and Jehovah said unto Moses, Write for thee these words,” signifies information about the primary truths that must be remembered and done; “because upon the mouth of these words I make a covenant with thee and with Israel,” signifies that by means of them there is conjunction with those who are in external and internal worship.

AC 10674. Because I drive out nations from before thy faces. That this signifies the removal of evil and of the falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of “driving out,” when said of the evils and falsities with a man, as being to remove, for evils and falsities are not driven out from man, but are removed (n. 10057); and from the signification of the “nations in the land of Canaan,” as being evils and the falsities of evil (n. 9327).

AC 10675. And I will enlarge thy border.  That this signifies the multiplication and extension of truth from good, is evident from the signification of “enlarging the border,” as being the multiplication and extension of truth from good (n. 8063). That this is signified by “enlarging the border,” is because in so far as evils and the falsities of evil are removed, so far the truths which are from good are multiplied, because nothing else than evils and the falsities of evil obstructs the influx of truths from the Lord and their multiplication with man; and therefore in so far as evils and falsities are removed, so far truths succeed in their place.

[2] This is the case with man‘s understanding, whether it consists of the truths which are from good, or of the falsities which are from evil.  It cannot consist of both together, for they are opposites.  And it is the understanding of man which receives truths, and is formed by means of truths; for whatever is in his understanding bears relation to truth. From this it is evident that in so far as the falsities from evil are removed, so far truths from good may be multiplied. This was represented by the driving out of the nations from the land of Canaan, for by the nations therein were represented evils and falsities (n. 10057); and by the sons of Israel were represented goods and truths.

[3] It is said that it is man’s understanding which receives truths and is formed by means of truths, because in the proper sense nothing can be called understanding but that which is from the truths which are from good.  That which is from the falsities which are from evil is not understanding; because intelligence and wisdom cannot possibly be predicated of falsities from evil, seeing that falsities from evil completely destroy intelligence and wisdom, and bring in insanity and foolishness in their stead; and therefore man‘s understanding is never opened except when the man perceives and loves truths; and the perception and love of truth are from good. Consequently it is truths from good that are the source of the understanding.

[4] He who believes that any person is possessed of an understanding who is able to reason in a skilful manner against the truths of the church, is very much mistaken; for such a person sees nothing within himself, but only outside of himself.  To see within one’s self is from heaven; to see outside of one‘s self is from the world. And he who sees only from the world sees from a deceptive light, which light becomes mere thick darkness when light from heaven flows in upon it.

AC 10676. And no one shall covet thy land. That this signifies aversion for such things as are of the church on the part of those who are in evils and the falsities of evil, is evident from the signification of “not coveting,” when said of those who are in evils and the falsities of evil, when they see and perceive goods and the truths of good, as being to feel aversion, for there is a perpetual enmity between evils and goods; evils being averse to and hating goods; and goods being averse to evils, and putting them to flight, or shunning them; and from the signification of “land,” as being the church and whatever is of the church (n. 9325).

AC 10677. When thou goest up to see the faces of Jehovah thy God three times in the year. That this signifies when the presence of the Lord is in the truths of faith also, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 9297).

AC 10678. Thou shalt not slay the blood of My sacrifice upon what is leavened. That this signifies that the worship of the Lord from the truths of the church must not be commingled with falsities from evil, is evident from the unfolding of these words in (n. 9298).

AC 10679. And the sacrifice of the feast of the passover shall not stay all night unto the morning. That this signifies the good of worship not from man’s own, but from the Lord always new, is evident from what has been unfolded above (n. 9299).

AC 10680. The firstfruits of the first things of thy ground thou shalt bring into the house of Jehovah thy God. That this signifies that all truths of good and goods of truth are holy, because they are from the Lord alone, may be seen above (n. 9300).

AC 10681. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother‘s milk. That this signifies that the good of innocence of an after state must not be commingled with the truth of innocence of a former state, is evident from what has been already said and shown (n. 9301), where are the like words.

AC 10682. And Jehovah said unto Moses, Write for thee these words. That this signifies information about the primary truths that must be remembered and done, is evident from the signification of “saying,” when by Jehovah unto Moses, as being information (n. 10280); from the signification of “writing,” as being for remembrance that it is to be done (n. 8620); and from the signification of “these words,” as being primary truths, for by “words” are in general signified things; specifically truths; here the primary truths which are to be remembered and done in order that the representative worship of the church might be instituted among the Israelitish nation, and the Word be written there, as set forth in the preceding verses of this chapter.

AC 10683. Because upon the mouth of these words I make a covenant with thee and with Israel. That this signifies that by means of them there is conjunction with those who are in external and internal worship, is evident from the signification of “upon the mouth of these words,” as being by means of those primary truths which are to be observed (n. 10682); from the signification of “making a covenant,” as being conjunction (n. 665, 666, 1023, 1038, 1864, 1996, 2003, 2021, 6804, 8767, 8778); from the representation of Moses, with whom, and with Israel, it is said that the covenant is made, as being that external of the Word, of the church, and of worship in which there is what is internal (n. 10563, 10571, 10607, 10614); and from the signification of “Israel,” as being the internal of the church and of worship (n. 4286, 4292, 4570, 6426). It is from this that it is said that the covenant is made “with Moses and with Israel,” and not with “the sons of Israel,” for by “the sons of Israel” in this chapter and in the preceding one are meant those who are in the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word without what is internal (n. 10454-10457, 10461, 10498, 10549-10551, 10570, 10575, 10629).

[2] It shall here be briefly stated what the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship is; what is the external of them in which there is what is internal; and what is the external without what is internal.  In the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship, are those who love to do truth for the sake of truth from internal affection, thus from spiritual affection. In the external of them in which there is what is internal, are those who love truth for the sake of truth; but from external affection, thus from natural affection.  These latter are men of the external church; but the former are of the internal church; for in every church there are internal men and there are external men. But those who are in external worship without what is internal, do not love truth for the sake of truth, but for the sake of profit in the world; thus they do not love to do truths except for the sake of themselves, or in order that they may be seen. These are not within the church, but are outside of it.

[3] When those who love to do truth for the sake of truth from internal or spiritual affection hear truths, they rejoice, and think about a life in accordance with them. But when those who love truth for the sake of truth from external or natural affection hear truth, they also rejoice; but they do not think about a life in accordance with it; nevertheless unknown to them it flows in from the internal.  But those who love truth for the sake of profit in the world think nothing about the life, neither does anything flow in from the internal, for they make truths to be things of memory only, to the end that they may speak of them.

[4] Those who love to do truth for the sake of truth, love the Lord, because truth is from the Lord, and the Lord causes it to become good through their willing and doing it, so that it becomes of the life with the man; for truth does not become of the life until it enters the will.  That which is in the will can be known and perceived from the fact that the man does it, and still more from his loving to do it, for in so far as a man wills truth, so far he loves it.

[5] To love truth for the sake of truth, and for the sake of living according to it, is thus described by the Lord in Matthew:--

Whosoever receiveth you receiveth Me; and he that receiveth Me receiveth Him that sent Me.  Whosoever receiveth a prophet in the name of a prophet shall receive a prophet’s reward; and whosoever receiveth a righteous man in the name of a righteous man shall receive a righteous man‘s reward.  Yea, whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a drink of cold water only, in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose his reward (Matt. 10:40-42).

A person not acquainted with the internal sense of the Word cannot know what is signified by “receiving a prophet in the name of a prophet, a righteous man in the name of a righteous man, and a disciple of the Lord in the name of a disciple,” and that these will receive a reward according to the reception.  For without this sense, who knows what is signified by “receiving anyone in his name?”

[6] But those who are in the internal sense do not attend to the person, but to the thing which the person signifies, thus not to a disciple or a prophet, but to the things which a disciple and a prophet signify.  In the internal sense a “disciple” signifies the truth of life; and a “prophet” signifies the truth of doctrine; “in the name of” anyone, signifies on account of his quality.  From this it is evident what is signified by these words of the Lord, namely, that those who love truth for the sake of truth, and who love to do truth for the sake of truth, love the Lord and receive heaven into themselves; for the reward which is from the Lord is the affection of truth for the sake of truth; and heaven is in the affection of truth for the sake of truth.

[7] That “disciples” denote all things of love and of faith in the complex, thus specifically those who are led by the Lord, (n. 3488, 3858, 6397); that a “prophet” denotes the truth of doctrine, (n. 2534, 7269); that “name” denotes quality, (n. 144, 145, 1896, 2009, 2724, 6674, 9310); that “reward” denotes the affection of truth and good, (n. 3956, 6388); that in the internal sense a person is turned into the idea of a thing, (n. 5225, 5287, 5434, 8343, 8985, 9007, 10282); and that to do truth for the sake of truth is to love the Lord, (n. 10336).

AC 10684. Verse 28, to the end.  And he was there with Jehovah forty days and forty nights; he did not eat bread, and he did not drink water.  And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten words. And it was, as Moses went down from Mount Sinai, and the two tables of the Testimony in Moses’ hand as he went down from the mountain, that Moses knew not that the skin of his faces shone when he spake with Him. And Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses, and behold the skin of his faces shone; and they feared to come near unto him. And Moses called unto them; and Aaron and all the princes in the assemblage returned unto him; and Moses spake unto them. And afterward all the sons of Israel came near, and he commanded them all things that Jehovah had spoken with him in Mount Sinai.  And Moses left off from speaking with them, and he put a veil upon his faces.  And when Moses entered in before Jehovah to speak with Him, he removed the veil until he went out; and he went out, and spake unto the sons of Israel that which was commanded; and the sons of Israel saw the faces of Moses, that the skin of Moses‘ faces shone; and Moses drew back the veil upon his faces until he entered in to speak with Him. “And he was there with Jehovah forty days and forty nights,” signifies temptations before there is any internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word; “he did not eat bread, and he did not drink water,” signifies meanwhile there is no appropriation of the good of love and truth of faith; “and he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant,” signifies the Word, through which there is the conjunction of heaven with man; “the ten words,” signifies all truths Divine therein; “and it was, as Moses went down from Mount Sinai,” signifies the influx of the internal into the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship; “and the two tables of the Testimony in Moses’ hand,” signifies a representative of the Word; “that Moses knew not that the skin of his faces shone when he spake with Him,” signifies the internal of the Word shining forth in its external without the external perceiving it; “and Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses,” signifies a noticing by those who are in the external things of the church, of worship, and of the Word without the internal things; “and behold the skin of his faces shone,” signifies that the internal shines forth through the external; “and they feared to come near unto him,” signifies that they could not endure the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word when it was of this character; “and Moses called unto them,” signifies the approach of that nation to what is external; “and Aaron and all the princes in the assemblage returned unto him,” signifies the chief of those who were in external things without internal things, and yet represented internal things; “and Moses spake unto them,” signifies instruction; “and afterward all the sons of Israel came near,” signifies all who were in external things without internal things and yet represented internal things; “and he commanded them all things that Jehovah had spoken with him in Mount Sinai,” signifies a command concerning the primary truths which were to be represented as revealed from heaven; “and Moses left off from speaking with them,” signifies after information concerning the primary truths which were to be represented in external things; “and he put a veil upon his faces,” signifies that the internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word did not appear to the Israelitish nation, but only the external without the internal; “and when Moses entered in before Jehovah to speak with Him,” signifies the state of the external when the internal from the Lord flowed in, and the external received information; “he removed the veil until be went out,” signifies a state of enlightenment then; “and he went out, and spake unto the sons of Israel that which was commanded,” signifies communication with those who are in external things without what is internal concerning those things about which he was informed through the internal; “and the sons of Israel saw the faces of Moses, that the skin of Moses‘ faces shone,” signifies that the Israelitish nation did indeed acknowledge that there is an internal in the Word, but that they did not wish to know the nature of it; “and Moses drew back the veil upon his faces,” signifies that for this reason internal things were closed to them; “until he entered in to speak with Him,” signifies no matter how much they may be informed.

AC 10685. And he was there with Jehovah forty days and forty nights.  That this signifies temptations before there is any internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word, is evident from the signification of “forty days and forty nights,” when said of the church with man, as being states of temptation (n. 730, 862, 2272, 2273, 8098). That it signifies before there is any internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word, is because the internal which is called the internal man is opened and given to man by means of temptations.  Hence it is that everyone who is being regenerated undergoes temptations. The reason why the internal is opened and given by means of temptations, is that when a man is in temptations (which are combats against evils and falsities), the Lord flows in from within, and fights for him; as the man may know from the fact that when he is in temptations he resists inwardly, for unless he resisted inwardly he would not conquer, but would yield. This interior resistance does not come to the notice of the man at the time, because when he is in temptations he is in obscurity, from the evil and from the falsities of evil which are assailing him; but after the temptations, it is noticed by those who are in the perception of truth.  For the things which are introduced by the Lord into the internal of man are unknown to him while he lives in the world, because at that time he thinks in the external or natural man, and not perceptibly in the internal man until he comes into the other life. Nevertheless when he has overcome in temptations he ought to know and acknowledge that he himself has not fought, but the Lord for him.

AC 10686. He did not eat bread, and he did not drink water. That this signifies meanwhile there is no appropriation of the good of love and truth of faith, is evident from the signification of “bread,” as being the good of love (n. 2165, 2177, 3464, 3478, 3735, 3813, 4211, 4217, 4735, 4976, 8410, 9545); from the signification of “water,” as being the truth of faith (n. 10238); that by “bread and water” in the Word are meant in general all goods and truths, (n. 9323); from the signification of “eating,” as being the conjunction and appropriation of good (n. 2187, 2343, 3168, 3513, 3596, 4745, 5643, 8001); and from the signification of “drinking,” as being the reception and appropriation of truth (n. 3069, 3089, 3168, 8562).  The case herein is this.  When a man in temptations, the goods of love and truths of faith are not appropriated to him then, but after the temptations.  For while the temptations last, the evils and the falsities of evil in the man are excited on the one side, and the goods and the truths of good that are in him are excited on the other.  Hence he is in a turbulent state, in which the internal is opened. But the temptations are followed by serenity; and in this state goods and the truths of good are introduced by the Lord into the internal that has now been opened. From this it is evident what is meant by there being no appropriation of the good of love and truth of faith while the temptations last, which is signified by Moses “not eating bread, and not drinking water for forty days and forty nights.”

AC 10687. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant.  That this signifies the Word, through which there is the conjunction of heaven with man, is evident from the signification of “the tables” upon which the Law was written, as being the Word (n. 9416, 10375, 10376, 10453, 10461); and from the signification of a “covenant,” as being conjunction (n. 10632).  The reason why the conjunction of heaven with man is signified, is that the Word has been written wholly by correspondences, and consequently is of such a nature as to conjoin heaven with man. For heaven is in the internal sense of the Word; and the external sense corresponds to the internal sense; and therefore when the Word is being read by a man, the angels who are with him perceive it in the spiritual sense, which is the internal sense; and the result is an influx of what is holy from the angels, which effects the conjunction.  It was for this end that a Word of this nature was given. That by means of the Word there is a conjunction of the Lord, thus of heaven, with man, (n. 10375). What the correspondences are by which the Word was written, has been shown in the explications throughout.

AC 10688. The ten words. That this signifies all Divine truths therein, is evident from the signification of “ten,” as being all (n. 4638); and from the signification of “words,” as being Divine truths (n. 9987).  From this it is that the commandments written on those tables were ten in number.

AC 10689. And it was, as Moses went down from Mount Sinai. That this signifies influx of the internal into the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship, is evident from the signification of “going down,” when said of Moses, by whom is represented that external of the Word in which is the internal, as being the influx of the Lord through the internal of the Word into its external. That this is signified by “going down” (n. 5406); from the representation of Moses, as being that external of the Word, of the church, and of worship in which is the internal (n. 10563, 10571, 10607, 10614); and from the signification of “Mount Sinai,” as being heaven where is the Lord and whence comes the Law or Word (n. 9420).

AC 10690. And the two tables of the Testimony in Moses’ hand. That this signifies a representative of the Word, is evident from the signification of “the two tables of the Testimony,” as being the Law in the whole complex, thus the Word (n. 10687); and from the signification of “in the hand of Moses,” as being a representative of the Word. That Moses represented the Word (n. 9372). For this reason the tables were in his hand, by which, as a sign of the representation, was signified the Word.

AC 10691. That Moses knew not that the skin of his faces shone when he spake with Him.  That this signifies the internal of the Word shining forth in its external without the external perceiving it, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being that external of the Word in which is the internal (n. 10563, 10571, 10607, 10614); from the signification of “knowing not,” as being not to perceive; from the signification of “shining,” as being to shine forth, for the shining of the skin of Moses‘ faces was from a shining forth from within; from the signification of “the shining,” as being what is external of truth and of good (n. 3540, 5554, 8980); and from the signification of “the faces,” as being the interiors (n. 9546); thus by the “shining of the skin of the faces” is signified the shining forth of the interiors in the external, here in the external of the Word which is the sense of its letter, because by Moses is represented that external of the Word in which is the internal; and from the signification of “speaking,” as being influx. That when said of Jehovah “to speak” denotes influx, (n. 2951, 5743, 5797, 7270, 8128, 8660). From this it is evident that by “Moses knowing not that the skin of his faces shone when he spake with Him”’ is signified the internal of the Word shining forth in its external without the external perceiving it.  Be it known that by the shining forth of the interiors of the Word in the external is meant the internal sense in the external; for the internal sense continually shows itself and shines in the external, but is noticed by those only who are in internal things; and it is not perceived by those who are in that external in which is an internal, as are those who are called men of the external church; nevertheless, unknown to them, it is present, and affects them.  Who those are that are in the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship; and who those are that are in the external in which is the internal, (n. 10683). But those who are in the external that is devoid of the internal, as was the Israelitish nation, cannot endure anything whatever of the internal, or of its light in the external; and therefore it is said of them below that they were afraid to come near unto Moses; and that when Moses spake with them he put a veil on his faces.  The reason why the internal sense shines, is that Divine truth is there, such as there is in the heavens, and the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord appears to the angels as light, and moreover is the light of heaven (n. 9548, 9684).

AC 10692. And Aaron and all the sons of Israel saw Moses. That this signifies a noticing by those who are in the external things of the church, of worship, and of the Word without the internal things, is evident from the signification of “seeing,” as being to notice (n. 2150, 3764, 4567, 4723, 5400); and from the representation of Aaron and of the sons of Israel in this and the two preceding chapters, as being those who are in the external things of the church, of worship, and of the Word without the internal things. As regards Aaron, (n. 10397); and as regards the sons of Israel, (n. 9380, 10396, 10397, 10454-10457, 10461-10466, 10492, 10498, 10500, 10526, 10531, 10533, 10535, 10549-10551, 10566, 10570, 10575, 10603, 10629, 10632).

AC 10693. And behold the skin of his faces shone.  That this signifies that the internal shines forth through the external, is evident from what has been unfolded just above (n. 10691).

AC 10694. And they feared to come near unto him.  That this signifies that they could not endure the external of the church, of worship, and of the Word when it was of this nature, is evident from the signification of “fearing to come near,” as being not to endure, for those who cannot endure interior things are afraid to come near; and from the representation of Moses, as being that external of the Word, of the church, and of worship in which is the internal (n. 10563, 10571, 10607, 10614).  The case herein is this.  Those who are only in the externals of the church, of worship, and of the Word without the internal, can not endure interior things. The reason is that those who are in external things without what is internal are in the love of self and of the world; and from this are in a light which is called natural light.  But those who are in the externals and at the same time in the internals of the church, of worship, and of the Word are in love toward the neighbor and in love to the Lord, and from this are in the light of heaven.  As these loves are opposites, and consequently the lights also, therefore the one cannot endure the other; for when heavenly love (which is love to the Lord and love toward the neighbor) inflows into earthly loves (which are the loves of self and of the world), it induces agonies like those of death; and when heavenly light inflows into the light of the world, it induces thick darkness and a consequent stupor.  From this it is that what is external without what is internal cannot endure the external while the internal is in it.  As the Jewish nation was of this character, they could not endure to hear of the Lord, of love to Him, and of faith in Him, which are the interior things of the Word, of the church, and of worship. These then are the things which are signified by the sons of Israel fearing to come near unto Moses, because the skin of his faces shone. What is signified by “the skin of Moses‘ faces (n. 10691).

AC 10695. And Moses called into them. That this signifies the approach of that nation to what is external, is evident from the signification of ”calling unto them,“ as being the approach of that nation, for he who is called approaches; and from the representation of Moses, as being that external of the Word in which is the internal, on which subject (n. 10694).

AC 10696. And Aaron and all the princes in the assemblage returned unto him. That this signifies the chief of those who were in external things without internal things, and yet represented internal things, is evident from the representation of Aaron and of the princes in the assemblage, as being the chief ones who were in external things without what is internal; for Aaron was their head, and the princes were leaders. That Aaron denotes the external without the internal, (n. 10397); and that ”princes“ denote the chief ones, (n. 1482, 2089, 5044). That those are meant who represented internal things, may be seen just below (n. 10698).

AC 10697. And Moses spake unto them.  That this signifies instruction, is evident from the signification of ”speaking,“ as being instruction (n. 10280).

AC 10698. And afterward all the sons of Israel came near. That this signifies all who were in external things without what is internal and yet represented internal things, is evident from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are in external things without what is internal (n. 10692). That it also signifies those who represented internal things, is because Moses obtained permission for the church to be represented among that nation, although they were of such a character that no church could be instituted among them. For there can be no church among those who are in external things without what is internal, because the church is in the internal of man, and not in the external without this; for man’s communication with heaven and with the Lord is through the internal. When there is no internal, that is, when it has been closed, there is then communication with hell. But although the sons of Israel were of such a character that no communication of heaven with them was possible through the internal, nevertheless they could represent such things as were of the church and of heaven, which is effected solely by means of external things to which internal things correspond, and for this reason they were received. That with that nation there was not a church, but only the representative of a church, (n. 9320, 10396); and that communication with heaven was effected by means of external things that represented internal things, (n. 9320, 10396, 10492, 10500, 10549-10551, 10570, 10575, 10602, 10629).

AC 10699. And he commanded them all things that Jehovah had spoken with him in Mount Sinai.  That this signifies a command concerning the primary truths which were to be represented, as revealed from heaven, is evident from the signification of ”commanding,“ when by Jehovah unto Moses, as being a command; that it denotes a command concerning the primary truths which were to be represented, is evident from the fact that the things which were commanded, and which are contained in verses twelve to twenty-seven, were primary truths, which were to be represented so that they might be received (n. 10637); and from the signification of ”which Jehovah had spoken with him from Mount Sinai,“ as being which were revealed from heaven; for by ”Jehovah spake“ is signified what was revealed; and by ”Mount Sinai“ is signified heaven, from which is Divine truth (n. 9420).

AC 10700. And Moses left off from speaking with them.  That this signifies after information concerning the primary truths which were to be represented in external thing, is evident from what has been said just above (n. 10699).

AC 10701. And he put a veil upon his faces.  That this signifies that the internal of the church, of worship, and of the Word did not appear to the Israelitish nation, but only the external without the internal, is evident from the signification of ”putting a veil upon his faces,“ as being to close the internal, so that only the external without the internal may appear; for by ”the shining of the skin of Moses‘ faces,“ is signified the shining forth of the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship in external things (n. 10691). That this nation was in external things without what is internal, and also is so at this day, (n. 10692). From this it is also evident how the external of the Word, of the church, and of worship with that nation appears in the heavens, namely, not indeed as the face of a man, but like a veil before the face, for in such obscurity are they concerning the interior things of the Word.

AC 10702. And when Moses entered in before Jehovah to speak with Him. That this signifies the state of the external when the internal from the Lord flowed in and this external received information, is evident from the representation of Moses, as being that external in which is the internal (n. 10694); from the signification of ”entering in before Jehovah,“ as being the state of this external when the Lord flows in; and from the signification of ”speaking,“ as being information (n. 10280).  With the external when the internal flows into it, which is signified by ”when Moses entered in before Jehovah,“ the case is this.  There are two states with men in respect to the things of the church, of worship, and of the Word.  Some turn themselves to the Lord, thus to heaven; but some turn to themselves and the world.  Those who turn themselves to the Lord or to heaven receive influx from thence, and are in enlightenment, and thus are inwardly in the perception of truth.  This influx takes place from the Lord through the internal into the external.  This is here signified by ”entering in before Jehovah.“ But those who turn to themselves and the world cannot receive any influx from the Lord or from heaven, thus cannot be in any enlightenment and perception of truth, for by looking to self the world flows in, and completely extinguishes, or repels, or perverts whatsoever comes from heaven.  Consequently they are in thick darkness in respect to all things of the church, of worship, and of the Word. This is signified by ”the veil before Moses’ faces.“ Moreover the interiors of a man actually turn themselves in accordance with his loves.  With those who love the Lord, the interiors turn themselves to the Lord or heaven, thus inwardly; but with those who love themselves they turn to the world, thus outwardly.  To turn one‘s self to the Lord is to be turned by the Lord Himself, for a man cannot elevate his interiors from himself.  But to turn one’s self to self is to be turned by hell, and when this is done, then, in order to prevent the man from serving two masters, the things of the internal man are closed.

AC 10703. He removed the veil until he went out. That this signifies a state of enlightenment then, is evident from the signification of ”removing the veil,“ as being the appearing of the internal, for when the veil was removed, the faces and the shining of their skin appeared; and by the ”faces“ are signified the interiors; and by the ”shining“ is signified the light therefrom in the external. That the ”faces“ denote the interiors may be seen at the places cited in (n. 9546); and that the ”shining of the skin of Moses‘ faces“ denotes the shining forth, or the light from the internal, in the external of the Word, (n. 10691). It is said ”light“ because the light which illumines the internal of man is the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord. That this is the light of heaven, thus the light from which angels and spirits see, and also that from which the man who is enlightened has perception and intelligence, may be seen at the places cited in (n. 9548, 9684). It is said ”light in the external of the Word from its internal,“ but there is meant light in the external of man from its internal when he is reading it, for the Word does not shine from itself except before the eyes of a man who is in light from the internal. Without this the Word is merely the letter. From this then it is evident whence came the shining of the skin of Moses’ faces, and what this signifies in the internal sense.

AC 10704. And he went out, and spake unto the sons of Israel that which was commanded. That this signifies communication with those who are in external things without what is internal concerning those things about which he was informed through the internal, is evident from the signification of ”going out and speaking,“ as being communication, for that which Moses heard from Jehovah, he communicated to the sons of Israel when he went out from the representation of the sons of Israel, as being those who are in external things without internal things (n. 10692); and from the signification of ”which was commanded by Jehovah,“ as being the things about which Moses was informed by the Lord.  That ”to be commanded“ denotes to be informed is evident; and that ”Jehovah“ in the Word denotes the Lord may be seen at the places cited in n. 9373.

AC 10705. And the sons of Israel saw the faces of Moses, that the skin of Moses‘ faces shone. That this signifies that the Israelitish nation did indeed acknowledge that there is an internal in the Word, but that they did not wish to know the nature of it, is evident from the signification of ”seeing,“ as being perception, understanding, faith (n. 2150, 2325, 2807, 3764, 3863, 3869, 4403-4421, 4567, 4723, 5114, 5400, 6805, 7650, 9128); consequently also acknowledgment, (n. 897, 3796); from the signification of ”the faces of Moses,“ as being the internal things of the Word (n. 10703); and from the signification of ”the shining of the skin of his faces,“ as being the shining forth of the internal in the external (n. 10703). It is known that that nation acknowledges that there is an internal in the Word, for they say that Divine secrets are stored up therein even in every syllable. But when they are told that these secrets are about the Lord, about His kingdom in the heavens and on earth, and about love to Him and faith in Him, they do not wish to know. This is meant by that nation indeed acknowledging that there is an internal in the Word, but not wishing to know the nature of it; and therefore the statement follows that ”Moses drew back the veil upon his faces,“ by which is signified that for this reason the internal was closed to them.

AC 10706. And Moses drew back the veil upon his faces.  That this signifies that for this reason internal things were closed to them, is evident from the signification of ”drawing back the veil upon the faces,“ when said of Moses, by whom is represented the Word, as being to close the internal things of the Word (n. 10701). How the case is in regard to this (n. 10705).

AC 10707. Until he entered in to speak with Him.  That this signifies no matter how much they may be informed, is evident from the signification of ”until Moses entered in to speak with Jehovah,“ as signifying the state of this external when the internal from the Lord flowed in, and it received information (n. 10702). That here it also denotes no matter how much they may be informed, is because by Moses is represented that external of the Word in which is the internal (n. 10694); and he entered in before Jehovah and went out, and informed them; for by ”entering in and going out“ is signified communication (n. 5249, 6901); and by ”speaking“ is signified information (n. 10280). That they did not wish to know anything about these internal things of the Word, of the church, and of worship, which relate to the Lord, to His kingdom, and to love to Him and faith in Him, is very evident from the fact that they did not wish to acknowledge the Lord no matter how much He when in the world informed them from the Word; and that neither do they wish to acknowledge Him at this day, although they live among Christians, and know that it has been foretold in the Word that the Messiah, that is, the Christ will come.  The reason why they did not acknowledge, and do not acknowledge, is that they apply all things of the Word to themselves, and to their own eminence over others, thus in favor of their loves, which are the loves of self and of the world.  All who do so, see nothing from heaven.  Their internal, which should be open into heaven, is closed, and therefore they have no light from this source.  For this reason they are in thick darkness and blindness in respect to spiritual things, thus in respect to the internal of the Word, of the church, and of worship.  The internal of the Word is spiritual; its external is natural.  When the internal of the Word is spoken of, the internal of the church and of worship is also meant, because the church is where the Word is, and is from the Word; and worship is from those things which are in the Word.  Thus such as is a man’s understanding of the Word, such is the church in him, and such is his worship.

CONTINUATION ABOUT THE FOURTH EARTH IN THE STARRY HEAVEN

AC 10708. When I inquired further about their way of speaking, they said that the inhabitants of that earth have not articulate speech, such as I have; but still it ends in what is sonorous with a kind of speaking as it were articulate.  It was explained that this quasi articulate speaking is not effected by means of words; but by means of ideas, such as are in the proximate thought in which a man is when he is speaking. These ideas are distinctly different from those of the interior thought in which a man is when he is not speaking, but is forming a judgment about things.  From this sonorousness thus modified by means of ideas the discourse is perceived more fully than is discourse by means of words; for the general affection which is in the sound of man‘s speech, being thus modified by ideas, gives a more interior and thus a fuller perception.

AC 10709. They said, further, that when they are speaking among themselves, they for the most part advance to the ninth use, and that there are some in the universe who in speaking advance to the fifth use, some to the seventh, to the tenth, to the fifteenth, to the twentieth, and even to the fiftieth.  When I wondered what this meant it was explained, namely, that it consists in speaking remotely from the thing that is the subject of the discourse.  This was illustrated by examples, as for instance, when some one is in a place of worship, and it is asked where he is, they do not say that he is there, but that he is not at home, that he is far from his house, and so on. By this they mean that he is with God, thus in the place of worship, for he who is in a place of worship is with God, and in so far as he is with God he is not at home, or in his own house; by being in his own house they also mean being at home.  To take another example: When some one binds another by such things as are of his love, they say to him, ”thou knowest how to do it,“ or ”now thou art in it,“ or ”now it is in thee,“ or otherwise, provided it is remotely expressed This is called speaking to the fifth, the ninth, the fifteenth, the twentieth, even to the fiftieth use.  To ”speak to the use“ is a customary expression in heaven; and its meaning is according to the degree of the remoteness from the thing which is the subject.  And wonderful to say, when anyone speaks in this remote manner, they at once know to what degree it goes without counting it.  They who are in the cogitative speech in which are the inhabitants of that earth, and many others who in like manner speak together by means of the face and the lips, and by what is sonorous varied according to the ideas of thought, instantly perceive the thing which is so spoken of; for the thought itself unfolds and publishes itself more fully by such speech than by the speech of words, which is relatively material.

AC 10710. On account of such a method of thinking and speaking, the spirits of that earth cannot be together with the spirits of our earth, because the spirits of our earth think and speak from the thing itself, and not remotely from it.  Neither can they be together with the spirits of the earth Mercury, because these also stop in the nearest use; and therefore in so far as they can, they withdraw from both.

AC 10711. They wish to be bearded, and to appear old, for the reason that they always choose and set over them some bearded old man, who is as it were their king and high priest.  The common people also worship him, and love to live according to his manner of living, insomuch that they believe that his life is communicated to them; but the more intelligent of them worship God.  Such a bearded old man, who had been their high priest, was one of those who were with me, and as he had accepted Divine worship from the common spirits, and had led them to believe that his life was communicated to them, he was severely punished, which was done by wrapping him up in a cloth and whirling him round; and then he was cast into the hell near his own earth.

AC 10712. When they were allowed to see the objects of this earth through my eyes, they paid very little attention to them, because it is customary for them to think far away from the nearest objects; thus not to see them, except in shade; for such as is the thought of a man, such is his sight; because it is the interior sight which is of the thought that sees in the exterior, and through it.  They then said that their earth is very rocky, and that there are only some valleys between the rocks which are cultivated.  But it was perceived that it was so only where these people dwelt; and that in other places it is different. They were with me for almost an entire day.

AC 10713. The fifth earth seen in the starry heaven will be described at the end of the following chapter.


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